Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

In Brief: On this site you will find pictures and information about some of the electronic, electrical and electrotechnical technology relics that the Frank Sharp Private museum has accumulated over the years .

Premise: There are lots of vintage electrical and electronic items that have not survived well or even completely disappeared and forgotten.

Or are not being collected nowadays in proportion to their significance or prevalence in their heyday, this is bad and the main part of the death land. The heavy, ugly sarcophagus; models with few endearing qualities, devices that have some over-riding disadvantage to ownership such as heavy weight,toxicity or inflated value when dismantled, tend to be under-represented by all but the most comprehensive collections and museums. They get relegated to the bottom of the wants list, derided as 'more trouble than they are worth', or just forgotten entirely. As a result, I started to notice gaps in the current representation of the history of electronic and electrical technology to the interested member of the public.


Following this idea around a bit, convinced me that a collection of the peculiar alone could not hope to survive on its own merits, but a museum that gave equal display space to the popular and the unpopular, would bring things to the attention of the average person that he has previously passed by or been shielded from. It's a matter of culture. From this, the Obsolete Technology Tellye Web Museum concept developed and all my other things too. It's an open platform for all electrical Electronic TV technology to have its few, but NOT last, moments of fame in a working, hand-on environment. We'll never own Colossus or Faraday's first transformer, but I can show things that you can't see at the Science Museum, and let you play with things that the Smithsonian can't allow people to touch, because my remit is different.

There was a society once that was the polar opposite of our disposable, junk society. A whole nation was built on the idea of placing quality before quantity in all things. The goal was not “more and newer,” but “better and higher" .This attitude was reflected not only in the manufacturing of material goods, but also in the realms of art and architecture, as well as in the social fabric of everyday life. The goal was for each new cohort of children to stand on a higher level than the preceding cohort: they were to be healthier, stronger, more intelligent, and more vibrant in every way.

The society that prioritized human, social and material quality is a Winner. Truly, it is the high point of all Western civilization. Consequently, its defeat meant the defeat of civilization itself.

Today, the West is headed for the abyss. For the ultimate fate of our disposable society is for that society itself to be disposed of. And this will happen sooner, rather than later.

OLD, but ORIGINAL, Well made, Funny, Not remotely controlled............. and not Made in CHINA.

How to use the site:

- If you landed here via any Search Engine, you will get what you searched for and you can search more using the search this blog feature provided by Google. You can visit more posts scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year,
or you can click on the main photo-page to start from the main page. Doing so it starts from the most recent post to the older post simple clicking on the Older Post button on the bottom of each page after reading , post after post.

You can even visit all posts, time to time, when reaching the bottom end of each page and click on the Older Post button.

- If you arrived here at the main page via bookmark you can visit all the site scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year pointing were you want , or more simple You can even visit all blog posts, from newer to older, clicking at the end of each bottom page on the Older Post button.
So you can see all the blog/site content surfing all pages in it.

- The search this blog feature provided by Google is a real search engine. If you're pointing particular things it will search IT for you; or you can place a brand name in the search query at your choice and visit all results page by page. It's useful since the content of the site is very large.

Note that if you don't find what you searched for, try it after a period of time; the site is a never ending job !

Every CRT Television saved let revive knowledge, thoughts, moments of the past life which will never return again.........

Many contemporary "televisions" (more correctly named as displays) would not have this level of staying power, many would ware out or require major services within just five years or less and of course, there is that perennial bug bear of planned obsolescence where components are deliberately designed to fail and, or manufactured with limited edition specificities..... and without considering........picture......sound........quality........

..............The bitterness of poor quality is remembered long after the sweetness of todays funny gadgets low price has faded from memory........ . . . . . .....
Don't forget the past, the end of the world is upon us! Pretty soon it will all turn to dust!

Have big FUN ! !
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©2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 Frank Sharp - You do not have permission to copy photos and words from this blog, and any content may be never used it for auctions or commercial purposes, however feel free to post anything you see here with a courtesy link back, btw a link to the original post here , is mandatory.
All sets and apparates appearing here are property of
Engineer Frank Sharp. NOTHING HERE IS FOR SALE !

Monday, June 21, 2010

CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAYS CASE STUDY: CRT ELECTRON TUBE.











ForThe cathode ray tube (CRT) is unequaled in its ability to produce dynamic, quality, high-information-content imagery at high resolution. Even more impressive is that it achieves this for a lower cost per pixel  than any other comparable electronic display technology. the instrument designer requiring a high-information-content display, it offers numerous advantages.


Things to note about Cathode Ray Tubes
They can remain charged at high potentials for long periods of time. Always discharge CRT anodes to outer coatings before handling.

Beware of charge recovery. CRTs can redevelop enough charge to provide a nasty jolt when touched. The shock is not the main problem. It is likely you will drop the tube if you receive a shock in this manner.

As CRTs are evacuated they are under large pressure from the atmosphere. A crack is liable to cause sudden failure of the glass envelope. Early CRTs are particularly dangerous as the glass tends to fly out over a large distance.

Modern CRTs employ implosion protection bands. This may not be obvious as it is the band which supports the front of the tube and mounts the screen in position. These are tensioned by heating before being placed onto the tube and must never be removed. As the tensioning removes some of the stresses on the glass manufacturers have been able to reduce the thickness of glass. As a result any attempt to remove the band can result in instant tube failure.

As CRTs operate at very high voltages manufacturers specify the maximum voltages to avoid the production of X-rays. If these limits are exceeded internal shielding may become inadequate.


Introduction
The cathode ray tube (CRT) is unequaled in its ability to produce dynamic, quality, high-information content
imagery at high resolution. Even more impressive is that it achieves this for a lower cost per pixel
than any other comparable electronic display technology. For the instrument designer requiring a highinformation-
content display, it offers numerous advantages. As a raw image tube, it is commonly available
as an off-the-shelf item with a broad infrastructure of vendors, integrators, support, and part suppliers.
Interface standards are well established and as a complete system, ready to take a standard signal input,
it is available worldwide in a variety of performance ranges. To meet different application requirements,
it is available in diagonal sizes from 12 mm to over 1 m with resolution from thousands of pixels to over
5 million pixels per frame. Tube characteristics improve on a yearly basis, and prices continue to decrease.
Standford Resources has been tracking the CRT market for almost 20 years, and is an excellent source
of information. In its latest report, it indicates that despite competition from other display technology,
the CRT will remain the single largest market in the display industry. The worldwide market for CRT
tubes in 1997 was 261 million units worth $26 billion U.S. This is expected to grow to 341 million units
worth more than $34 billion by 2003 [1, 2]. Although there are many competing information display
technologies, the CRT will be with us well into the 21st century.





HistoryThe CRT has a rich and distinguished history. The roots of today’s CRT technology extend back more
than 100 years to the latter half of the 19th century. Eugene Goldstein first introduced the term
cathode
rays
; John W. Hittorf, Heinrich Geissler, Julius Plücker, and others made important contributions specific
to CRT technology [3]. Throughout the 19th century, researchers were interested in the nature of a
luminous gas discharge and shadowy rays that occurred when a high voltage potential was applied between
two electrodes in a vacuum. Sir William Crookes was an active experimentalist in this field, and early
cathode ray devices came to be known as Crookes tubes. Crookes noted that a glow was generated by
the surface that the rays struck; the rays themselves were not the source of light. By producing tubes with
a vacuum of 1.3´10–4Pa (10–6 torr), he eliminated the luminous gas discharge and worked directly with
the cathode rays . Crookes demonstrated the following: luminance depended directly upon the material
properties of the surface the rays struck; a magnetic field would deflect the path of the rays; the deflection
was proportional to the strength of the magnetic field; and a magnetic field could be used to focus the
rays into a beam. He also suggested the rays emitted by the cathode were a stream of charged tiny particles,
which were soon to be identified by Joseph John Thomson as electrons. Continuing CRT experimentation
lead to the discovery of x rays by Wilhelm Konrad Röntgen in 1895.
Ferdinand Braun was the first person to envision the CRT as a tool for the display of information and
is generally credited with the invention of the first device to be a direct forerunner to the modern CRT
. Braun in 1896 designed a CRT “indicator tube” for monitoring high frequencies in power-generating
equipment. His design contained all of the same elements as today’s CRTs. It utilized a cathode as an
electron source, two control coils for vertical and horizontal deflection, an anode for electron acceleration
and beam control, and a focusing slit. He also incorporated a phosphor screen normal to the beam for
tracing its path. Although crude by later standards, this was the direct prototype for CRT oscilloscopes.
In 1903 to 1905 Arthur Wehnelt added several very significant advances to Braun’s design. Wehnelt
developed and implemented a hot oxide–coated cathode and a beam control grid [5]. This lowered the
voltage necessary to generate the electron stream and provided for much finer control of the beam current.
These developments were the forerunner of the modern electron gun.
The CRT remained mostly a laboratory device until three important applications ushered it onto the
center stage of information display: oscilloscopes, television, and military radar. By the early 1900s oscilloscopes
were being widely used for the study of time-varying electric circuits in communication. Television
was developed in the 1920s and in July of 1930 the National Broadcasting Company began the experimental
broadcast of television in New York City. During World War II the CRT underwent a second wave of
maturation with the advent of radar technology. By the end of the 1940s the TV-CRT was available as a
consumer product. In the 1950s RCA perfected shadow mask technology and before long color became
a new standard, gaining wide consumer acceptance in the 1960s. While the principal components of a
CRT system have not fundamentally changed in many decades, the CRT has continued to improve.


Image Formation with a CRTAlthough there are many different CRT designs, some of which are quite intricate, the process of forming
an image using a CRT is straightforward. The procedure can be divided into four basic stages: beam
formation, beam focusing, beam deflection, and energy conversion. These stages occur in four different
regions of the CRT and follow in order from the rear of the tube (the neck) to the faceplate. As shown
in Fig. 91.1, above the post, the elements at the rear of the tube are collectively called the electron gun.


Beam Generation with the Electron Gun
The cathode generates the stream of electrons used to form the image-writing beam. The traditional
cathode is a metal conductor such as nickel coated with a thin layer of oxide, typically a barium strontium
compound. To reduce the voltage required to generate electron emission, the cathode is heated to 700 to 1200
°
C. Applications that require high brightness often use more advanced and expensive dispenser
cathode designs to increase the beam current while maintaining reasonable cathode life. These designs
incorporate complex cathode structures and materials such as barium ceramics, molybdenum, rhenium,
and tungsten. Readers interested in advanced cathode designs and additional information on CRT
materials technology should consult References 6 through 10. The flow of electrons from the cathode
is controlled by varying the potential between the cathode and a series of control grids commonly known
as G1 (the control grid) and G2 (the acceleration grid). A voltage potential of 100 to 1000 V between
G2 and the cathode creates the potential necessary to pull a stream of electrons off the cathode, forming
the beam. The beam amplitude can be controlled and even completely shut off by varying the potential
on G1. Thus, the voltage at G1 controls brightness because the brightness is proportional to beam current.
The design of the cathode with respect to impedance and loading influences the maximum rate at which
the beam can be modulated. The cathode and its associated control grids can be designed to produce a
crossover flow of electrons or a laminar flow. In crossover gun designs, the emitted electrons converge
to a point in front of the cathode. By using electron optics, this beam spot is imaged onto the phosphor
screen. Due to inherent advantages, the crossover design is widely used. A crossover beam is narrow,
making it easier to deflect than a thicker beam, and the spot can be very small, improving resolution at
the screen. In theory, a laminar flow design provides for the possibility of higher beam current from a
similar-sized cathode. In practice, the improvement is not usually advantageous enough to offset the
added difficulty of controlling a wider beam.














Electron Beam Focusing
Beam focusing and beam current are critical in determining the final spot size and thus the resolution
of the CRT. Focusing a beam of electrons is directly analogous to focusing a beam of light; the discipline
is called electron optics. Concerns familiar to optical imaging such as magnification, spherical aberration,
and astigmatism also confront electron optics. As CRTs become larger, and operate at higher deflection
angles, spot control becomes critical. Beam focusing is achieved using either electrostatic focusing grids
or electromagnetic focusing coils. Electrostatic focus is the most extensively used technique. It can be
found in use in applications from television to desktop computer monitors. Electrostatic focus is achieved
by applying a succession of potentials across a complex sequence of focusing grids built into the electron
gun. As designers seek to improve performance further, grid designs have become intricate [11, 12].
Magnetic focus is the system of choice for all high-performance systems where resolution and brightness are design objectives. Magnetic lenses are better at producing a small spot with few aberrations. External
coils in a yoke around the neck of the tube control the beam. Since it provides superior performance,
electromagnetic focus is common on high-resolution commercial systems. Magnetic focus can also be
achieved using permanent magnets and specialized hybrid electrostatic/magnetic focus components. Due
to the tremendous impact focus has on resolution, tube suppliers continue to improve focus control [13,
14]. For an excellent and comprehensive treatment of electron physics in CRTs, beam control, detailed
design discussions, and other aspects of CRT devices, consult Sol Sherr’s textbook.


Electron Beam Deflection

The beam deflection system is responsible for controlling the position of the spot on the front face of
the CRT. As with focusing, beam deflection techniques can be electromagnetic or electrostatic. A magnetic
deflection system consists of two electromagnetic yolks on opposite sides of the CRT neck; a horizontal
deflection coil and a vertical deflection coil. The position of the beam is easily controlled; the amount
of beam deflection is directly proportional to the current in the coil. Deflection coil design also influences
spot size and shape. Coil designs can incorporate correction for coma, convergence errors, and pincushion
distortion [16]. Because of its low cost and efficiency, CRTs for both moderate- and high-resolution
applications normally use magnetic deflection. Electrostatic deflection provides faster beam displacement
but less spot size control. It is typically used in oscilloscope systems, where resolution requirements are
moderate and deflection speed is paramount.


CRT Addressing: Raster Scanning vs. Stroke
Raster scanning is the most common CRT addressing technique. In raster scanning the electron beam
writes each frame one line at a time. This means the horizontal deflection system requires a higher
bandwidth than the vertical deflection system. High-performance raster CRTs have a horizontal bandwidth
of 15 to 150 kHz, and a vertical deflection bandwidth of 30 to 180 Hz. The information is written
onto the front face of the CRT from left to right and top to bottom, one line at a time. Raster scanning
can be interlaced or progressive (noninterlaced). In interlace scanning, each frame of information is
decomposed into two fields. The first field consists of all of the odd-numbered lines in the original frame,
and the second field contains all of the even-numbered lines. Each field is scanned onto the CRT at twice
the frame rate. Commercial television is interlaced. In the U.S., the frame rate is 30 Hz and the field rate
is 60 Hz; this scheme is known as the NTSC standard. PAL and SECAM are two other well-known
commercial formats in use today. There are numerous other standards, both analog and digital, in use
worldwide, each with slightly different scan rates, resolution/addressing formats, luminance and color
encoding, and timing protocols . Interlace scanning is an engineering compromise that conserves
transmission bandwidth, electronics bandwidth, and CRT bandwidth, while maintaining acceptable
performance with respect to moving imagery, resolution, and flicker. Computer monitors employ a
progressive raster scan. Each frame has one field. The display is generated line by line, in order from the
first pixel to the last pixel. Frame rates for the typical desktop monitor vary from 60 to 85 Hz to over
180 Hz for specialized systems.
Stroke is an alternative addressing technique that was once quite common. The name for the technique
comes from the phrase “the stroke of a pen.” Stroke is a point-to-point addressing system. The beam is
directed to the starting point of a line, turned on, and then moved directly to the end of the line. Because
there are no raster lines, stroke CRT resolution is independent of direction and is limited primarily by
spot size. Stroke addressing is excellent for low-information-content screens with detailed graphic characters
or simple vector graphics. It provides extremely high quality drawing, clean lines, precise detail,
and high speed while conserving power and bandwidth. Stroke systems address the CRT only where there
is information, not the entire screen as in raster scanning. This technique is uncommon today because
it is too slow and computationally intensive for systems that have high information content, gray scale,
or imagery.



FIGURE 91.2
Phosphors can have a wide range of spectral characteristics. This graph illustrates the spectral profiles
of two representative cases. The blue source is an example of a phosphor with a wide and smooth profile. The
maximum output for this phosphor is in the blue at a wavelength of 452 nm. The red phosphor shows a sharper
profile with several narrow peaks. The largest peak for this phosphor is at 612 nm.





The Phosphor Screen

The phosphor functions as the CRT transducer. It converts the energy of the electron beam into light.
This conversion process is called cathodoluminescence. CRT phosphors are inorganic crystalline materials
doped with one or more impurities called activators and coactivators. Phosphors emit light in two ways,
fluorescence and phosphorescence. Fluorescence is the emission of light by the phosphor material while
it is under bombardment by the electron beam. The continued emission of light after the bombardment
has ceased is called phosphorescence. The length of time phosphorescence lasts is known as persistence.
Persistence can vary from tens of nanoseconds to many minutes, or even hours. CRTs take advantage of
both forms of cathodoluminescence. Briefly, cathodoluminescence occurs when the electron beam excites

the electrons of the phosphor into higher, unstable energy states available due to the presence of the
activators. When the electrons transition back to their stable states, light is emitted. The choice of
phosphor depends on the requirements of the application with respect to wavelength characteristics
(narrow emission spectra or broadband emission), color, brightness, resolution, and persistence. Commercial
television CRTs typically make use of the following phosphor powders: ZnS:Ag:Cl (blue),
Zn(Cd)S:Cu:Al or ZnS:Cu:Au:Al (green), and Y2O2S:Eu [19]. Television CRTs use moderately shortpersistence phosphors. This ensures a new frame does not exhibit blurring due to the previous frame.
Traditionally, phosphors for radar displays, where the screen is refreshed infrequently, had a mix of short
and long persistence. However, with the advent of today’s digital systems, the use of long-persistence
phosphors has declined. The Electronics Industries Association maintains an information database of
commercial phosphors for CRTs. The interested reader should consult its publication TEP116-C.
Figure 91.2 illustrates the spectral characteristics of several typical phosphors.


Color CRTs Using Shadow Masks


Color has been a part of the CRT world since the early 1950s. A sound understanding of human color
perception is important for a detailed understanding of color in CRTs. Readers interested in an excellent
comprehensive treatment of color science should consult Wyszecki and Stiles  or Robertson and
Fisher  for a brief overview. The most common method of introducing color to the CRT is the threegun
shadow mask technique. The shadow mask is a metal grid of many tiny apertures held in place
immediately before the phosphor screen. The phosphor screen is an array of three different phosphor
subpixels. Three electron guns are placed closely together in the neck of the tube, one gun for each one
of the primary colors (red, green, and blue). The guns make a small angle with respect to each other.
The shadow mask and beams are aligned so that each beam falls on the appropriate phosphor dot. The
dots are placed closely together so the eye spatially integrates the subpixels into a continuous blend of
color. There are two common configurations, delta and in-line. Delta, the traditional method, arranges
the electron guns and the phosphor dots in a triad. This requires a shadow mask consisting of a grid of
circular apertures. More recently, Sony introduced the Trinitron™ design. In the Trinitron tube the guns
are placed in line, the shadow mask consists of vertical slots, and the phosphors are in vertical stripes.
The design offers improved vertical resolution and is easier to converge, but the mask is slightly more
difficult to support and is subject to thermal stress problems.
Trinitron continues to be an important and popular design . The shadow mask technique of
producing a color image has three main drawbacks. First, the shadow mask typically absorbs more than
75% of the electron beam energy, limiting brightness and causing undesirable thermal effects. Second,
both require precise beam control to converge the three different images from the electron guns. Third,
the resolution of the display is limited by the requirements of spatial color; three subpixels are needed
to make each full-color pixel.



Alternative Techniques for Realizing Color Using CRTs
There are alternative approaches to producing color with CRTs. In its own way, each seeks to improve
upon one or more of the enormously successful shadow mask designs. The three most noteworthy
challengers are beam index tubes, penetration phosphor tubes, and field sequential color systems. All
three have been around for decades, but only field sequential color systems are commercially available.



Beam Index and Penetration Phosphor Tube DesignsA beam index tube uses a slotted mask and vertical phosphor stripes. One electron beam is focused to
less than the width of a phosphor stripe. A reflected ultraviolet signal from the mask provides a feedback
signal.
This signal is used to index the position of the beam very accurately. Color selection is achieved
by precise beam positioning and rapid beam modulation. Although beam indexing offers perfect
convergence, few guns, energy savings, and high resolution, practical problems in control and manufacturing
have left this approach unrealized. Penetration tubes are potentially even more advantageous
since color is produced with one electron gun and no mask is required. The phosphor screen consists
of a layering of several different phosphors. There are many approaches to the layering structure, but
the basic principle is that each layer produces a different color. To select among the different colors, the
beam energy is varied, altering its layer penetration. In theory, multiple layers of phosphors could be
used to produce a full-color display. Unfortunately, this design requires high switching voltages, and
the color purity is poor because of the dilution caused by leakage from the unselected phosphor layers.

