Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

In Brief: On this site you will find pictures and information about some of the electronic, electrical and electrotechnical technology relics that the Frank Sharp Private museum has accumulated over the years .

Premise: There are lots of vintage electrical and electronic items that have not survived well or even completely disappeared and forgotten.

Or are not being collected nowadays in proportion to their significance or prevalence in their heyday, this is bad and the main part of the death land. The heavy, ugly sarcophagus; models with few endearing qualities, devices that have some over-riding disadvantage to ownership such as heavy weight,toxicity or inflated value when dismantled, tend to be under-represented by all but the most comprehensive collections and museums. They get relegated to the bottom of the wants list, derided as 'more trouble than they are worth', or just forgotten entirely. As a result, I started to notice gaps in the current representation of the history of electronic and electrical technology to the interested member of the public.


Following this idea around a bit, convinced me that a collection of the peculiar alone could not hope to survive on its own merits, but a museum that gave equal display space to the popular and the unpopular, would bring things to the attention of the average person that he has previously passed by or been shielded from. It's a matter of culture. From this, the Obsolete Technology Tellye Web Museum concept developed and all my other things too. It's an open platform for all electrical Electronic TV technology to have its few, but NOT last, moments of fame in a working, hand-on environment. We'll never own Colossus or Faraday's first transformer, but I can show things that you can't see at the Science Museum, and let you play with things that the Smithsonian can't allow people to touch, because my remit is different.

There was a society once that was the polar opposite of our disposable, junk society. A whole nation was built on the idea of placing quality before quantity in all things. The goal was not “more and newer,” but “better and higher" .This attitude was reflected not only in the manufacturing of material goods, but also in the realms of art and architecture, as well as in the social fabric of everyday life. The goal was for each new cohort of children to stand on a higher level than the preceding cohort: they were to be healthier, stronger, more intelligent, and more vibrant in every way.

The society that prioritized human, social and material quality is a Winner. Truly, it is the high point of all Western civilization. Consequently, its defeat meant the defeat of civilization itself.

Today, the West is headed for the abyss. For the ultimate fate of our disposable society is for that society itself to be disposed of. And this will happen sooner, rather than later.

OLD, but ORIGINAL, Well made, Funny, Not remotely controlled............. and not Made in CHINA.

How to use the site:

- If you landed here via any Search Engine, you will get what you searched for and you can search more using the search this blog feature provided by Google. You can visit more posts scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year,
or you can click on the main photo-page to start from the main page. Doing so it starts from the most recent post to the older post simple clicking on the Older Post button on the bottom of each page after reading , post after post.

You can even visit all posts, time to time, when reaching the bottom end of each page and click on the Older Post button.

- If you arrived here at the main page via bookmark you can visit all the site scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year pointing were you want , or more simple You can even visit all blog posts, from newer to older, clicking at the end of each bottom page on the Older Post button.
So you can see all the blog/site content surfing all pages in it.

- The search this blog feature provided by Google is a real search engine. If you're pointing particular things it will search IT for you; or you can place a brand name in the search query at your choice and visit all results page by page. It's useful since the content of the site is very large.

Note that if you don't find what you searched for, try it after a period of time; the site is a never ending job !

Every CRT Television saved let revive knowledge, thoughts, moments of the past life which will never return again.........

Many contemporary "televisions" (more correctly named as displays) would not have this level of staying power, many would ware out or require major services within just five years or less and of course, there is that perennial bug bear of planned obsolescence where components are deliberately designed to fail and, or manufactured with limited edition specificities..... and without considering........picture......sound........quality........

..............The bitterness of poor quality is remembered long after the sweetness of todays funny gadgets low price has faded from memory........ . . . . . .....
Don't forget the past, the end of the world is upon us! Pretty soon it will all turn to dust!

Have big FUN ! !
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©2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 Frank Sharp - You do not have permission to copy photos and words from this blog, and any content may be never used it for auctions or commercial purposes, however feel free to post anything you see here with a courtesy link back, btw a link to the original post here , is mandatory.
All sets and apparates appearing here are property of
Engineer Frank Sharp. NOTHING HERE IS FOR SALE !

