The GALAXI Mod. GALAXINO 16 is a portable color television from GALAXI. The model name says "GALAXINO" as little Galaxy.
The screen is 16 inches (42Cm) and with his 110watt power requirement is a little warm !
It has 16 programs and even a TIME watch with OSD Feature on screen.
Remote control is an ultrasonic type.
Where such apparatus as television receivers are to be controlled from a viewer location as to channel, volume, brightness, etc., the remote control systems usually are made up of a hand held transmitter which transmits an ultrasonic signal to a receiver connected to or built within the television receiver. The depression of buttons on the transmitter causes a variety of signals or signal frequencies to be transmitted, whereby channel change, volume change, etc. is responsively obtained.
However such systems have individually suffered from one or more problems, such as inability to have direct access to the desired channel, slow access, insufficient noise immunity making it often possible to operate the system with the jingling of a key chain or an ultrasonic sound originating from a dishwasher etc., unreliable control due to the absence of means to detect and suppress transmission errors resulting from echoes, interfering signal sources, etc. Also some control systems are not suitable for continuous analog commands such as volume, brightness, etc. Existing systems also often require the need for bandpass filters and accurate crystal oscillators which make them costly. Many systems are not very suitable for integration into custom integrated circuits.
The present invention provides a remote control system whereby the nature of the remote control signal allows utmost reliability of control. The remote control receiver will be found to be virtually immune to echoes and ambient ultrasonic noises, and therefore will not produce a false response n the presence of echoes and ultrasonic interfering signals. A variety of kinds of commands can be provided, and with the preferred embodiment disclosed, up to ninety-nine channels in a television receiver can be instantaneously selected, without the requirement for sequentially stepping through each channel. Volume can be varied or muted, tint or brightness controlled, etc.
The above advantages are obtained by the transmission of a unique type of two tone coded signal which advantageously contains information defining start-up transmitted data, type of command (i.e. channel select identification or miscellaneous command such as volume), information permitting reconstruction of clock and identification of end of data. The two tones are transmitted sequentially. The second tone is transmitted to provide masking of echoes produced by the first tone and to mask noises that may be present in the operating environment of the system.
Since the two tones may be close together in frequency, it is possible to operate the remote control system in conjunction with high sensitivity resonant type microphones, thereby achieving high sensitivity together with high noise immunity. This also eliminates the need for input bandpass amplifiers.
The inventive receiver is thus rendered immune from operation by extraneous noise further by the provision of received data error checking circuitry for the timing of input pulses, etc., and for rejecting the data if an error is detected. The receiver also has provision for operation of continuous analog circuits in a television set, such as brightness, volume and tint controls, etc. Since echoes are masked out in the present system, data transmission can occur much more rapidly than in prior systems, as the receiver does not have to wait until echoes die out between transmission of bits for identification of data pulses.
Since all that is frequency dependent is the detection of signal above or below a predetermined reference frequency, accurate crystals for timing and reference frequency generation are not needed. The receiver is virtually entirely digital logic, making it suitable for monolithic integration with a minimum of external components. CMOS integrated circuit logic is preferred, minimizing power supply requirements.
In the preferred embodiment, two digits are transmitted separately and the second must be received within a given time interval, or the first number is disregarded. This method eliminates the need for a clear key as normally present on calculators.
The output of the receiver is a binary or BCD signal which can be used by known means to control the frequency of a selected channel, or to perform other functions such as variation of volume, control of brightness, tint, etc. in a television set.
It should also be understood that the use of this invention is not intended to be restricted to a television set, but can be utilized for the control of a large variety of other kinds of apparatus, e.g. door locks, household appliances, radio receivers, production machinery, etc. While the description below will be directed to a wireless ultrasonic transmitter-receiver system, it should be understood that a wired system, a radio control system, etc. could be used in the alternative.
The advantages of the invention are obtained by the provision of a system including means for receiving a transmitted signal comprising a pulse envelope modulated continuous wave ultrasonic signal at a first predetermined frequency, each pulse being immediately followed by a continuous wave ultrasonic signal at a second predetermined frequency which has amplitude such as to mask echoes of the first predetermined frequency at the receiving means, the pulses being representative of a sequence of binary bits, means to determine whether the received signal is above or below the frequency of a reference frequency, means for recognizing a change in input frequency with respect to the reference frequency, and means for counting said changes, determining the value of the binary bits, and providing a parallel coded signal representative of said value.