In the past, a few two-color systems have been produced on a limited basis with stroke writer systems.


Field Sequential Color
Field sequential color (FSC) is a different approach to realizing color using a monochrome CRT and
color filters [24]. The shadow mask relies on the ability of the eye to perform a
spatial integration on a
group of color elements
. Field sequential color exploits the ability of the eye to perform a
temporal
integration of color fields
. Field sequential color is not a new concept; it was an early design suggestion
for commercial color television. To implement field sequential color, each full-color frame is decomposed
into primary color fields (red, green, and blue). Each of these color fields is displayed sequentially on a
monochrome CRT while simultaneously a color filter is placed over the front of the CRT. The filters must be rapidly changed to stay in sequence with the individual fields which are displayed at three times the
desired frame rate. This sequence is so quick that the eye fuses the individual color fields into a steady
blend of continuous color. Field sequential color systems have all of the advantages of a monochrome
CRT, namely, superior resolution and simplicity. The major historical drawbacks to field sequential color
have been the difficulty in controlling a bulky, spinning, mechanical filter wheel, and two thirds of the
light energy of the phosphor is thrown away in each field. In the past, some viewers have reported the
ability to perceive the individual color fields intermittently; this artifact is known as “color break up.”
Field sequential color systems have seen a commercial rebirth due to several factors. The luminous
efficiency of several phosphors has improved to the point where the light loss penalty is no longer a
severe price to pay. Awkward, mechanical filter wheels have been replaced by several different types of
compact, low-power, liquid crystal shutters. The use of faster frame rates and digital sampling techniques
has reduced color artifacts. And finally, monochrome CRTs using field sequential color meet the growing
market need for small high-resolution displays.


Image Quality and Performance

For any display technology, the ultimate test of performance and quality is how the image looks to the
viewer in a real-world environment. This is highly subjective, but critical none the less. Table 91.1
highlights some important parameters associated with performance and image quality. Resolution is the
most critical characteristic of any CRT. A note of caution, resolution should not be confused with
addressing. A system can have a precise addressing format, but if the spot is too large the CRT resolution
capability will be poor despite the addressing format. Alternatively, if the spot is precise and the addressing
format is coarse, the
image
will be low resolution, but the CRT resolution will be high. Resolution is
affected by almost every system parameter: spot size, focus, deflection, raster format, the mask, and beam
current. For a perfectly designed system, line width and spot size will ultimately determine the resolution.
Spot diameter is limited by the quality of the electron optics, the particle size and thickness of the
phosphor layer, and beam current. The cross section energy distribution of the electron beam is approximately
Gaussian. The higher the current, the larger the beam cross section. Scattering by individual
phosphor particles also increases the spot size. Thus, high resolution is much more difficult to achieve
for high-brightness applications. The champions of small spot sizes are the small 12 to 25 mm monochrome
CRTs. Several commercial systems achieve £25mm spot sizes, and sizes £15mm have been
reported [25]. Monochrome CRTs in the 53 cm class (21-in.) have spot diameters
£150mm. Color CRTs with shadow mask pitches £250mm are available in sizes up to 21 in. at commodity prices, and this will

continue to improve. Spot size does not tell the whole resolution story. In most systems something other
than spot size limits performance. The scan format may be well below the performance of the CRT, the
bandwidth of the support electronics is frequently less than the tube bandwidth, and, for color, the
shadow mask will limit resolution more than spot size. Engineers can still design a CRT that maintains
its performance even with state-of-the-art electronics. MTF (modulation transfer function) is the standard
metric for resolution. MTF compares the modulation of the displayed output with the modulation
of a known input signal. As the spatial frequency of the input increases, the performance of the output
will show a steady roll-off in modulation depth and quality. Readers interested in an introduction to this
complex topic should consult Infante’s review [26]. Contrast and its related companion, gray scale, are
also important to CRT image quality. Since contrast can be measured and stated in so many different
terms, gray scale is probably a more practical indicator of performance from a user’s standpoint. As it
attempts to replace traditional film, the medical imaging community demands the most of the monochrome
CRT. Medical CRTs can produce up to 256 shades of gray with 8-bit controllers. Systems are
available that will do 10-bit monochrome and color. Although frequently quoted,
shades of gray
is not a
true indication of CRT performance and should not be confused with true
gray scale
capability. Shades
of gray is a characteristic of the image source and the capability of the electronics; gray scale reflects the
capability of the CRT. Gray scale is typically defined as a series of steps in brightness in increments of
















TABLE 91.1
Parameters That Influence CRT Performance and Image Quality
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Resolution Spot size and shape
Focus accuracy
Line width
Addressing/scan format
Shadow mask design
Luminance Dynamic range
Maximum brightness
Gray scale in high and low ambient light
Gray scale vs. display brightness
Phosphor luminous efficiency
Contrast Contrast under high ambient illumination
Contrast under low ambient illumination
Large area contrast
Pixel-to-pixel contrast (small area)
Image fidelity Frame rate
Flicker/refresh
Uniformity and linearity
Aberrations (linearity, pincushion, barrel distortion, keystone, and focus)
Color Phosphor selection
Convergence accuracy
Color gamut and saturation
Color uniformity
Color accuracy
Bandwidth Video bandwidth (cathode design)
Horizontal deflection design
Vertical deflection design
Bandwidth of the CRT supporting electronics
Bandwidth of the signal delivery electronics

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

2
1/2
from black to maximum CRT output. Thus, gray scale is a realistic indicator that combines CRT
dynamic range, contrast ratio, halation, and ambient reflections. More than 12 steps of gray scale is
considered good performance.
The subject of display image quality and evaluation is an important topic. In addition to resolution and
gray scale, users and designers need to consider many other metrics, such as luminance, dimmability,
contrast, readability, color, persistence, and convergence. Users may also be aware of visual distortions such
as pincushion, barrel, and keystone. A discussion of these topics and the other issues raised by Table 91.1
is beyond the scope of a single chapter; indeed, it has been the subject of books. There are good sources of
information in this area [15, 27]; in particular, Keller’s [28] text is superb. It is essential to remember that
no matter which metrics are used, the most single most important metric is the subjective determination
of the end users. Although many factors will affect final display performance, the bottom line remains
how
good does the display look
in the real-world application environment it was designed to meet.
CRT and Phosphor LifetimeThe lifetime of a CRT depends on how it is driven. The higher the beam current, the more rapidly its
p
erformance will degrade. In general, degradation is due to a failure of three parts of the CRT — the
cathode, the phosphor, and the glass. Brighter displays require higher beam current, and this, in turn,
requires a higher level of cathode loading. Oxide cathodes can comfortably operate with a loading range
of 0.1 to 10 A/cm 2. This will provide a typical lifetime in the range of 10,000 h. Dispenser cathode designs
can improve cathode life 2 to 3 times, but again individual cathode life depends on how much brightness
the user regularly demands from the tube. Phosphor degradation is the second mechanism affecting CRT
lifetime and performance. All phosphors degrade under constant electron bombardment, an effect called
phosphor burning. The rate of degradation is related to beam current, anode voltage, and material



TABLE 91.2.
The Strengths and Weakness of CRT Technology
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Advantage Weakness
Highest resolution technology High power consumption
Versatile addressing formats Weight of glass
Excellent image fidelity Size of footprint
High speed Emits EM radiation
Bandwidth (³ 350 MHz) Must be refreshed
Excellent contrast/gray scale
Good selection of phosphors
High luminous efficiency
Bright display (up to 20,000 fL)
Excellent color gamut
Simplicity of interface
Universal interface standards
Good design flexibility
Broad application base
Long life and reliability
Mature and broad knowledge base
Worldwide sources of tubes and parts
Inexpensive — low cost per resolution element

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

parameters specific to each phosphor. Today, there is a broad range of good phosphor materials with
greatly improved aging characteristics. The third mechanism is glass browning. This effect is a complicated
interaction between the high energy of the electron beam and the molecular structure of the glass [10].
In recent years, glass suppliers have made great strides in providing CRT manufacturers with improved
glass materials. However, phosphor aging and glass browning are still important concerns, especially in
extremely bright (high beam current) applications, such as CRT projection.


CRT Strengths and Weaknesses

With a century of development behind it, the CRT has abundant advantages that make it an attractive
display option for the sys
tem designer dealing with high information content or dynamic imagery. Table
91.2 lists some attributes, positive and negative, which the system designer should consider in evaluating
whether of not to use CRT technology. The most notable traits of the CRT are flexibility and cost. CRTs
can operate over a wide range of resolution formats from commercial television to the strict requirements
of medical imaging and digital-to-film recording. One unit can easily be designed to accept a myriad of
scan formats and resolutions from static text to dynamic imagery with megapixels at frame rates of
hundreds of frames per second. This flexibility means the system can be upgraded later without having
to redesign the display subsystem. Interfacing with the CRT is also straightforward; there are wellestablished
standards and hardware for many scan formats from the television NTSC to the RGB standards
of the personal computer industry. Finally, cost is important to emphasize; CRTs are inexpensive. The desktop CRT delivers its performance for £ $0.00005 per color resolution element! Currently, no other
high-information-content display technology can match this cost.


CRT SelectionThe design requirements for (1) resolution, (2) brightness, and (3) screen size will quickly steer the
system designer to a particular class of CRTs. If
the design requirements are close to either television or
desktop computer monitors, the choice is easy. There are literally hundreds of vendors offering integrated
CRTs and electronic drivers as off-the-shelf items. Color shadow mask systems with more than 40
elements/cm are commonly available. If higher resolution is required, then medical imaging and film
recorder CRTs may meet the requirements. Physically large display requirements can be supplied by projection CRTs or by tiled CRTs using video wall processors. Small to miniature CRTs provide resolutions
up to 500 to 600 elements/cm and portability. If the application falls out of the mainstream, the designer
will need to speak directly with CRT vendors. Table 91.3 is a partial list of CRT suppliers. Since CRTs
have been designed to satisfy a broad range of specialty applications, the chances are excellent that an
acceptable design will already exist. If not, the CRT is so mature that vendors working from a proven
experience base can design a tube directly to customer specifications with little in the way of design
problems or surprises.


Future Trends in CRT TechnologyCRT technology is mature, and the industry does not foresee major surprises on the horizon. The CRT
will continue to evolve, resolution will impro
ve, screens will be flatter, deflections angles will be larger,
and footprints will be reduced. The computer world continues to demand more resolution. In 1987, the 36-cm (14-in.) VGA class monitor (640´480) with its 300,000 pixels and 16 colors was the new standard.
In 1998, the 43-cm (17-in.) desktop monitor is now capable of 1600´1200 performance (1.9 megapixels)
with 24-bit color. The 53-cm (21-in.) monitor class, once an expensive custom device, is also widely
available. The trend of increasing resolution and performance for decreasing cost shows every sign of
continuing. The medical community is quickly moving to monochrome systems with 12-bit gray scale
at a resolution of 2560´2048 (5 megapixels). All of this means the instrument designer has better resolution and fidelity for less money.
There is a quiet revolution taking place in the information display industry, which may have a
significant effect on CRTs and all information display technology. There is a design trend to decouple
the resolution and fidelity of the display device from its physical size. There are a number of applications
motivating this change: communications, military, portable computing, simulation, and virtual reality.
This is why miniature CRT technology has been more active in recent years. This is also the engine
driving some of the major competitors to the miniature CRT, such as on-chip field emission displays
(FED), deformable mirror devices (DMD), ferroelectric liquid crystal integrated circuit displays, and
on-chip active matrix liquid crystal display (LCD) technology. If realized, these promise to be low-cost
solutions because they are built on the technology foundation of the silicon chip industry. These
challengers have the very real potential of eliminating the miniature CRT, and in some application areas,
the LCD panel as well. However, the CRT backed by its formidable 100 years of design evolution and
maturity is not standing still; its assets and market remain impressive. Although it is one of the few vacuum tubes still in use today, the traditional CRT is not doomed for obsolescence any time in the immediate future.


TABLE 91.3
Companies That Manufacture Cathode Ray Tubes
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 

Clinton Electronics Corporation Phillips Netherlands, BV
6701 Clinton Road Phillips Components and Semiconductors
Rockford, Illinois 61111 Bldg. VB Postbus 90050
Tel. 815-633-1444 Fax. 815-633-8712 5600 PB Eindhoven The Netherlands
Tel. 040-783749 Fax. 040-788399
Hitachi, Ltd.
U.S. address
New Marunouchi Bldg. Discrete Products Division
Marunouchi 1-chrome 2001 West Blue Heron Blvd.
Chiyoda-ku, Tyoko 100, Japan Riviera Beach, Florida 33404
Tel. 81-3-3212-1111 Fax. 81-3-3212-3857 Tel. 407-881-3200 or 800-447-3762 Fax. 407-881-3300
U.S. address
Hitachi America, Ltd., Electron Tube Division Rank Brimar, Ltd.
3850 Holcomb Bridge Road, Suite 300 Greenside Way
Norcross, Georgia 30092-2202 Middleton, Manchester M24 1SN, England
Tel. 770-409-3000 Fax. 770-409-3028 Tel. 0161-681 7072 Fax. 0161-682-3818
U.S. address
Hughes Lexington, Inc. 25358 Avenue Stanford
A subsidiary of Hughes Electronics Company Valencia, California 91355-1214
1501 Newtown Pike Tel. 805-295-5770 Fax. 805-295-5087
Lexington, Kentucky 40511
Tel. 606-243-5500 Fax. 606-243-5555 Sony Corporation
Display Systems
Image Systems Corporation 16550 Via Esprillo
11595 K-tel Drive San Diego, California 92127
Hopkins, Minnesota 55343 Tel. 619-487-8500
Tel. 612-935-1171 Fax 612-935-1386
Thomas Electronics
Imaging & Sensing Technology Corporation 100 Riverview Drive
300 Westinghouse Circle Wayne, New Jersey 07470
Horseheads, New York 14845-2299 Tel. 201-696-5200 Fax. 201-696-8298
Tel. 607-796-4400 Fax. 607-796-4482
Thomson Tubes Electronics
ITPO Institute of Surface Engineering and Optoelectronics 13, avenue Morane Saulnier
Teslova 30 Bâtiment Chavez - Vélizy Espace
1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia BP 121/F-78148 VELIZY CEDEX France
Tel. 386-61 1264 592/111 Fax. 386-61 1264 593 Tel. 33-1 30 70 35 00 Fax. 33-1 30 70 35 35
U.S. address
L. G. Electronics Thompson Components and Tubes Corporation
20 Yoido-dong Youngdungpo-gu 40 G Commerce Way
Seoul, Korea Totowa, New Jersey 07511
E-mail display2@www.goldstar.co.kr or
monitor@www.goldstar.co.kr

Tel. 201-812-9000 Fax. 201-812-9050
U.S. address
Toshiba Corporation
L G Electronics, Monitors Division Electronic Components, Cathode Ray Tube Division
1000 Silvan Avenue 1-1 Shibaura 1-Chrome, Minato-KU
Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey 07632 Tokyo 105, Japan
Tel. 201-816-2000 Fax. 201-816-2188 Tel. 03-457-3480 Fax. 03-456-1286
U.S. address
Matsushita Electric Industrial Ltd. Toshiba America, Inc.
Twin 21 National Tower 1220 Midas Way
1-61, Shiromi, 2-Chome, Chuo-ku, Sunnyvale, California 94086-4020
Osaka 540, Japan Tel. 408-737-9844
Tel. (06)908-1121
U.S. address
Panasonic Industrial Company
Computers and Communications Division
2 Panasonic Way
Secaucus, New Jersey 07094
Tel. 201-392-4502 Fax. 201-392-4441
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Ref
erences
1. G. Aboud,
Cathode Ray Tubes, 1997
, 2nd ed., San Jose, CA, Stanford Resources, 1997.
2. G. Aboud,
Cathode Ray Tubes, 1997
, Internet excerpts, available http://www.stanfordresources.com/
sr/crt/crt.html, Stanford Resources, February 1998.
3. G. Shires, Ferdinand Braun and the Cathode Ray Tube,
Sci. Am.
, 230 (3): 92–101, March 1974.
4. N. H. Lehrer, The challenge of the cathode-ray tube, in L. E. Tannas, Jr., Ed.,
Flat Panel Displays
and CRTs
, New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1985.
5. P. Keller,
The Cathode-Ray Tube, Technology, History, and Applications
, New York: Palisades Press,
1991.
6. D. C. Ketchum, CRT’s: the continuing evolution,
Society for Information Display International
Symposium, Conference Seminar M-3
, 1996.
7. L. R. Falce, CRT dispenser cathodes using molybdenum rhenium emitter surfaces,
Society for
Information Display International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers
, 23: 331–333, 1992.
8. J. H. Lee, J. I. Jang, B. D. Ko, G. Y. Jung, W. H. Kim, K. Takechi, and H. Nakanishi, Dispenser
cathodes for HDTV,
Society for Information Display International Symposium Digest of Technical
Papers
, 27: 445–448, 1996.
9. T. Nakadaira, T. Kodama, Y. Hara, and M. Santoku, Temperature and cutoff stabilization of
impregnated cathodes,
Society for Information Display International Symposium Digest of Technical
Papers
, 27: 811–814, 1996.
10. W. Kohl,

Materials Technology for Electron Tubes
, New York, Reinhold Publishing, 1951.
11. S. Sugawara, J. Kimiya, E. Kamohara, and K. Fukuda, A new dynamic-focus electron gun for color
CRTs with tri-quadrupole electron lens,
Society for Information Display International Symposium
Digest of Technical Papers
, 26: 103–106, 1995.
12. J. Kimiya, S. Sugawara, T. Hasegawa, and H. Mori, A 22.5 mm neck color CRT electron gun with
simplified dynamically activated quadrupole lens,
Society for Information Display International
Symposium Digest of Technical Papers
, 27: 795–798, 1996.
13. D. Imabayashi, M. Santoku, and J. Karasawa, New pre-focus system structure for the trinitron gun,
Society for Information Display International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers
, 27: 807–810,
1996.
14. K. Kato, T. Sase, K. Sasaki, and M. Chiba, A high-resolution CRT monitor using built-in ultrasonic
motors for focus adjustment,
Society for Information Display International Symposium Digest of
Technical Papers
, 27: 63–66, 1996.
15. S. Sherr,
Electronic Displays, 2nd ed., New York: John Wiley, 1993.
16. N. Azzi and O. Masson, Design of an NIS pin/coma-free 108°
self-converging yoke for CRTs with super-flat faceplates,
Society for Information Display International Symposium Digest of Technical
Papers , 26: 183–186, 1995.
17. J. F. Fisher and R. G. Clapp, Waveforms and spectra of composite video signals, in K. Benson and
J. Whitaker,
Television Engineering Handbook, Featuring HDTV Systems
, New York: McGraw-Hill
Reinhold, 1992.
18. D. Pritchard, Standards and recommended practices, in K. Benson and J. Whitaker,
Television
Engineering Handbook, Featuring HDTV Systems
, New York: McGraw-Hill Reinhold, 1992.
19. A. Vecht, Phosphors for color emissive displays,
Society for Information Display International Symposium
Conference Seminar Notes F-2
, 1995.
20.
Optical Characteristics of Cathode Ray Tube Screens
, EIA publication TEP116-C, Feb., 1993.
21. G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles,
Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae
,
2nd ed., New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1982.

22. A. Robertson and J. Fisher, Color vision, representation, and reproduction, in K. Benson and J.
Whitaker,
Television Engineering Handbook, Featuring HDTV Systems
, New York: McGraw-Hill
Reinhold, 1992.
23. M. Maeda, Trinitron technology: current status and future trends,
Society for Information Display
International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers
, 27: 867–870, 1996.
24. C. Sherman, Field sequential color takes another step,
Inf. Display
, 11 (3): 12–15, March, 1995.
25. L. Ozawa, Helmet mounted 0.5 in. crt for SVGA images,
Society for Information Display International
Symposium Digest of Technical Papers
, 26: 95–98, 1995.
26. C. Infante, CRT display measurements and quality,
Society for Information Display International
Symposium Conference Seminar Notes M-3
, 1995.
27. J. Whitaker,
Electronic Displays, Technology, Design, and Applications
, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1994.
28. P. Keller,
Electronic Display Measurement, Concepts, Techniques, and Instrumentation
, New York:
John Wiley & Sons, 1997.


Further Information
L. Ozawa,
Cathodoluminescence: Theory and Applications
, New York: Kodansha, 1990.
V. K. Zworykin and G. A. Morton,
Television: The Electronics of Image Transmission in Color and Monochrome
, New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1954.
B. Wandell, The foundations of color measurement and color perception,
Society for Information Display
International Symposium, Conference Seminar M-1
, 1993. A nice brief introduction to color science
(31 pages).

