Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

In Brief: On this site you will find pictures and information about some of the electronic, electrical and electrotechnical technology relics that the Frank Sharp Private museum has accumulated over the years .

Premise: There are lots of vintage electrical and electronic items that have not survived well or even completely disappeared and forgotten.

Or are not being collected nowadays in proportion to their significance or prevalence in their heyday, this is bad and the main part of the death land. The heavy, ugly sarcophagus; models with few endearing qualities, devices that have some over-riding disadvantage to ownership such as heavy weight,toxicity or inflated value when dismantled, tend to be under-represented by all but the most comprehensive collections and museums. They get relegated to the bottom of the wants list, derided as 'more trouble than they are worth', or just forgotten entirely. As a result, I started to notice gaps in the current representation of the history of electronic and electrical technology to the interested member of the public.


Following this idea around a bit, convinced me that a collection of the peculiar alone could not hope to survive on its own merits, but a museum that gave equal display space to the popular and the unpopular, would bring things to the attention of the average person that he has previously passed by or been shielded from. It's a matter of culture. From this, the Obsolete Technology Tellye Web Museum concept developed and all my other things too. It's an open platform for all electrical Electronic TV technology to have its few, but NOT last, moments of fame in a working, hand-on environment. We'll never own Colossus or Faraday's first transformer, but I can show things that you can't see at the Science Museum, and let you play with things that the Smithsonian can't allow people to touch, because my remit is different.

There was a society once that was the polar opposite of our disposable, junk society. A whole nation was built on the idea of placing quality before quantity in all things. The goal was not “more and newer,” but “better and higher" .This attitude was reflected not only in the manufacturing of material goods, but also in the realms of art and architecture, as well as in the social fabric of everyday life. The goal was for each new cohort of children to stand on a higher level than the preceding cohort: they were to be healthier, stronger, more intelligent, and more vibrant in every way.

The society that prioritized human, social and material quality is a Winner. Truly, it is the high point of all Western civilization. Consequently, its defeat meant the defeat of civilization itself.

Today, the West is headed for the abyss. For the ultimate fate of our disposable society is for that society itself to be disposed of. And this will happen sooner, rather than later.

OLD, but ORIGINAL, Well made, Funny, Not remotely controlled............. and not Made in CHINA.

How to use the site:

- If you landed here via any Search Engine, you will get what you searched for and you can search more using the search this blog feature provided by Google. You can visit more posts scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year,
or you can click on the main photo-page to start from the main page. Doing so it starts from the most recent post to the older post simple clicking on the Older Post button on the bottom of each page after reading , post after post.

You can even visit all posts, time to time, when reaching the bottom end of each page and click on the Older Post button.

- If you arrived here at the main page via bookmark you can visit all the site scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year pointing were you want , or more simple You can even visit all blog posts, from newer to older, clicking at the end of each bottom page on the Older Post button.
So you can see all the blog/site content surfing all pages in it.

- The search this blog feature provided by Google is a real search engine. If you're pointing particular things it will search IT for you; or you can place a brand name in the search query at your choice and visit all results page by page. It's useful since the content of the site is very large.

Note that if you don't find what you searched for, try it after a period of time; the site is a never ending job !

Every CRT Television saved let revive knowledge, thoughts, moments of the past life which will never return again.........

Many contemporary "televisions" (more correctly named as displays) would not have this level of staying power, many would ware out or require major services within just five years or less and of course, there is that perennial bug bear of planned obsolescence where components are deliberately designed to fail and, or manufactured with limited edition specificities..... and without considering........picture......sound........quality........

..............The bitterness of poor quality is remembered long after the sweetness of todays funny gadgets low price has faded from memory........ . . . . . .....
Don't forget the past, the end of the world is upon us! Pretty soon it will all turn to dust!

Have big FUN ! !
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©2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 Frank Sharp - You do not have permission to copy photos and words from this blog, and any content may be never used it for auctions or commercial purposes, however feel free to post anything you see here with a courtesy link back, btw a link to the original post here , is mandatory.
All sets and apparates appearing here are property of
Engineer Frank Sharp. NOTHING HERE IS FOR SALE !

Monday, December 10, 2012

THOMSON TF5551 PG5 THOMSQUARE (ICC5) YEAR 1987.




The THOMSON TF5551 PG5 THOMSQUARE is a 21 inches (51cm) color television with square screen and black matrix, improved focus type crt.

It has 39 programs PLL synthesized tuning, AV SCART socket, dual standard feature, front headphone jack.

A SCART Connector (which stands for Syndicat des Constructeurs d'Appareils Radiorécepteurs et Téléviseurs) is a standard for connecting audio-visual equipment together. The official standard for SCART is CENELEC document number EN 50049-1. SCART is also known as Péritel (especially in France) and Euroconnector but the name SCART will be used exclusively herein. The standard defines a 21-pin connector (herein after a SCART connector) for carrying analog television signals. Various pieces of equipment may be connected by cables having a plug fitting the SCART connectors. Television apparatuses commonly include one or more SCART connectors.
Although a SCART connector is bidirectional, the present invention is concerned with the use of a SCART connector as an input connector for receiving signals into a television apparatus. A SCART connector can receive input television signals either in an RGB format in which the red, green and blue signals are received on Pins 15, 11 and 7, respectively, or alternatively in an S-Video format in which the luminance (Y) and chroma (C) signals are received on Pins 20 and 15. As a result of the common usage of Pin 15 in accordance with the SCART standard, a SCART connector cannot receive input television signals in an RGB format and in an S-Video format at the same time.
Consequently many commercially available television apparatuses include a separate SCART connectors each dedicated to receive input television signals in one of an RGB format and an S-Video format. This limits the functionality of the SCART connectors. In practical terms, the number of SCART connectors which can be provided on a television apparatus is limited by cost and space considerations. However, different users wish the input a wide range of different combinations of formats of television signals, depending on the equipment they personally own and use. However, the provision of SCART connectors dedicated to input television signals in one of an RGB format and an S-Video format limits the overall connectivity of the television apparatus. Furthermore, for many users the different RGB format and S-Video format are confusing. Some users may not understand or may mistake the format of a television signal being supplied on a given cable from a given piece of equipment. This can result in the supply of input television signals of an inappropriate format for the SCART connector concerned.
This kind of connector is todays obsoleted !

The set was called thomsquare because was featuring first time the new VIDEOCOLOR FS10 square screen black matrix improved electron gun focusing crt tube, An improved color picture tube has an inline electron gun for generating and directing three electron beams, a center beam and two side beams, along coplanar paths toward a screen of the tube. The gun includes a main focus lens for focusing the electron beams. The main focus lens is formed by two spaced electrode members, each having three separate inline apertures therein, a center aperture and two side apertures. The improvement comprises each of the apertures in each of the focus lens electrodes having a shape that distorts a portion of the focus lens thereat, to at least partially compensate for an astigmatic effect within the tube that acts on an associated electron beam. The side apertures in both of the electrodes are nonsymmetrical about axes that pass through the respective side apertures and are perpendicular to the initial coplanar paths of the electron beams. furthermore the gun includes an additional accelerator electrode after G2 directly connected to HV ultor voltage .The gun includes a plurality of electrodes which form a beam-forming region, a prefocusing lens, and a main focusing lens for the electron beams. The prefocusing lens includes four active surfaces. At least one of the active surfaces has asymmetric prefocusing recesses formed therein.

The THOMSQUARE Tm was even used in bigger models, from 21 to 29 inches screens.

As any THOMSON or any set featuring the THOMSON CHASSIS ICC5 it has extreme superb pictures, bright, higly focused, even today unsurpassed and stunning  image quality.




In 1879 Elihu Thomson and Edwin Houston formed the Thomson-Houston Electric Company in the United States.
On April 15, 1892 Thomson-Houston and the Edison General Electric Company merged to form General Electric (GE). Also in 1892 the company formed a French subsidiary, Thomson Houston International.
In 1893 Compagnie Française Thomson-Houston (CFTH) was set up as a partner to GE. It is from this company that the modern Thomson companies would evolve.
In 1966 CFTH merged with Hotchkiss-Brandt to form Thomson-Houston-Hotchkiss-Brandt (soon renamed Thomson-Brandt). In 1968 the electronics business of Thomson-Brandt merged with Compagnie Générale de Télégraphie Sans Fil (CSF) to form Thomson-CSF. Thomson Brandt maintained a significant shareholding in this company (approximately 40%).
In 1982 both Thomson-Brandt and Thomson-CSF were nationalized by François Mitterrand. Thomson-Brandt was renamed Thomson SA (Société Anonyme) and merged with Thomson-CSF.
From 1983 to 1987 a major reorganisation of Thomson-CSF was undertaken, with divestitures to refocus the group on its core activities (electronics and defence). Thomson-CSF Téléphone and the medical division were sold to Alcatel and GE respectively. The semiconductor businesses of Thomson CSF was merged with Finmeccanica. Thomson acquired General Electric’s RCA and GE consumer electronics business in 1987.
In 1988 Thomson Consumer Electronics was formed, renamed Thomson Multimedia in 1995. The French government split the consumer electronics and defence businesses prior to privatisation in 1999, those companies being Thomson Multimedia (today Technicolor SA) and Thomson-CSF (today Thales Group).



Thomson-CSF was a major electronics and defence contractor. In December 2000 it was renamed Thales Group.



Thomson-CSF independence

Following the privatisation of the Thomson Group Thomson-CSF explored the possibility of merging with Marconi Electronic Systems, however British Aerospace was successful in that aim, forming BAE Systems.
In 2000 Thomson-CSF went through a series of transactions, including with Marconi plc. The major acquisition at this time was the £1.3 billion purchase of the British defence electronics firm, Racal. This made Thomson-CSF the second largest participant in the UK defence industry after BAE. Racal was renamed Thomson-CSF Racal plc.
On December 6, 2000 the group was renamed Thales.

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THOMSON TF5551 PG5 THOMSQUARE (ICC5) CHASSIS ICC5 (5116) INTERNAL VIEW.



















































































The THOMSON CHASSIS ICC5 Is a highly engineered chassis (see pictures).

It was introducing high integration of advanced and high precision functions.

It's introducing all digital control of all circuits, from tuning to video matrix and audio.

It was fitted in a very high number of models with screen formats varying from 20 to 32 Inches.

It has known a high rate of improvements and add ons fetures and further functions.

The version here in collection is the second version marketed in 1986 when the ICC5 was developed (5110) which eliminates the reset ic but keeping the basic design here shown.

It has a layout design which is very complex due to high engineering on signal path toghether with integration needings.

Functionally they run very well and stable but it was showing the highest rate of failures caused by dry joint evn almost immediately when new !! !!

To run these in reliable way you have to basically rework all the PCB Joint !!

THE SET HERE SHOWN WAS NEVER SERVICED WHICH IS QUITE RARE FOR A THOMSON ICC5 CHASSIS.

Quality of components it's very high, all parts here pictured are original from 1986.

Picture produced by this chassis is excellent and this is expecially coming from the accurate and high performed video signal processing.

CIRCUITS DESCRIPTIONS.


THOMSON TF5551 PG5 THOMSQUARE (ICC5)  CHASSIS ICC5 (5116) COLOR TV SCANNING AND POWER SUPPLY PROCESSOR TEA2029C

DESCRIPTION
The TEA2029C is a complete (horizontal and vertical)
deflection processor with secondary to primary
SMPS control for color TV sets.

DEFLECTION .CERAMIC 500kHz RESONATOR FREQUENCY
REFERENCE .NO LINE AND FRAME OSCILLATOR ADJUSTMENT
.DUAL PLL FOR LINE DEFLECTION .HIGH PERFORMANCE SYNCHRONIZATION .SUPER SANDCASTLE OUTPUT .VIDEO IDENTIFICATION CIRCUIT .AUTOMATIC 50/60Hz STANDARD IDENTIFICATION
.EXCELLENT INTERLACING CONTROL .SPECIALPATENTED FRAME SYNCHRO DEVICE
FOR VCR OPERATION .FRAME SAW-TOOTH GENERATOR .FRAME PHASE MODULATOR FOR THYRISTOR
SMPS CONTROL .ERROR AMPLIFIER AND PHASE MODULATOR
.SYNCHRONIZATION WITH HORIZONTAL
DEFLECTION .SECURITY CIRCUIT AND START UP PROCESSOR.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION
This integrated circuit uses I2L bipolar technology
and combines analog signal processing with digital
processing.
Timing signals are obtainedfrom a voltage-controlled
oscillator (VCO) operatingat 500KHzby means
of a cheap ceramic resonator. This avoids the
frequency adjustment normally required with line
and frame oscillators.
A chain of dividers and appropriate logic circuitry
produce very accurately defined sampling pulses
and the necessary timing signals.
The principal functions implemented are :
- Horizontal scanning processor.
- Frame scanning processor. Two applications are
possible :
- D Class : Power stage using an external
thyristor.
- B Class : Powerstageusing an externalpower
amplifier with fly-back generator
such as the TDA8170.
- Secondary switch mode power regulation.
The SMPS output synchronize a primary I.C.
(TEA2260/61)at the mains part.
This concept allows ACTIVE STANDBY facilities.
- Dual phase-locked loop horizontal scanning.
- High performance frameand line synchronization
with interlacing control.
- Video identification circuit.
- Super sandcastle.
- AGC key pulse output.
- Automatic 50-60Hz standard identification.
- VCR input for PLL time constant and frame synchro
switching.
- Frame saw-tooth generator and phase modulator.
- Switchingmode regulated power supplycomprising
error amplifier and phase modulator.
- Security circuit and start-up processor.
- 500kHzVCO
The circuit is supplied in a 28 pin DIP case.
VCC = 12V.
Synchronization Separator
Line synchronization separator is clamped to
black level of input video signal with synchronization
pulse bottom level measurement.
The synchronization pulses are divided centrally
between the black level and the synchronization
pulse bottom level, to improve performance on
video signals in noise conditions.
Frame Synchronization
Frame synchronization is fully integrated (no external
capacitor required).
The frame timing identification logic permits automatic
adaptation to 50 - 60Hz standards or non-interlaced
video.
An automatic synchronization window width system
provides :
- fast frame capture (6.7ms wide window),
- good noise immunity (0.4ms narrow window).
The internal generator starts the discharge of the
saw-tooth generator capacitor so that it is not disturbed
by line fly back effects.
Thanks to the logic control, the beginning of the
charge phase does not depend on any disturbing
effect of the line fly-back.
A 32ms timing is automatically applied on standardized
transmissions, for perfect interlacing.
In VCR mode, the discharge time is controlled by
an internal monostable independent of the line
frequency and gives a direct frame synchronization.
Horizontal Scanning
The horizontalscanningfrequencyis obtainedfrom
the 500kHz VCO.
The circuit uses two phase-locked loops (PLL) :
the first one controls the frequency, the second one
controls the relative phase of the synchronization
and line fly-back signals.
The frequency PLL has two switched time constants
to provide :
- capture with a short time constant,
- good noise immunity after capture with a long
time constant.
The output pulse has a constant duration of 26ms,
independent of VCC and any delay in switching off
the scanning transistor.
Video Identification
The horizontal synchronization signal is sampled
by a 2ms pulse within the synchronization pulse.
The signal is integrated by an external capacitor.
The identification function provides three different
levels :
- 0V : no video identification
- 6V : 60Hz video identification
- 12V : 50Hz video identification
This information may be used for timing research
in the case of frequency or voltage synthetizer type
receivers, and for audio muting.
Super Sandcastle with 3 levels : burst, line flyback,
frame blanking
In the event of vertical scanning failure, the frame
blanking level goes high to protect the tube.
Frame blanking time (start with reset of Frame
divider) is 24 lines.
VCR Input
This provides for continuous use of the short time
constant of the first phase-locked loop (frequency).
In VCR mode, the frame synchronization window widens out to a search window and there is no
delay of frame fly-back (direct synchronization).
Frame Scanning
FRAME SAW-TOOTH GENERATOR. The current
to charge the capacitoris automatically switched to
60Hz operation to maintain constant amplitude.
FRAME PHASE MODULATOR (WITH TWO DIFFERENTIAL
INPUTS). The output signal is a pulse
at the line frequency, pulse width modulatedby the
voltage at the differential pre-amplifier input.
This signal is used to control a thyristor which
provides the scanning current to the yoke. The
saw-tooth output is a low impedance,however, and
can therefore be used in class B operation with a
power amplifier circuit.
Switch Mode Power Supply (SMPS) Secondary
to Primary Regulation
This power supply uses a differential error amplifier
with an internal reference voltage of 1.26V and a
phase modulator operating at the line frequency.
The powertransistor is turnedoff bythe falling edge
of the horizontal saw-tooth.
The ”soft start” device imposes a very small conduction
angle on starting up, this angle progressively
increases to its nominal regulation value.
The maximum conductionangle may be monitored
by forcing a voltage on pin 15. This pin may also
be used for current limitation.
The outputpulse is sent to the primaryS.M.P.S. I.C.
(TEA2261) via a low cost synchro transformer.
Security Circuit and Start Up Processor
When the security input (pin 28) is at a voltage
exceeding 1.26V the three outputs are simultaneously
cut off until this voltagedrops below the 1.26V
threshold again. In this case the switch mode
power supply is restarted by the ”soft start” system.
If this cycle is repeated three times, the three
outputs are cut off definitively. To reset the safety
logic circuits, VCC must be zero volt.
This circuit eliminates the risk to switch off the TV
receiver in the event of a flash affecting the tube.
On starting up, the horizontal and vertical scanning
functions come into operation at VCC = 6V. The
power supply then comes into operation progressively.
On shutting down, the three functions are interrupted
simultaneously after the first line fly-back.