Thursday, March 29, 2012

STERN (ZANUSSI) UBG2231 CHASSIS BS352.0 INTERNAL VIEW.
































The ZANUSSI BS352.0 is a modular chassis except for some parts.

It seems bigger than the cabinet containing it but is not and it's well organized and designed.

The serigraphy layout is showing a GERMAN language and in some cases shows little spelling errors. The German language was probabily used due to export reasons, but I think they exported very few of these.

The ZANUSSI BS352.0 is derived from the BS290 which at his time was introducing the 20AX CRT TUBE and phasing out the previous BS250 with delta crt.

The BS352. has further improvements than the BS290 with lesser parts expecially in the VIDEO parts and it's capable to drive even bigger screen both VIDEOCOLOR P.I.L. and PHILIPS OR ITT BOTH 20AX.

This is the last chassis from ZANUSSI using THYRISTOR LINE DEFLECTION TECHNOLOGY.

The successive chassis in 1979 BS400 is fully transistorized and it's using SMPS supply type.




HERE BELOW ZANUSSIZOPPAS REX SELECO STERN CHASSIS BS352.0 - BS352  SCHEMATIC ELECTRIC DIAGRAM :



THYRISTORS:

- RCA ITR17025
- RCA ITR17024

INTEGRAL THYRISTOR-RECTIFIER DEVICE
A semiconductor switching device comprising a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) and a diode rectifier integrally connected in parallel with the SCR in a single semiconductor body. The device is of the NPNP or PNPN type, having gate, cathode, and anode electrodes. A portion of each intermediate N and P region makes ohmic contact to the respective anode or cathode electrode of the SCR. In addition, each intermediate region includes a highly conductive edge portion. These portions are spaced from the adjacent external regions by relatively low conductive portions, and limit the conduction of the diode rectifier to the periphery of the device. A profile of gold recombination centers further electrically isolates the central SCR portion from the peripheral diode portion.
That class of thyristors known as controlled rectifiers are semiconductor switches having four semiconducting regions of alternate conductivity and which employ anode, cathode, and gate electrodes. These devices are usually fabricated from silicon. In its normal state, the silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) is non-conductive until an appropriate voltage or current pulse is applied to the gate electrode, at which point current flows from the anode to the cathode and delivers power to a load circuit. If the SCR is reverse biased, it is non-conductive, and cannot be turned on by a gating signal. Once conduction starts, the gate loses control and current flows from the anode to the cathode until it drops below a certain value (called the holding current), at which point the SCR turns off and the gate electrode regains control. The SCR is thus a solid state device capable of performing the circuit function of a thyratron tube in many electronic applications. In some of these applications, such as in automobile ignition systems and horizontal deflection circuits in television receivers, it is necessary to connect a separate rectifier diode in parallel with the SCR. See, for example, W. Dietz, U. S. Pat. Nos. 3,452,244 and 3,449,623. In these applications, the anode of the rectifier diode is connected to the cathode of the SCR, and the cathode of the rectifier is connected to the SCR anode. Thus, the rectifier diode will be forward biased and current will flow through it when the SCR is reverse biased; i.e., when the SCR cathode is positive with respect to its anode. For reasons of economy and ease of handling, it would be preferable if the circuit function of the SCR and the associated diode rectifier could be combined in a single device, so that instead of requiring two devices and five electrical connections, one device and three electrical connections are all that would be necessary. In fact, because of the semiconductor profile employed, many SCR's of the shorted emitter variety inherently function as a diode rectifier when reverse biased. However, the diode rectifier function of such devices is not isolated from the controlled rectifier portion, thus preventing a rapid transition from one function to the other. Therefore, it would be desirable to physically and electrically isolate the diode rectifier portion from that portion of the device which functions as an SCR.


STERN (ZANUSSI) UBG2231 CHASSIS BS352.0 Horizontal deflection circuit with Thyristors.




