Electronic Industries Association (EIA), 2500 Wilson Blvd., Arlington, VA 22201 (Internet: www.eia.org).
The Electronic Industries Association maintains a collection of over 1000 current engineering publications
and standards. The EIA is an excellent source for information on CRT engineering, standards,
phosphors, safety, market information, and electronics in general.
The Society for Information Display (SID), 1526 Brookhollow Dr., Suite 82, Santa Ana, CA 92705-5421
(Internet: www.display.org). The Society for Information Display is a good source of engineering
research and development information on CRTs and information display technology in general.
Internet Resources
The following is a brief list of places to begin looking on the World Wide Web for information on CRTs
and displays, standards, metrics, and current research. Also many of the manufacturers listed in Table

91.3 maintain Web sites with useful information.
The Society for Information Display www.display.org
The Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers www.smpte.org
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers www.ieee.org
The
Electronic Industries Association www.eia.org
National Information Display Laboratory www.nta.org
The International Society for Optical Engineering www.spie.org
The O

ptical Society of America www.osa.org
Electronics & Electrical Engineering Laboratory www.eeel.nist.gov
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) www.nist.gov
The Federal Communications Commission www.fcc.gov










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Ciciora, Walter et al., “An Introduction to Teletext and Viewdata with Comments on Compatibility,” IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, vol. CE-25, No. 3, Jul. 1979, (“Consumer Electronics”), pp. 235-245.
Tanton, N. E. “UK Teletext— Evolution and Potential,” Consumer Electronics, pp. 246-250.
Bright, Roy D., “Prestel—The World's First Public Viewdata Service,” Consumer Electronics, pp. 251-255.
Bown, H.G. et al., “Telidon: A New Approach to Videotex System Design,” Consumer Electronics, pp. 256-268.
Chitnis, A.M. et al., “Videotex Services: Network and Terminal Alternatives,” Consumer Electronics, pp. 269-278.
Hedger, J. “Telesoftware: Home Computing Via Broadcast Teletext,” Consumer Electronics, pp. 279-287.
Crowther, G.O., “Teletext and Viewdata Systems and Their Possible Extension to Europe and USA,” Consumer Electronics,, pp. 288-294.
Gross, William S., “Info-Text, Newspaper of the Future,” Consumer Electronics, pp. 295-297.
Robinson, Gary et al., “‘Touch-Tone’ Teletext—A Combined Teletext-Viewdata System,” Consumer Electronics, pp. 298-303.
O'Connor, Robert A., “Teletext Field Tests,” Consumer Electronics, pp. 304-310.
Blank, John, “System and Hardware Considerations of Home Terminals With Telephone Computer Access,” Comsumer Electronics, pp. 311-317.
Plummer, Robert P. et al, “4004 Futures for Teletext and Videotex in the U.S.,” Consumer Electronics, pp. 318-326.
Marti, B. et al., The Antiope Videotex System, Consumer Electronics, pp. 327-333.
Frandon, P. et al, “Antiope LSI,” Consumer Electronics, pp. 334-338.
Crowther, G.O., “Teletext and Viewdata Costs As Applied to the U.S. Market,” Consumer Electronics, pp. 339-344.
Mothersole, Peter L., “Teletext Signal Generation Equipment and Systems,” Consumer Electronics pp. 345-352.
Harden, Brian, “Teletext/Viewdata LSI,” Consumer Electronics, pp. 353-358.
Swanson, E. et al., “An Integrated Serial to Parallel Converter for Teletext Application,” Consumer Electronics, pp. 359-361.
Neal, C. Bailey et al., “A Frequency-Domain Interpretation of Echoes and Their Effect on Teletext Data Reception,” Consumer Electronics, pp. 362-377.
Goyal, Shri K. et al., “Reception of Teletext Under Multipath Conditions,” Consumer Electronics, pp. 378-392.
Prosser, Howard F., “Set Top Adapter Considerations for Teletext,” Consumer Electronics, pp. 393-399.
Suzuki, Tadahiko et al., Television Receiver Design Aspects for Employing Teletext LSI, Consumer Electronics, pp. 400-405.
Baer, Ralph H., “Tele-Briefs—A Novel User-Selectable Real Time News Headline Service for Cable TV,” Consumer Electronics, pp. 406-408.
Sherry, L.A., “Teletext Field Trials in the United Kingdom,” Consumer Electronics, pp. 409-423.
Clifford, Colin, “A Universal Controller for Text Display Systems,” Consumer Electronics, pp. 424-429.
Barlow, “The Design of an Automatic Machine Assignment System”, Journal of the SMPTE, Jul. 1975, vol. 84, p. 532-537.
Barlow, “The Automation of Large Program Routing Switchers”, SMPTE Journal, Jul. 1979, Vol. 88, p. 493-497.
Barlow, “The Computer Control of Multiple-Bus Switchers”, SMPTE Journal, Sep. 1976, Vol. 85, p. 720-723.
Barlow, “The Assurance of Reliability”, SMPTE Journal, Feb. 1976, Vol. 85, p. 73-75.
Barlow, “Some Features of Computer-Controlled Television Station Switchers”,Journal of the SMPTE, Mar. 1972, vol. 81, p. 179-183.
Barlow et al., “A Universal Software for Automatic Switchers”, SMPTE Journal, Oct. 1978, vol. 87, p. 682-683.
Butler, “PCM-Multiplexed Audio in a Large Audio Routing Switcher”, SMPTE Journal, Nov. 1976, vol. 85, p. 875-877.
Dickson et al., “An Automated Network Center”, Journal of the SMPTE, Jul. 1975, Vol. 84, p. 529-532.
Edmondson et al., “Nbc Switching Central”, SMPTE Journal, Oct. 1976, Vol. 85, p. 795-805.
Flemming, “NBC Television Central—An Overview”, SMPTE Journal, Oct. 1976, Vol. 85, p. 792-795.
Horowitz, “CBS” New-Technology Station, WBBM-T, SMPTE Journal, Mar. 1978, vol. 87, p. 141-146.
Krochmal et al., “Television Transmission Audio Facilities at NBC New York”, SMPTE Journal, Oct. 1976, vol. 85, p. 814-816.
Kubota et al., “The Videomelter”, SMPTE Journal, Nov. 1978, Vol. 87, p. 753-754.
Mausler, “Video Transmission Video Facilities at NBC New York”, SMPTE Journal, Oct. 1976, vol. 85, p. 811-814.
Negri, “Hardware Interface Considerations for a Multi-Channel Television Automation System”, SMPTE Journal, Nov. 1976, vol. 85, p. 869-872.
Paganuzzi, “Communication in NBC Television Central”, SMPTE Journal, Nov. 1976, vol. 85, p. 866-869.
Roth et al., “Functional Capabilities of a Computer Control System for Television Switching”, SMPTE Journal, Oct. 1976, vol. 85, p. 806-811.
Rourke, “Television Studio Design—Signal Routing and Measurement”, SMPTE Journal, Sep. 1979, vol. 88, p. 607-609.
Yanney, Sixty-Device Remote-Control System for NBC's Television Central Project, SMPTE Journal, Nov. 1976, vol. 85, p. 873-877.
Young et al., “Developments in Computer-Controlled Television Switches”, Journal of the SMPTE, Aug. 1973, vol. 82, p. 658-661.
Young et al., “The Automation of Small Television Stations”, Journal of the SMPTE, Oct. 1971, vol. 80, p. 806-811.
Zborowski, “Automatic Transmission Systems for Television”, SMPTE Journal, Jun. 1978, vol. 87, p. 383-385.
“Landmark forms cable weather news network,” Editor & Publisher, (Aug. 8, 1981) p. 15.
“Broadcast Teletext Specification,” published jointly by British Broadcasting Corporation, Independent Broadcasting Authority, British Radio Equipment Manufacturers' Association (Sep. 1976), pp. 1-24.
“Colormax Cable captioning—16,000,000 Subs Need It!,” Colormax Electronic Corp. (advertisement), 3 pages.
“7609 Sat-A-Dat Decoder/Controller,” Group W Satellite Communications (advertisement) 2 pages.
“Teletext Timing Chain Circuit (SAA5020),” (Aug. 1978), pp. 109.
“Teletext Video Processor (SAA 5030),” Mullard (Dec. 1979), pp. 1-9.
“Video Text Decoder Systems (Signetics)”, Phillips IC Product Line Summary (May 1981), pp. 15-16.
“Teletext Acquisition and Control Circuit (SAA5040 Series),” Mullard (Jun. 1980), pp. 1-16.
“Asynchronous Data Transmission System Series 2100 Vidata,”Wagener Communications, Inc. (advertisement), 2 pages.
“Zenith VIRTEXTTM . . . Vertical Interval Region Text and Graphics,” Zenith Radio Corporation (flyer), 7 paged.
Anon, “Television Network Automated by Microcomputer-Controlled Channels,” Computer Design, vol. 15, No. 11, (Nov. 1976), pp. 50, 59, 62, 66 and 70.
Kinik, et al., “A Network Control System for Television Distribution by Satellite,” Journal of the
SMPTE, Feb. 1975, vo. 84 No. 2, pp. 63-67.
Chiddix, “Videocassette Banks Automate Delayed Satellite Programming,” Aug. 1978, TV Comunications, pp. 38-39.
Curnal, et al., “Automating Television Operating Centers,” Bell Laboratories Record, Mar. 1978, pp. 65-70.
Baran, Paul (Packetcable Inc.), “Packetcable: A New Interactive Cable System Technology,” Cable '82—Technical Papers, National Cable Television Association 31st Annual Convention, Las Vegas, NV, May 3-5, 1982 (“CABLE '82”), pp. 1-6.
Tunmann, Ernest O. (Tele-Engineering Corporation), “Two-Way Cable TV Technologies,” Cable '82, pp. 7-15.
Dickinson, Robert V.C. (E-COM Corporation), “Carriage of Multiple One-Way and Interactive Service on CATV Networks,” Cable '82, pp. 16-21.
McNamara, R.P. et al. (Sytek, Incorporated), “MetroNet: an Overview of a CATV Regional Data Network,” Cable '82, pp. 22-31.
Eissler, Charles (Oak Communications Systems), “Addressable Control for the Small System,” Cable '82, pp. 32-36.
Mesiya, M.F. et al. (Times Fiber Communications, Inc.), “Mini-Hub Addressable Distribution System for Hi-Rise Application,” Cable '82, pp. 37-42.
Thomas, William L. (Zenith Radio Corporation), “Full Field Tiered Addressable Teletext,” Cable '82, pp. 44 46.
Langley, Don et al. (University of Cincinnati and Rice-Richter Associates), “Interactive Split Screen Teleconferencing,” Cable '82, pp. 47-50.
Klare, Stephen W. (Scientific—Atlanta), “Bandwidth-Efficient, High-Speed Modems for Cable Systems,” Cable '82, pp. 72-78.
Jubert, Jay (Wang Laboratories, Inc.), “Wangnet, a Cable-Based Localnet,” Cable '82, pp. 79-81.
Switzer, I. (Cable America, Inc.), “Cable TV Advances and TV Receiver Compatibility Problems,” Cable '82, pp. 114-118.
Skrobko, John (Scientific-Atlanta Incorporated), “Improving CATV System Reliability with Automatic Status Monitoring and Bridger Switching,” Cable '82, pp. 133-137.
Dahlquist, John (Jerrold Division, General Instrument Corporation), “Techniques for Improving Continuity of Service in a CATV Distribution System,” Abstract, Cable '82, p. 138.
Polishuk, Paul Dr. (Information Gatekeepers, Inc.) “Present Status of Fiber Optics Technology and its Impact on the CATV Industry,” Cable '82, pp. 142-147.
Dufresne, Michel (Videotron Communications LTEE), “New Services: an Integrated Cable Networks's Approach,” Cable '82, pp. 156-160.
Stanton, Gary W. (Southern Satellite Systems), “Downloading and Addressing via Teletext,” Cable '82, pp. 161-165.
Goldberg, Efrem I. (GTE Laboratories Incorporated), “Videotex on Two-Way Cable Television Systems—Some Technical Considerations,” Cable '82, pp. 166-174.
Noirel, Yves (CCETT/Rennes, France), “Abstract of paper entitled Data Broadcasting: “Didon” and “Diode” Protocols,” Cable '82, pp. 175-179.
von Meister, William F. (Digital Music Company), “The Home Music Store,” Cable '82, pp. 180-182.
Brown, Jr., Robert R. (Cima Telephone and Television), “Inter Bridger Trunking for Information Services,” Cable '82, pp. 183-189.
Alvord, Charles, Dr. (Communications Technology Management, Inc.), “Creating Standards for Interconnect Systems,” Cable '82, pp. 190-196.
Schrock, Clifford B. (Cable Bus Systems Corporation), “Can Noise and Ingress Coexist with Two-Way Services?,” Cable '82, pp. 205-209.
The Weather Channel, “The Weather Star Satellite Transponder Addressable Receiver,” Operation/Installation Manual, Rev. 01.5/82.
Lafayette, Jon, “TV ad monitor system starts tests here Mon.,” New York Post, Oct. 18, 1985, p. 63.
Jones, Stacy V., “Patents/Monitoring Display of TV Ads,” The New York Times, Oct. 19, p. 34.
Remley, F.M., “Television Technology,” SMPTE Journal, May 1982, pp. 458-462.
Proposed American National Standard, “Electrical and Mechanical Characteristics for Digital Control Interface,” SMPTE Journal, Sep. 1982, pp. 888-897.
Zaludek, Jerry P., “Videotape—Past, Present, and Future,” SMPTE Journal, Apr. 1982, pp. 356-360.
Kary, Michael Loran, “Video-Assisted Film Editing System,” SMPTE Journal, Jun. 1982, pp. 547-551.
Glover, S. “Automatic Switching at the Edmonton Television Studios,” SMPTE Journal, Nov. 1966, vol. 75, pp. 1089-1092.
Barlow, M.W.S., “The Remote Control of Multiplexed Telecine Chains,” SMPTE Journal, Apr. 1971, vol. 80, pp. 270-275.
Campbell, Keith D., “An Automated Video-Tape Editing System,” Journal of the SMPTE, Mar. 1970, vol. 79, pp. 191-194.
Bonney, R.B. et al., “A Proposed Standard Time and Control Code for Video-Tape Editing,” Journal of the SMPTE, Mar. 1970, vol. 79, pp. 186-190.
Barlow, M., Letter to the Editor, “Re: Coding and Packaging Film for Broadcasting,” Journal of the SMPTE, Oct. 1969, vol. 78, p. 889.
Barlow, M., Letter to the Editor, “Re: Automation of Telecine Equipment,” Journal of the SMPTE, Apr. 1970, vol. 79, pp. 345-346.
Matley, J. Brian, “A Digital Framestore Synchronizer,” SMPTE Journal, Jun. 1976, vol. 85, pp. 385-388.
Connolly, W.G. et al., “The Electronic Still Store: A Digital System for the Storage and Display of Still Pictures,” SMPTE Journal, Aug. 1976, vol. 85, pp. 609-613.
Sadashige, K., “Overview of Time-Base Correction Techniques and Their Applications,” SMPTE Journal, Oct. 1976, vol. 85, pp. 787-791.
Siocos, C.A., “Satellite Technical and Operational Committee—Television (STOC-TV) Guidelines for Waveform Graticules,” SMPTE Journal, Nov. 1976, vol. 85, pp. 878-879.
“Index to Subjects—Jan.-Dec. 1976 • vol. 85,” 1976 Index to SMPTE Journal, SMPTE Journal, vol. 85, pp. I-5 to I-13, I-15.
Rodgers, Richard W., “Design Considerations for a Transmission and Distribution System for SMPTE Time-Code Signals,” SMPTE Journal, Feb. 1977, vol. 86, pp. 69-70.
Allan, J.J., III, et al., “A Computer-Controlled Super-8 Projector,” SMPTE Journal, Jul. 1977, vol. 86, pp. 488-489.
“Index to Subjects—Jan.-Dec. 1977 • vol. 86,” 1977 Index to SMPTE Journal, SMPTE Journal, vol. 86, pp. I-5 to I-14.
Hamalainen, KJ., “Videotape Editing Systems Using Microprocessors,” SMPTE Journal, Jun. 1978, Vol. 87, pp. 379-382.
McCoy, Reginald F.H., “A New Digital Video Special-Effects Equipment,” SMPTE Journal, Jan. 1978, vol. 87, pp. 20-23.
Leonard, Eugene, “Considerations Regarding the Use of Digital Data to Generate Video Backgrounds,” SMPTE Journal, Aug. 1978, vol. 87, pp. 499-504.
Swetland, George R., “Applying the SMPTE Time and Control Code to Television Audio Post Production,” SMPTE Journal, Aug. 1978, vol. 87, pp. 508-512.
Moore, J.K., et al., “A Recent Innovation in Digital Special Effects, The CBS ‘Action Track’ System,” SMPTE Journal, Oct. 1978, vol. 87, pp. 673-676.
Connolly, William G., “Videotape Program Production at CBS Studio Center,” SMPTE Journal, Nov. 1978, vol. 87, pp. 761-763.
Nicholls, William C., “A New Edit Room Using One-Inch Continuous-Field Helical VTRs,” SMPTE Journal, Nov. 1978, vol. 87, pp. 764-766.
“Index to vol. 87 Jan.-Dec. 1978,” SMPTE Journal, Part II to Jan. 1979 SMPTE Journal, pp. I-1, I-4 to I-14.
Wetmore, R. Evans, “System Performance Objectives and Acceptance Testing of the Public Television Satellite Interconnection System,” SMPTE Journal, Feb. 1979, vol. 88, pp. 101-111.
Bates, George W., “Cut/Lap: A New Method for Programmable Fades and Soft Edit Transitions Using a Single Source VTR,” SMPTE Journal, Mar. 1979, vol. 88, pp. 160-161.
Douglas, W. Gordon, “PBS Satellite Interconnection Technical Operations and Maintenance,” SMPTE Journal, Mar. 1979, vol. 88, pp. 162-163.
Oliphant, Andrew et al., “A Digital Telecine Processing Channel,” SMPTE Journal, Jul. 1979, vol. 88, pp. 474-483.
Bates, George W. et al., “Time Code Error Correction Utilizing a Microprocessor,” SMPTE Journal, Oct. 1979, vol. 88, pp. 712-715.
Geise, Heinz-Dieter, “The Use of Microcomputers and Microprocessors in Modern VTR Control,” SMPTE Journal, Dec. 1979, vol. 88, pp. 831-834.
“Index to Subjects—Jan.-Dec. 1979 • vol. 88,” 1979 Index to SMPTE Journal, SMPTE Journal, vol. 88, pp. I-4 to I-10.
“Advanced Transmission Techniques,” SMPTE Journal, Report on the 121st Technical Conference, Jan. 1980, vol. 89, pp. 31-32.
“Anderson: Progress Committee Report for 1979—Television,” SMPTE Journal, May 1980, vol. 89, pp. 324-328.
SMPTE Journal, May 1980, vol. 89, p. 391, no title.
“The TCR-119 Reader,” Gray Engineering Laboratories, SMPTE Journal, May 1980, vol. 89, p. 438. (advertisement).
Hopkins, Robert S., Jr., “Report of the Committee on New Technology,” SMPTE Journal, Jun. 1980, vol. 89, pp. 449-450.
Limb, J.O. et al., “An Interframe Coding Technique for Broadcast Television,” SMPTE Journal, Jun. 1980, vol. 89, p. 451.
“Preliminary List of Papers,” SMPTE Journal, Sep. 1980, vol. 89, p. 677.
Davis, John T., “Automation of a Production Switching System,” SMPTE Journal, Oct. 1980, vol. 89, pp. 725-727.
“Video Tape Recording Glossary,” SMPTE Journal, Oct. 1980, vol. 89, p. 733.
Advertisement, “CTVM 3 series of Barco master control color monitors”, “Barco TV Modulator, Model VSBM 1/S”, “VICMACS Type 1724 Vertical Interval Machine Control System”, “Videotape Editing Controllers by US JVC Corp., RM-70U, RM-82U, RM-88U”, SMPTE Journal, Oct. 1980, Vol. 89, p. 820 et seq.
Ciciora, Walter, “Teletext Systems: Considering the Prospective User,” SMPTE Journal, Nov. 1980, vol. 89, pp. 846-849.
Hathaway, R.A. et al., “Development and Design of the Ampex Auto Scan Tracking (AST) System,” SMPTE Journal, Dec. 1980, vol. 89, p. 931.
Connor, Denis J., “Network Distribution of Digital Television Signals,” SMPTE Journal, Dec. 1980, vol. 89, pp. 935-938.
“Index to Subjects—Jan.-Dec. 1980 • vol. 89,” 1980 Index to SMPTE Journal, SMPTE Journal, pp. I-5 to I-11.
“Index to SMPTE-Sponsored American National Standards, Society Recommended Practices, and Engineering Committee Recommendations,” 1980 Index to SMPTE Journal, SMPTE Journal, pp. I-15 to I-20.
Table of Contents, SMPTE Journal, Feb. 1981, vol. 90, No. 2, 1 page.