THOMSON TF5551 PG5 THOMSQUARE (ICC5)  CHASSIS ICC5 (5116) APPLICATION INFORMATION ON FRAME
SCANNING IN SWITCHED MODE:


Fundamentals (see Figure 80)
The secondary winding of EHT transformer provides
the energy required by frame yoke.
The frame current modulation is achieved by
modulating the horizontal saw-tooth current and
subsequent integration by a ”L.C” network to reject
the horizontal frequency component.

General Description
The basic circuit is the phase comparator ”C1”
which compares the horizontal saw-tooth and the
output voltage of Error Amplifier ”A”.
The comparator output will go ”high” when the
horizontal saw-tooth voltage is higher than the ”A”
output voltage. Thus, the Pin 4 output signal is
switched in synchronization with the horizontal frequency
and the duty cycle is modulated at frame
frequency.
A driver stage delivers the current required by the
external power switch.
The external thyristor provides for energy transfer
between transformer and frame yoke.
The thyristor will conduct during the last portion of
horizontal trace phase and for half of the horizontal
retrace.
The inverse parallel-connected diode ”D” conducts
during the second portion of horizontal retrace and
at the beginning of horizontal trace phase.
Main advantages of this system are :
- Power thyristor soft ”turn-on”
Once the thyristor has been triggered, the current
gradually rises from 0 to IP, where IP will reach
the maximumvalue at the end of horizontal trace.
The slope current is determined by, the current
available through the secondary winding, the
yoke impedance and the ”L.C.” filter characteristics.
- Power thyristor soft ”turn-off”
The secondary output current begins decreasing
and falls to 0 at the middle of retrace. The thyristor
is thus automatically ”turned-off”.
- Excellent efficiency of power stage dueto very
low ”turn-on” and ”turn-off” switching losses.

Frame Flyback
During flyback, due to the loop time constant, the
frame yoke current cannot be locked onto the
reference saw-tooth. Thus the output of amplifier
”A” will remain high and the thyristor is blocked.
The scanning current will begin flowing through
diode ”D”. As a consequence, the capacitor ”C”
starts charging upto the flyback voltage.The thyristor
is triggeredas soon as the yoke current reaches
the maximum positive value.



TDA4443 MULTISTANDARD VIDEO IF AMPLIFIERDESCRIPTION
The TDA4443 is a Video IF amplifier with standard
switch for multistandard colour or monochromeTV
sets, and VTR’s.

SWITCHING OFF THE IF AMPLIFIER WHEN
OPERATING IN VTR MODE .DEMODULATION OF NEGATIVE OR POSITIVE
IF SIGNALS. THE OUTPUT REMAINS
ON THE SAME POLARITY IN EVERY CASE .IF AGC AUTOMATICALLY ADJUSTED TO
THE ACTUALSTANDARD .TWO AGC POSSIBILITIES FOR B/G MODE :
1. GATED AGC
2. UNGATED AGC ON SYNC. LEVEL AND
CONTROLLED DISCHARGE DEPENDENT
ON THE AVERAGE SIGNAL LEVEL FOR VTR
AND PERI TV APPLICATIONS
FOR STANDARD L : FAST AGC ON PEAK
WHITE BY CONTROLLED DISCHARGE .POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE GATING PULSE .EXTREMELY HIGH INPUT SENSITIVITY .LOW DIFFERENTIAL DISTORTION .CONSTANT INPUT IMPEDANCE .VERY HIGH SUPPLY VOLTAGE REJECTION .FEW EXTERNAL COMPONENTS .LOW IMPEDANCE VIDEO OUTPUT .SMALL TOLERANCES OF THE FIXED VIDEO
SIGNALAMPLITUDE .ADJUSTABLE, DELAYED AGC FOR PNP
TUNERS.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION
This video IF processing circuit integrates the following
functional blocks : .Three symmetrical, very stable, gain controlled
wideband amplifier stages - without feedback
by a quasi-galvanic coupling. .Demodulator controlled by the picture carrier .Video output amplifier with high supply voltage
rejection .Polarity switch for the video output signal .AGC on peak white level .GatedAGC .Discharge control .Delayed tuner AGC .At VTR Reading mode the video output signal
is at ultra white level.



TDA4445A SOUND IF AMPLIFIER


.QUADRATURE INTERCARRIER DEMODULATOR
.VERY HIGH INPUT SENSITIVITY .GOODSIGNALTO NOISE RATIO .FAST AVERAGINGAGC .IF AMPLIFIER CAN BE SWITCHED OFF FOR
VTR MODE .GOODAM SUPPRESSION .OUTPUT SIGNAL STABILIZED AGAINST
SUPPLY VOLTAGE VARIATIONS .VERY FEW EXTERNAL COMPONENTS
DESCRIPTION
TDA4445A:
Sound IF amplifier, with FM processing for quasi
parallel sound system.
TDA4445B:
Sound IF amplifier, with FM processing and AM
demodulator, for multi-standard sound TV appliances.
TDA4445Badditionnal :
Bistandard applications (B/G and L)
No adjustment of the AM demodulator
Low AMdistortion.


GENERAL DESCRIPTION
This circuit includes the following functions : .Three symmetrical and gain controlled wide
band amplifier stages, which are extremely stable
by quasiDC coupling without feedback. .Averaging AGC with discharge control circuit .AGC voltage generator
Quasi parallel sound operation : .High phase accuracy of the carrier signal processing,
independentfrom AM .Linear quadrature demodulator .Sound-IF-amplifier stage with impedance converter
AM-Demodulation (only TDA4445B) : .Carrier controlled demodulator .Audio frequency stage with impedance converter
.Averaging low passAGC.


TDA4556 Multistandard decoder


GENERAL DESCRIPTION
The TDA4555 and TDA4556 are monolithic integrated
multistandard colour decoders for the PAL, SECAM,
NTSC 3,58 MHz and NTSC 4,43 MHz standards. The
difference between the TDA4555 and TDA4556 is the
polarity of the colour difference output signals (B-Y)
and (R-Y).
Features
Chrominance part
· Gain controlled chrominance amplifier for PAL, SECAM
and NTSC
· ACC rectifier circuits (PAL/NTSC, SECAM)
· Burst blanking (PAL) in front of 64 ms glass delay line
· Chrominance output stage for driving the 64 ms glass
delay line (PAL, SECAM)
· Limiter stages for direct and delayed SECAM signal
· SECAM permutator
Demodulator part
· Flyback blanking incorporated in the two synchronous
demodulators (PAL, NTSC)
· PAL switch
· Internal PAL matrix
· Two quadrature demodulators with external reference
tuned circuits (SECAM)
· Internal filtering of residual carrier
· De-emphasis (SECAM)
· Insertion of reference voltages as achromatic value
(SECAM) in the (B-Y) and (R-Y) colour difference output
stages (blanking)
Identification part
· Automatic standard recognition by sequential inquiry
· Delay for colour-on and scanning-on
· Reliable SECAM identification by PAL priority circuit
· Forced switch-on of a standard
· Four switching voltages for chrominance filters, traps
and crystals
· Two identification circuits for PAL/SECAM (H/2) and
NTSC
· PAL/SECAM flip-flop
· SECAM identification mode switch (horizontal, vertical
or combined horizontal and vertical)
· Crystal oscillator with divider stages and PLL circuitry
(PAL, NTSC) for double colour subcarrier frequency
· HUE control (NTSC)
· Service switch.




THOMSON TF5551 PG5 THOMSQUARE (ICC5)  CHASSIS ICC5 (5116) U4606 - TEA5040 (TELEFUNKEN) WIDE BAND VIDEO PROCESSOR
DESCRIPTION
The U4647 - TEA5040S is a serial bus-controlled videoprocessing
device which integrates a complex architecture
fulfilling multiple functions.


.
DIGITAL CONTROL OF BRIGHTNESS,
SATURATION AND CONTRAST ON TV SIGNALS
AND R, G, B INTERNAL OR EXTERNAL
SOURCES .BUS DRIVE OF SWITCHING FUNCTIONS .DEMATRIXING OF R, G, B SIGNALS FROM
Y, R-Y, B-Y, TV MODE INPUTS .MATRIXING OF R, G, B SOURCES INTO
Y, R-Y, B-Y SIGNALS .AUTOMATIC DRIVE AND CUT-OFF CONTROLS
BY DIGITAL PROCESSING DURING
FRAME RETRACE .PEAK ANDAVERAGE BEAM CURRENT LIMITATION
.ON-CHIP SWITCHING FOR R, G, B INPUT
SELECTION .ON-CHIP INSERTION OF INTERNAL OR EXTERNAL
R, G, B SOURCES


An automatic contrast control circuit in a color television receiver for stabilizing the average DC level of the luminance information at a desired level and preventing focus blooming. The control circuitry, which is suitable for fabrication as a monolithic integrated circuit, contemplates the provision of a gain-controlled luminance amplifier stage for driving an image reproducer with luminance information having a stabilized black level. An average detector coupled to the amplifier stage output develops a control signal representative of the average DC level of the luminance information and applies it to the amplifier stage, varying its gain inversely with changes in the average luminance level. A peak limiter circuit is also provided for modifying the control signal to reduce the amplifier stage's gain whenever an AC brightness component comprising the luminance information exceeds a defined threshold level, regardless of the average DC level of the luminance information.

1. In a television receiver having a luminance processing channel for translating instantaneous luminance signals derived from received broadcast transmissions to an image reproducer, said luminance signals including black level reference information, an automatic contrast control circuit comprising in combination:

2. An automatic contrast control circuit in accordance with claim 1, wherein adjustable level shifting means are interposed between said amplifier stage and said average detector means, said adjustable level shifting means providing a contrast control for manually varying the average DC level of said luminance signals.

3. An automatic contrast control circuit in accordance with claim 1, wherein said average detector means includes a capacitor having an output terminal coupled to said amplifier stage and a second terminal coupled to a plane of reference potential, said capacitor being charged by luminance signals from said amplifier stage and developing control signals representative of the average DC level of said luminance signals.

4. An automatic contrast control circuit in accordance with claim 3, wherein said control signals with respect to a plane of reference potential are equal to the potential at which black level is stabilized minus the potential drop between black level and the average DC level of said luminance information, said control signal increasing with respect to said plane of reference potential responsive to decreasing average DC levels of said luminance signals and decreasing responsive to increasing average DC levels.

5. An automatic contrast control circuit in accordance with claim 3, wherein said peak detector means includes a semi-conductor arrangement for providing said capacitor with a low impedance discharge path whenever said brightness components exceed a predetermined threshold level, the impedance of said discharge path being dependent on the amplitude of said brightness components and the discharge interval of said semiconductor arrangement being the time period during which said brightness components exceed said threshold level, said semiconductor arrangement further decreasing said control signals with respect to said plane of reference potential irrespective of the average DC level of said luminance signals.

6. An automatic contrast control circuit in accordance with claim 5, wherein said semiconductor arrangement comprises first and second transistors, said luminance signals from said amplifier stage being coupled to the input base electrode of said first transistor, said first transistor further having an emitter electrode coupled to said capacitor output terminal and a collector electrode coupled to the base electrode of said second transistor, said second transistor having a collector electrode coupled to said capacitor output terminal and an emitter electrode coupled to said plane of reference potential, said semiconductor arrangement being conductive to provide said capacitor with a low impedance discharge path whenever said brightness components exceed the base-emitter junction breakdown voltage of said first transistor.

7. An automatic contrast control circuit in accordance with claim 6, wherein said gain-controlled luminance amplifier stage includes a pair of transistors arranged in a differential amplifier configuration, the gain of which is dependent on the bias applied to the base electrodes of said transistors.

8. An automatic contrast control circuit in accordance with claim 7, wherein inverter means invert and couple said control signals to said base electrodes in said amplifier stage, the inverted control signals increasing the gain of said amplifier stage whenever the average DC level of said luminance signals decreases and decreasing the gain of said amplifier stage whenever the average DC level of said luminance information increases or whenever said brightness components exceed said threshold level.

9. An automatic contrast control circuit in accordance with claim 3, wherein said beam current limiter means provide a low impedance discharge path for said capacitor whenever the beam current exceeds a predetermined level.

10. An automatic contrast control system in accordance with claim 9, wherein said beam current limiter means monitors pulses from a voltage multiplier high-voltage system, said pulses being proportional to the beam current generated during the previous horizontal scan line.

11. An automatic contrast control circuit in accordance with claim 10, wherein said beam current limiter means comprises a transistor having a base electrode coupled to said voltage multiplier high-voltage system, an emitter electrode coupled to a plane of reference potential and a collector electrode coupled to said capacitor, said transistor providing a low impedance discharge path whenever said pulses exceed the base-emitter junction breakdown voltage of said transistor.

Description:
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates in general to control circuitry for color television receivers and more particularly to an automatic contrast control circuit incorporated in the luminance processing channel. In accordance therewith, a variable DC control signal is derived from the luminance signal information as a function of the average luminance level. The DC control signal is applied to a gain-controlled amplifier stage in the luminance channel, varying its gain and thereby insuring that excessive beam currents will not be generated due to high average luminance levels. Conversely, the circuit is effective to increase the gain of the amplifier stage when under-modulated signals are received thereby providing the desired contrast level. When the white content of the instantaneous received signal exceeds a predetermined level, however, the DC control signal is modified to reflect the excessive white content even though the average luminance level may be low. Accordingly, the amplifier stage's gain is reduced to prevent defocusing.

In color television receivers, the various elemental areas of differing brightness levels, or shades, in the televised image correspond to the amplitude levels of the instantaneous brightness components of the luminance signals which, together with the chrominance signal, reproduce the transmitted picture information on the image display tube. The intensity of the electron beams developed in the receiver's image display tube are varied, for the most part, according to the detected amplitude levels of the instantaneous luminance signals. Accordingly, progressively higher amplitude levels generate higher intensity electron beams and, consequently, progressively lighter shades. In addition, suitable viewer-adjustable controls are customarily provided in the television receiver whereby a particularized contrast and brightness setting may be selected according to viewer preference.

It is desirable that the level of the luminance signal component corresponding to black in the televised image be maintained at the cut-off of the image reproducer. But even in those instances where there is a measure of DC coupling, the DC components of the luminance signal coupled from the video detector to the luminance channel may be degraded or otherwise restricted due to the nature of the processing circuitry as well as to other factors. Moreover, the luminance processing channel itself may well permit a degradation or undesirable shift in the desired DC characteristics. The result is that the DC level in the processed luminance signal is not properly maintained, such that, upon application to the image display tube, the black level is shifted to some undesirable reference. This leads to less than faithful half-tone reproduction on the screen of the image display tube. Gray tones can be lost simply because they are beyond the cut-off of the display tube. In other instances, blacks may appear as grays on the image display tube screen.