Description:



1. A horizontal deflection circuit for generating the deflection current in the deflection coil of a television picture tube wherein a first switch controls the horizontal sweep, and wherein a second switch in a so-called commutation circuit with a commutating inductor and a commutating capacitor opens the first switch and, in addition, controls the energy transfer from a dc voltage source to an input inductor, characterized in that the input inductor (Le) and the commutating inductor (Lk) are combined in a unit designed as a transformer (U) which is proportioned so that the open-circuit inductance of the transformer is essentially equal to the value of the input inductor (Le), while the short-circuit inductance of the transformer (U) is essentially equal to the value of the commutating inductor (Lk), and that the second switch (S2) is connected in series with the dc voltage source (UB) and a first winding (U1) of the transformer (U). 2. A horizontal deflection circuit according to claim 1, characterized in that the transformer (U) operates as an isolation transformer between the supply (UB) and the subcircuits connected to a second winding. 3. A horizontal deflection circuit according to claim 1, characterized in that the second switch (S2) is connected between ground and that terminal of the first winding (U1) of the transformer (U) not connected to the supply potential (+UB). 4. A horizontal deflection circuit according to claim 1, characterized in that a capacitor (CE) is connected across the series combination of the first winding (U1) of the transformer and the second switch (S2). 5. A horizontal deflection circuit according to claim 1, characterized in that the second winding (U2) of the transformer (U) is connected in series with a first switch (S1), the commutating capacitor (Ck), and a third, bipolar switch (S3) controllable as a function of the value of a controlled variable developed in the deflection circuit. 6. A horizontal deflection circuit according to claim 5, characterized in that the third switch (S3) is connected between ground and the second winding (U2) of the transformer. 7. A horizontal deflection circuit according to claim 2, characterized in that the isolation transformer carries a third winding via which power is supplied to the audio output stage of the television set. 8. A horizontal deflection circuit according to claims 2, characterized in that the voltage serving to control the first switch (S1) is derived from a third winding of the transformer.
Description:
The present invention relates to a horizontal deflection circuit for generating the deflection current in the deflection coil of a television picture tube wherein a first switch controls the horizontal sweep, and wherein a second switch in a so-called commutation circuit with a commutating inductor and a commutating capacitor opens the first switch and, in addition, controls the energy transfer from a dc voltage source to an input inductor.
German Auslegeschrift (DT-AS) No. 1,537,308 discloses a horizontal deflection circuit in which, for generating a periodic sawtooth current within the respective deflection coil of the picture tube, in a first branch circuit, the deflection coil is connected to a sufficiently large capacitor serving as a current source via a first controlled, bilaterally conductive switch which is formed by a controlled rectifier and a diode connected in inverse parallel. The control electrode of the rectifier is connected to a drive pulse source which renders the switch conductive during part of the sawtooth trace period. In that arrangement, the sawtooth retrace, i.e. the current reversal, also referred to as "commutation", is initiated by a second controlled switch.
The first controlled switch also forms part of a second branch circuit where it is connected in series with a second current source and a reactance capable of oscillating. When the first switch is closed, the reactance, consisting essentially of a coil and a capacitor, receives energy from the second current source during a fixed time interval. This energy which is taken from the second current source corresponds to the circuit losses caused during the previous deflection cycle.
As can be seen, such a circuit needs two different, separate inductive elements, it being known that inductive elements are expensive to manufacture and always have a certain volume determined by the electrical properties required.
The object of the invention is to reduce the amount of inductive elements required.
The invention is characterized in that the input inductor and the commutating inductor are combined in a unit designed as a transformer which is proportioned so that the open-circuit inductance of the transformer is essentially equal to the value of the input inductor, while the short-circuit inductance of the transformer is essentially equal to the value of the commutating inductor, and that the second switch is connected in series with the dc voltage source and a first winding of the transformer.
This solution has an added advantage in that, in mass production, both the open-circuit and the short-circuit inductance are reproducible with reliability.
According to another feature of the invention, the electrical isolation between the windings of the transformer is such that the transformer operates as an isolation transformer between the supply and the subcircuits connected to a second winding or to additional windings of the transformer. In this manner, the transformer additionally provides reliable mains isolation.
According to a further feature of the invention, the second switch is connected between ground and that terminal of the first winding of the transformer not connected to the supply potential. This simplifies the control of the switch.
According to a further feature of the invention, to regulate the energy supply, the second winding of the transformer is connected in series with the first switch, the commutating capacitor, and a third, bipolar switch controllable as a function of the value of a controlled variable developed in the deflection circuit.