Table of Contents, SMPTE Journal, Mar. 1981, vol. 90, No. 3, 1 page.
Table of Contents, SMPTE Journal, Apr. 1981, vol. 90, No. 4,1 page.
Table of Contents, SMPTE Journal, May 1981, vol. 90, No. 5, 1 page.
“Television,” SMPTE Journal, May 1981, pp. 375-379.
Table of Contents, SMPTE Journal, Jan. 1981, vol. 90, No. 1,1 page.
Table of Contents, SMPTE Journal, Jun. 1981, vol. 90, No. 6, 1 page.
Table of Contents, SMPTE Journal, Jul. 1981, vol. 90, No. 7,1 page.
Table of Contents, SMPTE Journal, Aug. 1981, vol. 90, No. 8, 1 page.
“American National Standard” “time and control code for video and audio tape for 525-line/ 60-field television systems,” SMPTE Journal, Aug. 1981, pp. 716-717.
Table of Contents, SMPTE Journal, Sep. 1981, vol. 90, No. 9, 1 page.
“Proposed SMPTE Recommended Practice” “Vertical Interval Time and Control Code Video Tape for 525-Line/ 60-Field Television Systems,” SMPTE Journal, Sep. 1981, pp. 800-801.
Table of Contents, SMPTE Journal, Oct. 1981, vol. 90, No. 10, 1 page.
Kaufman, Paul A. et al., “The Du Art Frame Count Cueing System,” SMPTE Journal, Oct. 1981, pp. 979-981.
“American National Standard” “dimensions of video, audio and tracking control records on 2-in video magnetic tape quadruplex recorded at 15 and 7.5 in/ s,” SMPTE Journal, Oct. 1981, pp. 988-989.
Table of Contents, SMPTE Journal, Nov. 1981, vol. 90, No. 11, 1 page.
Table of Contents, SMPTE Journal, Dec. 1981, vol. 90, No. 12, 1 page.
Powers, Kerns H., “A Hierarchy of Digital Standards for Teleproduction in the Year 2001,” SMPTE Journal, Dec. 1981, pp. 1150-1151.
“Application of Direct Broadcast Satellite Corporation for a Direct Broadcast Satellite System,” Before the Federal Communications Commission, Washington, D.C., Jul. 16, 1981.
Rice, Michael, “Toward Enhancing the Social Benefits of Electronic Publishing,” Report of an Aspen Institute Planning Meeting, Communications and Society Forum Report, Feb. 25-26, 1987.
Rice, Michael, “Toward Improved Computer Software for Education and Entertainment in the Home,” Report of an Aspen Institute Planning Meeting, Communications and Society Forum Report, Jun. 3-4, 1987.
Gano, Steve, “Teaching ‘real world’ systems,” 1 page, 1987.
Pollack, Andrew, “Putting 25,000 Pages on a CD,” New York Times, 1 page, Mar. 4, 1987.
Gano, Steve, “A Draft of a Request for Proposals Concerning the Adoption of Computer Technology in the Home,” Jan. 1988, Draft © 1987 Steve Gano.
COMSAT, “Communications Satellite Corporation Magazine,” No. 7, 1982.
COMSAT, “Satellite to Home Pay Television,” no date.
COMSAT, “Annual Report 1981.”
“Comsat's STC: Poised for blastoff into TV's space frontier,” Broadcasting, Feb. 22, 1982, pp. 38-45.
Taylor, John P., “Comsat bid to FCC for DBS authorization: Questions of finances, ‘localism,’ monopoly,” Television/Radio Age, May 4, 1981, pp. 42-44 and 80-81.
Taylor, John P., “Fourteen DBS authorization applications to FCC differ greatly in both structure and operations,” Television/Radio Age, Oct. 5, 1981, pp. 40-42 and 116-119.
Taylor, John P., “Comsat bid to FCC for DBS authorization: Is direct broadcasting the wave of the future?”, Television/Radio Age, Mar. 23, 1981, pp. A-22-24 and A-26 and A-28-31.
“At Sequent Computer, One Size Fits All,” Business Week, Sep. 17, 1984, 1 page.
Hayashi, Alden, M., “Can Logic Automation model its way to success?”, Electronic Business, Aug. 1, 1986, 1 page.
“Imager monitors the bloodstream,” High Technology, Mar. 1987, 1 page.
Merritt, Christopher R.B., M.D., “Doppler blood flow imaging: integrating flow with tissue data,” Diagnostic Imaging, Nov. 1986, pp. 146-155.
Eisenhammer, John, “Will Europe's Satellite TV Achieve Lift-Off?”, Business, Aug. 1986, pp. 56-60.
Hayes, Thomas C., “New M.C.C. Chief's Strategy: To Speed Payoff on Research,” The New York Times, Jun. 24, 1987, 2 pages.
Collins, Glenn, “For Many, a Vast Wasteland Has Become a Brave New World,” New York Times, no date, 2 pages.
Gleick, James, “U.S. Is Lagging on Forecasting World Weather,” The New York TimesFeb. 15, 1987, 2 pages.
Browning, E.S., “Sony's Perseverance Helped It Win Market for Mini-CD Players,” Wall Street Journal, Feb. 27, 1986, 2 pages.
Dragutsky, Paula, “Data in the bank is booming biz,” New York Post, Apr. 29, 1985, 1 page.
Wayne, Leslie, “Dismantling the Innovative D.R.I.,” The New York Times, Dec. 16, 1984, 2 pages.
Sanger, David E., “A Computer Full of Surprises,” The New York Times, May 8, 1987, 2 pages.
Hoffman, Paul, “The Next Leap in Computers,” The New York Times Magazine, Dec. 7, 1986, 6 pages.
Taylor, Thayer C., “Laptops and the Sales Force: New Stars in the Sky,” pp. 81-84.
Parker, Edwin B., “Satellite micro earth stations—a small investment with big returns,” Data Communications, Jan. 1983, 5 pages.
“Micro Key System,” Video Associates Labs, product description.
“SMPTE Journal Five-Year Index 1971-1975,” SMPTE Journal.
“SMPTE Journal Five-Year Index 1976-1980,” SMPTE Journal.
“SMPTE Journal Five-Year Index 1981-1985,” SMPTE Journal, vol. 95, No. 1, Jan. 1986.
“SMPTE Journal Five-Year Index 1986-1990,” SMPTE Journal, vol. 100, No. 1, Jan. 1991.
“Annual Index 1982,” SMPTE Journal, vol. 91, Jan.-Dec. 1982, pp. 1253-1263.
“Highlights, SMPTE, The 124th SMPTE Conference,” SMPTE Journal, Jan. 1983, p. 3.
SMPTE Journal, Jan. 1983, pp. 64, 69-70, 87-90, 92-98.
“Highlights, SMPTE,” SMPTE Journal, Feb. 1983, p. 163.
“Highlights, SMPTE,” SMPTE Journal, Mar. 1983, p. 267.
“Highlights, SMPTE,” SMPTE Journal, Apr. 1983, p. 355.
Thomas, L. Merle, “Television,” SMPTE Journal, Apr. 1983, pp. 407-410.
“Highlights, SMPTE,” SMPTE Journal, May 1983, p. 547 .
“Highlights, SMPTE,” SMPTE Journal, Jun. 1983, p. 627.
“Highlights, SMPTE,” SMPTE Journal, Jul. 1983, p. 715.
“Highlights, SMPTE,” SMPTE Journal, Aug. 1983, p. 803.
Tooms, Michael S. et al., “The Evolution of a Comprehensive Computer Support System for the Television Operation,” SMPTE Journal, Aug. 1983, pp. 824-833.
“Highlights, SMPTE,” SMPTE Journal, Sep. 1983, p. 907.
“Highlights, SMPTE,” SMPTE Journal, Oct. 1983, p. 1027.
“Highlights, SMPTE,” SMPTE Journal, Nov. 1983, p. 1173.
“Highlights, SMPTE,” SMPTE Journal, Dec. 1983, p. 1269.
“Index to Subjects—Jan.-Dec. 1983 • vol. 92,” Annual Index 1983, SMPTE Journal, pp. 1385-1391.
“Highlights, SMPTE,” SMPTE Journal, Jan. 1984, p. 3.
“Index to Subjects—Jan.-Dec. 1984 • vol. 93,” Annual Index 1984, SMPTE Journal, pp. 1211-1217.
“Highlights, SMPTE,” SMPTE Journal, Jan. 1985, p. 3.
Barlow, Michael W.S., “Application of Personal Computers in Engineering,” SMPTE Journal, Jan. 1985, pp. 27-30.
“Television Systems and Broadcast Technology,” SMPTE Journal, Jan. 1985, pp. 172-175.
“Highlights, SMPTE,” SMPTE Journal, Feb. 1985, p. 181.
Day, Alexander G., “From Studio to Home—How Good is the Electronic Highway?”, SMPTE Journal, Feb. 1985, pp. 216-217.
“Highlights, SMPTE,” SMPTE Journal, Mar. 1985, p. 265.
“Proposed SMPTE Recommended Practice, Storage of Edit Decision Lists on 8-in. Flexible Diskette Media,” SMPTE Journal, Mar. 1985, pp. 353-354.
McCroskey, Donald C., “Television,” SMPTE Journal, Apr. 1985, pp. 382-395.
“Highlights, SMPTE,” SMPTE Journal, Apr. 1985, p. 361.
SMPTE Journal, Apr. 1985, pp. 366-368, 473-478.
“Highlightsd SMPTE,” SMPTE Journal, May 1985, p. 545.
Morii, Yutaka, et al., “A New Master Control System for NHK's Local Stations,” SMPTE Journal, May 1985, pp. 559-564.
Kuca, Jay, et al., “A Fifth-Generation Routing Switcher Control System,” SMPTE Journal, May 1985, pp. 566-571.
“Highlights, SMPTE,” SMPTE Journal, Jun. 1985, p. 641.
“Highlights, SMPTE,” SMPTE Journal, Jul. 1985, p. 721.
Busby, E.S., “Digital Component Television Made Simple,” SMPTE Journal, Jul. 1985, pp. 759-762.
“Highlights, SMPTE,” SMPTE Journal, Aug. 1985, p. 801.
Rayner, Bruce, “High-Level Switcher Interface Improves Editing Techniques,” , SMPTE Journal, Aug. 1985, pp. 810-813.
Hayes, Donald R., “Vertical-Interval Encoding for the Recordable Laser Videodisc,” SMPTE Journal, Aug. 1985, pp. 814-820.
“SMPTE Recommended Practice, Video Record Parameters for 1-in Type C Helical-Scan Video Tape Recording,” SMPTE Journal, Aug. 1985, pp. 872-873.
“Proposed SMPTE Recommended Practice, Time and Control Codes for 24, 25, or 30 Frame-Per-Second Motion-Picture Systems,” SMPTE Journal, Aug. 1985, pp. 874-876.
“Proposed SMPTE Recommended Practice, Data Tracks on Low-Dispersion Magnetic Coatings on 35-mm Motion-Picture Film,” SMPTE Journal, Aug. 1985, pp. 877-878.
“Highlights,” SMPTE Journal, Sep. 1985, p. 881.
“Proposed SMPTE Recommended Practice, Control Message Archtecture,” SMPTE Journal, Sep. 1985, pp. 990-991.
“Proposed SMPTE Recommended Practice, Tributary Interconnection,” SMPTE Journal, Sep. 1985, pp. 992-995.
“Highlights,” SMPTE Journal, Oct. 1985, p. 1001.
Zimmerman, Frank, “Hybrid Circuit Construction for Routing Switchers,” SMPTE Journal, Oct. 1985, pp. 1015-1019.
“Highlights,” SMPTE Journal, Nov. 1985, p. 1155.
Sabatier, J., et al., “The D2-MAC-Packet System for All Transmission Channels,”SMPTE Journal, Nov. 1985, pp. 1173-1179.
“Highlights,” SMPTE Journal, Dec. 1985, p. 1243.
Shiraishi, Yuma, “History of Home Videotape Recorder Development,” SMPTE Journal, Dec. 1985, pp. 1257-1263.
“Index to Subjects—Jan.-Dec. 1985 • vol. 94,” Annual Index 1985, SMPTE Journal, pp. 1351-1357.
“Highlights,” SMPTE Journal, Jan. 1986, p. 3.
“Proposed American National Standard for component digital video recording—19-mm type D-1 cassette— tape cassette,” SMPTE Journal, Mar. 1986, pp. 362-363.
“Index to SMPTE-Sponsored American National Standards and Society Recommended Practices and Engineering Guidelines,” Smpte Journal, Annual Index 1987, pp. 1258, 1260-1262.
Rice, Philip, et al., “Development of the First Optical Videodisc,” SMPTE Journal, Mar. 1982, pp. 277-284.
Kubota, Yasuo, “The Videomelter,” SMPTE Journal, vol. 87, Nov. 1978, pp. 753-754.
“USTV Direct Satellite to Home Television Service,” General Instrument News Release, Aug. 1982.
“Second Senior Executive Conference on Productivity Improvement,” SALT, Society for Applied Learning Technology, Dec. 4-6, 1986.
“New Publications for 1987 from The Videodisc Monitor,” advertisement, 2 pages.
“The Videodisc Monitor,” vol. IV: No. 10, Oct. 1986.
“The Videodisc Monitor,” vol. IV: No. 12, Dec. 1986.
Smith, Charles C., “Computer Update” “Program Notes,” TWA Ambassador, Sep. 1982, pp. 74-90.
Harrar, George, “Opening Information Floodgates,” American Way, Oct. 1982, pp. 53-56.
“Publishers Go Electronic,” Business Week, Jun. 11, 1984, pp. 84-97.
“Serious Software Helps the Home Computer Grow Up,” Business Week, Jun. 11, 1984, pp. 114-118.
“Videoconferencing: No Longer Just a Sideshow,” Business Week, Nov. 12, 1984, pp. 116-120.
“Ratings War,” Forbes, Aug. 1, 1983, 1 page.
Kindel, Stephen, “Pictures at an exhibition,” Forbes, Aug. 1, 1983, pp. 137-139.
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Branch, Charles, “Text Over Video,” PC World, Dec. 1983, pp. 202-210.
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“High Technology,” Business Week, Jan. 11, 1982, pp. 74-79.
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I/Net Corporation, Company Brochure.
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Tagliaferro, John, “Tag Lines,” 1982, 1 page.
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“Merrill Lynch bullish on new data service,” Electronic Media, Feb. 28, 1985, p. 4.
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“Everything you've always wanted to know about TV Ratings,” A.C. Nielsen Company, brochure, 1978.
“Management With The Nielsen Retail Index System,” A.C. Nielsen Company, 1980.
Pollack, Andrew, “Computer Programs as University Teachers,” The New York Times, 4 pages.
“Business Television” “Changing the Way America Does Business,” PSN, 1986.
Merrell, Richard G., “TAC-Timer,” 1986 NCTA Technical Papers, 1986, pp. 203-206.
“Universal Remote Control,” Radio Shack, Owner's Manual, 4 pages.
Long, Michael, E., “The VCR Interface,” 1986 NCTA Technical Papers, 1986, pp. 197-202.
“Flexible programmieren mit. VPS,” Funkschau, (German publication), 1985. (translation provided).
Chase, Scott, “Corporate Satellite Networks No Longer A Luxury But Rather A Necessity,” Via Statellite, Jul. 1987, pp. 18-21.
Diamond, Sam, “Turning Television Into A Business Tool,” High Technology, Apr. 1987, 2 pages.
“The Portable Plus Personal Computer,” Hewlett-Packard, advertisement, Mar. 1986.
“The Portable Plus for Professionals in Motion,” Hewlett-Packard, advertisement, Jul. 1985.
“KBTV Kodak Business TeleVision,” Kodak, brochure, Sep. 1987.
“Broadway Video,” Brochure, Feb. 1987.
“Digital TV set to burst on U.S. mart,” New York Post, 2 pages.
Prospectus, VIKONICS, Inc., Jul. 14, 1987.
Prospectus, DIGITEXT, Inc., Feb. 27, 1986.
Prospectus, Color Systems Technology, Inc., Aug. 13, 1986.
Prospectus, Cheyenne Software, Inc., Oct. 3, 1985.
1986 Annual Report, the Allen Group Inc.
Wilson, Donald H., “A Process for Creating a National Legal Computer Research Service in The United States,” remarks at the conference on World Peace Through World Law and World Assembly of Judges, Belgrade Yugoslavia, Jul. 23, 1971.
Pollack, Andrew, “Teletext is Ready for Debut,” The New York Times, Feb. 18, 1983, 2 pages.
“Sunny Outlook for Landmark's John Wynne; Landmark Communications Inc.,” Broadcasting, Lexis-Nexis, Jul. 27, 1987.
“Applications Information VCR-3001A Universal Videocassette Control Module,” Channelmatic, Inc., product description, 5 pages, Mar. 1984.
Killion, Bill, “Advertising,” SAT Guide, Jul. 1982.
“PL-5A Price List Typical Systems,” Channelmatic, Inc., Nov. 1984.
“Channelmatic SPOTMATIC Random Access Commercial Insert System,” Channelmatic, Inc., product description, Jul. 1983.
Killion, Bill, “Automatic Commercial Insertion Equipment for the Unattended Insertion of Local Advertising,” paper presented at 33rd Annual National Cable Television Association Convention, Jun. 1984.
“Channelmatic SDA-1A Sync Stripping Pulse Distribution Amplifier,” Channelmatic, Inc., product description, 1 page.
“Broadcast Quality Random Access Commercial Insert System Featuring the Channelmatic SPOTMATIC Z,” Channelmatic, Inc., product description, 1 page.
“Audio Level Detector ALD-3000A,” Channelmatic, Inc., product description, Mar. 1984, 1 page.
“CVS-3000A Commercial Verification System,” Channelmatic, Inc., product description, Mar. 1984, 1 page.
“Four-Channel Commercial Insert System Featuring the Channelmatic CIS-1A SPOTMATIC JR,” Channelmatic, Inc., product description, 1 page.
“Local Program Playback System Featuring the Channelmatic VCR-3005A-5 Videocassette Sequencer,” Channelmatic, Inc., product description, 1 page.
“Channelmatic BBX-1A Billibox Bypass and Test Switcher,” Channelmatic, Inc., product description, 2 pages.
“Channelmatic's Handimod I,” Channelmatic, Inc., product description, 2 pages.
“SPOTMATIC JR. Single VCR Commercial Insert System,” Channelmatic, Inc., product description, 4 pages.
“PL-1A Price List, 3000 Series Equipment,” Channelmatic, Inc., Feb. 1985, 2 pages.
“PL-2B 1000 Series Price List, 1.75× 19 Inch Rack Mounting,” Channelmatic, Inc., Jul. 1985.
“VPD-3001A Signal Presence Detector,” Channelmatic, Inc., product description, Mar. 1984, 1 page.
“Channelmatic CMG-3008A 8-page Color Message Generator Module,” Channelmatic, Inc., product description, 1 page.
“Tone Switching System Model TSS-3000A-1,” Channelmatic, Inc., product description, 1 page.
“Series 3000 Satellite Receiver Controllers,” Channelmatic, Inc., product description, 2 pages.
“Channelmatic UAA-6A Universal Audio Amplifier,” Channelmatic, Inc., product description, 1 page.
“Channelmatic ADA-3006A Audio Distribution Amplifier,” Channelmatic, Inc., product description, 1 page.
“Channelmatic ADA-1A, ADA-2A, ADA-3A Audio Distribution Amplifier,” Channelmatic, Inc., product description, 1 page.
“Channelmatic VDA-3006A Video Distribution Amplifier,” Channelmatic, Inc., product description, 1 page.
“Channelmatic VDA-1A, VDA-2A, VDA-3A Video Distribution Amplifier,” Channelmatic, Inc., product description, 1 page.
“Channelmatic AVS-10A Patchmaster,” Channelmatic, Inc., product description, 2 pages.
“Broadcast Break Sequencer Model BBS-3006A,” Channelmatic, Inc., product description, Mar. 1984, 1 page.
“Audio-Video Emergency Alert System,” Channelmatic, Inc., product description, Mar. 1984, 2 page.
“VCR Automation System LPS-3000A,” Channelmatic, Inc., product description, Mar. 1984, 2 pages.
“Clock Switching System Model CCS-3000A-1,” Channelmatic, Inc., product description, Mar. 1984, 1 page.
“Channelmatic PCM-3000A Superclock Programmable Controller Module,” Channelmatic, Inc., product description, 2 pages.
“PL-3A Price List Videocassette Changers,” Channelmatic, Inc., Nov. 1984, 1 page.
Channelmatic, Inc., advertisement, “Looking at Local Ad Sales?”, 1 page.
“Channelmatic Television Switching and Control Equipment 3000 Series,” Channelmatic, Inc., product descriptions, 1984.
“CIS-1A SPOTMATIC JR. & CIS-2A Li' l Moneymaker,” Channelmatic, Inc., Installation and Operations Guide, 950-0066-00, V1.0.
“1986 Annual Report to Shareowners, Customers and Employees,” The Dun & Bradstreet Corporation.
Landro, Laura, “CBS, AT&T May Start Videotex Business in '83 if 7-Month Home Test Is Successful,” The Wall Street Journal, Sep. 28, 1982, p. 8.
“Video Visionaries,” Review, Sep. 1982, pp. 95-103.
“Video-Game Boom Continues Despite Computer Price War,” Technology, The Wall Street Journal, Oct. 1, 1982, p. 33.
Dunn, Donald H., editor, “How to Pick Your Stocks by Computer,” Personal Business, Business Week, Sep. 12, 1983, pp. 121-122.
Sandberg-Diment, Erik, “Instruction Without Inspiration,” Personal Computers, The New York Times, Sep. 6, 1983, p. C4.
Pace, Eric, “Videotex: Luring Advertisers,” The New York Times, Oct. 14, 1982.
“Will Knight-Ridder Make News With Videotex?”, Media, Business Week, Aug. 8, 1983, pp. 59-60.
Kneale, Dennis, et al., “Merrill Lynch and IBM Unveil Venture To Deliver Stock-Quote Data to IBM PCs,” The Wall Street Journal, Mar. 22, 1984, p. 8.