Thus, it is desirable to make provision for the maintenance of black level in the televised image at some stabilized reference. Various systems are of course known in the art for accomplishing this objective and take various forms and configurations. For example, an arrangement commonly known as a DC restorer circuit which includes a clamping device may be employed. However, when the black level is effectively stabilized at the image reproducer's cut-off bias point, the average level of the luminance signal information may reach the point where excessive average beam currents capable of severely damaging the image reproducer are generated. In addition, the high voltage power supply during instances of high beam current may be incapable of delivering the required beam current. Such overloading reduces the power supply output voltage and results in undesirable "focus blooming." That is, there will be a loss of brightness, reduction of horizontal widths and severe defocusing of the reproduced image. The problem in this regard has been further compounded by the "new generation" high-brightness cathode-ray tubes which require higher beam currents in order to illuminate the tube to its fullest capability during high-modulation (white) scenes. In view of the added demands on the high voltage power supply and the danger of damaging the image display tube, some method for effectively limiting the beam current is required.

Accordingly, automatic contrast control systems have been developed which reduce the gain of the luminance amplifier stage to prevent the generation of excessive beam currents or increase the gain when under-modulated signals are received. Most of these prior art automatic contrast control systems, however, measure only the average level of the luminance signals to derive the control signal utilized to vary the gain of the luminance amplifier. Consequently, when all or a major portion of the luminance signal's white content is of a high amplitude level and is concentrated on a very small portion of the image reproducer's screen, the control signal derived from the average luminance level is low, permitting the luminance amplifier stage to operate at nearly maximum gain. By concentrating the high-amplitude white content into a small area of the screen, the image display tube is likely to be overdriven during that period of time and "focus blooming" will result. Some automatic contrast systems, on the other hand, derive a control signal based on the peak amplitudes of the instantaneous luminance signals without regard to the average luminance level. Thus, while preventing blooming on high-amplitude white content, such systems are susceptible to luminance signals which have a dangerously high average level, but do not have any peak white signal content of a level where the system would take corrective action.

OBJECTS OF THE INVENTION

Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide a color television receiver having black level stabilization with a new and improved automatic contrast control circuit which effectively overcomes the aforenoted disadvantages and deficiencies of prior circuits.

A further object of the invention is to provide an improved automatic contrast control circuit which develops control signals effectively varying the gain of a luminance amplifier stage to maintain an optimum contrast, while preventing the generation of excessive beam currents in the cathode-ray tube.

A more particular object of the invention is to provide an improved automatic contrast control circuit for continuously monitoring the average (DC) level of the luminance signal information and providing a control signal representative thereof to vary the gain of a luminance amplifier stage while remaining sensitive to the amplitude levels of brightness components exceeding a threshold level and modifying the control signal in accordance therewith.

Another object of the invention is to provide an improved automatic contrast control circuit which increases the gain of a luminance amplifier stage during reception of undermodulated luminance signals.

A further object of the present invention is to provide an automatic contrast control circuit of the foregoing type for deriving a variable DC control potential from applied luminance signals which, upon application to the luminance channel, adjusts the gain of a luminance amplifier stage in accordance with the varying luminance signal requirements.

Still another object of the invention is to provide a luminance processing channel including automatic contrast control circuitry which may be fabricated as a monolithic integrated circuit to provide an output luminance signal having stabilized black level and optimum contrast without producing excessive beam currents.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

In accordance with the present invention, an improved automatic contrast control circuit is provided for varying the gain of an amplifier stage in the luminance processing channel of a color television receiver whenever the average DC level of the input luminance information varies from a desired level, or whenever the peak amplitudes of the AC brightness components of the luminance information exceed a predetermined threshhold level. In a preferred embodiment, the automatic contrast control circuit includes a gain-controlled luminance amplifier stage in a luminance processing channel for translating instantaneous luminance signals derived from received broadcast transmissions to an image reproducer. The amplified luminance signals found at the output of the amplifier stage have a stabilized black level. There are also provided detector means coupled to the amplifier output for developing control signals that are representative of the average DC level of the instantaneous luminance signals. The control signals are then applied to the gain-controlled amplifier stage to vary its gain inversely with changes in the average luminance level. Finally, peak limiter means are coupled between the amplifier output and the detector means to modify the control signals whenever the instantaneous luminance signals exceed a threshhold level. The modified control signals are similarly utilized to effect inverse gain variations in the gain-controlled amplifier stage regardless of the average level of the luminance signals.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION
Brief Description
This integrated circuit incorporates the following
features :
- a synchro and two video inputs
- a fixed video output
- a switchable video output
- normal Y, R-Y, B-Y TV mode inputs
- double set of R, G, B inputs
- brightness, contrast and saturation controls as
wellon aR,G, B picture ason a normalTVpicture
- digital control inputs by means of serial bus
- peak beam current limitation
- average beam current limitation
- automaticdrive and cut-off controls
Block Diagram Description
BUS DECODER
A 3 lines bus (clock, data, enable) delivered by the
microcontroller of the TV-set enters the videoprocessor
integrated circuit (pins 13-14-15). A control
system acts in such a way that only a 9-bit word is
taken intoaccount by the videoprocessor.Six of the
bits carry the data, the remaining three carry the
address of the subsystem.


A demultiplexer directs the data towards latches
which drive the appropriate control. More detailed
information about serial bus operation is given in
the following chapter.
Video Switch
The video switch has three inputs :
- an internal video input (pin 39),
- an external video input (pin 37),
- a synchro input (pin 41),
and two outputs :
- an internal video output (pin 40),
- a switchable video output (pin 42)
The 1Vpp composite video signal applied to the
internal video input is multiplied by two and then
appears as a 2Vpp low impedance composite
video signal at the output. This signal is used to
deliver a 1Vpp/75W composite video signal to the
peri-TV plug.
The switchable video output canbe any of the three
inputs.When the Int/Ext one active bit word is high
(address number 5), the internal video input is
selected. If not, either a regeneratedsynchro pulse
or the external video signal is directed towards this
output depending on the level of the Sync/Async
one active bit word (address number 4). As this
output is to be connected to the synchro integrated
circuit, RGB information derived from an external
source via the Peri-TV plug canbedisplayed on the
screen, the synchronization of the TV-set being
then made with an external video signal.
When RGB information is derived from a source
integrated in the TV-set, a teletext decoder for
example, the synchronization can be made either
on the internal video input (in case of synchronous
data) or on the synchro input (in case of asynchronous
data).
R, G, B Inputs
There are two sets of R, G, B inputs : one is to be
connected to the peri-TV plug (Ext R, G, B), the
second one to receive the information derived from
the TV-set itself (Int R, G, B).
In order to have a saturation control on a picture
coming from the R, G, B inputs too, it is necessary
to getR-Y, B-Y and Y signals from R, G, B information
: this is performed on the first matrix that
receives the three 0.9Vp (100% white) R, G, B
signals and delivers the corresponding Y, R-Y, B-Y
signals. These ones are multiplied by 1.4 in order
to make the R-Y and B-Y signals compatible with
the R-Y and B-Y TV mode inputs. The desired R,
G, B inputs are selected by means of 3 switches
controlled by the two fast blanking signal inputs. A
high level on FB external pin selects the external
RGB sources. The three selected inputs are
clamped in order to give the required DC level at
the output of this firstmatrix. Thethree not selected
inputs are clamped on a fixed DC level.
Y, R-Y, B-Y Inputs
The 2Vpp composite video signal appearing at the
switchable output of the video switch (pin 42) is
driven through the subcarrier trap and the luminance
delay line with a 6 dB attenuation to the Y
input (1Vpp ; pin 12). In order to make this 1Vpp
(synchro to white) Y signal compatible with the
1Vpp (black to white) Y signal delivered by the first
matrix, it is necessary to multiply it by a coefficient
of 1.4.

Controls
The four brightness, contrastand saturationcontrol
functions are direct digitally controlled without using
digital-to-analog converters.
The contrast control of the Y channel is obtained
by means of a digital potentiometer which is an
attenuator including several switchable cells directly
controlled by a 5 active bit word (address
number 1). The brightness control is also made by
a digital potentiometer (5 active bit word, address
number 0). Since a + 3dB contrast capability is
required, the Y signal value could be up to 0.7Vpp
nominal. For both functions, the control characteristics
are quasi-linear.
In each R-Y and B-Y channel, a six-cell digital
attenuator is directly controlled by a 6 active bit
word (address number 6 and 7). The tracking
needed to keep the saturation constant when
changing the contrast has to be done externally by
the microcontroller. Furthermore, colour can be
disabledby blankingR-Y andB-Ysignals using one
active bit word (address number 2) to drive the
one-chip colour ON/OFF switch.
Second Matrix, Clamp, Peak Clipping, Blanking
The second matrix receives the Y, R-Y and B-Y
signals and delivers the corresponding R, G, B
signals. As it is required to have the capability of +
6dB saturation, an internal gain of 2 is applied on
both R-Y and B-Y signals.
A low clipping level is included in order to ensure a
correct blanking during the line and frame retraces.
Ahigh clipping level ensures thepeakbeamcurrent
limitation. These limitations are correct only if the
DC bias of the three R, G, B signals are precise
enough. Therefore a clamp has been added in
each channel in order to compensate for the inaccuracy
of the matrix.
Sandcastle Detector And Counter
The three level supersandcastle is used in the
circuit to deliver the burst pulse (CLP), the horizontal
pulse (HP), and the composite vertical and
horizontal blanking pulse (BLI). This last one is
regenerated in the counter which delivers a new
composite pulse (BL) in which the vertical part lasts
23 lines when the vertical part of the supersandcastle
lasts more than 11 lines.
The TEA5040S cannot work properly if this minimum
duration of 11 lines is not ensured.
The counterdelivers different pulses neededcircuit
and especially the line pulses 17 to 23 used in the
automatic drive and cut-off control system.
Automatic Drive And Cut-off Control System
Cut-off and drive adjustments are no longer required
with this integrated circuit as it has a sample
and hold feedback loop incorporating the final
stages of the TV-set. This system works in a sequentialmode.
For this purpose, special pulses are
inserted in G, R and B channels. During the lines
17, 18 and 19, a ”drive pulse” is inserted respectively
in the green, red and blue channels. The line
20 is blanked on the three channels. During the
lines 21, 22 and 23, a ”quasi cut-off pulse” is
inserted respectively in the green, red and blue
guns.
The resulting signal is then applied to the input of
a voltage controlled amplifier. In the final stages of
the TV-set, the current flowing in each green, red
and blue cathode is measured and sent to the
videoprocessorby a current source.
The three currents are added together in a resistor
matrix which can be programmed to set the ratio
between the three currents in order to get the
appropriate colour temperature. The output of the
matrix forms a high impedance voltage source
which is connectedto the integratedcircuit (pin 34).
Same measurement range between drive and cutoff
is achieved by internally grounding an external
low impedance resistor during lines 17, 18 and 19.
This is due to the fact that the drive currents are
about one hundred times higher than the cut-off
and leakage currents.
Each voltage appearing sequentially on the wire
pin 34 is then a function of specific cathode current
:
- When a current due to a drive pulse occurs, the
voltage appearing on the pin 34 is compared
within the IC with an internal reference, and the
result of the comparison charges or discharges
an external appropriate drive capacitor which
stores the value during the frame. This voltage is
applied to a voltage controlled amplifier and the
system works in such a waythat the pulse current
drive derived from the cathode is kept constant.
- During the line 20, the three guns of the picture
tube are blanked. The leakagecurrent flowing out
of the final stages is transformed into a voltage which is stored by an external leakage capacitor
to be used later as a reference for the cut-off
current measurement.
- When a current due to a cut-off pulse occurs, the
voltage appearing on the pin 34 is compared
within the ICto the voltagepresenton the leakage
memory. Anappropriate externalcapacitor is then
charged or discharged in such a way that the
difference between each measured current and
the leakage current is kept constant, and thus the
quasi cut-off current is kept constant.
AverageBeam Current Limitation
The total current of the three guns is integrated by
means of an internal resistor and an external capacitor
(pin 36) and thencompared with a programmable
voltage reference(pin 38). When 70% of the
maximum permitted beam current is reached, the
drive gain begins to be reduced ; to do so, the
amplitude of the inserted pulse is increased.
In order to keep enough contrast, the maximum
drive reduction is limited to 6dB. If it is not sufficient,
the brightness is suppressed.
SPECIFICATION FOR THE THOMSON BI-DIRECTIONAL
DATA BUS
This is a bi-directional 3-wire (ENABLE, CLOCK,
DATA) serial bus. The DATA line transmission is
bi-directional whereas ENABLE and CLOCK lines
are only microprocessor controlled. The ENABLE
and CLOCK lines are only driven by the microcomputer.


THOMSON CHASSIS ICC5 Switched mode power supply transformer


A switched mode power supply transformer, particularly for a television receiver, including a primary winding and a secondary winding with the primary winding and the secondary winding each being subdivided into a plurality of respective partial windings. The partial windings of the primary lie in a first group of chambers and the partial windings of the secondary lie in a second group of chambers of a chamber coil body, and the chambers of both groups are nested or interleaved with one another.







1. A switched mode power supply transformer, particularly for a television receiver, comprising in combination:
a primary winding and a secondary winding, with said primary winding being subdivided into three partial windings and said secondary winding being subdivided into two partial windings;
a chamber coil body having a plurality of chambers;
said partial windings of said primary winding being disposed only in a first group of said chambers, and said partial windings of said secondary winding being disposed only in a second group of said chambers, with each of said partial windings being disposed in a respective one of said chambers;
said chambers of said first group being interleaved with said chambers of said second group such that they alternate in sequence with said primary partial windings and said secondary partial windings being alternatingly disposed in five successive said chambers, so as to generate the major operating voltage at said secondary winding;
an additional secondary winding for generating a further operating voltage, said additional secondary winding likewise being subdivided into a plurality of partial windings; and,
said partial windings of said additional secondary winding are disposed only in respective said chambers of said second group below any of said partial windings of said secondary winding.


2. A transformer as defined in claim 1 wherein the total number of said chambers is six.

3. A transformer as defined in claim 1 wherein the width of the narrowest of said chambers is approximately 1 mm.

4. A transformer as defined in claim 1 or 2 wherein the widths of said chambers are different.

5. A transformer as defined in claim 1 or 2 wherein the total width of all of said chambers is only approximately 20 mm, whereby a flat and optimally coupled transformer is realized.

6. A transformer as defined in claim 1 wherein said additional secondary winding provides an operating voltage for a load which has a fluctuating current input.

7. A transformer as defined in claim 1 wherein said partial windings of said additional secondary winding are connected in parallel.

8. A transformer as defined in claim 1 wherein said partial windings of said primary winding are connected in series.

9. A transformer as defined in claim 1 or 8 wherein said partial windings of said secondary winding are connected in series.

10. A transformer as defined in claim 1 further comprising a plurality of auxiliary primary windings disposed in one chamber of said first group which is disposed in approximately the center of said first group and above the said partial winding of said primary winding disposed in said one chamber of said first group.

11. A transformer as defined in claim 1 wherein all of said partial winding disposed in said chambers of both said groups are wound with wire having the same diameter.

12. A switched mode power supply transformer as defined in claim 1 or 10 wherein: said coil body has six of of said chambers; said additional secondary winding is subdivided into three said partial windings; and two of said partial windings of said additional secondary winding are disposed below respective ones of said partial windings of said secondary winding and the third said partial winding of said additional secondary winding is disposed in the sixth said chamber.

13. A switched mode power supply transformer as defined in claim 10 further comprising at least one further secondary winding disposed in one of said chambers of said second group above any partial secondary winding present in said one of said chambers.

14. A switched mode power supply transformer, particularly for a television receiver, comprising in combination:
a primary winding and a secondary winding, with said primary winding and said secondary winding each being subdivided into a plurality of partial windings;
a chamber coil body having a plurality of chambers;
said partial windings of said primary winding being disposed only in a first group of said chambers, and said partial windings of said secondary winding being disposed only in a second group of said chambers with each of said partial windings being disposed in a respective one of said chambers;
said chambers of said first group being interleaved with said chambers of said second group such that said primary partial windings and said secondary partial windings are alternatingly disposed in successive said chambers, so as to generate the major operating voltage at said secondary winding;
an additional secondary winding for generating a further operating voltage, said additional secondary winding likewise being subdivided into a plurality of partial windings, and said partial windings of said additional secondary winding are disposed only in respective said chambers of said second group below any of said partial windings of said secondary winding.