The advantage gained by this measure lies in the fact that the control takes place on the side separated from the mains, so no separate isolation device is required for the gating of the third switch. Further details and advantages will be apparent from the following description of the accompanying drawings and from the claims. In the drawings,
FIG. 1 is a basic circuit diagram of the arrangement disclosed in German Auslegeschrift (DT-AS) No. 1,537,308;
FIG. 2 shows a first embodiment of the horizontal deflection circuit according to the invention, and
FIG. 3 shows a development of the horizontal deflection circuit according to the invention.
FIG. 1 shows the essential circuit elements of the horizontal deflection circuit known from the German Auslegeschrift (DT-AS) No. 1,537,308 referred to by way of introduction.
Connected in series with a dc voltage source UB is an input inductor Le and a bipolar, controlled switch S2. In the following, this switch will be referred to as the "second switch"; it is usually called the "commutating switch" to indicate its function.
In known circuits, the second switch S2 consists of a controlled rectifier and a diode connected in inverse parallel.
The second switch S2 also forms part of a second circuit which contains, in addition, a commutating inductor Lk, a commutating capacitor Ck, and a first switch S1. The first switch S1, controlling the horizontal sweep, is constructed in the same manner as the above-described second switch S2, consisting of a controlled rectifier and a diode in inverse parallel. Connected in parallel with this first switch is a deflection-coil arrangement AS with a capacitor CA as well as a high voltage generating arrangement (not shown). In FIGS. 1, 2, and 3, this arrangement is only indicated by an arrow and by the reference characters Hsp. The operation of this known horizontal deflection circuit need not be explained here in detail since it is described not only in the German Auslegeschrift referred to by way of introduction, but also in many other publications.
FIGS. 2 and 3 show the horizontal deflection circuit modified in accordance with the present invention. Like circuit elements are designated by the same reference characters as in FIG. 1.
FIG. 2 shows the basic principle of the invention. The two inductors Le and Lk of FIG. 1 have been replaced by a transformer U. To be able to serve as a substitute for the two inductors Le and Lk, the transformer must be proportioned in a special manner. Regardless of the turns ratio, the open-circuit inductance of the transformer is chosen to be essentially equal to the value of the input inductor Le, and the short-circuit inductance of the transformer is essentially equal to the value of the commutating inductor Lk.
To permit the second switch S2 to be utilized for the connection of the dc voltage source UB, it is included in the circuit of that winding U1 of the transformer connected to the dc voltage UB.
In principle, it is of no consequence for the operation of the switch S2 whether it is inserted on that side of the winding U1 connected to the positive operating potential +UB or on the side connected to ground. In practice, however, the solution shown in FIGS. 2 and 3 will be chosen since the gating of the controlled rectifier is less problematic in this case.
In compliance with pertinent safety regulations, the transformer U may be designed as an isolation transformer and can thus provide mains separation, which is necessary for various reasons. It is known from German Offenlegungschrift (DT-OS) No. 2,233,249 to provide dc isolation by designing the commutating inductor as a transformer, but this measure is not suited to attaining the object of the present invention.
If the energy to be taken from the dc voltage source is to be controlled as a function of the energy needed in the horizontal deflection circuit and in following subcircuits, the embodiment of the horizontal deflection circuit of FIG. 3 may be used.
The circuit including the winding U2 of the transformer U contains a third controlled switch S3, which, too, is inserted on the grounded side of the winding U2 for the reasons mentioned above. This third switch S3, just as the second switch S2, is operated at the frequency of a horizontal oscillator HO, but a control circuit RS whose input l is fed with a controlled variable is inserted between the oscillator and the switch S3. Depending on this controlled variable, the controlled rectifier of the third switch S3 can be caused to turn on earlier. A suitable controlled variable containing information on the energy consumption is, for example, the flyback pulse capable of being taken from the high voltage generating circuit (not shown). Details of the operation of this kind of energy control are described in applicant's German Offenlegungsschrift (DT-OS) No. b 2,253,386 and do not form part of the present invention.
With mains isolation, the additional, third switch S3 shown here has the advantage of being on the side isolated from the mains and eliminates the need for an isolation device in the control lead of the controlled rectifier.
As an isolation transformer, the transformer U may also carry additional windings U3 and U4 if power is to be supplied to the audio output stage, for example; in addition, the first switch S1 may be gated via such an additional winding.
The points marked at the windings U1 and U2 indicate the phase relationship between the respective voltages. Connected in parallel with the winding U1 and the second switch S2 is a capacitor CE which completes the circuit for the horizontal-frequency alternating current; this serves in particular to bypass the dc voltage source or the electrolytic capacitors contained therein.
If required, a well-known tuning coil may be inserted, e.g. in series with the second winding U2, without changing the basic operation of the horizontal deflection circuit according to the invention.
STERN (ZANUSSI) UBG2231 CHASSIS BS352.0 Electron beam deflection circuit including thyristors Further Discussion and deepening of knowledge, Thyristor horizontal output circuits:
1. An electron beam deflection circuit for a cathode ray tube with electromagnetic deflection by means of a sawtooth current waveform having a trace portion and a retrace portion, said circuit comprising: a deflection winding; a first source of electrical energy formed by a first capacitor; first controllable switching means comprising a parallel combination of a first thyristor and a first diode connected together to conduct in opposite directions, for connecting said winding to said first source during said trace portion, while said first switching means is turned on; a second source of electrical energy including a first inductive energy storage means coupled to a voltage supply; reactive circuit means including a combination of inductive and capacitive reactances for storing the energy supplied by said second source; second controllable switching means, substantially similar to said first one, for completing a circuit including said reactive circuit means and said first switching means, when turned on before the end of said trace portion, so as to pass through said first switching means an oscillatory current in opposite direction to that which passes through said first thyristor from said first source and to turn said first thyristor off after these two currents cancel out, the oscillatory current flowing thereafter through said first diode for an interval termed the circuit turn-off time, which has to be greater than the turn-off time of said first thyristor; wherein the improvement comprises: means for drawing, during at least a part of said trace portion, a substantial amount of additional current through said first switching means, in the direction of conduction of said first diode, whereby to perceptibly shift the waveform of the current flowing through said first switching means towards the negative values by an amount equal to that of said substantial additional current and to lengthen, in proportion thereto, said circuit turn-off time, without altering the values of the reactances in the reactive circuit which intervene in the determination of both the circuit turn-off and retrace portion time intervals.