“Merrill Lynch Joins I.B.M. in Venture, ” The New York Times, Mar. 22, 1984, 1 page.
Kneale, Dennis, “Merrill Lynch Plans Stock-Quote Service Linked to I.B.M.'s PC,” The Wall Street Journal, Mar. 21, 1984, 1 page.
“A Videotex Pioneer Pushes Into the U.S. Market,” Business Week, Apr. 16, 1984, p. 63.
Gregg, Gail, “The Boom In On-Line Information,” New Businesses, Venture, Mar. 1984, pp. 98-102.
Sanger, David E., “Trading Stock by Computer,” Technology, The New York Times, Mar. 29, 1984, 1 page.
Saddler, Jeanne et al., “COMSAT, Citing Risks, Ends Negotiations With Prudential on Satellite—TV Venture,” The Wall Street Journal, Dec. 3, 1984, p. 51.
Pollack, Andrew, “Electronic Almanacs Are There for the Asking,” The New York Times, Mar. 18, 1984, 1 page.
Connelly, Mike, “Knight-Ridder's Cutbacks at Viewtron Show Videotex Revolution Is Faltering,” The Wall Street Journal, Nov. 2, 1984, p. 42.
“Time Inc. May Drop Teletext,” newspaper article, 1 page.
Pollack, Andrew, “Time Inc. Drops Teletext Experiment,” newspaper article, 1 page.
Arenson, Karen W., “CBS, I.B.M., Sears Join in Videotex Venture,” newspaper article, 1 page.
“E.F. Hutton to Start A Videotex Service,” newspaper article, 1 page.
Dunn, Donald H., editor, “Devices That Let You Track Stocks Like A Floor Trader,” Personal Business, Business Week, Jul. 25, 1983, pp. 83-84.
“United Satellite Racing Competitors,” newspaper article, 1 page.
Fantel, Hans, “Videotex to Expand What a TV Can Do,” article, 1 page.
“Zenith and Taft Co. In Teletext Venture,” The New York Times, p. D3.
Pollack, Andrew, “Videodisk's Data Future,” The New York Times, Oct. 7, 1982, p. D2.
Pace, Eric, “Videotex in Years To Come,” The New York Times, Sep. 1, 1982, p. D15.
“Advanced Minicomputer-based Systems for Banking and Financial Institutions,” Money Management Systems, Incorporated, brochure, 1980, 9 pages.
Middleton, Teresa, “The Education Utility,” American Educator, Winter 1986, pp. 18-25.
Perlez, Jane, “Teachers Act to Increase Decision-Making Power,” The New York Times, Jul. 8, 1986, 1 page.
Couzens, Michael, “Invasion of the People Meters,” Channels, Jun. 1986, pp. 40-45.
Behrens, Steve, “People Meters vs. The Gold Standard,” Channels, p. 72, Sep. 1987.
Diamond, Edwin, “Attack of the People Meters,” New York, pp. 38-41, Aug. 24, 1987.
“Ratings Brawl (Is Nielsen losing its grip?)” Time, p. 57, Jul. 20, 1987.
Sheets, Kenneth R., “No go. TV networks nix new high-tech rating system,” U.S. News & World Report, p. 39, Jul. 20, 1987.
Lieberman, David, “The Networks' Big Headache,” Business Week, pp. 26-28, Jul. 6, 1987.
Barbieri, Rich, “Perfecting the Body Count,” Channels, p. 15, Jun. 1987.
Dumaine, Brian, “Who's Gypping Whom in TV Ads?”, Fortune, pp. 78-79, Jul. 6, 1987.
Behrens, Steve, “People Meters' Upside,” Channels, p. 19, May 1987.
“People Meters,” The New Yorker, pp. 24-25, Mar. 2, 1987.
Zoglin, Richard, “Peering Back at the Viewer,” Time, p. 84, Jun. 30, 1986.
Kanner, Bernice, “Now, People Meters,” New York, 3 pages, May 19, 1986.
Trachtenberg, Jeffrey A., “Anybody home out there?”, Forbes, pp. 169-170, May 19, 1986.
Waters, Harry F. et al., “Tuning In on the Viewer,” Newsweek, p. 68, Mar. 4, 1985.
Berss, Marcia, “Tune in,” Forbes, p. 227, Sep. 24, 1984.
“Financial News Network Eyeing Teletext Service Tied To Home Computers,” International Videotex Teletext News, Dec. 1983, 1 page.
Prospectus, Financial News Network, Inc., Jul. 13, 1982.
“ELRA Group Cablemark Reports vol. I,” SAT Guide, Feb. 1982, 1 page.
“DOWALERT,” Brochure, 1983, 6 pages.
New York Stock Exchange, Inc., Computer Input Services, Schedule of Monthly Charges, Aug. 1, 1981, 1 page.
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“Introducing DowAlert,” brochure, 1982, 8 pages.
“Dow Jones Cable Information Services,” Company Brochure, 1982.
“Personal Portfolio Button,” brochure, JS&A, 1982.
“Business news breakthrough from Dow Jones,” advertisement, The Wall Street Journal, Jun. 10, 1982, p. 47.
“Charting A More Profitable Course for Your Portfolio?”, advertisement, Dow Jones News/Retrieval, The Wall Street Journal, Jun. 24, 1982, p. 40.
“Now you can get the precise business and financial news you want . . . throughout the business day.” “Dow Alert,” brochure, 1982.
Promotional letter, “Dow Jones Cable News,” Dow Jones & Company, Inc., Jan. 1, 1982, 2 pages.
“1981 Annual Report,” Quotron Systems, Inc.
Prospectus, Quotron Systems, Inc., Nov. 1982.
“Threat to Quotron Discounted,” The New York Times, 1984, 2 pages.
“Quotron's Central Position in Statistics Service Is Facing Competition From Several Challengers,” The Wall Street Journal, Feb. 2, 1984, p. 59.
“European Security Prices Are Now Available As New Service From Quotron Systems,” News Release, Sep. 21, 1984, 1 page.
“1983 Annual Report,” Quotron Systems, Inc.
“How to increase training productivity through Videodisc and Microcomputer systems,” seminar brochure, 1981.
“The Revolution Continues . . . ”, Regency Systems, Inc., company brochure, 1984, 6 pages.
“How personal computers can backfire,” Business Week, Jul. 12, 1982, pp. 56-59.
“Taking control of computer spending,” Business Week, Jul. 12, 1982, pp. 59-60.
Meserve, Everett T., “A History of Rabbits,” Datamation, pp. 188-192.
Meserve, Everett T. (BILL), “The Future of Rabbits,” Datamation, Jan. 1982, pp. 130-136.
PC Ideas International Corp., product catalog, 7 pages, 1985.
UltiTech, Inc., “The Portable Interactive Videodisc System 3,” brochure, 1985.
Sony Video Communications, “LDP-1000A Laser Videodisc Player,” product description, 1983, 2 pages.
TMS Inc., Digital Laser Technology, product information, 1984, 16 pages.
Sony Video Communications, “Videodisc, Premastering and Formatting,” brochure, 1982.
Pioneer Video, Inc., “LD-V4000 Industrial Laserdisc Player,” product description, Feb. 1984, 2 pages.
Pioneer Video, Inc., “LD-V6000 Industrial Laserdisc Player,” product description, May 1985, 2 pages.
Pioneer Video, Inc., “LD-V6000 Industrial Laserdisc Player,” products price list, Apr. 1984, 1 page.
Pioneer Video, Inc., “Customer Support Publications,” 2 pages.
Pioneer Video, Inc., “Pioneer LD-V1000 Laserdisc Player,” price list, Feb. 1984, 1 page.
Pioneer Video, Inc., “LD-V1000 Laserdisc Player,” product description, Feb. 1985, 2 pages.
Pioneer Video, Inc., “LD-V4000 Laserdisc Player,” products price list, Dec. 1983, 1 page.
“Space-Age Navigation For The Family Car,” reprinted from Business Week, Jun. 18, 1984, 2 pages.
Held, Thomas et al., “Videodisc to Lure and to Learn,” reprinted from The Journal of the International Television Association, International Television, May 1984, 4 pages.
Sony, “SONY View System, The Intelligent Video System,” product description, 1985, 2 pages.
Sony, “LDP-2000 Series, VideoDisc Players,” brochure, 1985, 12 pages.
Digital, “Vax Producer, A System for Creating Interactive Applications,” product bulletin, May 1984, 8 pages.
“Laserdata Announces Trio Encoder at the SALT Show,” News release, Aug. 21, 1985, 3 pages.
“Laserdata Still Frame Audio Premastering Guide,” advertisement, 3 pages.
“Laserdata Trio Encoder Product Description,” product description, 4 pages.
“PC Trio,” Laserdata, product description, 2 pages.
Laserdata, price list, Aug. 1, 1985, 4 pages.
News Release, Industrial Training Corporation, Merger of IIAT with and into ITC, Jun. 11, 1985, 1 page.
“A Touch-Screen Disc (Devlin Interviews the Producer),” reprinted magazine, E&ITV magazine, vol. 16, No. 5, May 1984, 4 pages.
“Interactive Videodisc in Education and Training,” Seventh Annual Conference, Society for Applied Learning Technology, conference agenda, Aug. 1985.
“Inter Active Video from . . . . ” BCD Associates, brochure, 1985.
The Videodisc Monitor, vol. II: No. 8, Aug. 1984, 16 pages.
“Products From The VideoDisc Monitor,” order form, 2 pages.
“Interactive Video Served on a disc,” Scotch Laser Videodisc, 3M, brochure, 8 pages.
Scotch Laser Videodisc, Price List, May 1, 1984, 2 pages.
“How to find the pot of gold at the end of this rainbow,” Scotch Videodisc, 3M, brochure.
Scotch Laser Videodisc, Prices for Special Services, Feb. 15, 1984, 2 pages.
Scotch Laser Videodisc, Master Tape Specifications, May 1984, 2 pages.
“IEV Graphics and Interactive Video Products,” IEV Corporation, product information, 1 page.
“IEV-20 High-Resolution Color Graphics for The IBM-PC,” IEV Corporation, product description, 1 page.
“IEV-40 Graphics Overlay and Video Disc and Tape Control for the IBM-PC,” IEV Corporation, product description, 1 page.
“IEV-10 A Direct Replacement for the IBM Color/Graphics Adapter Card with Video Overlay Capability,” IEV Corporation, product description, 1 page.
“Model 60 Graphics Overlay and Disc or Tape Controller,” IEV Corporation, product description, 1 page.
“The IRIS System,” Silicon Graphics, Inc., product brochure, 1983.
“IRIS 1400, High Performance Geometry Computer,” Silicon Graphics, Inc., product specification, 2 pages.
“IRIS 1000/1200, High Performance Geometry Terminals,” Silicon Graphics, Inc., product specification, 2 pages.
“IRIS 1500, High Performance Geometry Computer,” Silicon Graphics, Inc., product specification, 2 pages.
“The IRIS Graphics System,” Silicon Graphics, Inc., system description, 1983, 6 pages.
“UNIX, Operating System for the IRIS Geometry Computer,” Silicon Graphics, Inc., product specification, 1 page.
“IRIS Graphics Library, Programming Support for IRIS Systems,” Silicon Graphics, Inc., product specification, 1 page.
“Ethernet, 10mbit per second Local Area Network,” Silicon Graphics, Inc., product specification, 2 pages.
Sony, Sony Video Communications, “PVM-1910/PVM-1911 19” Trinitron Color Video Monitors, product brochure, 1984, 8 pages.
“Computer Controls for Video Production,” EECO EECODER Still-Frame Decoder VAC-300, product brochure, 1984, 4 pages.
O'Donnell, John et al., “Videodisc Program Production Manual,” Sony, 1981.
“Still Frame Audio Encoder,” Laserdata, product description, 2 pages.
“TRIO 110,” Laserdata, product description, 2 pages.
“LD-V6000, Industrial Laserdisc Player,” A Technical Perspective, Pioneer Video, Inc., May 1984.
“SWSD System,” Stills With Sound and Data, Pioneer Video, Inc., product description, Aug. 1984, 2 pages.
Pioneer Video, Inc., Price List, Industrial Disc Replication and Program Development Services, May 1984, 4 pages.
“V: Link 1000,” Visage, Inc., product description, 1984, 2 pages.
“The University of Delaware Videodisc Music Series presents Interactive Videodisc Instruction in Music,” advertisement, 8 pages.
“Interactive Videodisc In Education and Training,” Sixth Annual Conference, Society for Applied Learning Technology, conference agenda, Aug. 1984, 2 pages.
“Sony engineering introduces to industry the new Sony Laser VideoDisc,” Sony Video Communications, product brochure, 12 pages.
“GraphOver 9500,” Hi-Res Graphics Overlays for NTSC Video, New Media Graphics, product description, 1983, 4 pages.
“New Horizons in Interactive Video,” Puffin product advertisement, IEV Corporation, 2 pages.
IEV Feb. 1985 Price List, 1 page.
“Fast Forth” “No Other Forth Comes Close,” IEV Corporation, product brochure.
“Pro 68 Advanced Technology 16/32 Bit Co-Processor for IBM PC, PC/XT, PC/AT and Capatibles,” Hallock Systems Company, Inc., product description, 7 pages.
“Pro 68 Software Facts,” Hallock Systems Company, Inc., product description, 6 pages.
“Pro CAD A Pro 68 Software Product,” Hallock Systems Company, Inc., product description, 4 pages.
“V: Station 2000 System,” Visage, Inc., product description, 2 pages.
“Upgrade Packages,” Visage, Inc., product description, 1 page.
“Development Software,” Visage, Inc., product description, 4 pages.
“V: Link Modules,” Visage, Inc., product description, 4 pages.
Visage, Price List, Visage, Inc., Apr. 1985, 4 pages.
Kalowski, Nathan, “Player, Monitor, Interface,” reprinted from Jan. 1985 issue of Data Training, 4 pages.
“Five Authoring Languages Now Available for Use With Visage Interactive Video Systems,” Visage News Release, Visage, Inc., Mar. 18, 1985, 5 pages.
“GraphOver 9500,” Hi-Res Hi-Speed Graphics Overlays for Videodisc, New Media Graphics, product description, 1985, 4 pages.
“PC-VideoGraph,” Hi-Res PC Graphics For Videotaping or Display, New Media Graphics, product description, 1985, 4 pages.
“PC-GraphOver,” Interactive Video With Graphics Overlays, New Media Graphics, product description, 1985, 4 pages.
“Off-the-shelf raster scan display generator creates composite video image,” reprinted by Defense Systems Review and Military Communications, Jan. 1985, p. 55.
“The NTN Entertainment Network,” NTN Entertainment Network, programming information sheet, 2 pages.
Dickey, Glenn, “A Game That's Better Than the Real Thing,” San Francisco Chronicle, Dec. 17, 1985, p. 63.
Connell, Steve, “Arm-Chair Quarterbacking (Computer football game makes fans the play-callers),” The Sacramento Union, Jan. 23, 1986, 3 pages.
Gunn, William, “Get Ready For Monday Night Football,” Night Club and Bar, Jul. 1986, pp. 20-22.
Brack, Fred, “QB1 Anyone?”, Alaska Airlines, Aug. 1986, 2 pages.
Dickey, Glenn, “QB1: Bringing The Game Into the Bar,” Sport Magazine, Oct. 1986, 1 page.
“The Most Exciting Customer and Revenue Building Program Since Sports were First Shown on T.V.”, NTN Communications, Inc., QB1 product brochure, 1986, 4 pages.
“NTN—The Company,” NTN Communications, Inc., company description, 1 page.
NTN Communications, Inc., “Trivia Countdown,” and “Trivia Showdown,” product descriptions, 1 page.
Pottle, Jack T. et al., “The Impact of Competitive Distribution Technologies on Cable Television,” Report, prepared for The National Cable Television Association, Mar. 1982.
“Consumer Electronics: A $40-Billion American Industry,” a report prepared by Arthur D. Little, Inc. for the Electronic Industries Association/Consumer Electronics Group, Apr. 1985.
“Camp,” Arbitron Cable, The Arbitron Company, product brochure, May 1980, 8 pages.
“Times Mirror Videotex/Infomart Joint Venture,” Times Mirror, Background, Jan. 8, 1982, 3 pages.
Cable Advertising Conference Feb. 9, 1982, conference agenda, Cabletelevision Advertising Bureau, Inc., 6 pages.
True Stereo Television, Series 1600 Warner-Amex Stereo Processers, Wegener Communications, Inc., product description, 1982, 3 pages.
“EUROM—a single-chip c.r.t. controller for videotex,” Mullard, Technical publication, 1984, 12 pages.
“EUROM” “A display IC for CEPT Videotex,” Mullard, product information, Feb. 1984, 6 pages.
“Satellite-Delivered Text Service Signs 4 Carriers,” Multichannel News, Jun. 18, 1984, p. 18.
Aarsteinsen, Barbara, “How the Chip Spurs TV Growth,” “The promise of digital televison has stirred the U.S. Industry,”The New York Times, May 20, 1984, 1 page.
Pollack, Andrew, “As Usual, Here Comes The Japanese,” The New York Times, May 20, 1984, 1 page.
“Unleashing IBM Could Help a Satellite Venture Blast Off,” Business Week, May 28, 1984, 2 pages.
Mayer, Martin, “Here comes Ku-band,” Forbes, May 21, 1984, pp. 65-72.
“The UCSD p-System Version IV,” SOFTECH Microsystems, product description, 2 pages.
“UCSD p-System Languages, Version IV UCSD Pascal, Fortran-77, Basic and Assembler,” SOFTECH Microsystems, product description, 2 pages.
“Add-On Features, UCSD p-System Version IV,” SOFTECH Microsystems, product description, 2 pages.
“USCD p-System, Version IV.1,” SOFTECH Microsystems, product description, 4 pages.
SOFTECH Microsystems, Product Order Form, Oct. 1982, 2 pages.
“Homecast, A Consumer Market Service from ICM Services,” Chase Econometrics, product brochure, 2 pages.
“Consumer Systems Industry Service,” research notes, Gartner Group, Inc., Jun. 22, 1983, 13 pages.
Download, Monthly Newsletter, vol. 1, No. 1, May 1984.
Nocera, Joseph, “Death of a Computer,” Texas Monthly, Apr. 1984.
Special Report, Business Week, Jul. 16, 1984, pp. 84-111.
Zenith, Video Hi-Tech Component TV, product brochure, Aug. 1982, 8 pages.
Ferretti, Fred, “For Major-League Times, Addicts, A Way to Win a Pennant,” The New York Times, Jul. 8, 1980, 1 page.
Friedman, Jack, “The Most Peppery Game Since The Hot Stove League? It's Rotisserie Baseball,” People weekly, Apr. 23, 1984, 2 pages.
“Information Package for MDS Applicants,” Department of Communications Radio Frequency Management Division, Oct. 1986.
Department of Transport and Communications Radio Frequency Management Division, Licensing Procedures for Ancillary Communications Services (ACS).
Minister for Communications Guidelines for Provision of Video and Audio Entertainment and Information Services, Oct. 13, 1986.
Christopher, Maurine, “BAR cable service set,” Advertising Age, Sep. 21, 1981, pp. 68 & 72.
“In this corner, Digisonics!”, Media Decisions, Jun. 1968, 5 pages.
“Did the ad run?”, Media Decisions, Jul. 1969, pp. 44 et seq.
“Digisonics TV Monitor System Finds Defenders,” Advertising Age, Dec. 8, 1969, 1 page.
“Merrill Lynch Advanced Applications Systems,” Advanced Automation Systems Department, system description, publication date unknown.
Dougherty, Philip, “Gathering Intelligence for Profit,” newspaper article, 1981, p. D7.
“Vidbits,” Advertising Age, Sep. 21, 1981, p. 70.
“Measuring The Cable Audience,” Ogilvy & Mather, Advertising, 1980, pp. H1-H8.
Cooney, John E., “Counting Cable's Gold Coins,” View, Sep. 1981, 4 pages.
“Cable TV Advertising,” Paul Kogan Associates, Inc., No. 22, Feb. 18, 1981, 6 pages,
“IDC begins monitoring,” At Deadline, Broadcasting, Sep. 14, 1970, p. 9.
“Contraband code,” Closed Circuit, Broadcasting, Sep. 28, 1970, 1 page.
“Listeners,” Closed Circuit, Broadcasting, 1 page.
“Digisonics violated standards, says BAR,” Broadcasting, Oct. 5, 1970, pp. 21-23.
“Talent pay code put off,” At Deadline, Broadcasting, Nov. 9, 1970, p. 9.
“Digisonics' Aim Is Info Bank, Not Just Proof of Performance,” Advertising Age, Nov. 9, 1970, 4 pages.
“Digisonics pushes its coding method,” Broadcasting, Dec. 7, 1970, p. 37.
