Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!
In Brief: On this site you will find pictures and information about some of the electronic, electrical and electrotechnical technology relics that the Frank Sharp Private museum has accumulated over the years .
Premise: There are lots of vintage electrical and electronic items that have not survived well or even completely disappeared and forgotten.
Or are not being collected nowadays in proportion to their significance or prevalence in their heyday, this is bad and the main part of the death land. The heavy, ugly sarcophagus; models with few endearing qualities, devices that have some over-riding disadvantage to ownership such as heavy weight,toxicity or inflated value when dismantled, tend to be under-represented by all but the most comprehensive collections and museums. They get relegated to the bottom of the wants list, derided as 'more trouble than they are worth', or just forgotten entirely. As a result, I started to notice gaps in the current representation of the history of electronic and electrical technology to the interested member of the public.
Following this idea around a bit, convinced me that a collection of the peculiar alone could not hope to survive on its own merits, but a museum that gave equal display space to the popular and the unpopular, would bring things to the attention of the average person that he has previously passed by or been shielded from. It's a matter of culture. From this, the Obsolete Technology Tellye Web Museum concept developed and all my other things too. It's an open platform for all electrical Electronic TV technology to have its few, but NOT last, moments of fame in a working, hand-on environment. We'll never own Colossus or Faraday's first transformer, but I can show things that you can't see at the Science Museum, and let you play with things that the Smithsonian can't allow people to touch, because my remit is different.
There was a society once that was the polar opposite of our disposable, junk society. A whole nation was built on the idea of placing quality before quantity in all things. The goal was not “more and newer,” but “better and higher" .This attitude was reflected not only in the manufacturing of material goods, but also in the realms of art and architecture, as well as in the social fabric of everyday life. The goal was for each new cohort of children to stand on a higher level than the preceding cohort: they were to be healthier, stronger, more intelligent, and more vibrant in every way.
The society that prioritized human, social and material quality is a Winner. Truly, it is the high point of all Western civilization. Consequently, its defeat meant the defeat of civilization itself.
Today, the West is headed for the abyss. For the ultimate fate of our disposable society is for that society itself to be disposed of. And this will happen sooner, rather than later.How to use the site:
OLD, but ORIGINAL, Well made, Funny, Not remotely controlled............. and not Made in CHINA.
- If you landed here via any Search Engine, you will get what you searched for and you can search more using the search this blog feature provided by Google. You can visit more posts scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year,
or you can click on the main photo-page to start from the main page. Doing so it starts from the most recent post to the older post simple clicking on the Older Post button on the bottom of each page after reading , post after post.
You can even visit all posts, time to time, when reaching the bottom end of each page and click on the Older Post button.
- If you arrived here at the main page via bookmark you can visit all the site scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year pointing were you want , or more simple You can even visit all blog posts, from newer to older, clicking at the end of each bottom page on the Older Post button.
So you can see all the blog/site content surfing all pages in it.
- The search this blog feature provided by Google is a real search engine. If you're pointing particular things it will search IT for you; or you can place a brand name in the search query at your choice and visit all results page by page. It's useful since the content of the site is very large.
Note that if you don't find what you searched for, try it after a period of time; the site is a never ending job !
Every CRT Television saved let revive knowledge, thoughts, moments of the past life which will never return again.........
Many contemporary "televisions" (more correctly named as displays) would not have this level of staying power, many would ware out or require major services within just five years or less and of course, there is that perennial bug bear of planned obsolescence where components are deliberately designed to fail and, or manufactured with limited edition specificities..... and without considering........picture......sound........quality........
..............The bitterness of poor quality is remembered long after the sweetness of todays funny gadgets low price has faded from memory........ . . . . . .....Don't forget the past, the end of the world is upon us! Pretty soon it will all turn to dust!
Have big FUN ! !
©2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 Frank Sharp - You do not have permission to copy photos and words from this blog, and any content may be never used it for auctions or commercial purposes, however feel free to post anything you see here with a courtesy link back, btw a link to the original post here , is mandatory.
All sets and apparates appearing here are property of
Engineer Frank Sharp. NOTHING HERE IS FOR SALE !
Tuesday, November 30, 2010
This is an ITT/NOKIA CHASSIS COMPACT D2 FST (ITT) well made and higly reliable except for the Line deflection output EHT transformaer which was failing often.
In this case it's original in a full functional set HARDLY USED,
but it has anyway perfect picture even now after 22 yrs.
All parts and components are ORIGINAL and this set saw never a service in 22 Years.
The SABA ULTRACOLOR T56Q52 tc32 TELECOMMANDER is A 22 Inches color Television from SABA (Schwarzwälder Apparate-Bau-Anstalt).
This is the last Tellye developed by saba prior the passing Under the control of Thomson.
This is produced before the transition to Thomson CSF
Developed with the CM CHASSIS.
It has 32 programs preselection and a VST Search tuning type.
On the front panel down-right there is a ambient light sensor which drives, in opportune, way the contrast tracking of the picture as a function of the light in the room were the tellye is running; more particularly to a control system for maintaining proper balance between room lighting conditions and the level of picture tube excitation in a color television receiver. More especially the present invention functions to increase contrast, intensity and chroma signal strength when the room lighting level increases to diminish these parameters when the level of room lighting decreases.
Conventional television receivers, of course, have manually operable controls by means of which a viewer may set the level of contrast, intensity, and chroma signal strength to what he feels to be an optimum level for given room lighting conditions. Under changed room lighting conditions, the viewer will obtain the optimum viewing situation by changing these manual controls to a new preferred level.
Features the PHILIPS 30AX SYSTEM CRT TUBE FAMILY.
The 30AX system, which Philips introduced in 1979, is an important landmark in the development of colour picture systems. With previous systems the assembly technician had to workthrough a large number of complicated setting-up procedures whenever he fitted a television picture tube with aset of coils for deflecting the electron beams. These procedures were necessary to ensure that the beams for the three colours would converge at thescreen for every deflection. They are no longer necessary with the 30AX system: for a given screen format any deflection unit can be combined with any tube to form a single 'dynamically convergent' unit. A colour-television receiver can thus be assembled from its components almost as easily as a monochrome receiver. The colour picture tube of the PHILIPS 30AX system displays a noticeably sharper picture over the entire screen surface. This will be particularly noticeable when data transmissions such as Viewdata and Teletext are displayed. This has been achieved by a reduction in the size of the beam spot by about 30%. Absence of coma and the retention of the 36.5 mm neck diameter have both contributed to increased picture sharpness. Coma has been eliminated by means of corrective field shapers embedded in the deflection coils which are sectionally wound saddle types. The new deflection unit has no rear flanges. enabling uniform self-convergence to be obtained for all screen sizes. without special corrections, adjustments, or tolerance compensations. Horizontal raster distortion is reduced and no vertical correction is required. One of the inventions in 30AX is an internal magnetic correction system which obviates static convergence and colour purity errors. This enables the usual multiple unit to be dispensed with. together with the need for its adjustment ! New techniques have been employed to achieve close tolerance construction of the glass envelope. In addition, the 30AX picture tube incorporates two features whereby it can be accurately adjusted during the last stages of manufacture. One is the internal magnetic correction system. The other is an array of bosses on the cone that establish a precise reference for the axial purity positioning of the deflection unit on the tube axis and for raster orientation. During its manufacture, each deflection unit is individually adjusted for optimum convergence. The coil carrier also incorporates reference bosses that co-operate with those on the cone of the tube. ' Since every picture tube and every deflection unit is individually pre-aligned, any deflection unit automatically matches with any picture tube of the appropriate size. The deflection unit has only to be pushed onto the neck of the tube unit it seats. Once the reference bosses are engaged, the combination is accurately aligned and requires no adjustment for convergence, colour purity or raster orientation. With no multiple unit and a flangeless deflection unit, there is more space in the receiver cabinet. Higher deflection sensitivity means that less current is consumed, and consequently less heat is produced. This increases the reliability of the TV receiver again. 30AX means simple assembly. Any picture tube is compatible with any deflection unit of the appropriate size and is automatically self-aligning as well as being self-convergent.
The well-known 20AX features of HI-Bri, Soft-Flash and Quick-vision are maintained in the new 30AX systern. In their work on the design of deflection coils in the last few years the developers have expanded the magnetic deflectionfields into 'multipoles', Thisapproach has improved the understanding of the relations between coil and field and between field and deflection to such an extent that designing deflection units is now more like playing a difficult but fascinating game of chess than carrying out the obscure computing procedure once necessary.
In their work on the design of deflection coils in the last few years the developers have expanded
the magnetic deflectionfields into 'multipoles', Thisapproach has improved the understanding
of the relations between coil and field and between field and deflection to such an extent that
designing deflection units is now more like playing a difficult but fascinating game of chess than
carrying out the obscure computing procedure once necessary.
The Schwarzwälder Apparate-Bau-Anstalt (SABA) was a German manufacturer for electronic equipment founded in 1923 at Triberg im Schwarzwald (Black Forest), present-day Baden-Württemberg.
The former clock maker began producing component parts for broadcast receivers until it acquired a manufacturing license for complete radio sets in 1927. SABA quickly expanded, moved to a larger factory building at Villingen in 1932 and over the years became a long-time rival of the leading Telefunken company. After World War II the firm entered into the production of tape recorders, television sets and even established a record label, the later MPS Records company.
When faced with increasing competitive pressure, the shareholders sold the majority of the company to the GTE Corporation in order to generate synergy effects with GTE's Sylvania brand. Nevertheless in 1980 the remaining tv set production was finally purchased by Thomson SA.
HISTORY OF Schwarzwälder Apparate-Bau-Anstalt (SABA) IN GERMAN:
Von Wolfgang Menzel gibt es seit 1995 das Buch «SABA, die Produktion von 1924-1949» . Es enthält mehr als 100 Gerätefotos und Details zu den Selbstbaugeräten. Die Firmengeschichte ist durch Hermann Brunner-Schwer eindrücklich im Buch «SABA, Bilanz einer Aufgabe»  festgehalten. Er ist einer der beiden Söhne der einzigen Tochter von Familie Hermann Schwer. Peter Zudeick hat wegen vorzeitigem Tod des Unternehmers vor allem das wirtschaftliche Umfeld dieser Geschichte beleuchtet. Das Buch ist jedem an der Radiogeschichte Deutschlands interessierten Leser zu empfehlen. Es liest sich wie ein Wirtschaftskrimi.
Zudem hat 1973 Sissi Hörzinger an der Universität Regensburg eine Diplomarbeit über die Produktpolitik von SABA geschrieben . Allerdings verschweigen beide Werke Millionenverluste mit Fehlplanungen in den USA und die Diplomarbeit beschreibt weitere Fehlinvestitionen nur am Rande.
Die ersten Schritte des Familienunternehmens SABA gehen auf die Gründung einer Uhrenfabrik in Triberg durch Joseph Benedikt Schwer für sog. «Jockele-Uhren» im Jahre 1835 zurück.
1864 tritt der Sohn, August Schwer als gelernter Uhrmacher ein und 1865 nennen sie den Betrieb August Schwer Söhne Metallwaren-Fabrik. In den 80er Jahren des 19. Jahrhunderts erweitert Sohn August die Produktion mit verwandten Artikeln wie Briefwaagen und kleineren Metallfabrikaten.
Hermann Schwer (gel. Uhrmacher), der Enkel des Firmengründers, leitet den Betrieb von 20 Mitarbeitern ab 1905 im Alter von 27 Jahren. Er gliedert eine Herstellung von Rasierapparaten, Türklingeln und Fahrradglocken an.
Auf einer Reise nach Zürich im Frühjahr 1923 erhält Hermann Schwer den entscheidenden Impuls: Er hört im Studio von Telefunken über ein Detektorgerät eine vom Sender des Pariser Eiffelturms ausgestrahlte Musiksendung. Darauf beginnt er mit der Herstellung von Einzelteilen wie Stiel-  und Doppelkopfhörern, später auch von NF-Trafos (NT1, 2 und 3), Drehkondensatoren, Spulen und Widerständen etc. für den Verkauf an Radiobastler.
Für die Produkte wirbt die Firma mit den vier ersten Anfangsbuchstaben des Firmennamens: SABA. Das Werk beschäftigt 1923 ca. 200 Mitarbeiter.
Ab 1926 bietet SABA fertige Selbstbausätze mit Aufbau nach Browing-Drake aus den USA. 1927 erhält die Firma die Bauerlaubnis und bietet nun auch fertige Radios an - mit dabei auch ein KW-Audion. Eine Werbung von 1927 in Japan bezeugt, dass SABA frühzeitig an weltweiten Export dachte.