2. A deflection circuit as claimed in claim 1, wherein said amount of additional current is greater than or equal to 5 per cent of the peak-to-peak value of the current flowing through the deflection winding.

3. A deflection circuit as claimed in claim 1, wherein said means for drawing a substantial amount of additional current through said first switching means comprises a resistor connected in parallel to said first capacitor.

4. A deflection circuit as claimed in claim 1, wherein said means for drawing an additional current is formed by connecting said first and second energy sources in series so that the current charging said reactive circuit means forms the said additional current.

5. A deflection circuit as claimed in claim 1, further including a series combination of an autotransformer winding and a second high-value capacitor, said combination being connected in parallel to said first switching means, wherein said autotransformer comprises an intermediate tap located between its terminals respectively connected to said first switching means and to said second capacitor, said tap delivering, during said trace portion, a suitable DC supply voltage lower than the voltage across said second capacitor; and wherein said means for drawing a substantial amount of additional current comprises a load to be fed by said supply voltage and having one terminal connected to ground; and further controllable switching means controlled to conduct during at least part of said trace portion and to remain cut off during said retrace portion, said further switching means being connected between said tap and the other terminal of said load.

Description:
The present invention relates to electron beam deflection circuits including thyristors, such as silicon controlled rectifiers and relates, in particular, to horizontal deflection circuits for television receivers.

The present invention constitutes an improvement in the circuit described in U.S. Pat. No. 3,449,623 filed on Sept. 6, 1966, this circuit being described in greater detail below with reference to FIGS. 1 and 2 of the accompanying drawings. A deflection circuit of this type comprises a first thyristor switch which allows the conenction of the horizontal deflection winding to a constant voltage source during the time interval used for the transmisstion of the picture signal and for applying this signal to the grid of the cathode ray tube (this interval will be termed the "trace portion" of the scan), and a second thyristor switch which provides the forced commutation of the first one by applying to it a reverse current of equal amplitude to that which passes through it from the said voltage source and thus to initiate the retrace during the horizontal blanking interval.