“No. Digisonics friends show in comments,” Broadcasting, May 24, 1971, p. 62.
“Digisonics' dilemma,” Media Decisions, Jun. 1971, 6 pages.
“IDC encoding system still alive at FCC,” Broadcasting, Sep. 27, 1971, p. 31.
Howard, Niles A., “IDC drops tv monitoring; mulls revival,” reprint from Advertising Age, Feb. 3, 1975, 1 page.
“Teleproof I” “An Exciting New Development of International Digisonics Corporation,” product brochure, 13 pages.
“Teleproof 2,” IDC Services, Inc., product description, 6 pages.
“The Best Reason to Buy Odetics On-Air Automation Systems Today?” Advertisement, Odetics Broadcast, 1 page.
“Advertising on Cable” “Automatic Commercial Insertion-Plus-Automatic Print-Out Verification With the New Ad Machine and Ad Log,” Advertisement, Tele-Engineering Corporation, 4 pages.
“NTN Communications, Inc. Entertainment Network Program Schedule,” Advertisement, NTN Communications, Inc., 2 pages.
“Interactive Football for The Home,” Advertisement, U.S. Videotel, 2 pages.
“NTN Programming,” Advertisement, NTN Communications, Inc., 2 pages.
“Electronic Surveys, Inc. Signs NTN Contract,” News Release, NTN Communications, Inc. Carlsbad, CA, 2 pages.
Andrews, Edmund L., “AT&T Sees The Future in Games,” The New York Times, Business Day, 2 pages.
“Total Teleconferencing Solutions for Your Communication and Training Needs,” brochure, Parker Communications Corporation, Parker Associates.
“PSN Signs Fourth High Technology Customer As Amdahl Corporation Implements Business Television,” PSN News, News Release, Private Satellite Network, Inc., 2 pages.
PSN, Private Satellite Network, Inc., product information for MISTS, Mass Interactive Simultaneous Telecommunications System, 6 pages.
“Broadcasting Services,” brochure, PSN, Private Satellite Network, Inc., 6 pages.
Martin, Vivian B., “Companies use TV talk shows to inform workers,” The Hartford Journal, Business Weekly, 1 page.
Fisher, Lawrence M., “TV: Growing Corporate Tool,” The New York Times, 2 pages.
Vaughan, Kimithy, “Evolution of Corporate Television Networks,” Teleconference, The Business Communication Magazine, pp. 38-40.
“New in Teleconferencing Resources,” advertisement, Parker Associates, 4 pages.
“Business Television Services,” Irwin Communications, Inc., brochure, 1 page.
“Corporate Capabilities,” Irwin Communications, Inc., brochure, 1 page.
“Introducing RSVP: The latest breakthrough for cable!”, advertisement, Arbitron, 1 page.
“Viacom Unit Will Tap Into Pay Networks,” newspaper article, 1 page.
“Show or Tell?”, Advertising material, The Weather Star 4000, The Weather Channel, 8 pages.
“Video Hi-Tech Component TV,” CV 1950, CV 510, CV 540, CV 520, CV 150, advertisement, Zenith Radio Corporation, 4 pages.
“Point-To-Multipoint Data Communication Network Services,” product description, Equatorial Communications Company, 5 pages.
“C-100 Series Micro Earth Stations for Satellite Data Distribution,” product description, Equatorial Communications Company, 4 pages.
“C-200 Micro Earth Station for Satellite Data Communications,” product description, Equatorial Communications Company, 3 pages.
“Interactive Data Communication Network Services,” product description, Equatorial Communications Company, 3 pages.
“Data Communications Network Description,” product description, Equatorial Communications Company, 5 pages.
Landro, Laura, “Satellite Company Signs Merill Lynch For Its Video Service,” The Wall Street Journal, 1 page.
“Elite 2000 Creation System,” IBM Compatible Information Display System, advertisement, Display Systems International, Inc., 1 page.
“Video Database Management . . . When Words Are Not Enough,” advertisement, U.S. Video, 2 pages.
“U.S. Video presents . . . True Computer-Video Overlays,” The Raster Master RM-110, product description, U.S. Video, 2 pages.
“Now You Can Find Just the Right Image Every Time Quickly and Easily with Image Search and the IBM PC/XT,” advertisement, Online Computer Systems, Inc., 1 page.
“Touch the Future Today,” advertisement, MetaMedia Systems, Inc., 1 page.
“Training solutions for the 80's and beyond,” advertisement, Online Computer Systems, Inc., 2 pages.
“Experienced Educator/Trainers,” “Use the new Pilot plus Training System to develop highly interactive courseware on your IBM PC that will run on most microcomputers,” advertisement, Online Computer Systems, Inc., 2 pages.
“Technical Specifications for Hardware and Software Products,” Online Products Corporation, 9 pages.
“Museum Image Series,” product information, Online Products Corporation, 2 pages.
“Omega Vision,” product description, Omega Management Group Corp., 2 pages.
“Visage Visual Information Systems,” Interactive Video Products, brochure, Visage, Inc.
“Now the Future Is Clear,” Visage Visual Information Systems, brochure, Visage, Inc., 4 pages.
“Speak Through The Power of Today's Technology,” QUEST, product description, Allen Communication, 4 pages.
“Universal Video Controller,” product description, Allen Communication, 2 pages.
“Video-Microcomputer Interface,” product description, Allen Communication, 2 pages.
“The Leader in Interactive Video,” advertisement, Allen Communication, 2 pages.
“Allen Communication Price List,” Allen Communication, 1 page.
“Touché Interactive videodisc training by IIAT,” advertisement, IIAT, International Institute of Applied Technology, Inc., 1 page.
“Touché Interactive Videodisc System,” product description, IIAT, International Institute of Applied Technology, Inc., 2 pages.
“IIAT ST-1000A IIAT Training Station,” product description, IIAT, International Institute of Applied Technology, Inc., 2 pages.
“IIAT ST-1000B IIAT Training Station,” product description, IIAT, International Institute of Applied Technology, Inc., 2 pages.
“IIAT International Institute of Applied Technology, Inc.,” company description, 4 pages.
“Pilot plus Course Authoring Interpreter,” IIAT Products, product description, 1 page.
“Touch Monitor/ Videodisc Player Interface Card and Video Switch Box,” IIAT Products, product description, 1 page.
“Touch Sensitive Monitor Interface Card for Apple II,” IIAT Products, product description, 1 page.
“Touchpoint, A Total Eclipse of Existing Technology,” product description, Allen Communication, 2 pages.
“Totally Integrated Interactive System—TII-PC,” product description, Allen Communication, 2 pages.
“Most Valuable Peripheral,” product description, Allen Communication, 2 pages.
“Allen Communication Introduces Integrated Interactive Video Systems,” brochure, 2 pages.
“Automation, Control and Monitoring Systems,” brochure, Jasmin Electronics Limited.
“jasmin,” company brochure, Jasmin Electronics Limited, 4 pages.
“jasmin Teletext Systems,” advertisement, Jasmin Electronics Limited, 4 pages.
“jasmin Process Control Systems,” advertisement, Jasmin Electronics Limited, 4 pages.
“Teleprompter of Denver Channel Line Up,” 2 pages.
“City of Seal Beach Channel Utilization Guide,” 3 pages.
“V: Link 1910: The Single-Slot VGA Interactive Video Solution,” product description, Visage, Inc., 4 pages.
“The OASYS Authoring System,” advertisement, Online Computer Systems, Inc., 1 page.
“Advertisers Guide to Cable TV Terms,” brochure, Cable Ad Associates, Inc.
“Cable Audience Measurement Study,” A Prospectus based upon recommendations of the Ad Hoc Cable Measurement Committee, pamphlet.
Kane, Sharyn et al., “Technology in the First Person,” reprint from Delta Air Lines' SKY magazine, 4 pages.
“Training Systems,” brochure, WICAT systems, Training Systems Division, 4 pages.
“The Consultant,” advertisement, Co-Opportunities, Sales Development Information Systems, a division of Jefferson-Pilot Communications Company.
“Introducing Spot Data,” “Cable Ad Sales Just Got Better,” advertisement, TV Data Technologies, 4 pages.
“Do You Want to be Making $5-$10 a Subscriber—Right Now?” “Join Us in Our Success!”, advertisement, Multi-Image Systems, 1page.
“Mediastar,” “The message is clear,” brochure, Multi-Image Systems, 6 pages.
“Art to Go” “The Business Builder in a Box,” advertisement, Multi-Image Systems, 1 page.
“Few Things in Life Work As Well As TAPSCAN,” advertisement, Tapscan Incorporated, 6 pages.
“Dow Jones Cable News Service Daily Features Financial Markets,” product summary, 1 page.
“Financial News Network The Business Connection,” brochure, Financial News Network, 8 pages.
“The Financial News Network Means Business,” advertisement, The Financial News Network, 1 page.
“The Dawn of a New Era in Financial News Broadcasting,” advertisement, Financial News Network, 1 page.
“FNN Financial News Network,” advertisement, brief review of research from the Stanford Research Institute's VALS study, and research from ELRA Group Cablemark Reports vol. I, 4 pages.
“Industrial Skills Training With the Touch of a Finger . . . Introducing . . . Activ,” Advanced Concepts in Touch-Interactive Video, advertisement, Industrial Training Corporation, 4 pages.
“eca,” brochure, Effective Communication Arts, Inc., 4 pages.
“ODC 612 Encoder/Generator,” product description, Optical Disc Corporation, 2 pages.
“. . . the Recordable Laser Videodisc—RLV,” product description, Optical Disc Corporation, 2 pages.
“ODC 610 Videodisc Recording System,” product description, Optical Disc Corporation, 2 pages.
“Hitachi New CD-ROM Drive CDR-2500,” product description, Hitachi, Ltd., 2 pages.
“Hitachi CD-ROM Drive CDR-1502S,” product description, Hitachi, Ltd., 6 pages.
James, A., “Oracle—Broadcasting the Written Word,” Wireles Word, Jul. 1975.
Carne, E. Bryan, “The Wired Household,” IEEE Spectrum, Oct. 1979, p. 61-66.
McKenzie, G.A., “Oracle—An Information Broadcasting Service Using Data Transmission in the Vertical Interval ” Journal of the SMPTE, vol. 83, No. 1, Jan. 1974, pp. 6-10.
Edwardson, S.M., “Ceefax: A Proposed New Broadcasting Service,” Journal of the SMPTE, Jan. 1974, p. 14-19.
J. Chiddix, “Automated Videotape Delay of Satellite Transmissions,” Satellite Communications Magazine, May 1978 (reprint—2 pages).
J. Chiddix, “Tape Speed Errors in Line-Locked Videocassette Machines for CATV Applications,” TVC, Nov. 1977 (reprint—2 pages).
CRC Electronics, Inc. Product Description, “Model TD-100-Time Delay Videotape Controller,” 2 pages.
CRC Electronics, Inc., Net Price List—Mar. 1, 1980 (TD-100 Time Delay Videotape Controller), 1 page.
CRC Electronics, Inc. Product Description, “Model P-1000 Videocassette Programmer,” 4 pages.
CRC Electronics, Inc., Net Price List—Jul. 31, 1981 (P-1000 Video Machine Programmer), 1page.
Tunmann, E.O. et al. (Tele-Engineering Corp.), “Microprocessor for CATV Systems,” Cable 78— Technical Papers, National Cable Television Association 27th Annual Convention, New Orleans, LA, Apr. 30-May 3, 1978 (“Cable 78”), pp. 70-75.
Vega, Richard L. (Telecommunications Systems, Inc.), “From Satellite to Earth Station to Studio to S-T-L to MDS Transmitter to the Home; Pay Television Comes to Anchorage, Alaska,” Cable 78, pp. 76-80, 1978.
Wright, James B. et al. (Rockford Cablevision, Inc.), “The Rockford Two-Way Cable Project: Existing and Projected Technology,” Cable 78, pp. 20-28, 1978.
Fannetti, John D. et al. (City of Syracuse), “The Urban Market: Paving the Way for Two-Way Telecommunications,”Cable 78, pp. 29-33, 1978.
Schnee Rolf M. et al. (Heinrich-Hertz-Institut Berlin (West)), “Technical Aspects of Two-Way CATV Systems in Germany,” Cable 78, pp. 34-41, 1979.
Dickinson, Robert V.C. (E-Com Corporation), “A Versatile, Low Cost System for Implementing CATV Auxiliary Services,” Visions '79—Technical Papers, National Cable Television Association 28th Annual Convention, Las Vegas, NV, May 20-23, 1979, (“Vision '79”), pp. 65-72.
Evans, William E. et al. (Manitoba Telephone System), “An Intercity Coaxial Cable Electronic Highway,” Visions '79, pp. 73-79.
Schrock, Clifford B. (C.B. Schrock and Associates, Inc.), “Pay Per View, Security, and Energy Controls Via Cable: The Rippling River Project,” Visions '79, pp. 80-85.
Amell, Richard L. (Cox Cable Communications, Inc.), “Computer-Aided CATV System Design,” Visions '79, pp. 128-133.
Lopinto, John J. (Home Box Office), “Considerations for Implementing Teletext in the Cable System,” Visions of the 80's, pp. 45-48, 1980.
O'Brien, Jr., Thomas E. (General Instrument Corporation), “System Design Criteria of Addressable Terminals Optimized for the CATV Operator,” Visions of the 80's, pp. 89-91, 1980.
Ost, Clarence S. et al. (Electronic Mechanical Products Co.), “High-Security Cable Television Access System ” Visions of the 80's, pp. 92-94, 1980.
Bacon, John C. (Scientific-Atlanta, Inc.), “Is Scrambling the Only Way?,” Visions of the 80's, pp. 95-98, 1980.
Davis, Allen (Home Box Office), “Satellite Security,” Visions of the 80's, pp. 99-100, 1980.
Mannino, Joseph A. (Applied Date Research, Inc.), “Computer Applications in Cable Television,” Visions of the 80's, pp. 116-117, 1980.
Beck, Ann et al. (Manhattan Cable TV), “An Automated Programming Control System for Cable TV,” Visions of the 80's, pp. 122-127, 1980.
Schloss, Robert E. et al. (Omega Communications, Inc.), “Controlling Cable TV Head Ends and Generating Messages by Means of a Micro Computer, ” Visions of the 80's, pp. 136-138, 1980.
Eissler, Charles O. (Oak Communications, Inc.), “Addressable Control,” Cable: '81 The Future of Communications—Technical Papers, National Cable Television Association 30th Annual Convention, Los Angeles, CA, May 29-Jun. 1, 1981 (“Cable: '81”), pp. 29-33.
Schoeneberger, Carl F. (TOCOM, Inc.), “Addressable Terminal Control Using the Vertical Interval,” Cable: '81, pp. 34-40.
Stern, Joseph L. (Stem Telecommunications Corporation), “Addressable Taps,” Cable: '81, p. 41.
Brown, Larry C. (Pioneer Communications of America), “Addressable Control—A Big First Step Toward the Marriage of Computer, Cable, and Consumer,” Cable: '81, pp. 42-46.
Grabowski, Ralph E. (VISIONtec), “The Link Between the Computer and Television,” Cable: '81, pp. 99-100.
Ciciora, Ph.D., W.S. (Zenith Radio Corporation), “Virtext & Virdata: Adventures in Vertical Interval Signaling,” Cable: '81, pp. 101-104.
Gilbert, Bill et al. (TEXSCAN Corporation), “Automatic Status Monitoring for a CATV Plant,” Cable: '81, pp. 124-128.
Ciciora, Walter et al., “An Introduction to Teletext and Viewdata with Comments on Compatibility,” IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, vol. CE-25, No. 3, Jul. 1979 (“Consumer Electronics”), pp. 235-245.
Tanton, N. E. “UK Teletext— Evolution and Potential,” Consumer Electronics, pp. 246-250, 1979.
Bown, H.G. et al., “Telidon: A New Approach to Videotex System Design,” Consumer Electronics, pp. 256-268, 1979.
Chitnis, A..M. et al., “Videotex Services: Network and Terminal Alternatives ” Consumer Electronics, pp. 269-278, 1979.
Hedger, J. “Telesoftware: Home Computing Via Broadcast Teletext,” Consumer Electronics, pp. 279-287, 1979.
Crowther, G.O., “Teletext and Viewdata Systems and Their Possible Extension to Europe and USA,” Consumer Electronics, pp. 288-294, 1979.
Gross, William S., “Info-Text, Newspaper of the Future ” Consumer Electronics, pp. 295-297, 1979.
Robinson, Gary et al., “‘Touch-Tone’ Teletext—A Combined Teletext-Viewdata System,” Consumer Electronics, pp. 298-303, 1979.
O'Connor, Robert A., “Teletext Field Tests,” Consumer Electronics, pp. 304-310, 1979.
Blank, John, “System and Hardware Considerations of Home Terminals With Telephone Computer Access,” Comsumer Electronics, pp. 311-317, 1979.
Plummer, Robert P. et al., “4004 Futures for Teletext and Videotex in the U.S.,” Consumer Electronics, pp. 318-326, 1979.
Marti, B. et al., The Antiope Videotex System, Consumer Electronics, pp. 327-333, 1979.
Frandon, P. et al., “Antiope LSI,” Consumer Electronics, pp. 334-338, 1979.
Crowther, G.O., “Teletext and Viewdata Costs As Applied to the U.S. Market,” Consumer Electronics, pp. 339-344, 1979.
Mothersole, Peter L., “Teletext Signal Generation Equipment and system,” Consumer Electronics, pp. 345-352, 1979.
Harden, Brian, “Teletext/Viewdata LSI,” Consumer Electronics, pp. 353-358, 1979.
Swanson, E. et al., “An Integrated Serial to Parallel Converter for Teletext Application,” Consumer Electronics, pp. 359-361, 1979.
Neal, C. Bailey et al., “A Frequency-Domain Interpretation of Echoes and Their Effect on Teletext Data Reception,” Consumer Electronics, pp. 362-377, 1979.
Goyal, Shri K. et al., “Reception of Teletext Under Multipath Conditions,” Consumer Electronics, pp. 378-392, 1979.
Prosser, Howard F., “Set Top Adapter Considerations for Teletext,” Consumer Electronics, pp. 393-399, 1979.
Suzuki, Tadahiko et al., Television Receiver Design Aspects for Employing Teletext LSI, Consumer Electronics, pp. 400-405, 1979.
Baer, Ralph H., “Tele-Briefs—A Novel User-Selectable Real Time News Headline Service for Cable TV,” Consumer Electronics, pp. 406-408, 1979.
Sherry, L.A., “Teletext Field Trials in the United Kingdom,” Consumer Electronics, pp. 409-423, 1979.
Clifford, Colin, “A Universal Controller for Text Display Systems,” Consumer Electronics, pp. 424-429, 1979.
Barlow, “The Design of an Automatic Machine Assignment System”, Journal of the SMPTE, Jul. 1975, vol. 84, p. 532-537.
Barlow, “The Automation of Large Program Routing Switchers”, SMPTE Journal, Jul. 1979, vol. 88, p. 493-497.
Barlow, “The Computer Control of Multiple-Bus Switchers”, SMPTE Journal, Sep. 1976, vol. 85, p. 720-723.
Barlow, “The Assurance of Reliability”, SMPTE Journal, Feb. 1976, vol. 85, p. 73-75.
Barlow, “Some Features of Computer-Controlled Television Station Switchers”, Journal of the SMPTE, Mar. 1972, vol. 81, p. 179-183.
Barlow et al., “A Universal Software for Automatic Switchers” SMPTE Journal, Oct. 1978, vol. 87, p. 682-683.
Butler, “PCM-Multiplexed Audio in a Large Audio Routing Switcher”, SMPTE Journal, Nov. 1976, vol. 85, p. 875-877.
Dickson et al., “An Automated Network Center”, Journal of the SMPTE, Jul. 1975, vol. 84, p. 529-532.
Edmondson et al., “NBC Switching Central”, SMPTE Journal, Oct. 1976, vol. 85, p. 795-805.