1929 verpflichtet SABA «einen hochbegabten Dipl.-Ing.» [481-21] aus der Schweiz, Eugen Leuthold. Er entwickelt unter der Typenbezeichnung (S)35 einen Apparat, der auf der Leipziger Frühjahrsmesse 1931 wegen seines überaus grossen Erfolges den Beinamen «Sieger» erhält. Bis Ende Jahr verkauft die Firma mehr als 100'000 dieser Geräte mit für Deutschland neuartigem Schaltungskonzept eines rückgekoppelten Anodengleichrichters mit Kathodengegenkopplung. SABA verwendet ein dynamisches Lautsprechersystem nach den Patenten von Rice-Kellog, USA [1-61+103].
1931 zeigt die Modellreihe S41 (31W, 44, T44) von Leuthold den ersten automatisch geregelten Schwundausgleich (AGC, aut. gain control) auf dem deutschen Markt. Ab diesem Jahr stellt SABA für jede neue Modellreihe eine Kundendienstschrift mit Reparaturanleitung bereit. Dies zieht sich bis in die Nachkriegsjahre. Allerdings sind Exportgeräte, wie z.B. 450WLK von 1938, nicht enthalten.
1932 kann SABA aus Gewinnen mit S35 und Nachfolgetypen die Investitionen für ein Hauptfabrikgebäude und diverse Nebengebäude planen und 1932/33 sowie 1934/35 realisieren. Der Umsatz beträgt nun 11,4 Mio. RM; SABA betont die «Schwarzwälder Präzision» und beschäftigt gegen 500 Mitarbeiter. Leider baut die Firma in den Jahren 1933-38/39 Drehkondensatoren aus Zinkguss. Diese sind heute unbrauchbar, wenn sie Feuchtigkeit ausgesetzt waren/sind.
SABA kommt in den entscheidenen Rundfunkjahren 1932 bis 1935 auf einen Marktanteil von rund 10% (1932 12,3%) und liegt damit knapp vor Mende an zweiter Stelle hinter Telefunken mit 12 bis 17%. 1935 entsteht eine Festschrift  zum 100-jährigen Jubiläum. Daraus geht hervor, dass in 13 Ländern SABA-Vertretungen bestehen.
1936 stirbt Hermann Schwer und seine Frau Johanna wird Universalerbin, jedoch mit verschiedenen Bestimmungen, u.a. dass die beiden Enkel, Hansjörg (1927) und Hermann Brunner-Schwer (1929) am 3.10.54 die Erbfolge antreten. Margarethe Brunner-Schwer, die einzige Tochter, lässt der Erblasser aus. Ihr geschiedener Mann, Fritz Brunner, war Musikdirektor. Johanna Schwer ernennt den techn. Leiter, Josef Fricker, zum Geschäftsleiter.
1936 gibt es gemäss Kundendienstschrift den bei «LSf» erwähnten 241GW nicht (sondern GWL), ebenfalls keinen 441WLK (nur WL). Der Zusatz T steht für Truhe, TS für Truhe mit Schallplatten-Laufwerk (2 Saisons). Der Zweikreiser 340WL verfügt über einen Empfindlichkeits- und Bandbreitenregler. Die Kundendienstschrift erwähnt, dass Mod. 242WL in den Ersatzteillisten vorkommt, jedoch nicht auf den Markt kam.
1938 entsteht der millionste SABA-Apparat. Die Firma verwendet nun statt Differential-Kondensatoren ein regelbares Dreifachbandfilter sowie NF-Gegenkopplung und bringt ihren letzten Geradeaus-Empfänger.
1939 erweitert SABA den Betrieb im Auftrag der Wehrmacht und 1940 beträgt die Kriegsproduktion 88%. Es entstehen Funkgeräte, UKW-Empfänger und -Sender für Panzer, Feldtelefone, Bordsprechanlagen, Suchgeräte etc.
1943 entfallen vom Gesamtumsatz von 22 Mio. RM lediglich 332'000 auf zivile Rundfunkproduktion. Johanna Schwer stirbt am 10.10.43. 1944 liegt der Umsatz mit 19 Mio. RM noch über dem Vorkriegsergebnis; Fricker ersetzt man durch Ernst Scherb. Ein wichtiges Zivilgerät bildet von 1941-44 das von Philips übernommene «Auslagerungs-Modell» 208U mit der SABA-Bezeichnung 500ZGW (aber gemäss  keine Eigenproduktion).
Am 19.4.45 vernichten zwei Volltreffer vor allem die kürzlich erstellten Werksbauten; dem Verwaltungsgebäude fehlt das Dach. Erst gegen Ende 1945 kann SABA einen Spielzeugkran, Tablettenröhrchen und andere Kleinigkeiten herstellen, dann bekommt die Firma ein Kontingent zur Herstellung von Fernsprechapparaten. Der im Krieg in die Schweiz zurückgekehrte Eugen Leuthold ist einverstanden, wieder zu SABA zu gehen, wenn diese die Erlaubnis zur Herstellung von Rundfunkgeräten erhält.
In [FT4601+02] sind die Vorkriegsgeräte 582WK, WKRO und S461GWK-AM erwähnt, die jedoch gemäss  SABA erst Ende 1947 fabrizieren kann, was auch  übernimmt.
Im April 1947 gründen die Eigner die SABA-Vertriebs GmbH, um während eines langwierigen Entnazifizierungsverfahrens einige frei verfügbare Mittel ansammeln zu können. Gegen Ende 1947 erhält SABA von der französischen Militärbehörde den Auftrag, ausschliesslich für Angehörige der französischen Besatzungsarmee Radios zu produzieren. Die Franzosen lassen jedoch stillschweigend zu, dass SABA Geräte für Kompensationsgeschäfte abzweigt. Die Geräte sind praktisch identisch mit der Vorkriegsserie [481-190]. 1948 gibt es neue, rundliche Formen. Zudem ist die Produktion nun von Einschränkungen frei.
1949 wandelt sich die unter der Obhut des Testamentvollstreckers stehende Einzelfirma in eine GmbH um. SABA-Geräte erleben einen reissenden Absatz; der Umsatz beträgt mehr als 21 Mio. DM und der Betrieb beschäftigt wie vor dem Krieg etwa 1000 Personen.
Wegen Verfall der Absorber-Patente von Elektrolux (Schweden) zieht SABA 1950 ein Kühlschrankprogramm auf, doch gibt es erhebliche Probleme und wenig Synergieeffekte, sondern Verluste.
SABA belegt nach Anteilen der auf den Markt gelangten Rundfunkgeräte gemäss  hinter Grundig (27%), Nord-Mende (12) und evtl. Loewe-Opta (11) den dritten/vierten Platz (11). Hermann Brunner-Schwer tritt in die Firma ein. Sein (späterer) Stiefvater, Ernst Scherb, lässt sich das schlechte Geschäft mit den Kühlschränken jedoch nicht ausreden. Damit gibt es viele Spannungen.
Ab Saison 1954/55 (Typen Freiburg und Bodensee) bringt SABA wieder Geräte mit Sendersuchlauf und automatischer Scharfabstimmung, wobei die meisten mit Fernbedienung ausrüstbar sind . 1966-70 baut die Firma den vollstransistorisierten Stereoempfänger «HiFi-Studio Freiburg Stereo» als letzten dieser Reihe. In  sind die Modelle beschrieben und in einer Tabelle zusammengefasst.
1956 beginnt das «Werk 3», ein neu erstellter Betrieb in Friedrichshafen, mit der Produktion von selbst entwickelten Tonbandgeräten (sabafon). Erst 1957 gibt SABA das «Kühlschrankgeschäft» mit grossen Verlusten auf und beginnt in den frei werdenden Räumlichkeiten SABA-TV herzustellen. SABA stösst jedoch auf einen Verdrängungswettbewerb und kann die fetten Jahre der grossen Nachfrage nicht nutzen.
Erst 1960 kommt das Unternehmen mit einem Koffergerät auf den Markt. Nach dem 125jährigen Firmenjubiläum vom Oktober 1960, d.h. am 1.1.61 kann Hermann Brunner-Schwer die Geschäftsleitung übernehmen. Gemäss  treten die Brüder Brunner-Schwer allerdings 1955 in die Geschäftsleitung ein. Nun beginnen aber gerade die Warenhäuser billige Fernsehgeräte anzubieten, da Körting an Neckermann liefert und damit das Kartell aufbricht. Die erfolgreiche Antwort ist eine starke Bindung der Grosshändler an SABA und das Aufkaufen von SABA-Geräten aus Warenhäusern mit gleichzeitigem Lieferstopp an Händler, die sich nicht an die Abmachungen halten.
1961 kann SABA einen per Zufall entdeckten Effekt nutzen, indem sie ein speziell gerilltes Plastik verwendet, um unter dem Schlagwort «Sabavision» ein «zeilenfreies Fernsehen» anzubieten, das vorerst durch Patentschutz ohne Nachahmung bleibt. Die Belegschaft beträgt nun 4500 Personen; SABA zählt zu den wichtigsten TV-Anbietern. Trotzdem steht es schlecht; die Eigenmittel sind zu gering.
Am 18.5.62 versucht die Firma ihr Wohl mit einer engeren Bindung an 130 Grossisten und 9000 Einzelhändler (von 500 bzw. 20'000), da Ende der 50er Jahre allgemein die Preisbindung aufhört. Damit kann SABA tatsächlich den Umsatz von 118 Mio. DM auf 155 im Jahre 1965 steigern, doch sind Schwarz-Weiss-TV immer schwieriger abzusetzen, obwohl die Firma dafür hinter Nordmende als Nummer zwei gilt.
1964 kommt das Unternehmen mit «SABAmobil», einem Tonband-Radiokombi für Autos auf den Markt, doch löst die auch dann neu eingeführte Philips-Kassette das Gerät innerhalb drei Jahren ab.
Der Exportanteil von SABA beträgt Mitte der 60er Jahre etwa 15%. Die Firma versucht sich zusammen mit ADDO an einem elektronischen Tischrechner mit Druckwerk «ADDO-SABAtronic».
1967 ist der Einstieg ins Farbfernsehgeschäft für die ganze Branche problematisch, denn Neckermann bietet ein von Körting hergestelltes Gerät unter 2000 DM an. SABA bekommt technische Probleme aufgrund falsch dimensionierter Baugruppen. Zudem stocken Verhandlungen mit Telefunken betreffend direkter Beteiligung.
1967 platzt wegen einer heimlichen Intervention durch Max Grundig ein unterschriftsreifes, gutes Abkommen mit Philips. Grundig will einen 50 %-Anteil an SABA und darum Telefunken im Spiel halten!
Am 20.1.68 erzielt SABA ein Beteiligungs-Abkommen mit GTE (85 %) in den USA (mit Sylvania-Bildröhrenwerk in Belgien), das die Firmeneigner unter Verschwiegenheit aushandeln konnten. Die Qualität der TV-Geräte ist nun gut, die Umsätze steigern sich bis 1973 dank dem «Onkel aus Amerika» auf eine halbe Milliarde DM.
6000 Personen sind in den Werken Villingen, Friedrichshafen, Leutkirch, Tienen (Belgien), Kölliken und Aarau (je Schweiz) beschäftigt. 1972 belegt SABA im Bereich Rundfunk-Fernsehen-Tonband für das Inland hinter Grundig (14,7%), Telefunken (13,3%) und Philips (12,5%) zusammen mit Nordmende (je 9,3%) den vierten Platz. Japanische Unternehmen drängen mit Billiggeräten auf den deutschen Markt.
1974 ordern die Händler wegen dem bevorstehenden Fussballspektakel soviele Farb-TV-Geräte wie noch nie, doch weisen nun die Sylvania-Bildröhren eine grosse Anzahl von Ausfällen auf. SABA verliert viel Zeit mit der Beweisführung, dass es an den Bildröhren und nicht an den Geräten liegt. Dazu kommt ein persönliches Intriegenspiel und Hermann Mössner - von H. Brunner-Schwer ursprünglich an GTE empfohlen - übernimmt die Leitung von SABA. Unter seiner Regie entstehen grosse Verluste.
1980 trennt sich GTE von der Unterhaltungselektronik und verkauft diesen Teil samt SABA an den französischen Konzern Thomson-Brandt. Nachdem Thomson auch Telefunken übernimmt, lässt sie dort produzieren; SABA gibt es danach nur noch als Vertriebsgesellschaft und -Marke.
" Dank guter Qualitätsarbeit und innovativen Schaltungen sowie einem guten Marketing erreicht SABA 1932 bis 1935 hinter Telefunken den grössten Marktanteil in Deutschland. Auch in den 50er Jahren arbeitet SABA sehr erfolgreich, doch die 60er Jahre sind von finanziellen Schwierigkeiten geprägt. 1835: Ursprung in Triberg;
1865: August Schwer Söhne Metallwaren-Fabrik.
1918: Firmierung unter Schwarzwälder-Apparate-Bau-Anstalt, August Schwer & Söhne, Villingen.
1933: Schwarzwälder-Apparate-Bau-Anstalt August Schwer Söhne GmbH; Kurzform: SABA Radio Werke;
1950: Kurzform: SABA Werke.
Radios: 1927 bis 1979."