15. A switched mode power supply transformer as defined in claim 1 or 14 wherein each of said partial windings of said primary winding contains the same number of turns and each of said partial windings of said secondary winding contains the same number of turns.

Description:
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to a switched mode power supply transformer, particularly for a television receiver.
In communications transmissions devices, particularly in television receivers, it is known to effect the desired dc decoupling from the mains by means of so-called switched mode power supply transformers. Such switched mode power supply transformers are substantially smaller and lighter in weight than a mains transformer for the same power operating at 50 Hz, because they operate at a significantly higher frequency of about 20-30 kHz. Such a switched mode power supply transformer (hereinafter called SMPS transformer) generally includes a primary side with a primary winding serving as the operating winding for the switch and further additional auxiliary windings, as well as a secondary side with a secondary winding for generating the essential operating voltage and possibly further additional windings for generating further operating voltages of different magnitude and polarity. The secondary and primary are insulated from one another as prescribed by VDE and have the necessary dielectric strength so that there is no danger of contact between voltage carrying parts on the secondary. A switched mode power supply (SMPS) circuit for a tv-receiver is described in U.S. Pat. No. 3,967,182, issued June 29, 1976.
A further requirement placed on such an SMPS transformer is that the stray inductance at least of the primary winding and of the secondary winding should be as small as possible. With too high a stray inductance, a transient behavior may develop during the switching operation which would not assure optimum switch operation of the switching transistor connected to the primary winding and would endanger this transistor by taking on too much power. Moreover, an increased stray inductance undesirably increases the internal resistance of the voltage sources for the individual operating voltages.
It is known to design the windings for such transformers as layered windings. Such layered windings, however, contain feathered intermediate foil layers and, after manufacture, generally require that the coil or the complete transformer be encased in order to insure VDE safety. Use as a chamber winding in television receivers presently does not take place because of the problems to be discussed below. A chamber winding would have the particular advantage that it could be wound more easily and economically by automatic machines. when using a chamber winding for a switched mode power supply, the detailed insulation between the primary and the secondary would be realized initially by two chambers with one of these chambers being filled only with the windings of the primary and the other of these chambers being filled only with the windings of the secondary. However, with such an arrangement there would exist only slight coupling between the primary and the secondary and thus an undesirably high stray inductance. If, on the other hand, the number of chambers were selected to be substantially larger, the transformer becomes more expensive and unnecessarily large. Moreover, a larger core would be required. Consequently, in the past, no television receiver has been introduced that included an SMPS transformer.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
It is the object of the present invention to provide an SMPS transformer designed in the chamber wound technique which permits economical automatic winding, i.e. can be wound with but a single type of wire, has a structure which is spatially narrow and as flat as possible, provides the required insulation between the primary and secondary windings, and has a low stray inductance. The transformer should not be encased or saturated and nevertheless should produce no interfering noise during operation. The transformer should be able to be held in a circuit board without mechanical aids merely by its connecting terminals which are soldered to the circuit board.
The above object is basically achieved according to the present invention in that the transformer for a switched mode power supply, particularly for a television receiver, comprises: a primary winding and a secondary winding with the primary and secondary windings each being subdivided into a plurality of partial windings; and a chamber coil body with a plurality of chambers; and wherein the partial windings of the primary winding are disposed in a first group of chambers of the coil body, the partial windings of the secondary winding are disposed in a second group of chambers of the coil body, and the chambers of the first and second groups are interleaved.
Due to the fact that the individual windings or partial windings of the primary are disposed only in chambers of the first group and the windings or partial windings of the secondary are disposed only in chambers of the second group, i.e. primary and secondary are distributed to separate chambers, the necessary dielectric strength between primary and secondary is assured. By dividing each of the primary and secondary windings to a respective plurality or group of chambers and, due to the interleaved or nested arrangement of the chambers of the primary and the secondary, the desired fixed coupling between primary and secondary, and thus the desired low stray inductance at the primary and secondary, are realized. It has been found that a total number of chambers in the order of magnitude of six constitutes an economically favorable solution. With a smaller number of chambers, the coupling between primary and secondary is reduced. With a larger number of chambers, however, either the individual chambers become too small or the entire transformer, and particularly the core, become too large.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
FIG. 1 is a circuit diagram for a preferred embodiment of a switched mode power supply transformer according to the invention.
FIG. 2 is a schematic partial sectional view showing the distribution of the individual windings of FIG. 1 to different chambers according to the invention.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT
FIG. 1 shows a transformer intended for a switched mode power supply for a television receiver with a power output between 40 and 150 watts. The transformer includes a primary side P and a secondary side S which, while maintaining the required dielectric strength of, for example, 10,000 V, are galvanically decoupled or separated from one another. The primary side P includes a primary winding 1 which, as the operating winding, will lie in the collector circuit of a switching transistor switched at about 20-30 kHz. The primary winding 1 is divided into three partial windings 1a, 1b and 1c which are connected in series. When utilized in a television receiver, the beginning of partial winding 1a and the end of partial winding 1c are connected into the collector circuit of the switching transistor, while the taps between the partial windings 1a-1b and 1b-1c are not utilized, but rather form supporting points for the connection of the terminals of the partial windings. The primary side P also includes an additional winding 3 which feeds the feedback path with which the primary winding 1a-1c is designed as a self-resonant circuit. Moreover, the primary side P includes an additional winding 4 for regulating the moment of current flow in the switching transistor in the sense of stabilizing the amplitude of the output voltages on the secondary side S.
The secondary side S initially includes the secondary winding 2 from which is obtained, via a rectifier circuit (not shown), the main operating voltage U1. The secondary winding 2 is divided into two series connected partial windings 2a and 2b. Additionally, the secondary winding S includes a winding 5 for generating an operating voltage for the video amplifier and a further winding 6 for generating the operating voltage for the vertical deflection stage of a television receiver. Moreover, an additional secondary winding 7 is provided from which, after rectification, the operating voltage or the audio output stage of the receiver is obtained. Winding 7 comprises three partial windings 7a, 7b, 7c which are connected in parallel. The audio output stage of a television receiver has a greatly fluctuating current input between 50 mA and 1000 mA so that the load of the secondary side S varies considerably. This variation in load may effect an undesirable change in the operating voltage U1 which also influences the horizontal deflection amplitude. This undesirable dependency can be reduced in that the coupling between winding 7 and winding 4 is dimensioned greater, for regulating purposes, than the coupling between winding 2 and winding 4. This solution is described in greater detail in Federal Republic of Germany Offenlegungsschrift (laid open application) DE-OS No. 2,749,847 of May 10, 1979. This increased coupling between windings 7 and 4 is realized in the present case by the three parallel connected windings 7a, 7b, 7c. Finally, the secondary S includes a further winding 8 which serves to generate, after rectification, a negative operating voltage of -30 V.
FIG. 2 shows one half of the chamber coil body 9 for the individual windings of FIG. 1, with the body 9 including a total of six chambers 10. The size and particularly the widths of the individual chambers 10 can vary with respect to one another and the widths may all be different. Preferably, the width of the narrowest chamber 10 is about 1 mm and the total width of all six chambers is only approximately 20 mm so as to realize a flat and optimally coupled transformer.
As shown, one third of the primary winding 1, in the form of respective partial windings 1a, 1b and 1c, is distributed to each of the first, third and fifth chambers 10 of the coil body 9. The additional primary windings 3 and 4 are disposed in the third chamber 10 above the partial winding 1b. One half of the secondary winding 2, in the form of respective partial windings 2a, 2b, is distributed to each of the second and fourth chambers 10 of the coil body 9. The three partial windings 7a, 7b and 7c of the additional secondary winding 7 for the audio output stage are distributed to the second, fourth and sixth chambers 10, respectively, with the partial windings 7a-7c being disposed closest to the longitudinal axis of the coil body 9 and thus below any partial secondary winding 2a, 2b or other secondary winding which may be located in the same chamber. That is, the partial windings 7a and 7b are disposed below the partial windings 2a and 2b, respectively, in the respective second and fourth chambers 10, and below the additional secondary windings 5 and 8 in the sixth chamber 10. Further winding 6 is disposed above partial secondary winding 2b.
As can be seen in FIG. 2, the chambers 10 contain alternatingly only windings or partial windings of the primary side P or of the secondary side S. The illustrated nesting or interleaving of the windings, i.e. the alternating arrangement of windings of the primary side P and of the secondary side S in successive chambers 10, assures the desired close coupling between the primary side P and the secondary side S. The arrangement of the windings 3, 4 in approximately the center of the coil body 9 above partial winding 1b assures the desired close coupling between the windings 3, 4 with the other windings.
In an embodiment of the transformer shown in FIGS. 1 and 2 which was successfully tested in practice, the individual windings were all wound with the same diameter wire and contained the following numbers of turns:
______________________________________
Winding No. Number of Turns
______________________________________


1a 22

1b 22

1c 22

2a 30

2b 30

3 3

4 10

5 25

6 1

7a 11

7b 11

7c 11

8 16

______________________________________
The diameter of the wire of the windings 1-8 may be about 0.40 or 0.45 mm. Also, each winding may exist of two parallel shunted wires each of 0.3 mm diameter. The width of the six chambers 10--seen from the left to the right in FIG. 2--may be 0.95/1.95/1.75/1.95/0.95/2.75 mm and the thickness of the walls forming the chambers 0.65 mm.
It will be understood that the above description of the present invention is susceptible to various modifications, changes and adaptations, and the same are intended to be comprehended within the meaning and range of equivalents of the appended claims.

THOMSON TF5551 PG5 THOMSQUARE (ICC5) CHASSIS ICC5 (5116) CRT TUBE VIDEOCOLOR A51EAT01X02.








CRT TUBE VIDEOCOLOR A51EAT01X02 FS10

(This is a special deflection joke with higher impedance designed for CHASSIS ICC5)


Videocolor was a fabricant of Electronic components in Anagni (Italy).


Was formed from an Italian CRT Fabricant called ERGON which was sold to Thomson in 1971 and the technology further called PIL (Precision In Line) was produced by a collaboration with RCA. (ERGON S.P.A., ANAGNI, FROSINONE).

They have patented several technologyes like the LICHT-KOLLIMATOR and  various methods to improve the fabrication of shadowmasks in CRT Tubes like the invention of a process of manufacturing a cathode-ray tube (CRT) having an anti-glare, anti-static, dark coating on an external surface of a faceplate panel thereof, and more particularly, to the formulation of such a coating.
Further Inventions were related to inventions formulated for the control of electron beam for adjustment of, for example, static convergence and/or purity in a picture tube and others invention relates to a shadow mask or color selection electrode for a color television picture tube, as well as the support frame making it possible to stiffen or rigidify the mask.

Videocolor CRTs were widely used by many fabricants on European scale and even around the world.


Example of Videocolor CRTs were the P.I.L. (Precision In Line) the PIL S4  the PIL PLANAR the PIL MP the PIL FS10.......


In 2005 Videocolor was sold to Videocon An Indian monkeys conglomerate (WTF !) wich has converted it to Plasma Lcd (cheapshit Crap) manufacturing, resulting in a total FAIL !!

Now Videocolor has Stopped the production, it's gone (Forever-dead) !!







THOMSON TF5551 PG5 THOMSQUARE (ICC5)  CHASSIS ICC5 (5116)  CRT TUBE VIDEOCOLOR  A51EAT01X02. FS10   ELECTRON TUBE. PIL.
PRECISION IN LINE TECHNOLOGY p.i.l. :

The three co-planar beams of an in-line gun are converged near the screen of a cathode ray tube by means of two plate-like grids transverse to the beam paths and having corresponding apertures for the three beams. The three beam apertures of the first grid are aligned with the three beam paths. The two outer beam apertures of the second grid are offset outwardly relative to the beam paths to produce the desired convergence. The three sets of apertures also provide separate focusing fields for the three beams. The second plate-like grid is formed with a barrel shape, concave toward the first grid, to minimize elliptical distortion of beam spots on the screen due to crowding of the adjacent focusing fields. Each of the two outer beams is partially shielded from the magnetic flux of the deflecting yoke by means of a magnetic ring surrounding the beam path in the deflection zone, to equalize the size of the rasters scanned on the screen by the middle and outer beams. Other magnetic pieces are positioned on opposite sides of the path of the middle beam, to enhance one deflection field while reducing the transverse deflection field for that beam.

1. In a color picture tube including an evacuated envelope comprising a faceplate and a neck connected by a funnel, a mosaic color phosphor screen on the inner surface of said faceplate, a multiapertured color selection electrode spaced from said screen, an in-line electron gun mounted in said neck for generating and directing three electron beams along co-planar paths through said electrode to said screen, and a deflection zone, located in the vicinity of the junction between said neck and said funnel, wherein said beams are subjected to vertical and horizontal magnetic deflection fields during operation of said tube for scanning said beams horizontally and vertically over said screen; said electron gun comprising: 2. The structure of claim 1, wherein said electron gun further comprises a pair of magnetic elements positioned in said deflection zone on opposite sides of the middle beam path and in a plane transverse to the common plane of said paths for enhancing the magnetic deflection field in said middle beam path transverse to said common plane and for reducing the magnetic deflection field in said middle beam path along said common plane, thereby increasing the dimension of the raster scanned by the middle beam in said common plane while reducing the dimension of said raster in said transverse plane. 3. In a color picture tube including an evacuated envelope comprising a faceplate and a neck connected by a funnel, a mosaic color phosphor screen on the inner surface of said faceplate, a multi-apertured color selection electrode spaced from said screen, an in-line electron gun mounted in said neck for generating and directing three electron beams along co-planar paths through said electrode to said screen, and a deflection zone, located in the vicinity of the junction between said neck and said funnel, wherein said beams are subjected to vertical and horizontal magnetic deflection fields during operation of said tube for scanning said beams horizontally and vertically over said screen, and wherein the eccentrity of the outer ones of said beams in the deflection fields causes the sizes of the rasters scanned by the outer beams to tend to be larger than the size of the raster scanned by a middle beam, said electron gun comprising; 4. The tube as defined in claim 3, including two small discs of magnetic material located at the fringe of the deflection zone on opposite sides of the middle beam transverse to the plane of the three beams, whereby the magnetic flux on the middle beam transverse to the plane of the three beams is enhanced and the flux in the plane of the three beams is decreased thereby increasing the middle beam dimension in the plane of the three beams while reducing the middle beam dimension in the plane of the three beams.
Description:
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to an improved in-line electron gun for a cathode ray tube, particularly a shadow mask type color picture tube. The new gun is primarily intended for use in a color tube having a line type color phosphor screen, with or without light absorbing guard bands between the color phosphor lines, and a mask having elongated apertures or slits. However, the gun could be used in the well known dot-type color tube having a screen of substantially circular color phosphor dots and a mask with substantially circular apertures.

An in-line electron gun is one designed to generate or initiate at least two, and preferably three, electron beams in a common plane, for example, by at least two cathodes, and direct those beams along convergent paths in that plane to a point or small area of convergence near the tube screen. Various ways have been proposed for causing the beams to converge near the screen. For example, the gun may be designed to initially aim the beams, from the cathodes, towards convergence at the screen, as shown in FIG. 4 of Moodey U.S. Pat. No. 2,957,106, wherein the beam apertures in the gun electrodes are aligned along convergent paths.

In order to avoid wide spacings between the cathodes, which are undesirable in a small neck tube designed for high deflection angles, it is preferable to initiate the beams along substantially parallel (or even divergent) paths and provide some means, either internally or externally of the tube, for converging the beams near the screen. Magnet poles and/or electrostatic deflecting plates for converging in-line beams are disclosed in Francken U.S. Pat. No. 2,849,647, Gundert et al. U.S. Pat. No. 2,859,378 and Benway U.S. Pat No. 2,887,598.