Flemming, “NBC Television Central—An Overview”, SMPTE Journal, Oct. 1976, vol. 85, p. 792-795.
Horowitz, “CBS” New-Technology Station, WBBM-T, SMPTE Journal, Mar. 1978, vol. 87, p. 141-146.
Krochmal et al., “Television Transmission Audio Facilities at NBC New York”, SMPTE Journal, Oct. 1976, vol. 85, p. 814-816.
Kubota et al., “The Videomelter”, SMPTE Journal, Nov. 1978, vol. 87, p. 753-754.
Mausler, “Video Transmission Video Facilities at NBC New York”, SMPTE Journal, Oct. 1976, vol. 85, p. 811-814.
Negri, “Hardware Interface Considerations for a Multi-Channel Television Automation System”, SMPTE Journal, Nov. 1976, vol. 85, p. 869-872.
Paganuzzi, “Communication in NBC Television Central”, SMPTE Journal, Nov. 1976, vol. 85, p. 866-869.
Roth et al., “Functional Capabilities of a Computer Control System for Television Switching”, SMPTE Journal, Oct. 1976, vol. 85, p. 806-811.
Rourke, “Television Studio Design—Signal Routing and Measurement”, SMPTE Journal, Sep. 1979, vol. 88, p. 607-609.
Yanney, Sixty-Device Remote-Control System for NBC's Television Central Project, SMPTE Journal, Nov. 1976, vol. 85, p. 873-877.
Young et al., “Developments in Computer-Controlled Television Switches”, Journal of the SMPTE, Aug. 1973, vol. 82, p. 658-661.
Young et al., “The Automation of Small Television Stations”, Journal of the SMPTE, Oct. 1971, vol. 80, p. 806-811.
Zborowski, “Automatic Transmission Systems for Television”, SMPTE Journal, Jun. 1978, vol. 87, p. 383-385.
“Landmark forms cable weather news network,” Editor & Publisher, (Aug. 8, 1981) p. 15.
“Broadcast Teletext Specification,” published jointly by British Broadcasting Corporartion, Independent Broadcasting Authority, British Radio Equipment Manufacturers' Association (Sep. 1976), pp. 1-24.
“Colormax Cable captioning—16,000,000 Subs NEED IT !,” Colormax Electronic Corp. (advertisement), 3 pages.
“7609 Sat-A-Dat Decoder/Controller,” Group W Satellite Communications (advertisement) 2 pages.
“Teletext Video Processor (SAA 5030),” Mullard (Dec. 1979), pp. 1-9.
“Video Text Decoder Systems (Signetics)”, Phillips IC Product Line Summary (May 1981), pp. 15-16.
“Teletext Acquisition and Control Circuit (SAA5040 Series),” Mullard (Jun. 1980), pp. 1-16.
“Asynchronous Data Transmission System Series 2100 VIDATA, ”Wagener Communications, Inc. (advertisement), 2 pages.
“Zenith Virtexttm . . . Vertical Interval Region Text and Graphics,” Zenith Radio Corporation (flyer), 7 pages.
Anon, “Television Network Automated by Microcomputer-Controlled Channels,” Computer Design, vol. 15, No. 11, (Nov. 1976), pp. 50, 59, 62, 66 and 70.
Kinik, et al., “A Network Control System for Television Distribution by Satellite,” Journal of the SMPTE, Feb. 1975, vo 84, No. 2, pp. 63-67.
Chiddix, “'Videocassette Banks Automate Delayed Satellite Programming,” Aug. 1978, TV Comunications, pp. 38-39.
Curnal, et al., “Automating Television Operating Centers,” Bell Laboratories Record, Mar. 1978, pp. 65-70.
Chorafas, “Interactive Videotex: The Domesticated Computer,” 1981, Petrocelli Books, New York.
Hinton, “Character rounding for the Wireless Word teletex decoder,” Wireless World, Nov. 1978, pp. 49-53, vol. 84 No. 1515, IPC Business Press, United Kingdom.
Kruger, “Speicherfernsehen, Das Digitale Kennungssystem ZPS,” Proceedings 9th International Congress Microelectronics, pp. 39-45.
“Fernsehempfang rund um die Uhr” Funk Technik, Mar. 1981, vol. 36.
Hanas et al.,“An Addressable Satellite Encryption System for Preventing Signal Piracy”, Nov. 1981, pp. 631-635.
National Cable Television Association Executive Seminar Series, Videotex Services, Oct. 1980, pp. 1-155.
Kokado et al.,“A Programmable TV Receiver”, Feb. 1976, pp. 69-82.
J. Hedger et al., “Telesoftware-Value Added Teletext”,Auqust 1980, pp. 555-567.
Marti , B., The Concept of a Universal “Teletext” Jun. 1979, pp. 1-11.
Article re: America's Talk-Back Television Experiment: Qube.
Article re: “Teletext-Applications in Electronic Publishing”.
Article re: A Description of the Broadcast Telidon System.
Article re: EPEOS—Automatic Program Recording System by G. Degoulet.
Article re: Teletext signals transmitted in Uk . . . .
Article re: New services offered by a packet data broadcasting system.
Article re: Philips TV set indicates station tunign and color settings on screen.
Vincent,A.et al., “Telidon Teletest System. Field Triasl” (Abstract).
Rzeszeewski, T.,“A New Telletex Channel”.
Numaguchi, Y. et al., “Compatibility and Transmision Characteristics of Digital Signals Inserted in the Field-Blanking Interval of the Television Signal” (Abstract).
Zimmerman, R. et al., Bildschirmtextesysteme (Abstract).
Pilz, F., “Digital Codierte Uebertragungen von Text and Graphik in den Vertikal-anstastintervallen des Fernsehsignas” (Abstract).
Pilz, F., “Uebertragung Insaitryliches Informationen, Insbesondere von Texten, In Ungenutryten Zeilen der Vertikal-Anstastlueke des Fernsehsignals” (Abstract).
Numaguchi, Y., Wie man Stillstehende Bilder Uebertraegt. Ueberlick Ueber Teletext-, Fernseheinzelbild-Und Faksimile-Uebertrragunsverfahren (Abstract).
Transcript, Videotex, Viewdata, and Teletext: Viewdata '801 Online Conference on Videotex, Viewdata and Teletext, London. Mar. 26k-28, 1980 (Abstract).
Graf, P.H., “Antiope-Uebertragung fuer Breitbandige Videotex-Verteildienste”, 1981.
Poubread, J.J., “Cryptage' du Son Pour la Televiser A Peague” 1981 (Abstract).
Graf, P.H., “Das Videotex-System Antiope” 1980 (Abstract).
Vardo, J.C., “Les Emetteurs de Television et la Diffusion de Donnees” 1980 (Abstract).
Noirel, Y., “Constructin D'un Reseau de Diffusion de Donnees Par Paquets” 1979 (Abstract).
Vardo, J.C., “ Effet de Distorsions en Diffusion de Donnes. II. Resultats Theoriques” 1979 (Abstract).
Baerfuss, C., “Experiences de Diffusion de Donnees dans un Canal de Television” 1979 (Abstract).
Blineau, J., “Liasons Telex a Support Video Sur Des Circuits de Television Internationaux” 1979 (Abstract) .
Dublet, G., “Methodes Utilisees et Principaux Resultats Obtenus Lors D'Une Campagne de esure ‘Didon’ Dans la Refion Centre-est” 1978 (Abstract).
Guinet, Y., “Etude Comparative des Systems de Teletexte en Radio-Diffusion. Quelques Avantages de la Diffusion des Donnees Par Paques Applique an Teletexte” 1977 (Abstract).
Goff, R., “A Review of Teletext” 1978 (Abstract).
Haplinsky, C.H., “The D**(2)B A One Logical Wire Bus for Consumer Applications” 1981.
Cazals, A., “cts Techniques du Teletexte Diffuse” 1981 (Abstract).
Sechet, C. et al., “Epees et la Viideomessagerie” 1981 (Abstract).
Cayet, A. “La Peritelevison Face a Son Public” 1981 (Abstract).
“La Telematique au Service Des Entreprises et des Particliers: Les Reseaux—Les Produits Noveaux—Les Aplication” 1980 (Abstract).
Sechet, C., “Antiope Teletext Captioning” 1980.
Lambert, O. et al., “Antiope and D.R.C.S.” 1980.
Broggini, P., “Antiope: La Bonne Information Au Bon Moment” 1980 (Abstract).
Strauch, D., “(Texte Sur Ecran An Nivenn International. Viewdata 80. Premeire Confirence Mendiale Sur Viewdata, Video text at Teletext, a Londres)” 1980.
Strauch, D., (Las Media De Telecommunication Devant la Rapture. Les Nonvellas Methodes Presentees a L'Exposition International 1979 de Radio (Et Television)) 1979.
Eymery, G., “Le Teletexte Antiope System D'Information a La Demande” 1979-1980 (Abstract).
Brasq , R., “Micro 8 Bits Dans Linite Gestion da Terminal de Videotex Antiope”.
Hughes, JW,“Videotex and Teletext Systems” 1979.
Marti, B., “Terminolegie Des Services de Communication De Texte” 1979.(Abstract).
Schreber, H., “Antiope et Tietae, La Tele-Informatique Sur L'ecran De Votre Televiscur” 1978 (Abstract).
Kulpok, A., “Videotext, Teletext, Bilschimzeiting” 1979 (Abstract).
Cochard, J.P. et al., “Antiope Prototype da Teletexte De Demain” 1979 (Abstract).
Messerschmid, U., “Videotext: Ein Nueur Informations dienst in Fernschrund funk” 1978 (Abstract).
D'Argoevves, T. et al, “La Chaine Vieo: Magnetoscopes, Videodisqhes, Andiodisques” 1979 (Abstract).
Klingler, R., “Les Systemes de Teletexte Unidirectionals” 1978 (Abstract).
Guillermin, J., “Dix Annees D'Antomatisation Au Service De la Radiodiffusion” 1977 (Abstract).
Brusq, R., “Le Terminal de Teletexte Antiope” 1977 (Abstract).
Guinet, Y., “Les Systemes des Teletextes Antiope” 1977 (Abstract).
Schwartz, C. et al., “Specification Preliminarie du Systeme Teletexte Antope” 1977 (Abstract).
United States International Trade Commission notice of decision not to review Admin. law judges initial dismissal of complaint (case involves certain recombinantly Produced Human Growth Hormones).
U.S. I.T.C.'s order granting Complainants Motion to Desqualify the Law Firm of Finnegan, Henderson et al. (Case involves Certain Cardiac Pacemakers and Components therof).
Decision in Ford Motor Company v. Jerome H. Lemelson.
General Counsel's recommendation to U.S.I.T.C. to refuse a patent-based section 337 investigation based on a complaint filed not by the owner of the patents in issue, but by nonexclusive licensees.
Portion of ITC's Industry and Trade Summary serial publication.
ITC Admin. Judges Order #9: Initial Determination Terminating Investigation (Investigation #337-TA-373) .
“LSI Circuits for Teletext and Viewdata—The Lucy Generation” published by Mullard Limited, Mullard House (1981).
2 page article by Nicholas Negroponte in SID 80 Digest titled, “17.4/10:25 a.m.: Soft Fonts”, pp. 184-185.
IEEE Consumer Electronics Jul. 1979 issue from Spring Conference titled, “Consumer Text Display Systems”, pp. 235-429.
Videotext '81 published by Online Conferences Ltd., for the May 20-22, 1981 Confernece, pp. 1-470.
“Teletext and Viewdata Costs as Applied to the U.S. Market” Published by Mullard House (1979), pp. 1-8.
CCETT publication titled, “Didon Diffusion de donnees parpaquets”.
Dalton,C.J., “International Broadcasting Convention” (1968), Sponsors: E.E.A., I.E.E., I.E.E.E., I.E.R.E., etc.
Shorter, D.E.L., “The Distribution of Television Sound by Pulse-Code Modulation Signals Incorporated in the Video Waveform”.
Chorky, J.M., Shorter, D.E.L., “International Broadcasting Convention” (1970), pp. 166-169.
The Implementation of the Sound-in-Sync project for Eurovision (Feb. 1975), pp. 18-22.
Maegele, Manfred, “Digital Transmissions of Two Television Sound Channels in Horizontal Banking”, pp. 68-70.
Weston, J.D., “Digital TV Transmission for the European Communications Satellite” (1974), pp. 318-325.
Golding, L., “A 15 to 25 Mhz Digital Television System for Transmission of Commercial Color Television” (1967), pp. 1-26.
Huth, Gaylord K., Digital Television System Design Study: Final Report (Nov. 28, 1976), prepared for NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center.
Weston, J.D., “Transmission of Television by Pulse Code modulation”, Electrical Communication (1967), pp. 165-172.
Golding, L, “F1-Ditec-A-Digital Television Communications System for Satellite Links,” Telecommunications Numeriques Par Satellite.
Haberle, H. et al.,“Digital TV Transmission via Satellite”, Electrical Communications (1974).
Dirks, H. et al., TV-PCM6 Integrated Sound and Vision Transmission System, Electrical Communication (1977), pp. 61-67.
Talygin, N. V. et al., The “Orbita” Ground Station for Receiving Television Programs Relayed by Satellites, Elecktrovinz, pp. 3-5.
1973 NAB Convention Program, Mar. 25-28, 1973.
Portions of Electonic Engineer's Reference Book (1989)—Multichannel sound systems, Teletext transmission, cable television, ISDN applications, etc.
Yoshido, Junko, teletext back in focus: VBI service revived as alternative delivery system, Electronic Engineering Times (1994) (Abstract).
Blankenhorn, Dana, “ Int'l Teletext expands market (International Teletext Communication Inc.),” NewsBytes (1993) (Abstract).
Collin, Simon, PC Text II (Hardware Review (Shortlist), PC User (1990).
Alfonzetti, Salvatore, “Interworking between teletext and OSI systems,” Computer Communications (1989).
Gabriel, Michael R., Videotex and teletex: Waiting for the 21st century?, Education Technology (1988).
Voorman, J.O. et al., A one-chip Automatic Equalizer for Echo Reduction in Teletext , IIEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, pp. 512-529.
National Online Meeting: Proceedings—1982 sponsored by: Online Review, pp. 547-551.
MacKenzie, G.A., A Model for the UK Teletext Level 2 Specification (Ref: GTV2 242 Annex 6″ based on the ISO Layer model.
Chambers, J.P., A Domestic Television Program Delivery Services, British Broadcasting Corporation, pp. 1-5.
McKenzie, G.A., UK Teletext—The Engineering Choices, Independent Broadcasting Authority, pp. 1-8.
Adding a new dimension to British television, Electronic Engineering (1974).
Jones, Keith, The Development of Teletext, pp. 1-6.
Marti, B. et al., Discrete, service de television cryptee, Revue de radiodiffusion—television (1975), pp. 24-30.
Ando, Heiichero et al., Still-Picture Broadcasting—A new Informational and Instructional Broadcasting System, IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting (1973), pp. 68-76.
Sauter, Dietrich, “Intelligente Komponenten Fur Das Afra-Bus-Fernsteuersystem”, Rundfunk technischen Mittelungen, pp. 54-57.
Hogel, T. et al., “Afra-Bus-ein digitales Fersteuersysten fur Fernsehstudion Komplexe”, Fernseh-Und Kino-Technik (1974), pp. 13-14.
Hogel, G., “Das Afra-Bus System: 2. Technische Struktur des AFRA-Bus-Systems”, Fernseh-Und Kino-Technik (1975), pp. 395-400.
Krauss, G., “Das Afra-Bus-System: 4. Wirtschaftlich Keits-betrachtungen und Rationalisierung seifekte beim Einsatz des AFRA-Bus-Systems”, Fernseh-Und Kino-Technik (1976), pp. 40-49.
Wellhausen, H. “Das AFRA-Bus-System: 1. Grundsatzliche-Betrachtungen und Rationlisierung und Automatisierun in den Fernschbetreben”, Fernseh-Und Kino-Technik (1975), pp. 353-356.
Sauter, D., “Das AFRA-Bus-System: 3. Einsatz-moglich Keiten des Afra-Bus Systems in Fernsehbetrieben”, Fernseh-Und Kino-Technik (1976), pp. 9-13.
B.B.C.I.B.A., Specification of Standards for information transmission by digitally coded signals in the field—blanking interval of 625-line systems (1974), pp. 5-40.
Centre Commun Des De Television et Telecommunications, Specification du Systeme Di Teletext, Antiope.
Heller, Arthur, VPS—Ein Neues System Zuragsgesteurten Programmanfzeichnung, Rundfunk technisde Mitteilungen, pp. 162-169.
Institut fur Rundfunktechnik, ARD/SDF/ZXEI—Richlinie “Video Programm-System”, pp. 1-30.
Buro der Technischen Kommission, “Niederschrift uber die Besprechung zwischen Rundfunkanstalten (Techik, Sendeleiter) und ZVEI zur Einfuhrung des Video-Programm-Systems”, pp. 1-4.
Buro der Technischen Kommission, Ergebnisse und Festlegungen anda “Blich einer Besprechung zwishen Rundfunanstalten..”, pp. 1-4.
Koch, H. et al., “Bericht der ad hoc—Arbeitsgruppe ‘Videotext programmiert Videorecorder’ der TEKO”, pp. 1-40.
European Broadcasting Union, “Specification of the Domestic Video Programme Delivery Control System”, pp. 1-72.
ARD/ZDF/ZVEI-Richtlinie “Video Programme System”.
Reports on Developments in USA, Teletext, EIA Meeting.
Videotex '81: A Special Report.
Tarrant, D.R., “Teletext for the World”.
Clifford, Colin et al., “Microprocessor Based, Software Defined Television Controller”, IEEE Transaction on Consumer Electronics (1978), pp. 436-441.
Hughes, William L. et al., “Some Design Considerations for Home Interactive Terminals”, IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting (1971).
Mothersdale, Peter L. , “Teletext and viewdata: new information systems using the domestic television receiver”, Electronics Record (1979), pp. 1349-1354.
Betts, W.R., “Viewdata: the evolution of home and business terminals”, PROC.IEE (1979), pp. 1362-1366.
Hutt, P.R., “Thical and practical ruggedness of UK teletext transmission”, PROC.IEE (1979), pp. 1397-1403.
Rogers, B.J., “Methods of measurement on teletext receivers and decoders”, PROC.IEE (1979), pp. 1404-1407 .
Green, N., “Subtitling using teletext service—technical and editorial aspects”, PROC.IEE (1979), pp. 1408-1416.
Chambers, M.A., “Teletext—enhancing the basic system”, PROC.IEE (1979), pp. 1425-1428.
Crowther, G.O., “Adaptation of Uk Teletex System for 525/60 Operation”, IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics (1980), pp. 587-596.
Marti, B. et al., Discrete, service de television cryptee , Revue de radiodiffusion—television (1975), pp. 24-30.
Lopinto, John, “The Application of DRCS within the North American Broad cast Teletext Specification”, IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics (1982), pp. 612-617.
BBC, BBC Microcomputer: BBC Microcomputer with Added Processor and Teletex Adaptor (Manual).
Green, N.W., “Picture Oracle,” on Independent Television Companies Association Limited Letterhead.
National Captioning Institute, Comments on the Matter of Amendment of Part 73, Subpart E. of the Federal Communications Rules Government Television Stations to Authorize Teletext (before F.C.C.).
Balchin, C., “Videotext and the U.S.A.”, I.C. Product Marketing Memo.
Koteen and Burt, “British Teletext/Videotex”.
EIA Teletext SubCommittee Meetings, Report on USA Visit.
Brighton's Experience with Software for Broadcast (Draft).
The institution of Electronic and Radio Engineers, Conference on Electronic Delivery of Data and Software.
AT&T, “Videotex Standard Presentation Level Protocol”.
Various Commissioner statements on Authorization of Teletext Transmissions by TV Stations.
Report and Order of FCC on the Matter of Amendment of Parts 2,73, and 76 of the Commission's Rules to Authorize the Transmission of Teletext by TV Stations, pp. 1-37.
IBA Technical Review of Digital Television, pp. 1-64.
National Cable Television Association report, “Videotex Services” given at Executive Seminar.
Lexis Research results for Patent No. 4,145,717.
Web page—Company Overview of Norepack Corporation.
Coversheet titled, “Zing”.
Lemelson v. Apple Computer, Inc. patent case in the Bureau of National Affairs, 1996.
A computer printout from Library Search.