Fully modular Chassis Type (SABA Q-110)
This is a complex and inusual circuitry type. Particularly the Supply section - Line deflection output and the general structure concept.
- Line deflection output UNIT + SMPS Pulse Command/POWER drive + Supply Trafo + EHT
- Synch + Frame deflection + Drive UNIT
- Signal Processing / Video Luminance + Chrominance + RGB Amplifier
- IF Video + Sound
- Sound amplifier Unit
LINE/HORIZONTAL DEFLECTION UNIT (HORIZONTAL- MODUL Best.Nr. 7807021000)
SMPS - BU208A (TELEFUNKEN)
LINE DEFLECTION OUTPUT- BU208A (TELEFUNKEN)
NOTE THAT THE EHT TRAFO HAS FUNCTION EVEN AS LINE SYNCHRONIZED SUPPLY SMPS TRAFO.
npn transistors,pnp transistors,transistors
Category: NPN Transistor, Transistor
MHz: <1 MHz
HIGH VOLTAGE CAPABILITY
JEDEC TO-3 METAL CASE.
The BU208A, BU508A and BU508AFI are
manufactured using Multiepitaxial Mesa
technology for cost-effective high performance
and use a Hollow Emitter structure to enhance
* HORIZONTAL DEFLECTION FOR COLOUR TV With 110° or even 90° degree of deflection angle.
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
Symbol Parameter Value Unit
VCES Collector-Emit ter Voltage (VBE = 0) 1500 V
VCEO Collector-Emit ter Voltage (IB = 0) 700 V
VEBO Emitter-Base Voltage (IC = 0) 10 V
IC Collector Current 8 A
ICM Collector Peak Current (tp < 5 ms) 15 A
TO - 3 TO - 218 ISOWATT218
Ptot Total Dissipation at Tc = 25 oC 150 125 50 W
Tstg Storage Temperature -65 to 175 -65 to 150 -65 to 150 oC
Tj Max. Operating Junction Temperature 175 150 150 °C
SABA ULTRACOLOR T56Q52 tc32 TELECOMMANDER CHASSIS TYPE Q110 CIRCUIT ARRANGEMENT IN A PICTURE DISPLAY DEVICE UTILIZING A STABILIZED SUPPLY VOLTAGE CIRCUIT:
Line synch Switched Mode Power Supply with Line deflection output Transistor Drive Circuit:
Such a circuit arrangement is known from German "Auslegeschrift" 1.293.304. wherein a circuit arrangement is described which has for its object to convert an input direct voltage which is generated between two terminals into a different direct voltage. The circuit employs a switch connected to the first terminal of the input voltage and periodically opens and closes so that the input voltage is converted into a pulsatory voltage. This pulsatory voltage is then applied to a coil. A diode is arranged between the junction of the switch and the coil and the second terminal of the input voltage whilst a load and a charge capacitor in parallel thereto are arranged between the other end of the coil and the second terminal of the input voltage. The assembly operates in accordance with the known efficiency principle i.e., the current supplied to the load flows alternately through the switch and through the diode. The function of the switch is performed by a switching transistor which is driven by a periodical pulsatory voltage which saturates this transistor for a given part of the period. Such a configuration is known under different names in the literature; it will be referred to herein as a "chopper."
In the circuit arrangement according to the mentioned German "Auslegeschrift" the frequency of the load variations or a harmonic thereof is chosen as the frequency for the switching voltage. Particularly when the load fed by the chopper is the line deflection circuit of a picture display device, wherein thus the impedance of the load varies in the rhythm of the line frequency, the frequency of the switching voltage is equal to or is a multiple of the line frequency.
It is to be noted that the chopper need not necessarily be formed as that in the mentioned German "Auslegeschrift." In fact, it is known from literature that the efficiency diode and the coil may be exchanged. It is alternatively possible for the coil to be provided at the first terminal of the input voltage whilst the switching transistor is arranged between the other end and the second terminal of the input voltage. The efficiency diode is then provided between the junction of said end and the switching transistor and the load. It may be recognized that for all these modifications a voltage is present across the connections of the coil which voltage has the same frequency and the same shape as the pulsatory switching voltage. The control voltage of a line deflection circuit is a pulsatory voltage which causes the line output transistor to be saturates and cut off alternately. The invention is based on the recognition that the voltage present across the connections of the coil is suitable to function as such a control voltage and that the coil constitutes the primary of a transformer. To this end the circuit arrangement according to the invention is characterized in that a secondary winding of the transformer drives the switching element which applies a line deflection current to line deflection coils and by which the voltage for the final anode of a picture display tube which forms part of the picture display device is generated, and that the ratio between the period during which the switching transistor is saturated and the entire period, i.e., the switching transistor duty cycle is between 0.3 and 0.7 during normal operation.
As will be further explained the use of the switching transistor as a driver for the line output transistor in an embodiment to be especially described hereinafter has the further advantage that the line output transistor automatically becomes non-conductive when this switching transistor is short circuited so that the deflection and the EHT for the display tube drop out and thus avoid damage thereof.
Due to the step according to the invention the switching transistor in the stabilized supply functions as a driver for the line deflection circuit. The circuit arrangement according to the invention may in addition be equipped with a very efficient safety circuit so that the reliability is considerably enhanced, which is described in the U.S. Pat. No. 3,629,686. The invention is furthermore based on the recognition of the fact that the pulsatory voltage present across the connections of the coil is furthermore used and to this end the circuit arrangement according to the invention is characterized in that secondary windings of the transformer drive diodes which conduct simultaneously with the efficiency diode so as to generate further stabilized direct voltages, one end of said diodes being connected to ground.
In order that the invention may be readily carried into effect, a few embodiments thereof will now be described in detail by way of example with reference to the accompanying diagrammatic drawings in which:
FIG. 1 shows a principle circuit diagram wherein the chopper and the line deflection circuit are further shown but other circuits are not further shown.
FIGS. 2a, 2b and 2c show the variation as a function of time of two currents and of a voltage occurring in the circuit arrangement according to FIG. 1.
FIGS. 3a 3b, 3c and 3d show other embodiments of the chopper.
FIGS. 4a and 4b show modifications of part of the circuit arrangement of FIG. 1.
In FIG. 1 the reference numeral 1 denotes a rectifier circuit which converts the mains voltage supplied thereto into a non-stabilized direct voltage. The collector of a switching transistor 2 is connected to one of the two terminals between which this direct voltage is obtained, said transistor being of the npn-type in this embodiment and the base of which receives a pulsatory voltage which originates through a control stage 4 from a modulator 5 and causes transistor 2 to be saturated and cut off alternately. The voltage waveform 3 is produced at the emitter of transistor 2. In order to maintain the output voltage of the circuit arrangement constant, the duration of the pulses provided is varied in modulator 5. A pulse oscillator 6 supplies the pulsatory voltage to modulator 5 and is synchronized by a signal of line frequency which originates from the line oscillator 6' present in the picture display device. This line oscillator 6' is in turn directly synchronized in known manner by pulses 7' of line frequency which are present in the device and originate for example from a received television signal if the picture display device is a television receiver. Pulse oscillator 6 thus generates a pulsatory voltage the repetition frequency of which is the line frequency.
The emitter of switching transistor 2 is connected at one end to the cathode of an efficiency diode 7 whose other end is connected to the second input voltage terminal and at the other end to primary winding 8 of a transformer 9. Pulsatory voltage 3 which is produced at the cathode of efficiency diode 7 is clamped against the potential of said second terminal during the intervals when this diode conducts. During the other intervals the pulsatory voltage 3 assumes the value V i . A charge capacitor 10 and a load 11 are arranged between the other end of winding 8 and the second input voltage terminal. The elements 2,7,8,10 and 11 constitute a so-called chopper producing a direct voltage across charge capacitor 10, provided that capacitor 10 has a sufficiently great value for the line frequency and the current applied to load 11 flowing alternately through switching transistor 2 or through efficiency diode 7. The output voltage V o which is the direct voltage produced across charge capacitor 10 is applied to a comparison circuit 12 which compares the voltage V o with a reference voltage. Comparison circuit 12 generates a direct voltage which is applied to modulator 5 so that the duration of the effective period δ T of switching transistor 2 relative to the period T of pulses 3 varies as a function of the variations of output voltage V 0 . In fact, it is readily evident that output voltage V o is proportional to the ratio δ :
V o = V i . δ
Load 11 of the chopper consists in the consumption of parts of the picture display device which are fed by output voltage V 0 . In a practical embodiment of the circuit arrangement according to FIG. 1 wherein the mains alternating voltage has a nominal effective value of 220 V and the rectified voltage V i is approximately 270 V, output voltage V o for δ = 0.5 is approximately 135 V. This makes it also possible, for example, to feed a line deflection circuit as is shown in FIG. 1 wherein load 11 then represents different parts which are fed by the chopper. Since voltage V o is maintained constant due to pulse duration modulation, the supply voltage of this line deflection circuit remains constant with the favorable result that the line amplitude(= the width of the picture displayed on the screen of the picture display tube) likewise remains constant as well as the EHT required for the final anode of the picture display tube in the same circuit arrangement independent of the variations in the mains voltage and the load on the EHT generator (= variations in brightness).
However, variations in the line amplitude and the EHT may occur as a result of an insufficiently small internal impedance of the EHT generator. Compensation means are known for this purpose. A possibility within the scope of the present invention is to use comparison circuit 12 for this purpose. In fact, if the beam current passes through an element having a substantially quadratic characteristic, for example, a voltage-dependent resistor, then a variation for voltage V o may be obtained through comparison circuit 12 which variation is proportional to the root of the variation in the EHT which is a known condition for the line amplitude to remain constant.
In addition this facilitates smoothing of voltage V o since the repetition frequency of pulsatory voltage 3 is many times higher than that of the mains and a comparatively small value may be sufficient for charge capacitor 10. If charge capacitor 10 has a sufficiently high value for the line frequency, voltage V o is indeed a direct voltage so that a voltage having the same form as pulsatory voltage 3 is produced across the terminals of primary winding 8. Thus voltages which have the same shape as pulsatory voltage 3 but have a greater or smaller amplitude are produced across secondary windings 13, 14 of transformer 9 (FIG. 1 shows only 2 secondary windings but there may be more). The invention is based on the recognition that one end of each secondary winding is connected to earth while the other end thereof drives a diode, the winding sense of each winding and the direction of conductance of each diode being chosen to be such that these diodes conduct during the same period as does efficiency diode 7. After smoothing, stabilized supply voltages, for example, at terminal 15 are generated in this manner at the amplitudes and polarities required for the circuit arrangements present in the picture display device. In FIG. 1 the voltage generated at terminal 15 is, for example, positive relative to earth. It is to be noted that the load currents of the supply voltages obtained in this manner cause a reduction of the switching power which is economized by efficiency diode 7. The sum of all diode currents including that of diode 7 is in fact equal to the current which would flow through diode 7 if no secondary winding were wound on transformer 9 and if no simultaneous diode were used. This reduction may be considered an additional advantage of the circuit arrangement according to the invention, for a diode suitable for smaller powers may then be used. However, it will be evident that the overall secondary load must not exceed the primary load since otherwise there is the risk of efficiency diode 7 being blocked so that stabilization of the secondary supply voltages would be out of the question.
It is to be noted that a parabola voltage of line frequency as shown at 28 is produced across the charge capacitor 10 if this capacitor is given a smaller capacitance so that consequently the so-called S-correction is established.
In FIG. 1 charge capacitors are arranged between terminals 15 etc. and earth so as to ensure that the voltages on these points are stabilized direct voltages. If in addition the mean value of the voltage on one of these terminals has been made equal to the effective value of the alternating voltage which is required for heating the filament of the picture display tube present in the picture display device, this voltage is suitable for this heating. This is a further advantage of the invention since the cheap generation of a stabilized filament voltage for the picture display tube has always been a difficult problem in transistorized arrangements.
A further advantage of the picture display device according to the invention is that transformer 9 can function as a separation transformer so that the different secondary windings can be separated from the mains and their lower ends can be connected to ground of the picture display device. The latter step makes it possible to connect a different apparatus such as, for example, a magnetic recording and/or playback apparatus to the picture display device without earth connection problems occurring.
In FIG. 1 the reference numeral 14 denotes a secondary winding of transformer 9 which in accordance with the previously mentioned recognition of the invention can drive line output transistor 16 of the line deflection circuit 17. Line deflection circuit 17 which is shown in a simplified form in FIG. 1 i
It will now be shown that secondary winding 14 can indeed drive a line deflection circuit so that switching transistor 2 can function as a driver for the line deflection. FIGS. 2a and b show the variation as a function of time of the current i C which flows in the collector of transistor 16 and of the drive voltage v 14 across the terminals of secondary winding 14. During the flyback period (0, t 1 ) transistor 16 must be fully cut off because a high voltage peak is then produced at its collector; voltage v 14 must then be absolutely negative. During the scan period (t 1 , t 4 ) a sawtooth current i C flows through the collector electrode of transistor 16 which current is first negative and then changes its direction. As the circuit arrangement is not free from loss, the instant t 3 when current i C becomes zero lies, as is known, before the middle of the scan period. At the end t 4 of the scan period transistor 16 must be switched off again. However, since transistor 16 is saturated during the scan period and since this transistor must be suitable for high voltages and great powers so that its collector layer is thick, this transistor has a very great excess of charge carriers in both its base and collector layers. The removal of these charge carriers takes a period t s which is not negligible whereafter the transistor is indeed switched off. Thus the fraction δ T of the line period T at which v 14 is positive must end at the latest at the instant (t 4 - t s ) located after the commencement (t = 0) of the previous flyback.