The Moodey patent referred to above also includes an embodiment, shown in FIG. 2 and described in lines 4 to 23 of column 5, wherein an in-line gun for two co-planar beams comprises two spaced cathodes, a control grid plate and an accelerating grid plate each having two apertures aligned respectively with the two cathodes (as in FIG. 2) to initiate two parallel co-planar beam paths, and two spaced-apart beam focusing and accelerating electrodes of cylindrical form. The focusing electrode nearest to the first accelerating grid plate is described as having two beam apertures that are offset toward the axis of the gun from the corresponding apertures of the adjacent accelerating grid plate, to provide an asymmetric electrostatic field in the path of each beam for deflecting the beam from its initial path into a second beam path directed toward the tube axis.

Netherlands U.S. Pat. application No. 6902025, published Aug. 11, 1970 teaches that astigmatic aberration resulting in elliptical distortion of the focused screen spots of the two off-axis beams from an in-line gun, caused by the eccentricity of the in-line beams in a common focusing field between two hollow cylindrical focusing electrodes, can be partially corrected by forming the adjacent edges of the cylindrical electrodes with a sinusoidal contour including four sine waves. A similar problem is solved in a different manner in applicant's in-line gun.

Another problem that exists in a cathode ray tube having an in-line gun is a coma distortion wherein the sizes of the rasters scanned on the screen by a conventional external magnetic deflection yoke are different, because of the eccentricity of the two outer beams with respect to the center of the yoke. Messineo et al. U.S. Pat. No. 3,164,737 teaches that a similar coma distortion caused by using different beam velocities can be corrected by use of a magnetic shield around the path of one or more beams in a delta type gun. Barkow U.S. Pat. No. 3,196,305 teaches the use of magnetic enhancers adjacent to the path of one or more beams in a delta gun, for the same purpose. Krackhardt et al. U.S. Pat. No. 3,534,208 teaches the use of a magnetic shield around the middle one of three in-line beams for coma correction.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

In accordance with one aspect of the invention, at least two electron beams are generated along co-planar paths toward the screen of a cathode ray tube, e.g., a shadow mask type color picture tube, and the beams are converged near the screen by asymmetric electric fields established in the paths of two beams by two plate-like grids positioned between the beam generating means and the screen and having corresponding apertures suitably related to the beam paths. The apertures in the first grid (nearest the cathodes) are aligned with the beam paths. Two apertures in the second grid (nearest the screen) are offset outwardly with respect to the beam paths to produce the desired asymmetric fields. In the case of three in-line beams, the two outer apertures are offset, and the middle apertures of the two grids are aligned with each other. The pairs of corresponding apertures also provide separate focusing fields for the beams. In order to minimize elliptical distortion of one or more of the focused beam spots on the screen due to crowding of adjacent beam focusing fields, at least a portion of the second grid may be substantially cylindrically curved in a
direction transverse to the common plane of the beams, and concave to the first grid. Each of the two outer beam paths of a three beam gun may be partially shielded from the magnetic flux of the deflection yoke by means of a magnetic ring surrounding each beam in the deflection zone of the tube, to minimize differences in the size of the rasters scanned on the screen by the middle and outer beams. Further correction for coma distortion may be made by positioning magnetic pieces on opposite sides of the middle beam path for enhancing one field and reducing the field transverse thereto.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a plan view, partly in axial section, of a shadow mask color picture tube in which the present invention is incorporated;

FIG. 2 is a front end view of the tube of FIG. 1 showing the rectangular shape;

FIG. 3 is an axial section view of the electron gun shown in dotted lines in FIG. 1, taken along the line 3--3 of that figure;

FIG. 4 is an axial section view of the electron gun taken along the line 4--4 of FIG. 3;

FIG. 5 is a rear end view of the electron gun of FIG. 4, taken in the direction of the arrows 5--5 thereof;

FIG. 6 is a transverse view, partly in section, taken along the line 6--6 of FIG. 4;

FIG. 7 is a front end view of the electron gun of FIGS. 1 and 4;

FIG. 8 is a similar end view with the final element (shield cup) removed; and

FIGS. 9 and 10 are schematic views showing the focusing and converging electric fields associated with two pairs of beam apertures in FIG. 4.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT

FIG. 1 is a plan view of a 17V-90° rectangular color picture tube, for example, having a glass envelope 1 made up of a rectangular (FIG. 2) faceplate panel or cap 3 and a tubular neck 5 connected by a rectangular funnel 7. The panel 3 comprises a viewing faceplate 9 and a peripheral flange or side wall 11 which is sealed to the funnel 7. A mosaic three-color phosphor screen 13 is carried by the inner surface of the faceplate 9. The screen is preferably a line screen with the phosphor lines extending substantially parallel to the minor axis Y-Y of the tube (normal to the plane of FIG. 1). A multi-apertured color selection electrode or shadow mask 15 is removably mounted, by conventional means, in predetermined spaced relation to the screen 13. An improved in-line electron gun 19, shown schematically by dotted lines in FIG. 1, is centrally mounted within the neck 5 to generate and direct three electron beams 20 along co-planar convergent paths through the mask 15 to the screen 13.

The tube of FIG. 1 is designed to be used with an external magnetic deflection yoke, such as the yoke 21 schematically shown, surrounding the neck 5 and funnel 7, in the neighborhood of their junction, for subjecting the three beams 20 to vertical and horizontal magnetic flux, to scan the beams horizontally and vertically in a rectangular raster over the screen 13. The initial plane of deflection (at zero deflection) is shown by the line P--P in FIG. 1 at about the middle of the yoke 21. Because of fringe fields, the zone of deflection of the tube extends axially, from the yoke 21, into the region of the gun 19. For simplicity, the actual curvature of the deflected beam paths 20 in the deflection zone is not shown in FIG. 1.

The in-line gun 19 of the present invention is designed to generate and direct three equally-spaced co-planar beams along initially-parallel paths to a convergence plane C--C, and then along convergent paths through the deflection plane to the screen 13. In order to use the tube with a line-focus yoke 21 specially designed to maintain the three in-line beams substantially converged at the screen without the application of the usual dynamic convergence forces, which causes degrouping misregister of the beam spots with the phosphor elements of the screen, the gun is preferably designed with samll spacings between the beam paths at the convergence plane C--C to produce a still smaller spacing, usually called the S value, between the outer beam paths and the central axis A--A of the tube, in the deflection plane P--P. The convergence angle of the outer beams with the central axis is arc tan e/c+d, where c is the axial distance between the convergence plane C--C and the deflection plane P--P, d is the distance between the deflection plane and the screen 13, and e is the spacing between the outer beam paths and the central axis A--A in the convergence plane C--C. The approximate dimensions in FIG. 1 are c = 2.7 inches, d = 9.8 inches, e = 0.200 inch (200 mils), and hence, the convergence angle is 55 minutes and s = 157 mils.

The details of the improved gun 19 are shown in FIGS. 3 through 8. The gun comprises two glass support rods 23 on which the various electrodes are mounted. These electrodes include three equally-spaced co-planar cathodes 25, one for each beam, a control grid electrode 27, a screen grid electrode 29, a first accelerating and focusing electrode 31, a second accelerating and focusing electrode 33, and a shield cup 35, spaced along the glass rods 23 in the order named.

Each cathode 25 comprises a cathode sleeve 37, closed at the forward end by a cap 39 having an end coating 41 of electron emissive material and a cathode support tube 43. The tubes 43 are supported on the rods 23 by four straps 45 and 47 (FIG. 6). Each cathode 25 is indirectly heated by a heater coil 49 positioned within the sleeve 37 and having legs 51 welded to heater straps 53 and 55 mounted by studs 57 on the rods 23 (FIG. 5). The control and screen grid electrodes 27 and 29 are two closely-spaced (about 9 mils) flat plates having three pairs of small (about 25 mils) aligned apertures 59 centered with the cathode coatings 41 to initiate three equally-spaced coplanar beam paths 20 extending toward the screen 13. Preferably, the initial paths 20a and 20b are substantially parallel and about 200 mils apart, with the middle path 20a coincident with the central axis A--A.

Electrode 31 comprises first and second cup-shaped members 61 and 63, respectively, joined together at their open ends. The first cup-shaped member 61 has three medium-sized (about 60 mils) apertures 75 close to grid electrode 29 and aligned respectively with the three beam paths 20, as shown in FIG. 4. The second cup-shaped member 63 has three large (about 160 mils) apertures 65 also aligned with the three beam paths. Electrode 33 is also cup-shaped and comprises a base plate portion 60 positioned close (about 60 mils) to electrode 31 and a side wall or flange 71 extending forward toward the tube screen. The base portion 69 is formed with three apertures 73, which are preferably slightly larger (about 172 mils) than the adjacent apertures 67 of electrode 31. The middle aperture 73a is aligned with the adjacent middle aperture 67a (and middle beam path 20a) to provide a substantially symmetrical beam focusing electric field between apertures 67a and 73a when electrodes 31 and 33 are energized at different voltages. The two outer apertures 73b are slightly offset outwardly with respect to the corresponding outer apertures 67b, to provide an asymmetrical electric field between each pair of outer apertures when electrodes 31 and 33 are energized, to individually focus each outer beam 20b near the screen, and also to deflect each beam, toward the middle beam, to a common point of convergence with the middle beam near the screen. In the example shown, the offset of each beam aperture 73b may be about 6 mils.

The approximate configuration of the electric fields associated with the middle and outer apertures are shown in FIGS. 9 and 10, respectively, which show the equipotential lines 74 rather than the lines of force. Assuming an accelerating field, as shown by the + signs, the left half 75 (on the left side of the central mid-plane) of each field is converging and the right half 77 is diverging. Since the electrons are being accelerated, they spend more time in the converging field than in the diverging field, and hence, the beam experiences a net converging or focusing force in each of FIGS. 9 and 10. Since the middle beam 20a passes centrally through a symmetrical field in FIG. 9, it continues in the same direction without deflection. In FIG. 10, the outer beam 20b traverses the left half 75 of the field centrally, but enters the right half 77 off-axis. Since this is the diverging part of the field, and the electrons are subjected to field forces perpendicular to the equipotential lines or surfaces 74, the beam 20b is deflected toward the central axis (downward in FIG. 10) as it traverses the right half 77, in addition to being focused. The angle of deflection, or convergence, of the beam 20b can be determined by the choice of the offset of the apertures 73 b and the voltages applied to the two electrodes 31 and 33. For the example given, with an offset of 6 mils, electrode 33 would be connected to the ultor or screen voltage, about 25 K.V., and electrode 31 would be operated at about 17 to 20 percent of the ultor voltage, adjusted for best focus. The object distance of each focus lens, that is, the distance between the first cross-over of the beams near the screen grid 29 and the lens, is about 0.500 inch; and the image distance from the lens to the screen is about 12.5. inches.

The above-described outward offset of the beam apertures to produce beam convergence is contrary to the teaching of FIG. 3 of the Moodey patent described above, and hence, is not suggested by the Moodey patent.

The focusing apertures 67 and 73 are made as large as possible, to minimize spherical aberration, and as close together as possible, to obtain a desirable small spacing between beam paths. As a result, the fringe portions of adjacent fields interact to produce some astigmatic distortion of the focusing fields, which produces some ellipticity of the normally-circular focused beam spots on the screen. In a three-beam in-line gun, this distortion is greater for the middle beam than for the two outer beams, because both sides of the middle beam field are affected. In order to compensate for this effect, and minimize the elliptical distortion of the beam spots, the wall 69, or at least the surface thereof facing the electrode 31, is curved substantially cylindrically, concave to electrode 31, in the direction normal or transverse to the plane of the three beams, as shown at 79 in FIG. 3. Preferably, this curvature is greater for the middle beam path than for the outer beam paths, hence, the wall 69 may be made barrel-shaped. In the example given, the barrel shape may have a stave radius of 8 inches (FIG. 4) and a hoop radius of 2.28 inches (FIG. 3), with the curvature 79 terminating at the outer edges of the outer apertures 73b.

The shield cup 35 comprises a base portion 81, attached to the open end of the flange 71 of electrode 33, and a tubular wall 83 surrounding the three beam paths 20. The base portion 81 is formed with a large middle beam aperture 85 (about 172 mils) and two smaller outer beam apertures 87 (about 100 mils) aligned, respectively, with the three initial beam paths 20a and 20b.

In order to compensate for the coma distortion wherein the sizes of the rasters scanned on the screen by the external magnetic deflection yoke are different for the middle and outer beams of the three-beam gun, due to the eccentricity of the outer beams in the yoke field, the electron gun is provided with two shield rings 89 of high magnetic permeability, e.g., an alloy of 52 percent nickel and 48 percent iron, known as 52 metal, are attached to the base 81, with each ring concentrically surrounding one of the outer apertures 87, as shown in FIGS. 4 and 7. These magnetic shields 89 by-pass a small portion of the fringe deflection fields in the path of the outer beams, thereby making a slight reduction in the rasters scanned by the outer beams on the screen. The shield rings 89 may have an outer diameter of 150 mils, an inner diameter of 100 mils, and a thickness of 10 mils.

A further correction for this coma distortion is made by mounting two small discs 91 of magnetic material, e.g., that referred to above, on each side of the middle beam path 20a. These discs 91 enhance the magnetic flux on the middle beam transverse to the plane of the three beams and decrease the flux in that plane, in the manner described in the Barkow patent referred to above. The discs 91 may be rings having an outer diameter of 80 mils, an inner diameter of 30 mils, and a thickness of 10 mils.

Each of the electrodes 27, 29, 31 and 33 are mounted on the two glass rods 23 by edge portions embedded in the glass. The two rods 23 extend forwardly beyond the mounting portion of electrode 33, as shown in FIG. 3. In order to shield the exposed ends 93 of the glass rods 23 from the electron beams, the shield cup 35 is formed with inwardly-extending recess portions 95 into which the rod ends 93 extend. The electron gun 19 is mounted in the neck 5 at one end by the leads (not shown) from the various electrodes to the stem terminals 97, and at the other end by conventional metal bulb spacers (not shown) which also connect the final electrode 33 to the usual conducting coating on the inner wall of the funnel 7.


CRT  TUBE VIDEOCOLOR  A51EAT01X02 P.I.L. FS10 ELECTRON TUBE. CRT TUBE ELECTRON GUN STRUCTURE TECHNOLOGY :
Plural gun cathode ray tube having parallel plates adjacent grid apertures:



n the tube gun, at least one of the two electrode grids nearest the screen has extensions on opposite sides of its apertures to distort an electrostatic field formed by the grid to at least partially compensate for distortion of an electron beam in the magnetic deflection field.

[ Inventors:Evans Jr. Deceased., John (LATE OF Lancaster, PA) ]

1. In a cathode-ray tube including an evacuated envelope comprising a faceplate and a neck connected by a funnel, a color phosphor screen on the inner surface of said faceplate, a multiapertured color selection electrode spaced from said screen, and electron gun means mounted in said neck for generating and directing a plurality of electron beams along paths through said electrode to said screen, said gun means including a plurality of cathodes and a plurality of grids spaced between said cathodes and said selection electrode, each of said grids having a plurality of apertures therein corresponding to the number of electron beams, and two of said grids forming a plurality of focusing fields corresponding to the number of electron beams, the improvement comprising,
at least one of said grids forming a plurality of focusing fields having attached parallel flat plates positioned on opposite sides of its apertures on its screen side, said plates being positioned to distort said plurality of focusing fields
to form a noncircular electron beam.


2. In a cathode-ray tube including an evacuated envelope comprising a faceplate and a neck connected by a funnel, a mosaic color phosphor screen on the inner surface of said faceplate, a multiapertured color selection electrode spaced from said screen, and in-line electron gun means mounted in said neck for generating and directing a plurality of electron beams along co-planar paths through apertures in said electrode to said screen, said gun means including a plurality of cathodes and a plurality of apertured grids spaced between said cathode and said selection electrode, two of said grids forming a focusing field, wherein said beams are subjected to vertical and horizontal magnetic deflection fields during operation of said tube for scanning said beams horizontally and vertically over said screen within a deflection zone located in the vicinity of the junction between said neck and said funnel, said electron beams tend to be distorted into a horizontally elliptical shape when they strike the screen as deflection angle increases by the magnetic deflection fields the improvement comprising,
at least one of said grids forming a focusing field having attached parallel flat plates positioned on opposite sides of its apertures on its screen side,
whereby the focusing field is distorted to at least partially compensate for distortion of the beam in the magnetic deflection field.