- Horizontal Beam Deflection and high voltage generating circuits realized with Thyristors circuits.
Numerous circuit designs for completely transistorized television receivers either have been incorporated in commercially available receivers or have been described in detail in various technical publications. One of the most troublesome areas in such transistor receivers, from the point of View of reliability and economy, lies in the horizontal deflection circuits.
As an attempt to avoid the voltage and current limitations of transistor deflection circuits, a number of circuits have been proposed utilizing the silicon controlled rectifier (SCR), a semiconductor device capable of handling substantially higher currents and voltages than transistors.
The circuit utilizes two bi-directionally conductive switching means which serve respectively as trace and commutating switches. Particularly, each of the switching means comprises the parallel combination of a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) and a diode. The commutating switch is triggered on shortly before the desired beginning of retrace and, in conjunction with a resonant commutating circuit having an inductor and two capacitors, serves to turn off the trace switch to initiate retrace. The commutating circuit is also arranged to turn oft the commutating SCR before the end of retrace.
The set is build with a Modular chassis design because as modern television receivers become more complex the problem of repairing the receiver becomes more difficult. As the number of components used in the television receiver increases the susceptibility to breakdown increases and it becomes more difficult to replace defective components as they are more closely spaced. The problem has become even more complicated with the increasing number of color television receivers in use. A color television receiver has a larger number of circuits of a higher degree of complexity than the black and white receiver and further a more highly trained serviceman is required to properly service the color television receiver.A quite rare design for a television set.
Fortunately for the service problem to date, most failures occur in the vacuum tubes used in the television receivers. A faulty or inoperative vacuum tube is relatively easy to find and replace. However, where the television receiver malfunction is caused by the failure of other components, such as resistors, capacitors or inductors, it is harder to isolate the defective component and a higher degree of skill on the part of the serviceman is required.
Even with the great majority of the color television receiver malfunctions being of the "easy to find and repair" type proper servicing of color sets has been difficult to obtain due to the shortage of trained serviceman.
At the present time advances in the state of the semiconductor art have led to the increasing use of transistors in color television receivers. The receiver described in this application has only two tubes, the picture tube and the high voltage rectifier tube, all the other active components in the receiver being semiconductors.
One important characteristic of a semiconductor device is its extreme reliability in comparison with the vacuum tube. The number of transistor and integrated circuit failures in the television receiver will be very low in comparison with the failures of other components, the reverse of what is true in present day color television receivers. Thus most failures in future television receivers will be of the hard to service type and will require more highly qualified servicemen.
The primary symptoms of a television receiver malfunction are shown on the picture tube of the television receiver while the components causing the malfunction are located within the cabinet. Also many adjustments to the receiver require the serviceman to observe the screen. Thus the serviceman must use unsatisfactory mirror arrangements to remove the electronic chassis from the cabinet, usually a very difficult task. Further many components are "buried" in a maze of circuitry and other components so that they are difficult to remove and replace without damage to other components in the receiver.
Repairing a modern color television receiver often requires that the receiver be removed from the home and carried to a repair shop where it may remain for many weeks. This is an expensive undertaking since most receivers are bulky and heavy enough to require at least two persons to carry them. Further, two trips must be made to the home, one to pick up the receiver and one to deliver it. For these reasons, the cost of maintaining the color television receiver in operating condition often exceeds the initial cost of the receiver and is an important factor in determining whether a receiver will be purchased.
Therefore, the object of this invention is to provide a transistorized color television receiver in which the main electronic chassis is easily accessible for maintenance and adjustment. Another object of this invention is to provide a transistorized color television receiver in which the electronic circuits are divided into a plurality of modules with the modules easily removable for service and maintenance. The main electronic chassis is slidably mounted within the cabinet so that it may be withdrawn, in the same manner as a drawer, to expose the electronic circuitry therein for maintenance and adjustment from the rear closure panel after easy removal. Another aspect is the capability to be serviced at eventually the home of the owner.
GALAXI (G.E.C. Galaxi Electronic Company) WAS an Italian factory for radios and television sets site in Milan in Ciordi Street in Italy....................Long time defunct.
It was founded by the Italian Business man Carlo Alberto Tregua.