The time δ T may be initiated at any instant t 2 which is located between the end t 1 of the flyback period and the instant t 3 when collector current i C reverses its direction. It is true that emitter current flows through transistor 16 at the instant t 2 , but collector current i C is not influenced thereby, at least not when the supply voltage (= V o ) for line deflection circuit 17 is high enough. All this has been described in the U.S. Pat. No. 3,504,224. The same applies to line deflection circuits wherein the collector base diode does not function as an efficiency diode as is the case in the described circuit 17, but wherein an efficiency diode is arranged between collector and emitter of the line output transistor. In such a case the negative part of the current i C of FIG. 2a represents the current flowing through the said efficiency diode.
After the instant t 3 voltage v 14 must be positive. In other words, the minimum duration of the period T when voltage v 14 must be positive is (t 4 - t s ) - t 3 whilst the maximum duration thereof is (t 4 - t s ) - t 1 . In a television system employing 625 lines per raster the line period t 4 is approximately 64 μus and the flyback period is approximately 12 μus. Without losses in the circuit arrangement instant t 3 would be located approximately 26 μus after the instant t 1 , and with losses a reasonable value is 22 μus which is 34 μus after the commencement of the period. If for safety's sake it is assumed that t s lasts approximately 10 μus, the extreme values of δ T are approximately 20 and 42 μus and consequently the values for δ are approximately 0.31 and 0.66 at a mean value which is equal to approximately 0.49. It was previously stated that a mean value of δ = 0.5 was suitable. Line deflection circuit 17 can therefore indeed be used in combination with the chopper in the manner described, and the relative variation of δ may be (0.66 - 0.31) : 0.49 = 71.5 percent. This is more than necessary to obviate the variations in the mains voltage or in the various loads and to establish the East-West modulation and ripple compensation to be described hereinafter. In fact, if it is assumed that the mains voltage varies between -15 and +10 percent of the nominal value of 220 V, while the 50 Hz ripple voltage which is superimposed on the input voltage V i has a peak-to-peak value of 40 V and V i is nominally 270 V, then the lowest occurring V i is:
0.85 × 270 V - 20 V = 210 V and the highest occurring V i is
1.1 × 270 V + 20 V = 320 V. For an output voltage V o of 135 V the ratio must thus vary between
δ = 135 : 210 = 0.64 and δ = 135 : 320 = 0.42.
A considerable problem presenting itself is that of the simultaneous or non-simultaneous drive of line output transistor 16 with switching transistor 2, it being understood that in case of simultaneous drive both transstors are simultaneously bottomed, that is during the period δ T. This depends on the winding sense of secondary winding 14 relative to that of primary winding 8. In FIG. 1 it has been assumed that the drive takes place simultaneously so that the voltage present across winding 14 has the shape shown in FIG. 2b. This voltage assumes the value n(V i - V o ) in the period δ T and the value -nVo in the period (1 - δ )T, wherein n is the ratio of the number of turns on windings 14 and 8 and wherein V o is maintained constant at nominal mains voltage V o = δ V inom . However, if as a result of an increase or a decrease of the mains voltage V i increases or decreases proportionally therewith, i.e., V i = V i nom + Δ V, the positive portion of V 14 becomes equal to n(V i nom - V o +Δ V) = n [(1 -δ)V i nom +ΔV] = n(0.5 V inom +ΔV) if δ = 0.5 for V i = V i nom. Relatively, this is a variation which is twice as great. For example, if V i nom = 270 V and V o = 135 V, a variation in the mains voltage of from -15 to +10 percent causes a variation of V i of from -40.5 V to +27 V which ranges from -30 to +20 percent of 135 V which is present across winding 8 during the period δ T. The result is that transistor 16 can always be bottomed over a large range of variation. If the signal of FIG. 2b would be applied through a resistor to the base of transistor 16, the base current thereof would have to undergo the same variation while the transistor would already be saturated in case of too low a voltage. In this case it is assumed that transformer 9 is ideal (without loss) and that coil 21 has a small inductance as is explained in the U.S. patent application Ser. No. 737,009 above mentioned. It is therefore found to be desirable to limit the base current of transistor 16.
This may be effected by providing a coil 22 having a large value inductance, approximately 100 μH, between winding 14 and the small coil 21. The variation of said base current i b is shown in FIG. 2c but not to the same scale as the collector current of FIG. 2a. During the conducting interval δ T current i b varies as a linear function of time having a final value of wherein L represents the inductance of coil 22. This not only provides the advantage that this final value is not immediately reached, but it can be shown that variation of this final value as a function of the mains voltage has been reduced, for there applies at nominal mains voltage that: If the mains voltage V i = V i nom +Δ V, then ##SPC1## because V i nom = 2 V o . Thus this variation is equal to that of the mains voltage and is not twice as great.
During switching off, t 2 , of transistor 16 coil 22 must exert no influence and coil 21 must exert influence which is achieved by arranging a diode 23 parallel to coil 22. Furthermore the control circuit of transistor 16 in this example comprises the two diodes 24 and 25 as described in U.S. application Ser. No. 26,497 above referred to, wherein one of these diodes, diode 25 in FIG. 1, must be shunted by a resistor.
The control circuit of transistor 16 may alternatively be formed as is shown in FIG. 4. In fact, it is known that coil 21 may be replaced by the parallel arrangement of a diode 21' and a resistor 21" by which the inverse current can be limited. To separate the path of the inverse current from that of the forward current the parallel arrangement of a the diode 29' and a resistor 29" must then be present. This leads to the circuit arrangement shown in the upper part of FIG. 4. This circuit arrangement may now be simplified if it is noted that diodes 25 and 21' on the one hand and diodes 23 and 29' on the other hand are series-arranged. The result is shown in the lower part of FIG. 4 which, as compared with the circuit arrangement of FIG. 1, employs one coil less and an additional resistor.
FIG. 3 shows possible modifications of the chopper. FIG. 3a shown in a simplified form the circuit arrangement according to FIG. 1 wherein the pulsatory voltage present across the connections of windings 8 has a peak-to-peak amplitude of V i - V o = 0.5 V i for δ = 0.5, As has been stated, the provision of coil 22 gives a relative variation for the base current of transistor 16 which is equal to that of the mains voltage. In the cases according to FIG. 3b, 3c and 3d the peak-to-peak amplitude of the voltage across winding 8 is equal to V i so that the provision of coil 22 results in a relative variation which is equal to half that of the mains voltage which is still more favorable than in the first case.
Transistors of the npn type are used in FIG. 3. If transistors of the pnp type are used, the relevant efficiency diodes must of course be reversed.
In this connection it is to be noted that it is possible to obtain an output voltage V o with the aid of the modifications according to FIGS. 3b, c and d, which voltage is higher than input voltage V i . These modifications may be used in countries such as, for example, the United of America or France where the nominal mains voltage is 117 or 110 V without having to modify the rest of the circuit arrangement.
The above-mentioned remark regarding the sum of the diode currents only applies, however, for the modifications shown in FIGS. 3a and d.
If line output transistor 16 is not simultaneously driven with switching transistor 2, efficiency diodes 7 conducts simultaneously with transistor 16 i.e., during the period which is denoted by δ T in FIGS. 1 and 2b. During that period the output voltage V o of the chopper is stabilized so that the base current of transistor 16 is stabilized without further difficulty. However, a considerable drawback occurs. In FIG. 1 the reference numeral 26 denotes a safety circuit the purpose of which is to safeguard switching transistor 2 when the current supplied to load 11 and/or line deflection circuit 17 becomes to high, which happens because the chopper stops. After a given period output voltage V o is built up again, but gradually which means that the ratio δ is initially small in the order of 0.1. All this is described in U.S. patent No. 3,629,686. The same phenomenon occurs when the display device is switched on. Since δ = 0.1 corresponds to approximately 6 μs when T = 64 μs, efficiency diode 7 conducts in that case for 64 - 6 = 58 μus so that transistor 16 is already switched on at the end of the scan or at a slightly greater ratio δ during the flyback. This would cause an inadmissibly high dissipation. For this reason the simultaneous drive is therefore to be preferred.
The line deflection circuit itself is also safeguarded: in fact, if something goes wrong in the supply, the driver voltage of the line deflection circuit drops out because the switching voltage across the terminals of primary winding 8 is no longer present so that the deflection stops. This particularly happens when switching transistor 2 starts to constitute a short-circuit between emitter and collector with the result that the supply voltage V o for the line deflection circuit in the case of FIG. 1 becomes higher, namely equal to V i . However, the line output transformer is now cut off and is therefore also safe as well as the picture display tube and other parts of the display device which are fed by terminal 15 or the like. However, this only applies to the circuit arrangement according to FIG. 1 or 3a.
Pulse oscillator 6 applies pulses of line frequency to modulator 5. It may be advantageous to have two line frequency generators as already described, to wit pulse oscillator 6 and line oscillator 6' which is present in the picture display device and which is directly synchronized in known manner by line synchronizing pulses 7'. In fact, in this case line oscillator 6' applies a signal of great amplitude and free from interference to pulse oscillator 6. However, it is alternatively possible to combine pulse oscillator 6 and line oscillator 6' in one single oscillator 6" (see FIG. 1) which results in an economy of components. It will be evident that line oscillator 6' and oscillator 6" may alternatively be synchronized indirectly, for example, by means of a phase discriminator. It is to be noted neither pulse oscillator 6, line oscillator 6' and oscillator 6" nor modulator 5 can be fed by the supply described since output voltage V o is still not present when the mains voltage is switched on. Said circuit arrangements must therefore be fed directly from the input terminals. If as described above these circuit arrangements are to be separated from the mains, a small separation transformer can be used whose primary winding is connected between the mains voltage terminals and whose secondary winding is connected to ground at one end and controls a rectifier at the other end.
Capacitor 27 is arranged parallel to efficiency diode 7 so as to reduce the dissipation in switching transistor 2. In fact, if transistor 2 is switched off by the pulsatory control voltage, its collector current decreases and its collector-emitter voltage increases simultaneously so that the dissipated power is not negligible before the collector current has becomes zero. If efficiency diode 7 is shunted by capacitor 27 the increase of the collector-emitter voltage is delayed i.e., this voltage does not assume high values until the collector current has already been reduced. It is true that in that case the dissipation in transistor 2 slightly increases when it is switched on by the pulsatory control voltage but on the other hand since the current flowing through diode 7 has decreased due to the presence of the secondar
As is known the so-called pincushion distortion is produced in the picture display tubes having a substantially flat screen and large deflection angles which are currently used. This distortion is especially a problem in color television wherein a raster correction cannot be brought about by magnetic means. The correction of the so-called East-West pincushion distortion i.e., in the horizontal direction on the screen of the picture display tube can be established in an elegant manner with the aid of the circuit arrangement according to the invention. In fact, if the voltage generated by comparison circuit 12 and being applied to modulator 5 for duration-modulating pulsatory voltage 3 is modulated by a parabola voltage 28 of field frequency, pulsatory voltage 3 is also modulated thereby. If the power consumption of the line deflection circuit forms part of the load on the output voltage of the chopper, the signal applied to the line deflection coils is likewise modulated in the same manner. Conditions therefore are that the parabola voltage 28 of field frequency has a polarity such that the envelope of the sawtooth current of line frequency flowing through the line deflection coils has a maximum in the middle of the scan of the field period and that charge capacitor 10 has not too small an impedance for the field frequency. On the other hand the other supply voltages which are generated by the circuit arrangement according to the invention and which might be hampered by this component of field frequency must be smoothed satisfactorily.
A practical embodiment of the described example with the reference numerals given provides an output for the supply of approximately 85 percent at a total load of 90 W, the internal resistance for direct current loads being 1.5 ohms and for pulsatory currents being approximately 10 ohms. In case of a variation of ± 10 percent of the mains voltage, output voltage V o is stable within 0.4 V. Under the nominal circumstances the collector dissipation of switching transistor 2 is approximately 2.5 W.