3. The tube as defined in claim 2 wherein said at least one grid is the second closest grid to the screen.

4. The tube as defined in claim 3 wherein said plates are positioned one between each pair of adjacent apertures and one outside of each outer aperture of the grid second closest to the screen.

5. The tube as defined in claim 2 wherein said at least one grid is the closest grid to the screen.

6. The tube as defined in claim 5 wherein said plates are positioned above and below the apertures of the grid closest to the screen.

Description:
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to an improvement in electron guns for cathode ray tubes. The improved gun is primarily intended for use in a color tube having a line type color phosphor screen, with or without light absorbing guard bands between the color phosphor lines, and a mask having elongated apertures or slits. However, the gun improvement could be used in the well known dot-type color tube having a screen of substantially circular color phosphor dots and a mask with substantially circular apertures. The invention may also be applied to other types of cathode-ray tubes such as penetration or focus-grill tubes.
An in-line electron gun is one designed to generate or initiate at least two, and preferably three, electron beams in a common plane, for example, by at least two cathodes, and direct those beams along convergent paths in that plane to a point or small area of convergence near the tube screen.
There has been a general trend toward color picture tubes with greater deflection angles in order to provide shorter tubes.
In the transition to a wider deflection tube, e.g., 90° deflection to 110° deflection, it has been found that the electron beam becomes increasingly more distorted as it is scanned toward the outer portions of the screen. Such distortions may be due, at least in part, to variations in the deflection field formed by a yoke mounted on the tube. It is the purpose of the present invention to at least partially compensate for these distortions.
Although the present invention may be applied to several different types of tubes, it is hereinafter described as an improvement on a tube having an in line gun, such as disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,772,554 issued to Hughes on Nov. 13, 1973. For the purpose of gun construction and operation, U.S. Pat. No. 3,722,554 is hereby incorporated by reference. Additionally, for the purpose of yoke construction and operation U.S. Pat. No. 3,721,930 issued to Barkow et al on Mar. 20, 1973 also hereby incorporated by reference as describing a representative yoke.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
A cathode-ray tube comprises an evacuated envelope, a cathodoluminescent screen within the envelope and electron gun means for generating and directing at least one electron beam toward the screen. The gun means includes at least one cathode and a plurality of apertured grids spaced between the cathode and screen. At least one of the apertured grids has extensions located on opposite sides of an aperture therein. These extensions cause distortion of the electrostatic field formed by the grid to form a noncircular electron beam.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
FIG. 1 is a plan view, partly in axial section, of a shadow mask color picture tube in which the present invention is incorporated;
FIGS. 2 and 3 are schematic views showing beam spot shapes without and with the invention respectively;
FIGS. 4 and 5 are enlarged axial section views of the electron gun shown in dotted lines in FIG. 1 taken along mutually perpendicular planes axially through the gun;
FIG. 6 is a perspective view of an electrode of the gun of FIGS. 4 and 5 including horizontally oriented slats or plates;
FIG. 7 is a perspective view of another electrode embodiment including vertically oriented plates;
FIG. 8 is a schematic view illustrating the focusing and converging electric fields associated with a pair of beam apertures without using plates;
FIG. 9 is a schematic side view showing the focusing and converging electric fields associated with a pair of beam apertures utilizing horizontal plates;
FIG. 10 is a schematic top view showing the focusing and converging electric field associated with a pair of beam apertures utilizing vertical plates.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT
FIG. 1 is a plan view of a rectangular color picture tube, having a glass envelope 1 comprising a rectangular panel or cap 3 and a tubular neck 5 connected by a rectangular funnel 7. The panel 3 comprises a viewing faceplate 9 and a peripheral flange or sidewall which is sealed to the funnel 7. A mosaic three-color phosphor screen 13 is located on the inner surface of the faceplate 9. As shown in FIGS. 2 and 3, the screen 13 is preferably a line screen i.e., comprised of an array of parallel phosphor lines or strips, with the phosphor lines extending substantially parallel to the vertical minor axis Y--Y of the tube. A multiapertured color selection electrode or shadow mask 15 is removably mounted, by conventional means, in predetermined spaced relationship to the screen 13. An improved in-line electron gun 19, shown schematically by dotted lines in FIG. 1, is mounted within the neck 5 to generate and direct three electron beams 20B, 20R and 20G along co-planar convergent paths through the mask 15 to the screen 13.
The tube of FIG. 1 is designed to be used with an external magnetic deflection yoke 21, surrounding the neck 5 and funnel 7, in the vicinity of their junction. When appropriate voltages are applied to the yoke 21, the three beams 20B, 20R and 20G are subjected to vertical and horizontal magnetic fields that cause the beams to scan horizontally and vertically in a rectangular raster over the screen 13.
The initial plane of deflection (at zero deflection) is shown by the line P--P in FIG. 1 at about the middle of the yoke 21. Because of fringe fields, the zone of deflection of the tube extends axially, from the yoke 21, into the region of the gun 19. For simplicity, the actual curvature of the deflected beam paths 20 in the deflection zone is not shown in FIG. 1.
FIGS. 2 and 3 are views of the tube screen 13 showing electron beam spot shapes as a beam 20R strikes the screen without and with the present invention, respectively. As shown in FIG. 2, without the present invention the shape of the electron beam at the center of the screen is substantially round but has a horizontally elliptical or elongated shape at the sides of the screen. Horizontal ellipticity is defined as an ellipse having its major axis horizontal.
This elongation of the beam is undesirable because of its adverse effect on video resolution. The elongation occurs because the beam is under-focused in the horizontal dimension. By using the present invention, however, the shape of the beam at the sides of the screen is made substantially rounder or at least less elongated in the horizontal direction. The compensation that makes the beam rounder at the edges, however, may make the beam at the center of the screen vertically elongated, i.e. elliptical with the major axis of the ellipse vertical. This vertical ellipticity causes no resolution problem since vertical resolution is limited by the number of scan lines.
The horizontal ellipticity problem is one encountered with some yokes, such as the self-converging yoke disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,721,930, when designed for wide-angle (e.g. 90°, 110°) deflection. Because of tube geometry, deflection yokes used with horizontally inline circular beams and designed to produce self-convergence along the horizontal axis of the tube must have a deflection field which diverges the beams as horizontal deflection angle increases. This horizontal divergence is achieved with a yoke capable of forming an astigmatic field, that, while diverging the beams in the horizontal plane with horizontal deflection, also causes vertical convergence of the electrons within each individual beam. Taken alone, this vertical convergence of electrons in each beam has no effect on horizontal beam spacing, however, the astigmatic field also diverges or defocuses each individual beam horizontally as it converges or focuses it vertically. A typical resultant electron beam spot produced at the center of the screen on a 25V°-110° in-line tube when subjected to an astigatic field is a round spot 4.6 mm. in diameter. However, corner spots are elongated in the horizontal direction having a horizontal length of 7.9 mm. and a vertical height of 2.7 mm. The corner spot ellipticity is thus 2.9/1.0.
The horizontal dimension of the electron beam spot can be reduced by increasing the focus voltage, however, such voltage adjustment has an adverse effect on the beam in the vertical direction causing it to be over focussed vertically, thereby degrading vertical video resolution. Adjustment of the focus voltage alone does not provide an acceptable electron spot. Therefore, a change in focus voltage must be accompanied by some other means or method that will alter the shape of the electron beam. A means for providing such alteration includes providing sufficient astigmatism in the electron gun so that a focus voltage can be obtained that provides optimum focusing of the electron beam in both the vertical and horizontal directions. Such optimum focus voltage may be compromised between the ideal voltages required for perfect focusing in each of the two orthogonal directions. With focus voltage set to provide optimum focus at the edge of the screen, the undeflected spot at the center of the screen becomes vertically elongated. In effect then, the present invention is a structure which provides sufficient astigmatism in the electron gun to reduce the beam spot distortion problem at the edges of the screen caused by the yoke by providing a compensating opposite distortion in the gun in the form of a preshaping of the beam before it enters the yoke field. This preshaping involves somewhat compromising the spot shape at the center of the screen.
The details of the improved gun 19 are shown in FIGS. 4, 5 and 6. For illustration, the inventive improvement is shown as being added to the gun disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,773,554. The gun 19 comprises two glass support rods 23 on which the various grid electrodes are mounted. These electrodes include three equally-spaced co-planar cathodes 25 (one for each beam), a control grid electrode 27, a screen grid electrode 29, a first accelerating and focusing electrode 31, a second accelerating and focusing electrode 33, and a shield cup 35. All of these components are spaced along the glass rods 23 in the order named.
Each cathode 25 comprises a cathode sleeve 37, closed at the forward end by a cap 39 having an end coating 41 of electron emissive material. Each sleeve is supported in a cathode support tube 43. The tubes 43 are supported on the rods 23 by four straps 45 and 47. Each cathode 25 is indirectly heated by a heater coil 49 positioned within the sleeve 37 and having legs 51 welded to heater straps 53 and 55 mounted by studs 57 on the rods 23.
The control and screen grid electrodes 27 and 29 are two closely-spaced (about 0.23 mm. apart) flat plates, each having three apertures 59G, 59R and 59B and 60G, 60R and 60B, respectively, centered with the cathode coatings 41 and aligned with the apertures of the other along a central beam path 20R and two outer beam paths 20G and 20B extending toward the screen 13. The outer beam paths 20G and 20B are equally spaced from the central beam path 20R. Preferably, the initial portions of the beam paths 20G, 20R and 20B are substantially parallel and about 5 gm. apart, with the middle path 20R coincident with the central axis A--A.
The first accelerating and focusing electrode 31 comprises first and second cup-shaped members 61 and 63, respectively, joined together at their open ends. The first cup-shaped member 61 has three medium sized (about 1.5 mm.) apertures 65G, 65R and 65B close to the grid electrode 29 and aligned respectively with the three beam paths 20G, 20R and 20B, as shown in FIG. 5. The second cup-shaped member 63 has three large (about 4 mm.) apertures 67G, 67R and 67B also aligned with the three beam paths.
The second accelerating and focusing electrode 33 is also cup-shaped and comprises a base plate portion 69 positioned close (about 1.5 mm) to the first accelerating electrode 31 and a side wall or flange 71 extending forward toward the tube screen. The base portion 69 is formed with three apertures 73G, 73R and 73B which are preferably slightly larger (about 4.4 mm) than the adjacent apertures 67G, 67R and 67B of electrode 31. The middle aperture 73R is aligned with the adjacent middle aperture 67R (and middle beam path 20R) to provide a substantially symmetrical beam focusing electric field between apertures 67R and 73R when electrodes 31 and 33 are energized at different voltages. The two outer apertures 73G and 73B are slightly offset outwardly with respect to the corresponding outer apertures 67G and 67B, to provide an asymmetrical electric field between each pair of outer apertures when electrodes 31 and 33 are energized, to individually focus each outer beam 20G and 20B near the screen, and also to deflect each outer beam toward the middle beam 20R to a common point of convergence with the middle beam near the screen. In the example shown, the offset of the beam apertures 73G and 73B may be about 0.15 mm.
In order to provide correction for the aforementioned beam flattening as horizontal deflection angle is increased, each beam is predistorted in the gun so that it is vertically defocused at the center of the screen resulting in vertical elongation of the undeflected beam spot. This predistortion, or pre-shaping, of the beams is accomplished by the inclusion of horizontal parallel plates positioned on opposite sides of each beam and extending toward the screen from one of the focusing electrodes. In the embodiment shown in FIGS. 4, 5 and 6, two horizontally oriented parallel slats or plates 75 are attached to an inner wall of the cup-shaped second accelerating and focusing electrode 33. The plates 75 are coextensive with and separated by the electrode apertures 73G, 73R and 73B. The purpose of so positioning the plates 75 is to cause defocusing about vertical axes passing through each of the apertures 73G, 73R and 73B.
Alternately, rather than defocusing the focusing field about a vertical axis, the focusing field can be overfocused or strengthened about a horizontal axis. Such strengthening can be accomplished by placement of vertically oriented plates 77 on opposite sides of each aperture in the cup-shaped member 63 of the first accelerating and focusing electrode 31 as shown in FIG. 7.
The concept of the present invention can be better understood with reference to the schematics of FIGS. 8, 9, and 10. FIG. 8 illustrates a vertical cross-section of an electron lens of the prior art formed by the two electrodes 33 and 66 without the plates 75. Electron lens equipotential lines are shown and the effect of the electron lens on two electron paths 79 and 81 is illustrated. Electron path 79 is on the center line of the lens and electron path 81 is off-center. The electron lens has no effect on the center electron path 79 but causes electrons in off-center paths to converge toward the center of the lens. When plates 75 are added to the electrode 33 the equipotential lines are stretched in the direction of the plates 75, as shown in FIG. 9, thereby defocusing or distorting the electrostatic field of the electron lens in the vertical plane passing through the electrodes. This distorting of the electron lens has no effect on the center electron path 79, but reduces the convergence of the off-centered electron paths 81 to the center of the lens. Since the plates 75 only affect an electron beam along the vertical axis, the distortion of the electron lens along this axis provides a planar defocusing which results in an electron beam that is vertically elongated.
In the alternate embodiment wherein vertical plates 77 are positioned between the apertures 67G, 67R and 67B in the electrode 31, the concept changes from defocusing vertically to increased focusing horizontally. As illustrated in FIG. 10, the addition of the plates 77
causes a concentration of equipotential lines which results in increased convergence of an off-centered electron beam path 83. This increased horizontal focusing provides a horizontal concentration of an electron beam so that the resultant beam is again vertically elongated.
Although the present invention has been described with respect to an in line electron gun, it is to be understood that the basic inventive concept of the present invention may also be applied to delta type electron guns, penetration tube guns and focus grill tube guns, to similarly shape electron beams.





 VIDEOCOLOR (FS10) Color picture tube having an inline electron gun with an astigmatic prefocusing lens:



A color picture tube includes an inline electron gun for generating and directing three inline electron beams along coplanar beam paths toward a screen. The gun includes a plurality of electrodes which form a beam-forming region, a prefocusing lens, and a main focusing lens for the electron beams. The prefocusing lens includes four active surfaces. At least one of the active surfaces has asymmetric prefocusing recesses formed therein.

 1. In a color cathode-ray tube including an envelope having therein an inline electron gun for generating and directing three inline electron beams, including a center beam and two outer beams, along initially coplanar beam paths toward and screen on an interior portion of said envelope, said gun having six electrodes forming three electron lenses including a beam-forming lens, a prefocusing lens and a main focusing lens, the improvement wherein
said prefocusing lens includes four active surfaces, at least one of which has a recess formed therein, said active surfaces produce quadrupole fields which form an astigmatic prefocusing lens, said recess provides a preconverging action on said outer electron beams, three circular apertures being provided within said recess.


2. The tube as described in claim 1 wherein said recess is configured to minimize the sensitivity of said gun to variations in operating potentials.

3. In a color cathode-ray tube including an envelope having therein an inline electron gun for generating and directing three inline electron beams, including a center beam and two outer beams, along initially coplanar beam paths toward and screen on an interior portion of said envelope, said gun having six electrodes forming three electron lenses including a beam-forming lens, a prefocusing lens and a main focusing lens, the improvement wherein said prefocusing lens includes four active surfaces on three adjacent electrodes, at least two of said surfaces having substantial identical recesses formed therein, said active surfaces produce quadrupole fields which form an astigmatic prefocusing lens that provides a horizontally-elongated electron beam to said main focusing lens, said recesses provide a preconverging action on said outer electron beams, each of said adjacent electrodes having circular apertures therethrough said apertures being aligned along said beam paths.


4. The tube as described in claim 3 wherein said recesses are configured to minimize the sensitivity of said gun to variations in operating potentials.