A undirectional reverse blocking triode type thyristor or silicon controlled rectifier (SCR), such as that used in the aformentioned circuit, requires a certain turn-off time between the instant at which the anode current ceases and the instant at which a positive bias may be applied to it without turning it on, due to the fact that there is still a high concentration of free carriers in the vicinity of the middle junction, this concentration being reduced by a process of recombination independently from the reverse polarity applied to the thyristor. This turn-off time of the thyristor is a function of a number of parameters such as the junction temperature, the DC current level, the decay time of the direct current, the peak level of the reverse current applied, the amplitude of the reverse anode to cathode voltage, the external impedance of the gate electrode, and so on, certain of these varying considerably from one thyristor to another.

In horizontal deflection circuits for television receivers, the flyback or retrace time is limited to approximately 20 percent of the horizontal scan period, the retrace time being in the case of the CCIR standard of 625 lines, approximately 12 microseconds and, in the case of the French standard of 819 lines, approximately 9 microseconds. During this relatively short interval, the thyristor has to be rendered non-conducting and the electron beam has to be returned to the origin of the scan. The first thyristor is blocked by means of a series resonant LC circuit which is subject to a certain number of restrictions (limitations as to the component values employed) due to the fact that, inter alia, it simultaneously determines the turn-off time of the circuit which blocks the thyristor and it forms part of the series resonant circuit which is to carry out the retrace. To obtain proper operation of the deflection circuit of the aforementioned Patent, especially when used for the French standard of 819 lines per image, the values of the components used have to subject to very close tolerances (approximately 2%), which results in high costs.

The improved deflection circuit, object of the present invention, allows the lengthening of the turn-off time of the circuit for turning the scan thyristor off, without altering the values of the LC circuit, which are determined by other criteria, and without impairing the operation of the circuit.

According to the invention, there is provided an electron beam deflection circuit for a cathode ray tube with electromagentic deflection by means of a sawtooth current waveform having a trace portion and a retrace portion, said circuit comprising: a deflection winding; a first source of electrical energy formed by a first capacitor; first controllable switching means comprising a parallel combination of a first thyristor and a first diode, connected together to conduct in opposite directions, for connecting said winding to said first source during said trace portion when said first switching means is turned on; a second source of electrical energy including a first inductive energy storage means coupled to a voltage supply; reactive circuit means including a combination of inductive and capacitive reactances for storing the energy supplied by the said second source; a second controllable switching means, substantially identical with the first one, for completing a circuit including said reactive circuit means and said first switching means, when turned on, so as to pass through said first thyristor an oscillatory current in the opposite direction to that which passes through it from said first source and to turn it off after these two currents cancel out, the oscillatory current then flowing through said first diode for an interval termed the circuit turn-off time which has to be greater than the turn-off time of said first thyristor; and means for drawing duing at least a part of said trace portion a substantial amount of additional current from said first switching means in the direction of conduction of said first diode, whereby said circuit turn-off time is lengthened in proportion to the amount of said additional current, without altering the values of the reactances in the reactive circuit by shifting the waveform of the current flowing through said first switching means towards the negative by an amount equal to that of said additional current.

A further object of the invention consists in using the supplementary current in the recovery diode of the first switching means to produce a DC voltage which may be used as a power supply for the vertical deflection circuit of the television receiver, for example.

The invention will be better understood and other features and advantages thereof will become apparent from the following description and the accompanying drawings, given by way of example, and in which:

FIG. 1 is a schematic circuit diagram partially in bloc diagram form of a prior art deflection circuit according to the aforementioned Patent;

FIG. 2 shows waveforms of currents and voltages generated at various points in the circuit of FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of a deflection circuit according to the invention which allows the principle of the improvement to be explained;

FIG. 4 is a diagram of the waveforms of the current through the first switching means 4, 5 of the circuit of FIG. 3;

FIG. 5 is a circuit diagram of another embodiment of the circuit according to the invention;

FIG. 6 is a schematic representation of the preferred embodiment of the circuit according to the invention; and

FIG. 7 shows voltage waveforms at various points of the high voltage autotransformer 21 of FIG. 6.