Since the internal resistance of the supply is so small, it can be used advantageously, for example, at terminal 15 for supplying a class-B audio amplifier which forms part of the display device. Such an amplifier has the known advantages that its dissipation is directly proportional to the amplitude of the sound to be reproduced and that its output is higher than that of a class-A amplifier. On the other hand a class-A amplifier consumes a substantially constant power so that the internal resistance of the supply voltage source is of little importance. However, if this source is highly resistive, the supply voltage is modulated in the case of a class-B amplifier by the audio information when the sound intensity is great which may detrimentally influence other parts of the display device. This drawback is prevented by means of the supply according to the invention.
The 50 Hz ripple voltage which is superimposed on the rectified input voltage V i is compensated by comparison circuit 12 and modulator 5 since this ripple voltage may be considered to be a variation of input voltage V i . A further compensation is obtained by applying a portion of this ripple voltage with suitable polarity to comparison circuit 12. It is then sufficient to have a lower value for the smoothing capacitor which forms part of rectifier circuit 1 (see FIG. 3). The parabola voltage 28 of field frequency originating from the field time base is applied to the same circuit 12 so as to correct the East-West pincushion distortion.
SABA ULTRACOLOR T56Q52 tc32 TELECOMMANDER CHASSIS TYPE Q110 Regulated deflection circuit:
A deflection generator of a television receiver is coupled to a deflection winding for generating scanning current during a deflection cycle. The generator includes a retrace capacitor coupled to the deflection winding for forming a retrace resonant circuit therewith to produce a retrace pulse voltage during a retrace interval of the deflection cycle. An inductor and another capacitor form a second resonant circuit that is coupled to the retrace resonant circuit. A switching arrangement is coupled to a source of energy and the second resonant circuit in a push-pull configuration. The switching arrangement is responsive to a deflection rate switching signal to store during trace a controllable amount of energy from the source in the second resonant circuit. This stored energy is then transferred to the retrace resonant circuit during the retrace interval to replenish losses sustained during the deflection cycle.
1. A deflection circuit comprising:
a deflection winding;
a deflection generator coupled to said deflection winding for generating scanning current in said deflection winding during a deflection cycle, said deflection generator including a retrace capacitance coupled to said deflection winding for forming a retrace resonant circuit therewith to produce a retrace pulse voltage during a retrace interval of said deflection cycle;
a second capacitance coupled to said inductance for forming a second resonant circuit therewith, said second resonant circuit being coupled to said deflection generator;
a source of energy; and
switching means coupled to said source and to said second resonant circuit in a self-oscillating configuration, said switching means being responsive to a deflection rate switching signal for storing a controllable amount of energy from said source in said second resonant circuit, said retrace pulse voltage being applied to said second resonant circuit to provide for the transfer of energy between said second and retrace resonant circuits,
said switching means in the absence of said deflection rate switching signal undergoing free-running oscillation.2. A deflection circuit according to claim 1 wherein said switching means is coupled to said source and to said second resonant circuit in a blocking oscillator configuration. 3. A deflection circuit according to claim 2 wherein the frequency of said free-running oscillation is lower than the frequency of said deflection cycle. 4. A deflection circuit according to claims 1 or 2 wherein said switching means includes first and second switching devices coupled to said inductance in a push-pull relationship. 5. A deflection circuit according to claim 4 wherein the frequency of free-running oscillation is such that during said free-running oscillation, each of said first and second switching devices conducts for a duration that is longer than the duration of said trace interval. 6. A deflection circuit according to claim 5 wherein the amount of energy stored in said second resonant circuit at the end of said trace interval remains substantially unchanged as said controllable instant varies. 7. A deflection circuit according to claim 1 wherein said switching arrangement includes a first controllable switching device coupled to said source and to said second resonant circuit, a second controllable switching device coupled to said second resonant circuit, and a control circuit responsive to said deflection rate signal for changing the conductive state of said first switching device at a controllable instant within the trace interval of said deflection cycle and of said second switching device within said retrace interval. 8. A deflection circuit according to claim 7 wherein said control circuit is responsive to a deflection circuit energy level to vary said controllable instant as said energy level varies. 9. A deflection circuit according to claim 8 wherein the amount of energy stored in said second resonant circuit at the end of said trace interval remains substantially unchanged as said controllable instant varies. 10. A deflection circuit according to claims 1, 7 or 9 wherein said second resonant circuit is coupled to said deflection generator by way of a transformer, a first winding thereof being coupled to said second resonant circuit, a second winding thereof being coupled to said retrace resonant circuit. 11. A deflection circuit according to claim 7 wherein said first and second controllable switching devices include first and second bidirectionally conductive main current paths, respectively, the two main current paths being coupled in series across said source of energy, said inductance and said second capacitance being coupled in series across one of said two main current paths. 12. A deflection circuit according to claim 11 wherein said second resonant circuit is coupled to said deflection generator by way of a flyback transformer, a first winding thereof being coupled in series with said inductance and second capacitance across said one main current path, a second winding thereof being coupled to said retrace resonant circuit. 13. A deflection circuit according to claims 7 or 9 wherein said inductance includes a main winding coupled to a main current path of each of said two controllable switches and two control windings, each coupled respectively to a control terminal of a respective switch. 14. A deflection circuit according to claim 9 wherein said control circuit includes means for detecting an overload condition and means for establishing said controllable instant at a point within the deflection cycle where the amount of energy transferred by said second resonant circuit is substantially reduced. 15. A deflection circuit according to claim 1 wherein said switching arrangement includes first and second controllable switches having their main current paths coupled to said inductance and control means for alternately turning off said two switches, said control means including means for maintaining the main current path of a given switch nonconductive until after conduction is substantially cut off in the main current path of the other switch. 16. A deflection circuit according to claim 15 wherein said control means includes a capacitance coupled to said inductance for providing a path for current to flow from said inductance, other than through a main path of either of the two controllable switches, during the time that the conduction in the main current path of either of the two switches is being cut off. 17. A deflection circuit according to claim 1 wherein said deflection generator includes a controllable output device coupled to said deflection winding, a deflection oscillator coupled to a control terminal of said output device for switching said output device on within the trace interval of said deflection cycle and for switching said output device off to initiate said retrace interval, means for detecting oscillation of said retrace resonant circuit, and means coupled to said deflection oscillator and to said detecting means for maintaining said output device off when oscillation of said retrace resonant circuit is detected. 18. A deflection circuit according to claim 17 wherein said second resonant circuit is coupled to said deflection generator by way of a transformer, a first winding thereof being coupled to said second resonant circuit, a second winding thereof being coupled to said retrace resonant circuit, a third winding thereof comprising said detecting means. 19. A deflection circuit, comprising:
a deflection winding;
a deflection generator coupled to said deflection winding for generating scanning current in said deflection winding during a deflection cycle, said deflection generator including a retrace capacitance coupled to said deflection winding for forming a retrace resonant circuit therewith to develop a retrace pulse voltage during a retrace interval of said deflection cycle;
a second resonant circuit including an inductance, said retrace pulse applied voltage being applied thereto;
a source of input voltage;
first and scond controllable switches coupled to said second resonant circuit, each switch becoming conductive after the other switch becomes substantially nonconductive, said first switch when conductive coupling said source of input voltage to said second resonant circuit to enable the transfer of energy between said source and said second resonant circuit and when nonconductive decoupling said source from said second resonant circuit, said second switch when conductive enabling the transfer of energy between said second resonant circuit and said retrace resonant circuit.20. A deflection circuit according to claim 19 wherein said first and second switches are coupled to said inductance in a push-pull relationship. 21. A deflection circuit according to claims 19 or 20 including control means coupled to control terminals of said first and second switches and responsive to a deflection circuit energy level and a deflection rate control signal for turning off said second switch at an instant within the trace interval of said deflection cycle that varies as said energy level varies to provide regulation thereof and for turning off said first switch near the beginning of the retrace interval. 22. A deflection circuit according to claim 21 wherein said two switches are bidirectionally conductive. 23. A deflection circuit according to claim 21 wherein said inductance includes a main winding coupled to output terminals of said first and second switches and first and second control windings coupled to the respective control terminals of said first and second switches to provide regenerative feedback of the voltages at said output terminals. 24. A deflection circuit according to claim 23 wherein, in the absence of said deflection rate control signal, said regenerative feedback produces oscillation of the voltages at said output terminals at a frequency lower than the frequency of said deflection cycle. 25. A deflection circuit according to claim 24 wherein said deflection generator includes a controllable output device coupled to said deflection winding, a deflection oscillator coupled to a control terminal of said output device for switching said output device on within the trace interval of said deflection cycle and for switching said output device off to initiate said retrace interval, means for detecting oscillation of said retrace resonant circuit, and means coupled to said deflection oscillator and to said detecting means for maintaining said output device off when oscillation of said retrace resonant circuit is detected. 26. A deflection circuit according to claim 21 wherein said control means includes means for detecting an overload condition within said deflection circuit, means responsive to the detected overload condition for establishing the instant within the trace interval that said second switch is turned off at an instant that provides substantially reduced energy transfer to said retrace resonant circuit. 27. A deflection circuit according to claims 19 or 20 wherein said second resonant circuit includes a capacitance, said first switch when conductive applying said input voltage across the series arrangement of said second resonant circuit capacitance and said inductance. 28. A deflection circuit according to claim 27 including a flyback transformer having a first winding coupled to said second switch and a second winding coupled to said retrace resonant circuit for developing a retrace pulse voltage across said flyback tranformer first winding, said second switch when conductive applying said retrace pulse voltage across said series arrangement. 29. A deflection circuit, comprising:
means for developing an input voltage between first and second input terminals;
first and second controllable switches, each having a main current path and a control terminal for controlling conduction therein, the two main current paths being coupled together at an output terminal and further being coupled in a series arrangement between said first and second input terminals;
a first resonant circuit including an inductance coupled between said output terminal and one of said first and second input terminals;
a deflection winding;
a deflection generator coupled to said deflection winding for generating scanning current in said deflection winding during a deflection cycle and further including a retrace resonant circuit that directly applies a retrace pulse voltage to said first resonant circuit;
a control circuit coupled to the control terminals of both switches for alternately turning off conduction in the main paths of said two switches during a deflection cycle to store energy in said inductance that is transferred to said retrace resonant circuit during application of said retrace pulse voltage to said first resonant circuit; and
a capacitance coupled between said output terminal and one of said first and second input terminals to accept the flow of current from said inductance when conduction in the main path of one switch is being turned off and prior to the commencement of conduction in the the main path of the other switch to avoid any significant simultaneous conduction in the main paths of both switches.30. A deflection circuit according to claim 29 including a voltage divider having first and second end terminals coupled respectively to said first and second input terminals, having a third terminal intermediate the two voltage divider end terminals coupled to said output terminal, having a fourth terminal intermediate one of said voltage divider end terminals and said voltage divider third terminal coupled to the control terminal of one of said switches, and having a fifth terminal intermediate the other one of said voltage divider end terminals and said voltage divider third terminal coupled to the control terminal of the other one of said switches. 31. A deflection circuit according to claim 29 wherein said deflection generator includes a retrace capacitance coupled to said deflection winding for forming a retrace resonant circuit therwith to generate a retrace pulse voltage during a retrace interval of said deflection cycle, said retrace resonant circuit being coupled to said first resonant circuit during the retrace interval to transfer energy therebetween. 32. A deflection circuit according to claim 31 wherein the first resonant circuit is coupled to said deflection generator by way of a flyback transformer, a first winding thereof being coupled to said first resonant circuit, a second winding thereof being coupled to said retrace resonant circuit. 33. A deflection circuit according to claim 31 wherein said control circuit includes means for regneratively feeding back the voltage at said output terminal to produce free-running oscillation of said switching means in the absence of retrace pulse generation. 34. A deflection circuit according to claim 33 wherein said first resonant circuit includes a capacitance coupled in series with said inductance between said output terminal and said one input terminal. 35. A deflection circuit, comprising:
a deflection winding;
a deflection generator coupled to said deflection winding for generating scanning current in said deflection winding during a deflection cycle, said deflection generator including a retrace capacitance coupled to said deflection winding for forming a retrace resonant circuit therewith to produce a retrace pulse voltge during a retrace interval of said deflection cycle;
an inductance coupled to said deflection generator;
a source of energy;
switching means coupled to said source and to said inductance and responsive to a deflection rate switching signal for storing a controllable amount of energy from said source in said inductance, said retrace pulse voltage being applied to said inductance to provide for the transfer of energy between said inductance and said retrace resonant circuit; and
means for regeneratively feeding back the output of said switching means to produce free-running oscillation thereof in the absence of said deflection rate switching signal.
This invention relates to regulated deflection circuits for television display systems.
Known AC power line or mains isolated television receivers show a variety of design approaches for the power supply circuitry. In one design, a 50 or 60 cycle mains transformer may be used to provide electrical isolation. The mains transformer, however, is relatively heavy and bulky. The magnetic stray field produced by the transformer may introduce purity registration errors in a color television receiver. Furthermore, since the mains transformer provides only electrical isolation, additional voltage regulation circuitry may be needed.