Electronic Industries Association—Teletext Subcommittee Rask Group A—Systems Minutes of Meeting Mar. 30, 1981 at Zenith plus attachments.
Electronic Industries Association—Teletext Subcommittee Task Group A Systems Interim Report, Mar. 30, 1981 by Stuart Lipoff, Arthur D. Little Inc.
Minutes of Eletronic Industries Association Teletext Subcommittee Task Force B —Laboratory & Field Tests Mar. 30, 1981.
National Captioning Institute Report, “The 1980 Closed-Captioned Television Audience”.
Electronic Industries Assoc.—Teletext Subcommittee— Steering Committee Minutes of Meeting on Mar. 31, 1981.
Aug. 6, 1990 letter from Herb Zucker to Walter Ciciora with attachment.
Articles, information sheets under cover sheet “QVP—Pay Per View” Nov. 29, 1982.
National Cable Television Association report, “Videotex Services”.
Scala Info Channel Advertisement, “The Art of Conveying A Message”.
Zenith Corporation's Z-Tac Systems information includes Z-tac specifications, access list, etc.
Report by Cablesystems Engineering Ltd. on, “Zenith Addressable System and Operating Procedures” and Advertising documents.
Memo from W. Thomas to G. Kelly on Jan. 21, 1982 Re: Modified ZTAC/Multi Channel.
Notations by Walt Ciciora dated Aug. 19, 1981 referring to Virtext figures.
Stamped Zenith Confidential, “Preliminay Specification for Basic Text”.
Report titled “The Necams Business Plan,” dated Mar. 18, 1994.
The Personalized Mass Media Corp. reported titled, “Portfolio of Programming Examples” by Harvey, Keil, & Parker 1991.
Petition to FCC dated Mar. 26, 1981 titled, “Petition for Rulemaking of Unighted Kingdom Teletext Industry Goup,” also 1 page of handwritten notes from Walter Ciciora.
“Enhanced Computer Controlled Teletext for 525 Line Systems (Usecct) SAA 5245 User Manual” report by J.R. Kinghorn.
“Questions and Answers about Pay TV” by Ira Kamen.
Oak Industries 1981 Annual Report.
Article, “50 Different Uses for At Home 2-Way Cable TV Systems” by Morton Dubin.
Derwent Info Ltd. search. Integrated broadcasting & Computer Processing system. Inventor J. Harvey/J. Cuddihy.
Telefax from Arjen Hooiveld to Jones, Day, Reavis & Pogue Re: European Patent Appl. No. 88908836.5 and abstract plus related correspondence and Derwent search.
Advertisement in royal TV Society Journal (1972) for PYE TVT.
Letter to Dean Russell listing “reference papers”, pp. 1-4.
Letter from George McKenzie to Dean Russell Re: PMM Corp., v. TWC Inc.
Reisebericht (German memo).
Blanpunk (German memo).
“Relevant papers for Weather Channel V PMMC”.
Letter to Peter Hatt Re: BVT: Advisory UK Industry Contact Group.
Incomplete report on Antiope.
Memo FCC: Next Moves.
Memo—Re: British Teletext—ABC.
Memo with FCC Report and Order Authorizing Teletext Transmission.
Manual.
Notes to Section 22.4: Simple Block Encipherment Algorithm.
Memos on Zenith and Teletext.
Memo to Bernie Kotten about National Cable TV Association meeting and efforst to encourage Sony to integrate teletext chip sets into its TV.
Memo's from Koteen & Naftalin.
Description of patents from Official Gazette.
Explanation of Collateral Estoppel.
DNA's Intellectual Property Library on CD's summary of Jamesbury Corporation v. United States.
BBA's Intellectual Property printouts of Lemelson v. Apple Computer, Inc.
ITC Judge Order denying Motion for Summary Judgment in the Matter of Certain Memory Devices with Increased Capacitance and Products Containing Same, Investigation #337-TA-371.
Decision in court case Corbett v. Chisolm and Schrenk invovling patent #3,557,265.
Matthew Beaden Printouts regarding interference practice and the Board Interference.
BNA's Intellectual Property Library on CD printouts about Corbett v. Chisolm.
Numerous Group W business cards including James Cuddihy.
The Broadcast Teloetext Specification, published by the BBC, The IBA and the British Radio Equipment Manufacturers' Association (1976).
Kahn, et al., “Advances in Packet Radio Technology,” . . . Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 66, No. 11, Nov. (1978) pp. 1468-1495.
Clifford, C., “A Universal Controller for Text Display Systems,” IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, (1979) pp. 424-429.
Harden, B., “Teletext/Viewdata LSI,” IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, (1979), pp. 353-358.
Bown, H. et al., “Comparative Terminal Realizatins with Alpha-Geometric Coding,” IEEE Transaction on Consumer Electronics, (1980), pp. 605-614.
Crowther, “Dynamically Redefinable Character Sets—D.R.C.S.,” IEEE Transaction on Consumer Electronics, (1980), pp. 707-716.
Chambers, John et al., “The Development of a Coding Hierarchy for Enhanced UK Teletext,” IEEE Transaction on Consumer Electronics, (1981), pp. 536-540.
Reexamination of U.S. Patent No. 4,706,121.
U.S. Patent Application by T. Diepholz (Serial No. 266900).
List of relevant or searched patents.
88908836.5 and Amendments to John C. Harvey,. European Patent Office.
88908836.5 International Application to John C. Harvey.
Kruger, H.E., “Memory Television, the ZPS Digital Identification System,” pp. 1-9.
Gaines, B.R. and Sams, J., “Minicomputers in Security Dealing,” Computer, Sep. 1976, pp. 6-15.
Kazama et al., “Automatic storage and retreival of video taped programs”, Apr. 1979.
Transcript of Viewdata '80, first world conference on viewdata, videotex, and teletext, Mar. 26-28, 1980, London.
Benson, K. B. et al., “CBS New York Video Tape Facilities”.
Brown et al., Project Score, pp. 624-630, 1960.
Burkhardt et al., “Digitial Television Transmisson With 34 Mbit/s”.
Byloff, “Automatic Control of Video Tape Equipment at NBC, Burbank,” by the National Broadcasting Company, Inc. In 1959.
Charles Gerrish, “QUBE”—Interactive Video on the Move.
Crowther, et al. G.O., “Teletext Receiver LSI Data Acquisition and Control,” Jan. 13, 1976, pp. 911-915.
Davidoff, Frank, “The All-Digital Television Studio,” SMPTE Journal, vol. 89, No. 6.
Diederich, Werner DT, “Electronic Image and Tone Return Equipment With Switching System and Remote Control Receiver for Television Decoder”.
Gaucher, “Automatic Program Recording System”.
M.W.S.. Barlow, “Automatic Switching in the CBC—An Update”.
Marsden, “Master Control Techniques,” v 9 of the “Journal of the Television Society,” 1959.
McArthur, David, “The television as a receive only terminal”.
Millar et al., “Transmission of Alphanumeric Data by Television”.
Schober, “The WETA Teletext Filed Trial: Some Technical Concerns . . . ”.
Skilton, The Digitrol 2—Automatic VTR Programme Control.
Stern, “An Auotmated Programming Control Sysem for Cable TV”.
Yamane et al., “System and apparatus for automatic Monitoring control of Broadcast Circuits”.
Zettl, “Television Production Handbook”, second edition.
Schiller et al., “CATV Program Origination and Production”.
Hughes et al., Some Design Considerations for Home Interactive Terminals, IEEE Transaction on Broadcasting, vol. BC-17, No. 2, Jun. 1971.
Kaneko et al., “Digital Transmission of Broadcast Television with Reduced Bit Rate.”
Gautier, C., “Automatic Program Recording Systems”.
Kahn et al. “Advances in Packet Radio Technology,” Proceedings of IEEE, vol. 6.6, No. 11, Nov. 1975.
Marti, B., “The Concept of Universal Teletext,” CCETTt, Rennes 11th International Television Symposium Paper, V11 A-3A, pp. 1-11, May 27, 1979.
“Videotex Services,” National Cable Television Association Executive Seminar Series, NCTA Washington, Oct. 1980, pp. III-VII, 1-3, 23-27, Oct. 1980.
“Specification du service de classe A, TeleDiffusion de France,” Antiope, Feb. 1985.
Gautier, J.P. “Language Telediffuse de Messagerie du Projet Ecrans Hybrides,” Antiope/Didon system, Jun. 1981.
Auer, R., “Die Warteschlange Uberlistet,” Funkschau, pp. 53-56, Jun. 1985.
Grethlein, M., “Videotext und Bildschirmtext,” Funkschau, Heft 5, 1981, pp. 69-73, May 1981.
Heider, et al., “Videotext und Bildschirmtext,” Grundig Technische Informationen, Heft 4/5, 1980, pp. 171-195, Apr. 1980.
Kombinierer fur Videotextsignal, “Runfunktechnische Mitteilungen,” Jahrgang 28, (1984), Heft 6, pp. 273-289, Jun. 1984.
Art Kleiman, “Heathkit GR-2001—Programmable Color TV,” Radio Electronics, May 1977.
Gecsei, Jan. The Architecture of Videotex Systems (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1983 pp. 174-177, 233-238.
Sigel, Efrem et al. The Future of Videotext: Worldwide Prospects for Home/Office Electronic Information Services (White Plains, N.Y.: Knowledge Industry Publications, Inc., 1983), pp. 28, 119-126.
Raggett, Michael. “Broadcast Telesoftware,” Computer Graphics World, vol. 6, No. 9, Sep. 1983, table of contents, pp. 49, 50, 52 and letters.
Tydeman, John et al. Teletex and Videotex in the United States: Market Potential Technology, Public Policy Issues, Institute for the Future (New York: McGraw-Hill Publications, 1982), pp. 4, 89-99, 122-169.
“Telesoftware and Education Project: Summary of Report,” A Joint BBC/ITV & Brighton Research Project, Summer 1982, 111 p. and appendix.
Damouny, N. G. “Teletext Decoders—Keeping Up with the Latest Technology Advances,” Consumer Electronicsvol. CE-30, No. 3, Aug. 1984, pp. 429-436.
Nishimoto, Naomichi et al. “VHS VCR with Index and Address Search Systems,” Consumer Electronics, vol. CE-33, No. 3 Aug. 1987, pp. 220-225.
Weissman, Steven B. “Teletext in transactional videotex,” Electronic Publishing Review, vol. 2, No. 4, 1982, pp. 301-304.
Crowther, G.O. “Teletext Enhancements—Levels 1, 2 and 3,” IBA Technical Review, May 1983, pp. 11-16.
McIntyre, Colin, “Broadcast teletext—who says it isn't interactive?” pp. 1-12 in: Anon. Videotex -key to the information revolution (Online Publications Ltd., 1982).
Veith, Richard H., “Television's Teletext,” Elsevier Science Publishing, Inc., New York, 1983, pp. 9, 12, 17, 19, 32, 46-47, 136-137, 139.
Alber, Antone F., “Videotex/Teletext, Principles and Practices,” McGraw-Hill Book Company, pp. 37, 138-139, 142-147, 188-191.
Russell, R.T. “Teletext remote control,” part 1, Wireless World, Apr. 1979, 4 pages.
Russell, R.T. “Teletext remote control”, part 2, Wireless World, May 1979, pp. 83-86.
Pandey, K. “Second generation teletext and viewdata decoders,” Proceedings IEE, vol. 126, Dec. 1979, pp. 1367-1373.
Hedger, J. et al. “Telesoftware: adding intelligence to teletext,” Proceedings IEE, vol. 126, Dec. 1979, pp. 1412-1416.
Sigel, Efrem et al. Videotext: The Coming Revolution in Home/Office Information Retrieval, (White Plains, NY: Knowledge Industry Publications, Inc., 1980), pp. 6, 7, 13, 28, 33, 34, 36, 37.
Roizen, Joseph, “Teletext in the USA,” SMPTE Journal, vol. 90, Jul. 1981, pp. 602-610.
Money, Steve A. Teletext and Viewdata (London: Butterworth & Co., Ltd., 1981), preface, pp. 1-145, glossary and index.
Risher, Carol A. “Electronic Media and the Publishers, Part 1: Teletext,” Videodisc Videotex, vol. 1, No. 3, Summer 1981, pp. 162-167.
Chew, J.R. “CEEFAX: evolution and potential,” BBC Reseach Department Report No. BBC RD 1977/26, Aug. 1977, table of contents, pp. 1-14 and appendix.
Hedger, John. “Telesoftware: Home computing via teletext,” Wireless World, Nov. 1978, pp. 61-64.
Anon, Videotex '81, International Conference & Exhibition, May 20-22, 1981 Toronto, Canada (Northwood Hills, UK: Online Conference, Ltd; 1981), pp. 78-84.
Winsbury, Rex, ed. Viewdata in Action: A Comparative Study of Prestel (London: McGraw-Hill, Ltd., 1981), pp. 10-12, 31, 35, 36, 57-61, 102, 103, 109, 202-204, 211-219.
“Colloquium on Broadcast and Wired Teletext Systems—Ceefax, Oracle, Viewdata,” Tuesday, Jan. 13, 1976, IEE Electronics Division, Professional Groupm E14 (Television and Sound), Digest No. 1976/3.
Anon. “Updating databases by off-peak TV,” New Scientist, Oct. 21, 1976, p. 162.
Martin, Bernard. “New Ancillary Services Using a Televison Channel,” SMPTE Journal, vol. 86, Nov. 1977, pp. 815, 817, 818.
Biggs, A.J. et al., “Broadcast data in television,”GEC Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 41, No. 4, 1974, pp. 117-124.
Heuer, D.A. “A Microprocessor Controlled Memory Tuning System,” Consumer Electronics, vol. CE-25, No. 4, Aug. 1979, pp. 677-683.
Marti, Bernard et al. “Antiope, service de télétexte,” journal unk., pp. 17-22.
Lipoff, Stuart J. “Mass Market Potential for Home Terminals,” Consumer Electronics, vol. unk., pp. 169-184.
Crowther, G.O., “Adaptation of U.K. Teletext System for 525/60 Operations,” IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, vol. CE-26, Aug. 1980, pp. 587-599.
Gosch, John, “Code accompanying TV program turns on video cassette recorder in proposed scheme,” Electronics, Feb. 10, 1981, pp. 80-82.
Somers, Eric, “Appropriate Technology for Text Broadcasting,” Viewdata and Videotext 1980-81: A Worldwide Report, Transcript of viewdata '80, first word conference on viewdata and Videotext, and teletext, Knowledge Industry Publications, Inc., White Plains, New York, Copyright 1980 by Online Conference, Ltd., pp. 499-514.
Dages, Charles L., “Playcable: A Technological Alternative for Information Services,” IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, vol. CE-26, Aug. 1980, pp. 482-486.
Norris, Bryan L. et al., “Teletext Data Decoding,” IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, Aug. 1976, pp. 248-253.
Kokado, N. et al., “A Programmable TV Receiver,” IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, vol. 22, No. 1, Feb. 1976, pp. 69-83.
“Advanced Minicomputer-based Systems for Banking and Financial Institutions,” Money Management Systems, Incorporated, brochure, 1980, 9 pages.
“Advanced Transmission Techniques,” SMPTE Journal, Report on the 121st Technical Conference, Jan. 1980, vol. 89, pp. 31-32.
“American National Standard” “dimensions of video, audio and tracking control records on 2-in video magnetic tape quadruplex recorded at 15 and 7.5 in/s,” SMPTE Journal, Oct. 1981, pp. 988-989.
“American National Standard” “time and control code for video and audio tape for 525-line/60-field television systems,” SMPTE Journal, Aug. 1981, pp. 716-717.
“Anderson: Progress Committee Report for 1979—Television,” SMPTE Journal, May 1980, vol. 89, pp. 324-328.
“Application of Direct Broadcast Satellite Corporation for a Direct Broadcast Satellite System,” Before the Federal Communications Commission, Washington, D.C., Gen. Docket No. 80-603, Jul. 16, 1981.
“Cable TV Advertising,” Paul Kogan Associates, Inc., No. 22, Feb. 18, 1981, 6 pages.
“CAMP,” Arbitron Cable, The Arbitron Company, product brochure, May 1980, 8 pages.
“Contraband code,” Closed Circuit, Broadcasting, Sep. 28, 1970, 1 page.
“Did the ad run?”, Media Decisions, Jul. 1969, pp. 44 et seq.
“Digisonics pushes its coding method,” Broadcasting, Dec. 7, 1970, p. 37.
“Digisonics TV Monitor System Finds Defenders,” Advertising Age, Dec. 8, 1969, 1 page.
“Digisonics violated standards, says BAR,” Broadcasting, Oct. 5, 1970, pp. 21-23.
“Digisonics' Aim Is Info Bank, Not Just Proof of Performance,” Advertising Age, Nov. 9, 1970, 4 pages.
“Digisonics' dilemma,” Media Decisions, Jun. 1971, 6 pages.
“Everything you've always wanted to know about TV Ratings,” A.C. Nielsen Company, brochure, 1978.
“How to increase training productivity through Videodisc and Microcomputer systems,” seminar brochure, 1981.
“IDC begins monitoring,” At Deadline, Broadcasting, Sep. 14, 1970, p. 9.
“IDC encoding system still alive at FCC,” Broadcasting, Sep. 27, 1971, p. 31.
“In this corner, Digisonics!”, Media Decisions, Jun. 1968, 5 pages.
“Index to SMPTE-Sponsored American National Standards, Society Recommended Practices, and Engineering Committee Recommendations,” 1980 Index to SMPTE Journal, SMPTE Journal, pp. 1-15 to 1-20.
I“Index to Subjects—Jan.-Dec. 1976 • vol. 85,” 1976 Index to SMPTE Journal, SMPTE Journal, vol. 85, pp. I-5 to I-13, I-15.
“Index to Subjects—Jan.-Dec. 1977 • vol. 86,” 1977 Index to SMPTE Journal, SMPTE Journal, vol. 86, pp. I-5 to I-14.
“Index to Subjects—Jan.-Dec. 1979 • vol. 88,” 1979 Index to SMPTE Journal, SMPTE Journal, vol. 88, pp. I-4 to I-10.
“Index to Subjects—Jan.-Dec. 1980 • vol. 89,” 1980 Index to SMPTE Journal, SMPTE Journal, pp. I-5 to I-11.
“Index to vol. 87 Jan.-Dec. 1978,” SMPTE Journal, Part II to Jan. 1979 SMPTE Journal, pp. I-1, I-4 to I-14.
“Listeners,” Closed Circuit, Broadcasting, 1 page.
“Management With The Nielsen Retail Index System,” A.C. Nielsen Company, 1980.
“Measuring The Cable Audience,” Ogilvy & Mather, Advertising, 1980, pp. H1-H8.
“No Digisonics friends show in comments,” Broadcasting, May 24, 1971, p. 62.
“Preliminary List of Papers,” SMPTE Journal, Sep. 1980, vol. 89, p. 677.
“Proposed SMPTE Recommended Practice” “Vertical Interval Time and Control Code for Video Tape for 525-Line/60-Field Television Systems,” SMPTE Journal, Sep. 1981, pp. 800-801.
“SMPTE Journal Five-Year Index 1971-1975,” SMPTE Journal.
“SMPTE Journal Five-Year Index 1976-1980,” SMPTE Journal.
“Talent pay code put off,” At Deadline, Broadcasting, Nov. 9, 1970, p. 9.
“Television,” SMPTE Journal, May 1981, pp. 375-379.
“The TCR-119 Reader,” Gray Engineering Laboratories, SMPTE Journal, May 1980, vol. 89, p. 438, (advertisement ).
“Vidbits,” Advertising Age, Sep. 21, 1981, p. 70.
“Video Tape Recording Glossary,” SMPTE Journal, Oct. 1980, vol. 89, p. 733.
“Window on the World” “The Home Information Revolution,” Business Week, Jun. 29, 1981, pp. 74-83.
9 Digital Television Developments, Independent Broadcasting Authority (Iba) Technical Review, pp. 19-31.
A System of Data Transmission in the Field Blanking Period of the Television Signal, Iba Technical Review, Digital Television, pp. 37-44.
Adams, D.M., “The Place of Viewdata in Relation to Other Communications Techniques in the Travel Industry : A Personal View,” Viewdata & Videotext, 1980-81: A Worldwide Report, 1980, pp. 379-397.
Addressable Cable Television Control System with Vertical Interval Data Transmission, Campbell et al. abandoned app. No. 348,937, pp. 1-28, abstract, claims 1-42, Fig. 1-13 (Mar. 1980).
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