5. In a color cathode-ray tube including an envelope having therein an inline electron gun for generating and directing three inline electron beams along initially coplanar beam paths toward a screen on an interior portion of said envelope, said gun including a plurality of longitudinally spaced electrodes which form a first lens, a prefocusing lens and a main focusing lens for said electron beams, said first lens comprising a beam-forming region including a first electrode, a second electrode and a first portion of a third electrode for providing substantially symmetrically-shaped beams to said prefocusing lens comprising a second portion of said third electrode, a fourth electrode and a first portion of a fifth electrode, said prefocusing lens providing asymmetrically-shaped beams to said main focusing lens comprising of a second portion of said fifth electrode and a sixth electrode, said main focusing lens being a low aberration lens, wherein the improvement comprises, said prefocusing lens including four active surfaces with separate inline circular apertures therethrough, said fourth electrode having substantially identical asymmetric beam-focusing recesses formed in the oppositely disposed active surfaces thereof, said apertures being disposed within said recesses.


6. The tube as described in claim 5 wherein a single recess is formed in each active surface of said fourth electrode.

7. The tube as described in claim 5 wherein three separate, substantially rectangular recesses comprising two outer recesses and a center recess are formed in each active surface of said fourth electrode.

8. The tube as described in claim 7 wherein each of said outer recesses having an outer aperture therethrough said outer recesses being displaced outwardly relative to said outer apertures.

9. The tube as described in claim 5, wherein each of said circular apertures of said first lens and said prefocusing lens being coaxially aligned along said beam paths.

10. In a color cathode-ray tube including an envelope having therein an inline electron gun for generating and directing three inline beams along initially coplanar beam paths toward a screen on an interior portion of said envelope, said gun including six longitudinally spaced electrodes each having three inline circular apertures therethrough, said electrodes forming a first lens, a prefocusing lens and a main focusing lens for said electron beams, said first lens comprising a beam-forming region including a first electrode, a second electrode and a first portion of a third electrode for providing substantially symmetrically-shaped beams to said prefocusing lens comprising a second portion of said third electrode, a fourth electrode and a first portion of a fifth electrode, said prefocusing lens providing asymmetrically-shaped beams to said main focusing lens consisting of a second portion of said fifth electrode and a sixth electrode, said main focusing lens being a low aberration lens, wherein the improvement comprises, said prefocusing lens including four active surfaces, said second portion of said third electrode and said first portion of said fifth electrode having substantially identical, asymmetric beam-focusing recesses formed in the active surfaces thereof, said circular apertures being formed within said recesses.


11. The tube as described in claim 10 wherein a single recess is formed in said second portion of said third electrode and said first portion of said fifth electrode.

12. The tube as described in claim 10 wherein three separate, substantially rectangular recesses comprising two outer recesses and a center recess are formed in said active surfaces of said second portion of said third electrode and of said first portion of said fifth electrode.

13. The tube as described in claim 12 wherein each of said outer recesses having one of said circular apertures therethrough, said recesses being displaced outwardly relative to said circular apertures.

14. The tube as described in claim 10 wherein each of said circular apertures in each of said electrodes of said first lens and said prefocusing lens being coaxially aligned along said beam paths.