A switched mode power supply may be used in large screen television receivers. Such a power supply is relatively costly and requires special components such as the switched mode transformer, switching transistor and rectifier diodes. The control circuit may include overload and short circuit protection and therefore be complicated and difficult to service and prone to increased failure rates. Where the high voltage or flyback transformer is used for mains isolation in a synchronously switched type power supply, a complicated control circuit may be required as well as a separate power supply for television receiver start-up.
A feature of the invention is a switching power supply requiring no specialized components and using simplified control circuitry. The power supply provides intrinsic protection against overloads and short circuits and does not require a separate start-up transformer.
A deflection generator is coupled to a deflection winding for generating scanning current during a deflection cycle. The deflection generator includes a retrace capacitance coupled to the deflection winding for forming a retrace resonant circuit therewith to produce a retrace pulse voltage during a retrace interval of the deflection cycle. A second resonant circuit including an inductance is coupled to the retrace resonant circuit to enable energy to be transferred therebetween. A switching arrangement is coupled to a source of energy and to the second resonant circuit and is responsive to a deflection rate switching signal for storing a controllable amount of energy from the source in the second resonant circuit.
In one inventive aspect, the switching arrangement forms a self-oscillating arrangement with the second resonant circuit to produce free-running oscillation, in the absence of the deflection rate switching signal. Such an arrangement provides for soft-start operation and limited energy transfer during short-circuit conditions.
In another inventive aspect, the switching arrangement comprises first and second controllable switches coupled to the second resonant circuit. Each switch becomes conductive after the other switch has become nonconductive. The first switch when conductive couples the source of energy to the second resonant circuit to enable the transfer of energy therebetween. The first switch when nonconductive decouples the source from the second resonant circuit. The second switch when conductive enables the transfer of energy between the second resonant circuit and the retrace resonant circuit.
FIGS. 1a and 1b illustrate in simplified schematic form two embodiments of a regulated deflection circuit embodying the invention;
FIGS. 2a and 2b illustrate a detailed embodiment of a regulated deflection circuit embodying the invention;
FIG. 3 illustrates an embodiment of a regulator control circuit for the circuit of FIGS. 2a and 2b;
FIG. 4 illustrates waveforms associated with the operation of the regulator control circuit of FIG. 3;
FIGS. 5-12 illustrate waveforms associated with the operation of the circuits of FIGS. 1a, 1b, 2a and 2b;
FIG. 13 illustrates another embodiment of a regulator control circuit for the circuit of FIGS. 2a and 2b; and
FIGS. 14 and 15 illustrate waveforms associated with the operation of the circuit of FIG. 13.
In the Drawing figures, the convention chosen for the direction of the voltage arrow between two terminals is such that the negative terminal is considered the reference terminal nearest which the tail of the arrow is located.
FIGS. 1a and 1b illustrate in simplified schematic form a regulated television receiver deflection circuit and power supply embodying the invention. FIG. 1a illustrates a version not conductively isolated from the AC power mains source and FIG. 1b illustrates an isolated version. Switching devices S1 and S2 form a blocking oscillator arrangement 30 with an inductor L1 and a capacitor C5. The conduction of both switches is controlled by a positive feedback signal, not illustrated in FIGS. 1a and 1b, derived from the voltage developed across inductor L1 and provided to a regulator control circuit 26. Included in FIGS. 1a and 1b are the mains supply rectifier 24 with its filter capacitor C1, the horizontal deflection circuit 60, and the flyback transformer T1. Not illustrated in FIGS. 1a and 1b are the various load circuits of the television receiver that are coupled to windings of the flyback transformer.
To describe the free-running operation of blocking oscillator 30 of FIG. 1a, for example, assume horizontal trace switch 35 of horizontal deflection circuit 60 is shortcircuited to ground. Blocking oscillator 30 will free-run at a frequency determined by the values of L1 and C5. This frequency may be chosen about 2 or more times lower than the horizontal deflection frequency, f H . The free-running frequency is selected lower than the horizontal deflection frequency in order to permit proper synchronization of blocking oscillator operation with horizontal scanning current generation when the blocking oscillator operates in the deflection synchronized mode. However, if the free-running frequency is selected too low, unnecessarily high peak currents in inductor L1 are developed during free-running operation.
The choice of the L to C ratio of inductor L1 and capacitor C5 determines the peak input current or inductor current i L that will flow during free-running operation and therefore determines the maximum available power that can be consumed. Free-running operation also occurs in case of a short-circuited load being produced across any of the windings of flyback transformer T1.
The switching voltage V S2 across switch S2 and the inductor current i L flowing during free-running operation is illustrated in FIGS. 5a and 5b. The voltage switching waveform across switch S1, not illustrated, is 180° out of phase with the waveform of FIG. 5a. Most of the power flowing through the two switches is reactive in nature and, thus, the actual power consumption is very low. The power consumption equals the losses in switches S1 and S2 and in the resistive components of inductor L1 and capacitor C5.
To describe synchronized oscillator operation, assume that horizontal output transistor Q10 of FIG. 1a is being switched at a horizontal rate to generate scanning current in horizontal deflection winding L H and that a retrace pulse voltage V r , illustrated in FIG. 6a, is being generated at the collector electrode of output transistor Q10. From time t 2 within the horizontal trace interval of FIGS. 6a-6c to the later time t 0 , the beginning of the next horizontal retrace interval, switch S2 is open and switch S1 is closed. The inductor current i L flows through switch S1, inductor L1, capacitor C5 and trace switch 35 to ground. At time t 0 , the energy, I p1 2 L/2, is stored in inductor L1 where L is the inductance of inductor L1 and I p1 is the peak current flowing in inductor L1 at time t 0 .
At time t 0 of FIGS. 6a-6c, horizontal output transistor Q10 opens. The developed retrace pulse voltage V r is applied to regulator control circuit 26 along a signal line s to synchronize the opening of switch S1 and closing of switch S2 with the beginning of horizontal retrace. With switch S2 closed between times t 0 -t 2 , the current path for the inductor current i L is now connected to the retrace resonant circuit 50, comprising retrace capacitor C R , S-shaping capacitor C S and horizontal deflection winding L H . As a result, the energy stored in inductor L1 at time t 0 transfers rapidly into the retrace resonant circuit 50, as illustrated by the rapidly decreasing current i L after time t 0 in FIG. 6c. The current i L decreases rapidly, and when it reaches zero, all the energy stored in inductor L1 has been transferred. Subsequent to the zero-crossover instant of the inductor current i L during retrace, a small portion of the transferred energy returns to inductor L1 as indicated by the negative current i L prior to time t 1 . At time t 1 , the end of the horizontal retrace interval, damper diode D d and the base-collector junction of output transistor Q10 become forward biased, again effectively coupling capacitor C5 to ground. The energy transferred during each horizontal deflection cycle is substantially the difference between the energies stored in inductor L1 at times t 0 and t 1 .
Between times t 1 and t 2 , the current i L circulates through switch S2, inductor L1, capacitor C5 and the now closed trace switch 35. During this interval, energy stored in capacitor C5 discharges back into inductor L1. At time t 2 , regulator control circuit 26 opens switch S2 and closes switch S1. The stored energy in inductor L1 now transfers back into the main filter capacitor C1 until the zero-crossover instant t 3 of the inductor current i L . From time t 3 until the beginning of the next retrace interval, energy is again stored in indcutor L1 for subsequent transferral to retrace resonant circuit 50 and to the load circuits coupled to the various windings of flyback transformer T1.
The righthand side waveforms of FIGS. 6a-6c illustrate deflection synchronized operation of blocking oscillator 30 at a lower loading level by the load circuits coupled to the various windings of flyback transformer T1 when compared to the loading level illustrative of the lefthand side waveforms. The regulation action is to maintain the peak amplitude of retrace pulse V r constant. At the lower loading level, in contrast to the previously described situation, more energy has returned to inductor L1 at the end of the horizontal retrace interval, at time t 1 ', and more energy is to be returned to the mains filter capacitor C1 from time t 2 ' as a result of the lower consumption by the television receiver load circuits.
It should be noted that the energies stored in inductor L1 at time t 0 of the lefthand side waveforms of FIGS. 6a-6c and at time t 0 ' of the righthand side waveforms are substantially equal, independent of the degree of loading. The peak stored energy depends only upon the rectified mains voltage amplitude. The maximum power than can be transferred by blocking oscillator 30 is therefore limited. At maximum loading or during short-circuit load operation, the average voltage across capacitor C5 is approximately half the magnitude of the input voltage Vin. With decreasing load, the average voltage across capacitor C5 increases.
The operation of the circuit of FIG. 1b is similar to that of the operation of the circuit of FIG. 1a because electrically they are substantially equivalent, due to the tight coupling between windings W1 and W2 of transformer T1 in FIG. 1b. A winding W6 of flyback transformer T1 develops the retrace pulse voltage that is applied to regulator control circuit 26 along signal line s.
FIGS. 2a and 2b illustrate a detailed embodiment of a regulated television receiver deflection circuit embodying the invention. A 220 VAC, 50 Hz, power line or mains supply voltage is applied across terminals 21 and 22, full-wave rectified by rectifier 24, and filtered by a capacitor C1, to develop an unregulated direct input voltage Vin, of illustratively 290 volts, at a terminal 28. A television receiver on/off switch 23 is coupled between terminal 21 and an input terminal of bridge rectifier 24. The current return terminal of the bridge rectifier is coupled to an earth ground 25, not conductively isolated from the mains supply terminals 21 and 22. A current limiting resistor R1 is connected between the output terminal of bridge rectifier 24 and input terminal 28.
Unregulated input voltage Vin is applied to a blocking oscillator-regulator 30 that comprises the switching arrangement of controllable switches S1 and S2 coupled to a resonant circuit 40 in a push-pull relationship. Resonant circuit 40 is formed by the main winding WA of an inductor L1 and a capacitor C5. Switch S1 comprises a transistor Q1 and a damper diode D1 coupled between the collector and emitter electrodes of the transistor. Switch S2 comprises a transistor Q2 and a damper diode D2 coupled between the collector and emitter electrodes of transistor Q2. The main current paths of switches S1 and S2 are therefore bidirectionally conductive and coupled in series across the source of input voltage between terminals 28 and 25. The main current paths of switches S1 and S2 are also coupled to resonant circuit 40 at a common output junction terminal 31 of the switches S1 and S2 and the main winding WA of inductor L1.
In FIG. 2b, horizontal deflection generator 60 includes a horizontal deflection winding L H coupled in series with an S-shaping or trace capacitor C14 across a trace switch 35. Trace switch 35 comprises a horizontal output transistor Q10 and a damper diode D d , with the emitter electrode of transistor Q10 being coupled to a chassis ground 29 that is conductively isolated from earth ground 25. A retrace capacitor C13 is coupled to deflection winding L H and forms a retrace resonant circuit 50 therewith when trace switch 35 is nonconductive.
A horizontal oscillator 34 applies a rectangular wave switching voltage, not illustrated in FIG. 2b, to the base of a driver transistor Q11 through a resistor R34 of a voltage divider comprising resistor R34 and a resistor R33. A horizontal rate switching signal is developed by driver transistor Q11 and coupled
by way of driver transformer T2 to horizontal output transistor Q10, with the secondary winding of driver transformer T2 being coupled to the base of transistor Q10 through a resistor R29 of a voltage divider comprising resistor R29 and a resistor R30. Collector supply voltage for driver transistor Q11 is obtained from a +25 volt rail through a resistor R31 and the primary winding of transformer T2. A capacitor C15 is coupled to the junction of resistor R31 and the primary winding of transformer T2. A base current shaper network comprising a diode D15 and a resistor R32 is coupled across the primary winding of transformer T2.
Prior to the middle of the trace interval within a horizontal deflection cycle, driver transistor Q11 is turned off, resulting in a forward biasing voltage being applied to horizontal output transistor Q10. Immediately prior to the end of the horizontal trace interval, driver transistor Q11 is turned on, resulting in a reverse biasing voltage being applied to horizontal output transistor Q10. Shortly thereafter, collector current in output transistor Q10 ceases, thereby initiating the horizontal retrace interval. A retrace pulse voltage V r is developed across retrace capacitor C13 during the retrace interval.
The retrace pulse voltage V r of FIG. 2b is applied to a winding W2 of a flyback transformer T1 to develop retrace pulse voltages across windings W3-W5 of flyback transformer T1. A DC blocking capacitor C12 is coupled between flyback transformer winding W2 and isolated chassis ground 29.
To synchronize operation of horizontal deflection generator 60 with the picture content of the composite video signals of the television receiver, a retrace pulse 37 developed by flyback transformer winding W3 is applied to horizontal oscillator 34 along a conductor line 38, and a horizontal sync pulse, not illustrated, is applied to the oscillator at a terminal 36. A 12 volt supply voltage for horizontal oscillator 34 is provided by a regulator 33 from the voltage developed on the +25 volt supply rail.
The source of voltage for the +25 volt supply rail is obtained from the trace portion of the voltage developed across flyback transformer winding W4, as rectified by a diode D17 and filtered by a capacitor C16. A resistor R36 provides current limiting. Supply voltages for other television receiver circuits 32 such as the vertical deflection, the video, the sound, and the ultor high voltage, are derived from the voltages developed across various other flyback transformer windings, collectively illustrated in FIG. 1b as the winding W5.
To replenish losses sustained in horizontal deflection generator 60 and in the various television receiver load circuits 32, a winding W1 of flyback transformer T1 is coupled to the blocking oscillator resonant circuit 40 and transfers energy during the horizontal retrace interval of each deflection cycle from resonant circuit 40 to the retrace resonant circuit 50 and to the television receiver load circuits 32 including the ultor high voltage load circuit.
Assume, now, that blocking oscillator 30 is in the deflection synchronized mode of operation. As illustrated in FIG. 6, previously referred to with respect to operation of the simplified circuits of FIGS. 1a and 1b, during the trace interval of a horizontal deflection cycle, at a controllable instant t 2 , S1 becomes conductive and S2 becomes nonconductive, connecting the source of unregulated voltage Vin to resonant circuit 40. The current i L flowing in the winding WA of inductor L1 begins to ramp upward. Between times t 2 -t 3 when the inductor current i L is negative, energy is being returned to the source 70 of the input voltage Vin. After time t 3 , the zero-crossover instant of the inductor current i L , energy is transferred from input voltage source 70 to resonant circuit 40, principally to the magnetic field of inductor L1. At time t 0 , the beginning of the horizontal retrace interval, t 0 -t 1 , the energy stored in the inductance of resonant circuit 40 is maximum.
At the beginning of the horizontal retrace interval, horizontal output transistor Q10 is made nonconductive, resulting in retrace resonant circuit 50 being coupled, via transformer T1, to resonant circuit 40. The energy stored in inductor L1 discharges rapidly therefrom and into retrace capacitor C13. During the horizontal retrace interval, with retrace capacitor C13 transformer coupled to resonant circuit 40, the resonant frequency of circuit 40 increases to produce the rapid discharge of energy in inductor L1.
The rising retrace voltage V r makes controllable switch S1 nonconductive to decouple the source of input voltage from resonant circuit 40. Shortly thereafter, controllable switch S2 becomes conductive, coupling inductor L1 and capacitor C5 in series across flyback transformer winding W1. As a result, the retrace pulse voltage V r is applied by way of flyback transformer windings W2 and W1 to resonant circuit 40. Energy is then transferred from resonant circuit 40 to retrace resonant circuit 50.
Between times t 0 -t 1 , the inductor current i L ramps downwardly, at a relatively rapid rate, until substantially all the energy of inductor L1 is transferred to retrace capacitor C13 at the zero-crossover instant of the current i L at some instant between times t 0 -t 1 . Between the zero-crossover instant and time t 1 , the end of the horizontal retrace interval, a small portion of energy is returned to inductor L1 as indicated by the peak inductor current I p2 at time t 1 . This returning energy is required to keep the blocking oscillator 30 in operation. The energy transferred during each horizontal deflection cycle is substantially the difference between the energies stored in inductor L1 at times t 0 and t 1 .
Between times t 1 and t 2 , the current i L circulates through switch S2, inductor L1 and capacitor C5. During this interval, energy stored in capacitor C5 discharges into inductor L1. At time t 2 , switch S2 becomes nonconductive and switch S1 becomes conductive. The stored energy in inductor L1 immediately after time t 2 begins to transfer back into the filter capacitor C1 of the unregulated source 70 of input voltage Vin until the zero-crossover instant t 3 of the inductor current i L . From time t 3 until the beginning of the next retrace interval, energy is again stored in inductor L1 for subsequent transferral to the retrace resonant circuit 50. Retrace time modulation caused by variable loading is insignificant because blocking oscillator 30 appears as a current source to retrace resonant circuit 50 during the retrace interval.
To regulate a deflection circuit energy level, represented by the retrace pulse voltage V r , a low voltage tap point on flyback transformer winding W1 is connected to regulator control circuit 26 to apply thereto a sample V s of the retrace pulse voltage V r . The regulator control circuit 26 responds to variations in the voltage V s by pulse-width modulating the rectangular wave control voltage waveform 27 that is applied to blocking oscillator-regulator 30.
Regulation of the retrace pulse voltages V r and V s is obtained by changing the duty cycle of the blocking oscillator-regulator 30 by means of changing the turnoff instant t 2 of controllable switch S2. The turnoff instant of switch S1 is fixed within each deflection cycle near time t 0 , just after the beginning of the horizontal retrace interval.
In FIG. 2a the control windings WB and WC of inductor L1 provide a positive feedback current for the switching transistors Q1 and Q2. The base currents are capacitively coupled via capacitors C2 and C3 so that the initial start-up base currents through resistors R2 and R8 do not become short-circuited by the control windings WB and WC. Capacitors C2 and C3 also provide negative cutoff voltages that are used to initiate the reverse biasing of transistors Q1 and Q2. Diodes D3 and D4 provide discharge paths for capacitors C2 and C3.
Transistors Q3 and Q4 control the flow of base current in switching transistors Q1 and Q2. The conduction of control transistors Q3 and Q4 relative to each other is such as to prevent conduction of a switching transistor, Q1 or Q2, before the other switching transistor stage stops conducting. As the voltage across switching transistor Q1 or Q2 increases, control transistor Q3 or Q4 saturates via base current through resistor R3 or R9 of voltage divider resistors R3-R9, thereby driving the respective switching transistor into cutoff.
Just prior to time t a of FIG. 7, a time corresponding to time t 0 , the beginning of the horizontal retrace interval of FIG. 6, switching transistor Q1 is in saturated conduction. Consequently, control transistor Q3 is in cutoff because essentially no voltage is being developed across resistor R5. Control transistor Q4, however, is in saturated conduction because of the base current being supplied to it through resistor R9, thereby maintaining switching transistor Q2 in cutoff. The voltage V S2 across switch S2 and across a parallel capacitor C4 equals the input voltage Vin in magnitude.
Beginning at time t a of FIG. 7, the retrace pulse voltage V r is coupled through flyback transformer T1 to inductor L1, resulting in a negative pulse being developed across control winding WB of inductor L1 and a positive pulse being developed across control winding WC, as illustrated by the waveforms of FIG. 8. The retrace pulse voltages developed across windings WB and WC have superimposed on them a switching waveform produced by operation of switches S1 and S2. The negative pulse voltage developed across control winding WB beginning at time t a of FIG. 8 makes the undotted terminal of the control winding positive, thereby turning on control transistor Q3 to discharge capacitor C2 and produce a negative base current in switching transistor Q1, thereby initiating the turnoff of that switching transistor.
From time t a to time t b of FIG. 7, the current i L flowing in the main winding WA of inductor L1, previously flowing in transistor Q1, now flows as a current i C4 in storage capacitor C4, thereby discharging the capacitor, as illustrated in FIGS. 7c and 7d. At the time t b the voltage across capacitor C4 has reached zero and is clamped to ground by diode D2 of switch S2. The current i L now flows through diode D2.
The waveform of FIG. 7b illustrates the slow fall time of the switching voltage V S2 caused by the discharge of C4, and the waveforms of FIGS. 7c and 7d illustrate that the entire current i L flows in capacitor C4 during the switching interval t a -t b of S1 and S2. The action of capacitor C4 prevents the switching voltage V S2 from changing too fast under the inductive current load i L . This action protects switches S1 and S2 from being destroyed by secondary breakdown and also significantly lowers the power dissipation in the switching devices S1 and S2.
The slow rise and fall time of V S2 indicates that during the switching intervals t a -t b and t e -t f both switching transistors Q1 and Q2 are held in cutoff by transistors Q3 and Q4 which in turn are controlled by the currents through R3 and R9. This arrangement prevents the undesirable simultaneous conduction of transistors Q1 and Q2, which would otherwise have occurred because of the longer turnoff than turn-on time characteristics exhibited by switching transistors.
At time t c of FIG. 7c, the inductor current i L becomes negative. After time t c until time t e , the negative inductor current i L flows as a positive collector current in the forward biased switching transistor Q2. As illustrated in FIG. 8, between times t a -t e , the voltage across control winding WC is positive, providing the needed forward biasing for switching transistor Q2.
At the controllable instant t e of FIG. 7, the control voltage waveform 27 of FIG. 2a, developed by the regulator control circuit 26 of FIG. 2a, switches from a low state to a high state. The positive portion of control voltage 27 is applied through diode D7 to turn on control transistor Q4. With transistor Q4 conductive, a reverse biasing voltage developed by capacitor C3 is applied to turn off switching transistor Q2 near time t e of FIG. 7b. As illustrated in FIGS. 7c and 7d, the current i L from inductor L1 flows into capacitor C4 to begin charging the capacitor to a positive voltage at the top plate relative to the bottom plate. At time t f the voltage across capacitor C4 equals the input voltage Vin in magnitude, forward biasing diode D1 of switch S1.
From time t f to the beginning of the next horizontal retrace interval t a ', switch S1 is conductive and connects input terminal 28 to inductor L1 of resonant circuit 40, to allow a flow of input current i 0 from terminal 28 to switch S1, as illustrated in FIG. 7e.
From time t f to time t g , the zero-crossover instant of both the input current i 0 and the inductor current i L , diode D1 conducts a return current back to the input voltage terminal 28. From time t g to time t a , switching transistor Q1 conducts a forward current from input voltage terminal 28 to resonant circuit 40. Switching transistor Q1 is forward biased for conduction between times t e -t a by the positive portion of the voltage V WB being developed across control winding WB of inductor L1, as illustrated in FIG. 8. At time t a ', the operating sequence of blocking-oscillator regulator 30 repeats.
The voltage across the main winding WA of inductor L1 relative to the undotted terminal of the winding equals the difference between the switching voltage V S2 developed at output terminal 31 and the sum of the retrace pulse voltage V W1 and the voltage V C5 across capacitor C5 of resonant circuit 40. Therefore, to ensure that proper transistor drive voltages will be developed across both control winding WB and control winding WC, one of the control windings has a greater number of turns than the other.
An embodiment of regulator con
trol circuit 26 is illustrated in FIG. 3. A +45 volt DC supply rail voltage for regulator control circuit 26 is developed by rectification of the retrace pulses V s obtained from the tap terminal on flyback transformer winding W1 of FIG. 2a. A zener diode Z15 provides a reference voltage V ref , which also serves as a regulated 15 volt supply rail voltage. The reference voltage V ref is applied to the emitter of a comparator transistor Q5. A portion of the rectified retrace voltage V s is applied to the base of the transistor through resistors R14 and R18. The comparison produces an error voltage V E at the junction of resistors R20 and R26 of a voltage divider coupled to the collector of comparator transistor Q5. This error voltage is representative of the deviation of the amplitude of the horizontal retrace pulse V r from the desired amplitude.
The error voltage V E is applied to the base of transistor Q6 of a differential amplifier comprising transistor Q6 and a transistor Q7. The base of transistor Q7 is connected to a horizontal ramp generating capacitor C10. Capacitor C10 charges through the resistors R23 and R16 during each horizontal trace period. The horizontal retrace pulse voltage V s is applied to the base of a synchronizing transistor Q8 which keeps capacitor C8 discharged during the retrace interval.
The pulse-width modulated control voltage 27 is developed at the collector of differential amplifier transistor Q6 and controls, by means of transistor Q4 of FIG. 2a, the conduction of switching transistor Q2 of blocking oscillator-regulator 30.
A shift of the error voltage V E results in a change of the conduction time of differential amplifier transistor Q6 and consequently a change of the duty cycle of switching transistor Q2 and blocking oscillator 30. An increase in the amplitude of retrace pulse voltage V s , as illustrated by the greater amplitude dashed-line waveform of FIG. 4a, due, for example, to decreased loading by load circuits 32 of FIG. 2b, or due to an increase in the mains developed input voltage Vin, produces a decreased error voltage V E as illustrated by the dashed-line waveform of FIG. 4b. The horizontal ramp voltage V C10 produced by capacitor C10 intersects the error voltage V E earlier, turning on transistor Q6 earlier, as illustrated by the dashed-line waveform of FIG. 4c. The earlier turn-on of transistor Q6 produces an earlier turnoff of switching transistor Q2 and in turn a higher average voltage across capacitor C5 and a higher amount of return current through diode D1. Controllable switch S1 therefore becomes conductive earlier within the trace interval, but because of the higher average voltage across capacitor C5, the current i L increases at a slower rate at the decreased loading level or at the increased input voltage Vin.
The control circuit 26 generates a control waveform 27 which has a negative-going edge at the beginning of retrace when transistor Q8 begins to discharge the ramp capacitor C10 and a positive-going edge just after the end of retrace at very low loading levels by circuits 32. As the loading increases, the positive-going edge moves toward the center of trace where maximum power transfer is reached between primary and secondaries of transformer T1. This point is reached when the conduction time of switches S1 and S2 are substantially equal.