Description:
The invention relates to a color picture tube having an inline electron gun and, particularly to an electron gun having three lenses including an asymmetric prefocusing lens.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
An electron gun, such as a six electrode gun, designed for use in a large screen entertainment-type color picture tube must be capable of generating small-sized high-current electron beam spots over the entire screen. A conventional television receiver utilizes a color picture tube with an inline electron gun and a self-converging deflection yoke, for providing a horizontal deflection field having a pincushion-shaped distortion and a vertical deflection field having a barrel-shaped distortion. The fringe fields of such a yoke introduce into the tube strong astigmatism and deflection defocusing caused, primarily, by vertical overfocusing and, secondarily, by horizontal underfocusing of the deflected electron beams. Beam spots formed by the electron beams passing through such distorted horizontal and vertical deflection fields are asymmetrically-shaped when deflected to the periphery of the screen. Additionally, many inline electron guns exhibit a misconvergence of the outer electron beams due to a change in the strength of the electron lens caused by changes in the focus voltage. Such a misconvergence results in a variation in beam landing position with changes in focus voltage. The present invention addresses these problems in an expeditious and cost effective manner without sacrificing performance.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
The present invention provides an improvement in a color picture tube. Such a tube includes an inline electron gun for generating and directing three inline electron beams along coplanar beam paths toward a screen. The gun includes a plurality of electrodes which form a beam-forming region, a prefocusing lens and a main focusing lens for the electron beams. The improvement resides within the prefocusing lens, which includes four active surfaces. At least one of the active surfaces has asymmetric prefocusing means formed therein.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
FIG. 1 is a plan view, partially in axial section, of a shadow mask color picture tube embodying the invention.
FIGS. 2 and 3 are schematic axial section side views of electron guns in which the invention may be employed.
FIG. 4 is an axial section top view of electron gun according to the present invention.
FIG. 5 is a partial section top view of a first embodiment of the prefocusing lens of the present invention.
FIG. 6 is a section view of an electrode of the prefocusing lens of FIG. 5, taken along line 6--6.
FIG. 7 is a graph of the beam current density contour at the center of the screen for an electron gun utilizing the prefocusing lens electrode of FIG. 5.
FIGS. 8 and 9 are section views of the electron gun shown in FIG. 4, taken along lines 8--8 and 9--9.
FIG. 10 is a partial section top view of a second embodiment of the prefocusing lens of the present invention.
FIG. 11 is a section view of an electrode of the prefocusing lens of FIG. 10, taken along line 11--11.
FIG. 12 is a graph of the beam current density contour at the center of the screen for an electron gun utilizing the prefocusing lens of FIG. 10.
FIG. 13 is a partial section top view of a third embodiment of the prefocusing lens of the present invention.
FIG. 14 is a graph of the beam current density contour at the center of the screen for an electron gun utilizing the prefocusing lens of FIG. 13.
FIG. 15 is a partial section top view of a fourth embodiment of the prefocusing lens of the present invention.
FIG. 16 is a graph of the beam current density contour at the center of the screen for an electron gun utilizing the prefocusing lens of FIG. 15.
FIG. 17 is a section view of a prior embodiment of an electrode of the prefocusing lens.
FIG. 18 is a graph of the beam current density contour at the center of the screen for an electron gun using the prior prefocusing lens electrode of FIG. 17.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
FIG. 1 shows a rectangular color picture tube 10 having a glass envelope 11 comprising a rectangular faceplate panel 12 and a tubular neck 14 connected by a rectangular funnel 16. The panel 12 comprises a viewing faceplate 18 and a peripheral flange or sidewall 20 which is sealed to the funnel 16 with a frit seal 21. A mosaic three-color phosphor screen 22 is located on the inner surface of the faceplate 18. The screen, preferably, is a line screen with the phosphor lines extending substantially perpendicular to the high frequency raster line scan of the tube (normal to the plane of FIG. 1). Alternatively, the screen could be a dot screen. A multiapertured color selection electrode or shadow mask 24 is removably mounted, by conventional means, in predetermined, spaced relation to the screen 22. An improved inline electron gun 26, shown schematically by dashed lines in FIG. 1, is centrally mounted within the neck 14 to generate and direct three electron beams 28, along coplanar convergent beam paths, through the mask 24 to the screen 22.
The tube of FIG. 1 is designed to be used with an external magnetic deflection yoke, such as the yoke 30, located in the neighborhood of the funnel-to-neck junction. When activated, the yoke 30 subjects the three beams 28 to magnetic fields which cause the beams to scan horizontally and vertically, in a rectangular raster, over the screen 22. The initial plane of deflection (at zero deflection) is shown by the line P--P in FIG. 1, at about the middle of the yoke 30. Because of fringe fields, the zone of deflection of the tube extends axially from the yoke 30 into the region of the gun 26. For simplicity, the actual curvature of the deflection beam paths in the deflection zone is not shown in FIG. 1.
The inline electron gun 26 includes six electrodes, G1 through G6, in addition to the cathodes, K. The gun may be of a first type 26', shown in FIG. 2, in which the G2 and G4 electrodes are interconnected and operated at a first potential, and the G3 and G5 electrodes are interconnected and operated at a second potential, or the gun may be of a second type 26", shown in FIG. 3, in which the G3 and G5 electrodes are interconnected and operated at a third potential, and the G4 and G6 electrodes are interconnected and operated at a fourth potential. In each of the electron guns 26' and 26", three electron lenses, L1, L2, and L3, are formed by the aforementioned electrodes. The present invention relates primarily to the second or prefocusing lens, L2.
The details of a first embodiment of the novel electron gun 26' are shown in FIGS. 4 through 9. With reference to FIG. 4, the gun 26' comprises three equally spaced coplanar cathodes 42 (one for each beam), a control grid 44 (G1), a screen grid 46 (G2), a third electrode 48 (G3), a fourth electrode 50 (G4), a fifth electrode 52 (G5), the G5 electrode includes a portion G5' identified as element 54, for a purpose to be described hereinafter, and a sixth electrode 56 (G6). The electrodes are spaced, in the order named, from the cathodes and are attached to a pair of support rods (not shown).
The G1 electrode 44, the G2 electrode 46 and a first portion 72 of the G3 electrode 48, facing the G2 electrode 46, comprise a beam-forming region of the electron gun 26' and form the first electron lens, L1. Another portion 74 of the G3 electrode 48, the G4 electrode 50 and the G5 electrode 52 comprise an asymmetric prefocusing or second electron lens, L2, one embodiment of which is shown in FIG. 5. The portion 54 of the G5' electrode and the G6 electrode 56 comprise a third or main focusing lens L3.
Each cathode 42 comprises a cathode sleeve 58 closed at its forward end by a cap 60 having an end coating 62 of an electron emissive material thereon, as is known in the art. Each cathode 42 is indirectly heated by a heater coil (not shown) positioned within the sleeve 58.
The G1 and G2 electrodes, 44 and 46, are two closely spaced, substantially flat, plates each having three inline apertures, 64 and 66, respectively, therethrough. The apertures 64 and 66 are centered with the cathode coating 62 to initiate three equally-spaced coplanar electron beams 28 (shown in FIG. 1), which are directed towards the screen 22. Preferably, the initial electron beam paths are substantially parallel, with the middle path with the central axis, A--A, of the electron gun.
The G3 electrode 48 includes a substantially flat outer plate portion 68 having three inline apertures 70 therethrough, which are aligned with the apertures 66 and 64 in the G2 and G1 electrodes, 46 and 44, respectively. The G3 electrode 48 also includes a pair of cup-shaped first and second portions, 72 and 74, respectively, which are joined together at their open ends. The first portion 72 has three inline apertures 76, formed through the bottom of the cup, which are aligned with the aperture 70 in the plate 68. The second portion 74 of the G3 electrode has three apertures 78 formed through its bottom, which are aligned with the apertures 76 in the first portion 72. Extrusions 79 surround the apertures 78. Alternatively, the plate portion 68, with its inline apertures 70, may be formed as an internal part of the first portion 72.
As shown in FIG. 5, the G4 electrode 50 comprises a plate having identically-shaped recesses 51a and 51b formed in the opposed major surfaces thereof. Three inline apertures 80 are formed through the body of the electrode 50, within recesses 51a and 51b, and aligned with the apertures 78 in the G3 electrode 48.
Again with respect to FIG. 4, the G5 electrode 52 is a deep-drawn, cup-shaped member having three apertures 82, surrounded by extrusions 83, formed in the bottom end thereof. A substantially flat plate member 84, having three apertures 86, aligned with the apertures 82, is attached to and closes the open end of the G5 electrode 52. A first plate portion 88, having a plurality of openings 90 therein, is attached to the opposite surface of the plate member 84.
The G5' electrode portion 54 comprises a deep-drawn, cup-shaped member having a recess 92 formed in the bottom end thereof, with three inline apertures 94 extending therethrough. Extrusions 95 surround the apertures 94. The opposite open end of the G5' electrode portion 54 is closed by a second plate portion 96 having three openings 98 formed therethrough. The openings 98 are aligned and cooperate with the openings 90, in the first plate portion 88, in a manner described below.
The G6 electrode 56 is a cup-shaped, deep-drawn member having a large opening 100 at one end through which all three electron beams pass, and an open end which is attached to and closed by a plate member 102 that has three apertures 104 therethrough which are aligned with the apertures 94 in the G5' electrode portion 54. Extrusions 105 surround the apertures 104.
The shape of the recess 51b, formed in the G4 electrode 50, is shown in FIG. 6. The recesses 51a and 51b have a uniform vertical height at each of the apertures 80 and have rounded ends. Such a shape has been referred to as the "race-track" shape. The recess 92, formed in the bottom end of the G5' electrode portion 54, is also "race-track-shaped" but differs in dimension from the recesses 51a and 51b in the G4 electrode 50 as described below.
The shape of the large aperture 100 in the G6 electrode 54 is shown in FIG. 8. The opening 100 is vertically higher at the outside apertures 104 than it is at the center aperture. Such a shape has been referred to as the "dog-bone" or "barbell" shape.
With respect to FIG. 4, the first plate portion 88 of the G5 electrode 52 faces the second plate portion 96 of the G5' electrode portion 54. The apertures 90 in the first plate portion 88 have extrusions extending from the plate portion that have been divided into two segments, 106 and 108, for each aperture. The apertures 98 in the second plate portion 96 of the G5' electrode portion 54 also have extrusions extending from the plate portion 96 that have been divided into two segments, 110 and 112, for each aperture. As shown in FIG. 9, the segments 106 and 108 are interleaved with the segments 110 and 112. These segments are used to create quadrupole lenses in the paths of each electron beam when different potentials are applied to the G5 and G5' electrode and electrode portion, 52 and 54, respectively. By proper application of a dynamic voltage differential to either the G5 electrode 52 or the G5' electrode portion 54, it is possible to use the quadrupole lenses established by the segments 106, 108, 110 and 112 to provide an astigmatic correction to the electron beams, which compensates for astigmatism occurring in either the electron gun or the deflection yoke. Such a quadrupole lens structure is described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,731,563, to Bloom et al. on Mar. 15, 1988, which is incorporated by reference herein for the purpose of disclosure.
The novel second lens, L2, of the present invention does not require the use of a quadrupole lens formed by the above-described G5 and G5' electrode and electrode portion, 52 and 54, respectively. A unitized G5 electrode, fabricated by eliminating the first and second plate portions 88 and 96 and attaching together the open ends of elements 52 and 54, may be used; however, such a gun structure would not provide an optimized deflected electron beam shape, although it might be useful where a tradeoff between performance and cost is permissible.
GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
Specific dimensions of a computer modeled electron gun for the first preferred embodiment are presented in TABLE I.
TABLE I
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inches mm
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K-G1 spacing 0.003 0.08
Thickness of G1 electrode 44
0.004 0.10
Thickness of G2 electrode 46
0.028 0.71
G1 and G2 aperture diameter
0.025 0.64
G1 to G1 spacing 0.008 0.20
G2 to G3 spacing 0.030 0.76
Thickness of G3 plate portion 68
0.010 0.25
Diameter of G3 apertures 70
0.045 1.14
Diameter of G3 apertures 78
0.148 3.76
Length of G3 electrode 48
0.200 5.08
G3 to G4 spacing 0.050 1.27
Thickness of active area of G4 electrode 50
0.025 0.64
Diameter of G4 aperture 80
0.158 4.01
Horizontal width of recesses 51a and 51b
0.785 19.94
Vertical height of recesses 51a and 51b
0.239 6.07
Depth of recesses 51a and 51b
0.030 0.76
G4 to G5 spacing 0.050 1.27
Overall length of G5 electrode
0.970 24.64
52 and G5' electrode portion 54
Spacing between plate portions 88 and 96
0.040 1.02
Horizontal width of recess 92
0.755 19.18
Vertical height of recess 92
0.326 8.28
Depth of recess 92 0.115 2.92
Diameter of apertures 82, 90, 98
0.158 4.01
Aperture-to-aperture spacing K to G5 bottom
0.260 6.60
Diameter of G5' aperture 94 (center)
0.160 4.06
Diameter of G5' apertures 94 (outer)
0.180 4.57
G5' to G6 spacing 0.050 1.27
Length of G6 electrode 56
0.150 3.81
Horizontal width of opening 100
0.742 18.85
Maximum height of opening 100
0.295 7.49
Minimum height of opening 100
0.289 7.34
Depth of opening 100 0.135 3.43
Diameter of G6 aperture 105 (center)
0.160 4.06
Diameter of G6 apertures 105 (outer)
0.180 4.57
Aperture-to-aperture spacing G5'top/G6
0.245 6.22
Length of G3 extrusions 79
0.045 1.14
Length of G5 extrusions 83
0.045 1.14
Length of G5' extrusions 95
0.034 0.86
Length of G6 extrusions 105
0.045 1.14
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In the embodiment presented in TABLE I, the electron gun is electrically connected as shown in FIG. 2. Typically, the cathode operates at about 150V, the G1 electrode at ground potential, the G2 and G4 electrodes are electrically interconnected and operate within the range of about 300V to 1000V, the G3 and G5 electrodes also are electrically interconnected and operate at about 7650V and the G6 electrode operates at an anode potential of about 25 kV.
In the present electron gun 26', the first lens, L1 (FIG. 2), provides a symmetrically-shaped, high quality electron beam into the second lens, L2. The first lens, L1, comprises the beam forming region of the gun and includes the G1 electrode 44, the G2 electrode 46, and the first portion of the G3 electrode 48 adjacent the G2 electrode.
The second lens, L2, is the novel asymmetric prefocusing lens which comprises the G4 electrode 50 and the adjacent portions of the G3 electrode 48 and the G5 electrode 52. In the first embodiment, the identical pair of recesses, 51a and 51b, are formed in the opposed, major, active surfaces of the G4 electrode 50 (see, e.g., FIGS. 5 and 6). While the recesses are, preferably, race-track-shaped, other shapes, e.g., rectangular, which produce the effect described below, are within the scope of the present invention. The active, facing surfaces of the G3 and G5 electrodes, 48 and 52, respectively, are substantially flat. The combination of the above-described active elements produce quadrupole fields which form the asymmetric or astigmatic prefocusing lens which provides a horizontally-elongated electron beam (not shown) into the third or main focusing lens, L3. By providing the astigmatic focusing correction in the prefocusing lens, L2, beyond the electron beam cross-over point which occurs within the first lens, L1, the effectiveness of each quadrupole field is substantially independent of changes in the beam current. Additionally, the race-track-shaped recesses, 51a and 51b, provide a preconverging action which eliminates misconvergence of the outer beams at the screen, due to changes in the focus voltage, by providing a compensating change in the strength of the prefocusing lens, L2.
While the invention is described in terms of two recesses, it is possible to achieve the same results by forming only one recess in either surface of the G4 electrode 50. The single recess would have a greater depth than either of the recesses 51a or 51b, and the lateral dimension, i.e., vertical height and horizontal width, would be less than those of either of the recesses to provide equivalent asymmetric and convergence corrections to the beams. The dimensions of the single recess would depend upon the extent of beam corrections required.
The main focusing lens, L3, formed between the G5' electrode portion 54 and the G6 electrode 56, also is an asymmetric lens, having low aberration, which provides a vertically elongated, or asymmetrically-shaped, electron beam spot at the center of the screen. The spacing between adjacent apertures 94 in the G5' electrode portion 54 and the apertures 104 in the G6 electrode 56 is 6.22 mm, rather than the 6.60 mm aperture-to-aperture spacing that exists from the cathodes to the apertures 82 in the bottom G5 electrode 52. This reduced main lens aperture-to-aperture spacing ensures that the preconverged outer beams pass through low-aberration regions of the main lens, L3, to minimize coma distortions. A graph of a computer simulation of the electron beam spot at the center of the screen of a 27 V110° tube, operated at a cathode drive voltage of 103.2 V, a G3/G5 focus voltage of 7650 V, and an ultor voltage of 25 kV and 4 mA beam current, is shown in FIG. 7. The beam spot is elliptically-shaped along the vertical axis to reduce the overfocusing action of the yoke when the beam is deflected. The undeflected, center beam spot includes a substantially rectangularly-shaped 90% peak beam current density portion which is circumscribed by larger elliptically-shaped 50% and 5% peak beam current density portions. The size of the 5% peak beam current density spot is about 2.5 mm×4.2 mm (H×V). With the width of the G4 recesses 51a and 51b as specified in TABLE I, and the overall length of the gun from the G3 bottom to the top of the G5' electrode portion adjusted to 35.05 mm, the focus voltage is kept below 7700 V, and the misconvergence of the outer beam is reduced to substantially zero.
By utilizing the multipole lens described with respect to FIG. 4, and applying to the G5' electrode portion 54 a dynamic differential focus voltage that ranges from the potential on the G5 electrode 52, with no deflection, to about 1000 volts more positive at maximum deflection, the beam current density spot size can be optimized when the beams are deflected to the periphery of the screen. This mode of operation is discussed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,764,704, issued to New et al. on Aug. 16, 1988, which is incorporated by reference herein for the purpose of disclosure.
A second embodiment of the present invention is obtained by increasing the length of the G3 electrode 148 to 5.84 mm, from the value of 5.08 mm shown in TABLE I, and modifying the asymmetric prefocusing lens, L2, as shown in FIG. 10. In the second embodiment of the lens L2, the G4 electrode 150 comprises a substantially flat plate having a thickness of about 0.025 inch (0.64 mm) with circular apertures 180 formed through the oppositely disposed, active, major surfaces thereof. The active surfaces of the facing G3 and G5 electrodes, 148 and 152, respectively, have rectangular slots enclosing the electron beam apertures. As shown in FIG. 11, each of the slots 149, in the G3 electrode 148, has a slot width, W, of 5.82 mm, and a slot height, H, of 10.16 mm. Each of the slots 149 has a depth, d, of 0.76 mm, shown in FIG. 10. The slot-to-slot spacing, S, shown in FIG. 11, is 7.11 mm. Since the aperture-to-aperture spacing, s, within the prefocusing lens, L2, is 6.60 mm, and the slot-to-slot spacing, S, is 7.11 mm, it can be seen, in FIG. 11, that the two outer slots 149 in the G3 electrode 148 are displaced outwardly relative to the outer apertures 178 formed therein. This displacement of the slots 149 in the G3 electrode, and a similar displacement of the identically dimensional slots 153 in the G5 electrode 152, cooperate to form an asymmetric prefocusing lens, L2, which provides a horizontally-elongated electron beam (not shown) into the third lens, L3. The novel slot configuration in the G3 and G5 electrodes 148 and 152, respectively, also provides a preconverging action to eliminate misconvergence of the outer beams at the screen, in a manner similar to that described for the first embodiment. A computer simulation of the resultant vertically-elongated beam spot at the center of the screen is graphically shown in FIG. 12. When operated at an ultor voltage of 25 kV and 4 mA beam current in a 27 V110° tube, the beam sizes at 90% and 50% peak current density are comparable to those of the first embodiment, shown in FIG. 7, and the beam size at 5% peak current density is about 2.26 mm×3.68 mm (H×V), at a cathode drive voltage of 103.2 V and a G3/G5 focus voltage of 7650 V. All other gun parameters are as listed in TABLE I.
Equivalent performance can be achieved by forming the slots in only one of the active surfaces, i.e., in either the G3 electrode 148 or the G5 electrode 152. Slots formed in only one active surface must be deeper than the slots described above, and the small dimension of each slot must be reduced while the amount of outer slot offset must be increased.
A third embodiment of the present invention is achieved by modifying the electron gun to provide the electrical configuration shown in FIG. 3. The asymmetric prefocusing lens, L2, of the gun 26" is shown in FIG. 13. The length of the G3 electrode 248 is maintained at 5.84 mm, the same dimension utilized in the second embodiment, and a race-track shaped recess 249 is formed in the active, major surface of the G3 electrode facing the G4 electrode 250. The recess 249 has a horizontal width of 19.43 mm, a vertical height of 5.84 mm and a depth of 0.76 mm. An identically-shaped and dimensioned race track recess 253 is formed in the active surface of the G5 electrode 252, facing the substantially flat G4 electrode 250. While the race-track shape is preferred, other geometric shapes which provide an asymmetric lens with a preconvergence correction may be used. In the third embodiment, the G4 electrode 250 has a thickness of about 0.64 mm, with circular apertures 280 formed therethrough. The asymmetric prefocusing lens, L2, of the third embodiment provides the preconverging action, and forms horizontally-elongated electron beams (not shown), as previously described, into the third lens, L3. A computer simulation of the resultant vertically-elongated beam spot at the center of the screen is graphically shown in FIG. 14. When operated at an ultor/G4 voltage of 25 kV and 4 mA beam current in a 27 V110° tube, the beam size and shape at 90% peak beam current density is larger and more elliptical than in the first and second embodiments, while at 50% peak beam current density the elliptically-shaped spot is more vertically elongated than in the first two embodiments. At 5% peak beam current density, the beam spot size is about 1.94 mm×3.44 mm (H×V). The cathode drive voltage in this embodiment is 103.2 V, the G3/G5 focus voltage is 7650 V and the G2 voltage is typically about 400 V. All other gun parameters are as listed in TABLE I.
As described above, a single recess can be formed in either the active surface of the G3 or G5 electrodes, 248 or 252, respectively, if the depth is increased and the lateral dimensions are suitably reduced to provide equivalent performance.
A fourth embodiment of the asymmetric prefocusing lens, L2, is shown in FIG. 15. The length of the G3 electrode 348 is 5.08 mm, and the active surface facing the G4 electrode 350 is substantially flat, with three circular apertures 378 formed therethrough. The apertures 378 have a diameter of 4.01 mm. The G4 electrode 350 has rectangular slots 350a and 350b formed in the opposed major active surfaces thereof, with the slots 350a facing the G3 electrode 348 and the slots 350b facing the G5 electrode 352. Each of the slots 350a and 350b has a width of 5.79 mm, a height of 10.16 mm and a depth of 0.76 mm. The slot-to-slot spacing is 7.01 mm. The circular apertures 380, formed through the G4 electrode 350, have a diameter of 4.01 mm and are enclosed within the rectangular slots 350a and 350b, in the same manner as discussed with respect to the slots shown in FIG. 11. The active major surface of the G5 electrode 352 facing the G4 electrode 350 also is substantially flat, with three circular apertures 382 formed therethrough. The apertures 382 also have a 80 diameter of 4.01 mm.
Since the aperture-to-aperture spacing within the prefocusing lens, L2, is 6.60 mm and the slot-to-slot spacing of the slots 350a and 350b of the G4 electrode 350 is 7.01 mm, the two outer slots are displaced outwardly relative to the outer apertures 380 formed within the slots. The configuration and displacement of the G4 slots form an asymmetric lens which provides the preconverging action and horizontally-elongated electron beams (not shown), as previously described, into the third lens, L3. A computer simulation of the resultant vertically-elongated beam spot at the center of the screen is graphically shown in FIG. 16. The beam spot shape is similar to that shown in FIG. 14. When operated at an ultor/G4 voltage of 25 kV and 4 mA beam current in a 27 V110° tube, the beam size at 5% peak beam current density is about 1.96 mm×3.49 mm (H×V), at a cathode drive voltage of 103.2 V and a G3/G5 focus voltage of 7700 V. The G2 voltage in this embodiment is typically about 400 V. All other gun parameters are as listed in TABLE I.
Alternatively, slots can be formed in only one of the active surfaces of the G4 electrode 350. The depth of the slots must be increased, and the small dimension of each slot must be decreased, from the respective dimensions described immediately above. Additionally, the amount of offset of the outer slots must be increased to obtain performance equivalent to that of the fourth embodiment.
GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
The novel electron gun of the present invention is to be contrasted to an electron gun of the type described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,764,704, referenced above. In that patent, a G4 electrode, similar to the G4 electrode 450 of the prefocusing, or second, lens shown in FIG. 17, has rectangularly-shaped apertures 480 therethrough. Specific dimensions of a computer model of an embodiment of that prior electron gun are presented in TABLE II. That embodiment has the electrical configuration shown in FIG. 2 herein, and is similar in construction to the electron gun shown in FIG. 4 herein, with similar gun elements being identified with corresponding numbers, prefixed by the number "4".
TABLE II
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inches mm
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K-G1 spacing 0.003 0.08
Thickness of G1 electrode 444
0.004 0.10
Thickness of G2 electrode 446
0.028 0.71
G1 and G1 aperture diameters
0.025 0.64
G1 to G2 spacing 0.008 0.20
G2 to G3 spacing 0.030 0.76
Thickness of G3 bottom plate 468
0.010 0.25
Diameter of G3 aperture 470, center
0.045 1.14
Diameter of G3 apertures 470, outer
0.052 1.32
Diameter of G3 apertures 478
0.148 3.76
Length of G3 electrode 448
0.200 5.08
G3 to G4 spacing 0.500 1.27
Thickness of G4 electrode 450
0.025 0.64
Dimensions of G4 electrode apertures 480
0.158 V 4.01 V
× ×
0.172 H 4.37 H
G4 to G5 spacing 0.050 1.27
Length of G5 electrode* 452-454
0.830 21.08
Diameter of apertures 482
0.158 4.01
Diameter of aperture 494 (center)
0.160 4.06
Diameter of apertures 494 (outer)
0.180 4.57
Horizontal width of recess 492
0.755 19.18
Vertical height of recess 492
0.326 8.28
Depth of recess 492 0.115 2.29
Aperture-to-aperture spacing K to G5
0.260 6.60
bottom**
G5 to G6 spacing 0.050 1.27
Length of G6 electrode
0.150 3.81
Horizontal width of opening 400
0.742 18.85
Maximum height of opening 400
0.295 7.49
Minimum height of opening 400
0.289 7.34
Depth of opening 400 0.135 3.43
Diameter of aperture 404 (center)
0.160 4.06
Diameter of apertures 404 (outer)
0.180 4.57
Aperture-to-aperture spacing G5 top/G6
0.245 6.22
Length of G3 extrusions 479
0.045 1.14
Length of G5 extrusions 483
0.045 1.14
Length of G5 extrusions 495
0.034 0.86
Length of G6 extrusions 405
0.045 1.14
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*unitized electrode, no multipole lens **the apertureto-aperture spacing of the G3 bottom apertures 470 is increased to 0.2635 inch (6.69 mm) to eliminate any displacement of the outer electron beams with changes in the focus voltage.
In the prior electron gun described in TABLE II, the cathode operates at a drive voltage of about 103.2 V, the G1 electrode is at ground potential, the G2 and G4 are electrically interconnected and operate within the range of 300 V to 1000 V, the G3 and G5 electrodes also are interconnected and operate at about 6600 V, and the G6 electrode operates at an anode potential of about 25 kV. The prefocusing lens, L2, of the prior electron gun, with the rectangular apertures 480 formed through the substantially flat G4 electrode 450, provides a horizontally-elongated electron beam (not shown) into the main focusing lens, L3. A computer simulation of the resultant vertically-elongated beam spot at the center of the screen is graphically shown in FIG. 18. The beam size at 5% peak current density is about 2.30 mm×3.49 mm (H×V) at the previously described operating parameters.
CONCLUSION
The performance of the present prefocusing lens, L2, of embodiments 1 through 4, as measured by the resultant electron beam spot size on the screen, is comparable to that of the prior electron gun described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,764,704, which utilizes a prefocusing lens having rectangularly-shaped apertures in the G4 electrode thereof. A comparison of results is contained in TABLE III.
TABLE III
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Beam Spot Size on Screen EMBODIMENT Horizontal (mm) Vertical (mm)
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1 2.50 4.20
2 2.26 3.68
3 1.94 3.44
4 1.96 3.49
Prior 2.30 3.49
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The four embodiments of the present electron gun structure provide ease of manufacturing, because the use of circular apertures throughout the electron gun reduces the misalignment problems posed by the rectangularly-shaped G4 apertures of the prior gun. Additionally, the prior gun requires a slight increase in the G3 aperture-to-aperture spacing (from 6.60 mm to 6.69 mm) to eliminate the misconvergence of the outer electron beams with changes in focus voltage. The present invention achieves comparable performance by controlling either the horizontal width of the race-track-shaped recesses within the prefocusing lens, L2, in embodiments 1 and 3, or the slot-to-slot spacing of the rectangular slots formed within prefocusing lens, L2, in embodiments 2 and 4. In each of the four embodiments, the aperture-to-aperture spacing from the cathode 42 to the bottom of the G5 electrode 52 is maintained at a constant value of 6.60 mm, thereby simplifying the assembly and alignment of the gun components.