Should switch S2 conduct longer than switch S1, operation of blocking oscillator 30 becomes instable. Therefore, regulator circuit 26 provides for range limiting when load circuits 32 draw excessive current. The error voltage V E cannot increase more than that determined by the 15 volt supply rail voltage and by the voltage divider action of resistors R20 and R26. The error voltage V E therefore intersects the ramp voltage just before the center of trace. Because of the limited control range, any further, excessive loading will decrease the +45V supply rail in magnitude. This decrease in magnitude is coupled to the base of a limiter transistor Q9 by way of resistors R14 and R19. Transistor Q9 is driven into saturated conduction providing additional charging current for ramp capacitor C10. As illustrated by the dotted-dashed-line waveform of FIG. 4b, the ramp voltage V C10 now rises much faster than during normal regulator control circuit operation, resulting in a much earlier turn-on of differential amplifier transistor Q6, as illustrated by the dotted-dashed waveform of FIG. 4c. The substantially shortened conduction time of transistor Q6 produces a similarly shortened conduction time of switching transistor Q2 and a consequent substantial reduction in the net power transfer from the unregulated input voltage source to the retrace resonant circuit 50.
As previously mentioned, to sustain free-running operation of blocking oscillator 30, during start-up and short-circuit operating conditions, control windings WB and WC of inductor L1 provide the regenerative, forward biasing voltages to the bases of switching transistors Q1 and Q2. FIGS. 5a and 5b, previously referred to, illustrate the switching waveform V S2 and the current waveform i L , during free-running operation. Immediately prior to time T 1 of FIGS. 5a and 5b, the control winding voltage V WB , not illustrated, is positive, providing the forward biasing voltage needed to keep switching transistor Q1 conductive. The other control winding voltage V WC , also not illustrated, is negative and maintains switching transistor Q2 in the cutoff state.
Between times T 1 -T 3 , the control voltage V WB is negative and the control voltage V WC is positive, producing a cutoff condition in switching transistor Q2. Between times T 1 -T 2 , the inductor current i L first flows in capacitor C4 and then in diode C2, and between times T 2 -T 3 , the inductor current i L flows in switching transistor Q2.
Between times T 3 -T 1 ', control voltage V WB is positive and control voltage V WC is negative, producing a forward biasing condition for switching transistor Q1 and a cutoff condition for switching transistor Q2. Between times T 3 -T 4 , the inductor current i L first flows in capacitor C4 and then in diode D1Wl; and between times T 4 -T 1 ', the current flows in switching transistor Q1. The free-running operating sequence repeats beginning at time T 1 '.
In synchronized operation, switch S1 is turned off only upon the occurrence of the retrace pulse voltage, and switch S2 is turned off only upon the occurrence of the positive-going edge of control voltage 27. Therefore, the free-running conduction times of switches S1 and S2 must each be equal to or longer than the horizontal trace interval, to prevent erroneous switching during synchronized operation.
As previously mentioned, upon initial closure of on/off switch 23, blocking oscillator 30 commences oscillation in a free-running mode. During the conduction time of switching transistor Q1, energy transfers to the retrace resonant circuit 50, which then begins to ring at the horizontal retrace frequency. The ringing voltage in retrace circuit 50 is clamped to ground by the simultaneous conduction of damper diode D D and the diode formed by the base collector junction of horizontal output transistor Q10. This clamping action results in the charging of capacitors C12 and C14 and in the storage of energy therein.
As the start-up interval elapses, the ringing voltage in resonant retrace circuit 50 increases in magnitude. The ringing voltage is transformer coupled to regulator control circuit 26 by way of the tap terminal on flyback transformer winding W1. This voltage is rectified by diode D8 in FIG. 3. The ringing voltage is also coupled to the +25 volt supply rail by way of flyback transformer winding W4 and rectifier diode D17. When the +45 volt and +25 volt supply rail voltages increase to about one third of their normal, steady-state operating values, horizontal oscillator 34 and regulator control circuit 26 begin to operate, producing horizontal rate switching signals for horizontal output transistor Q10 of deflection generator 60 and control pulses to switching transistor Q2 of blocking oscillator 30.
FIGS. 9-12 illustrate selected voltage and current waveforms for the regulated deflection circuit of FIGS. 2a and 2b at selected sequential instants during the start-up interval, from the instant at which the input voltage Vin has attained 50% of its nominal steady-state value in FIG. 9 to the instant when the input voltage Vin has achieved 100% of its steady-state value in FIG. 12.
When the voltage Vin is less than 50% of its steady-state value, the free-running mode of operation of blocking oscillator 30 is not being influenced by the ringing of retrace resonant circuit 50. At 50% of nominal input voltage Vin, the retrace circuit ringing voltage enables the turnoff time of regulator switching transistor Q1 to be synchronized to the second ringing voltage pulse, as illustrated in FIG. 9c, resulting in blocking oscillator operation at a frequency higher than the free-running or short-circuit frequency.
At about 55% of nominal input voltage Vin, blocking oscillator 30 is fully synchronized with horizontal deflection as illustrated by FIGS. 10a and 10c. Because of the still low input voltage Vin, adequate power cannot yet be transferred from resonant circuit 40 to the retrace resonant circuit 50 and the load circuits 32. Because of the low amplitude retrace pulse voltage V r being developed, the regulator control circuit 26 operates in the partial overload mode of operation with power limiting control transistor Q9 of FIG. 3 in saturation conduction. Conduction of transistor Q9 produces a sharply upward sloping synchronizing ramp voltage V C10 , as illustrated in FIG. 10d, and produces an early turnoff of switching transistor Q2.
At 60% of nominal input voltage Vin, the power limiting control transistor Q9 is disabled, as illustrated by the shallower slope ramp voltage V C10 of FIG. 11d. The retrace pulse voltage V r has increased to near nominal value, as illustrated in FIG. 11a. The transferred power is near maximum as indicated by the near equal conduction time of switching transistors Q1 and Q2, as indicated by the near 50% duty cycle of the voltage V S2 of FIG. 11c.
Nominal or 100% input voltage Vin is illustrated in FIG. 12 for a mains power input of 60 watts, illustratively. In contrast to the situation in FIGS. 9 and 11, the error voltage V E of FIG. 12d is lower at 100% input voltage Vin, resulting in longer conduction of switching transistor Q1 and shorter conduction of switching transistor Q2.
As previously mentioned, during start-up, a ringing voltage is developed by retrace resonant circuit 50. During this interval, the horizontal output transistor Q10 may be damaged if driven into saturated conduction at a time when the ringing voltage appears at the transistor collector electrode. To prevent such a situation from occurring, flyback transformer winding W3 is connected via resistor R35 and diode D16 to the base of horizontal driver transistor Q11. Any positive voltage developed across winding W3, such as during start-up ringing, forward biases horizontal driver transistor Q11 into saturated conduction, keeping horizontal output transistor Q10 in a cutoff state. Winding W3, resistor R35 and diode D16 also protect horizontal output transistor Q10 during fault conditions, such as during malfunction of horizontal oscillator 34 and during picture tube arcing.
FIG. 13 illustrates another embodiment of regulator control circuit 26 that uses a quad-comparator integrated circuit, U1A through U1D, such as an RCA CA339 manufactured by RCA Corporation, Somerville, N.J., USA. A difference between the regulator control circuits of FIGS. 3 and 13 is that the one of FIG. 3 responds to changes in the peak amplitude of the retrace pulse voltage V s , whereas the one of FIG. 13 responds to the average retrace voltage amplitude.
Operation of the regulator control circuit 26 illustrated in FIG. 13 is as follows. Horizontal retrace pulses, illustrated in FIG. 14a, are integrated via diode D3, resistors R2-R6, and capacitor C2. Across capacitor C2 appears an error ramp voltage 81. Error ramp voltage 81 is compared with a reference voltage level V REF in an error voltage amplifier comparator U1A. The reference voltage level V REF is obtained through integration, by way of a resistor R8 and a capacitor C4, of a reference ramp voltage 83 which is produced by a resistor R7, a capacitor C3 and a ramp switch comparator U1B to discharge capacitor C3.
FIG. 14b illustrates the signal waveforms at pins 6 and 7 of error voltage amplifier U1A for high and low power loading of flyback transformer T1 of FIGS. 2a and 2b. FIG. 14c illustrates the output pulse at pin 1 of amplifier U1A at both high and low load.
An amplified error voltage V E is obtained by integration of the output pulses of error voltage amplifier U1A by way of resistor R12 and capacitor C6. The amplified error voltage V E is then compared with the reference ramp voltage 83 in an output pulse generator comparator U1C as illustrated in FIG. 14d. This comparison produces a pulse-width modulated control pulse 27' of FIG. 13 or pulse 27 of FIG. 2a to control the conduction of switching transistor Q2.
In order to avoid unstable operation of blocking oscillator 30, regulator control circuit 26 of FIG. 13 provides control range limiting such that the occurrence of the positive-going edge of control pulse 27' cannot be delayed beyond the center of the trace interval of the horizontal deflection cycle. Comparator U1D of FIG. 13 provides this limiting action. Comparator U1D compares the error ramp voltage 81 to the amplified error voltage V E . During normal operation the range of amplified error voltages V E is below the range of error ramp voltages 81, as illustrated in FIG. 14b, resulting in comparator U1D being in a cutoff condition throughout this range.
During an overload condition wherein the amplitude of the retrace pulse voltages V r and V s are substantially reduced, but not eliminated, the error ramp voltage 81 still intersects the reference voltage level, V REF , as illustrated in FIG. 15b. However, had no provision been made for including the range limiter comparator into the circuit of FIG. 13, the output pulse produced at pin 1 of error voltage amplifier U1A would have been the dashed-line waveform of FIG. 15c. This pulse would have been in the high state for a relatively long duration within a deflection cycle and would have produced a relatively large magnitude error voltage V E1 .
The comparison, illustrated in FIG. 15d, by output pulse generator U1C of the voltage V E1 with reference ramp 83 would have produced the dashed-line control pulse 27' of FIG. 15e. The positive-going edge of dashed-line pulse 27' would have been delayed beyond the center of horizontal trace, resulting in the transfer of excessive power to retrace resonant circuit 50 and load circuits 32 of FIG. 2b during the overload condition.
To prevent the occurrence of such a situation, the error voltage V E is applied to the negative input terminal of range limiter U1D, while the error ramp voltage 81 is applied to the positive input terminal. During an overload condition, the error voltage is of sufficient magnitude V E1 ' of FIG. 15b to intersect the error ramp voltage 81, producing a low output level at pin 14 of U1D whenever the error voltage V E1 ' is above the error ramp voltage 81.
The outputs of U1A and U1D are logically combined to produce the solid-line pulse voltage of FIG. 15c. This voltage has an average value V 1 ' much less than the average value V 1 of the dashed-line pulse of FIG. 14c, producing the lower error voltage magnitude V E1 ', previously mentioned.
When the lower error voltage V E1 ' is compared to the reference ramp 83, illustrated in FIG. 15d, the solid-line control pulse waveform 27' of FIG. 15e is produced, having a positive-going edge that occurs just before the center of trace, as is required to provide a limitation of control range during an overload condition. A still greater increase in loading produces a longer duration of the low state of the voltage waveform pulse at pin 1 of U1A. As a result, the positive-going edge of waveform 27' is shifted farther back toward the beginning of the trace interval.
A slight hysteresis to the operation of range limiter U1D is provided by connecting pin 7 of error voltage amplifier U1A to pin 8 of range limiter U1D through a resistor R9. This hysteresis stabilizes operation of range limiter U1D.
If the retrace pulse voltages V r and V s collapse, as may occur during a short-circuit, or during a very heavy overload condition, or during turnoff of the television receiver when on/off switch 23 of FIG. 2a is opened, a limiter diode D4 of FIG. 13 conducts to rapidly lower the level of the integrated reference voltage V REF . Lowering the voltage level V REF protects the television receiver from voltage overshoot stresses.
The gain of the error voltage amplifier U1A depends upon the amplitude of error ramp voltage 81--the smaller the amplitude the higher the gain. Variable resistor R5 shifts the DC level of error ramp 81 and therefore provides adjustment control of the amplitude of the retrace pulse voltage V r .
A description of selected magnetic components that may be used in the circuit of FIGS. 2a and 2b is as follows:
L1: Core, Philips U-U 25/20/13, Material 3 C 8 or similar;
Air gap 1 mm each limb;
WA 168 turns, 3 mH;
WB 7 turns;
WC 10 turns;
All windings, 0.6 mm diameter copper wire.
T1: Core, Siemens U 47, Material N 27 or similar;
Air gap 0.1 mm each limb,
W1 120 turns, tap at 6 turns;
W2 92 turns;
W3 6 turns;
W4 21 turns;
All windings, 0.5 mm diameter copper wire.
Isolation between primary and secondaries: 4000 volts.