In all these Figures the same reference numerals refer to the same components.

FIG. 1 shows the horizontal deflection circuit described and claimed in the U.S. Pat. No. 3,449,623 mentioned above, which comprises a first source of electrical energy in the shape of a first capacitor 2 having a high capacitance C 2 for supplying a substantially constant voltage Uc 2 across its terminals. A first terminal of the first capacitor 2 is connected to ground, whilst its second terminal which supplies a positive voltage is connected to one of the terminals of a horizontal deflection winding shown as a first inductance 1. A first switching means 3, consisting of a first reverse blocking triode thyristor 4 (SCR) and a first recovery diode 5 in parallel, the two being interconnected to conduct current in opposite directions, is connected in parallel with the series combination formed by the deflection winding 1 and the first capacitor 2. The assembly of components 1, 2, 4 and 5 forms the final stage of the horizontal deflection circuit in a television receiver using electromagnetic delfection.

The deflection circuit also includes a drive stage for this final stage which here controls the turning off of the first thyristor 4 to produce the retrace or fly-back portion of the scan during the line-blanking intervals i.e. while the picture signal is not transmitted. This driver stage comprises a second voltage source in the shape of a DC power supply 6 which delivers a constant high voltage E. The negative terminal of the power supply 6 is connected to ground and its positive terminal to one of the terminals of a second inductance 7 of relatively high value, which draws a substantially lineraly varying current from the power supply 6 to avoid its overloading. The other terminal of the second inductance 7 is connected, on the one hand, to the junction of the deflection winding 1 and the first switching means 3 by means of a second inductance 8 and a second capacitor 9 in series and, on the other hand, to one of the terminals of a second controllable bi-directionally conducting switching means 10, similar to the first one 3, including a parallel combination of a second thyristor 11 and a second recovery diode 12 also arranged to conduct in opposite directions.

The respective values of the third inductance 8 (L 8 ) and of the second capacitor 9 (C 9 ) are principally selected so that, on the one hand, one half-cycle of oscillation of the first series resonant circuit L 8 - C 9 , (i.e. π √ L 8 . C 9 ) is longer than the turn-off time of the first thyristor 4, but still is as short as possible since this time interval determines the speed of the commutation of the thyristor 4, and, on the other hand, one half-cycle of oscillation of another series resonant circuit formed by L 1 , L 8 and C 9 , i.e. π √ (L 1 + L 8 ) . C 9 , is substantially equal to the required retrace time interval (i.e. shorter than the horizontal blanking interval).

The gate (control electrode) of the second thyristor 11 is coupled to the output of the horizontal oscillator 13 of the television receiver by means of a first pulse transformer 14 and a first pulse shaping circuit 15 so that it is fed short triggering pulses which are to turn it on.

The gate of the first thyristor 4 fed with signals of a substantially rectangular waveform which are negative during the horizontal blanking intervals, is coupled to a winding 16 by means of a second pulse shaping circuit 17, the winding 16 being magnetically coupled to the second inductance 7 to make up the secondary winding of a transformer of which the inductance 7 forms the primary winding. It will be noted here that it is also possible to couple the secondary winding 16 magnetically to a primary winding connected to a suitable output (not shown) of the horizontal oscillator 13.

The operation of a circuit of this type will be explained below with reference to FIG. 2 which shows the waveforms at various points in the circuit of FIG. 1 during approximately one line period.

FIG. 2 is not to scale since one line period (t 7 - t 0 ) is equal to 64 microseconds in the case of 625 lines and 49 microseconds in the case of 819 lines, while the durations of the respective horizontal blanking intervals are approximately 12 and 9.5 microseconds.

Waveform A shows the form of the current i L1 passing through deflection winding 1, this current having a sawtooth waveform substantially linear from t 0 to t 3 and from t 5 to t 7 , and crossing zero at time instants t 0 and t 7 , and reaching values of + I 1m and - I 1m , at time instants t 3 and t 5 respectively, these being its maximum positive and negative amplitudes.

During the second half of the trace portion of the horizontal deflection cycle, that is to say from t 0 to t 3 , the thyristor 4 of the first switching means 3 is conductive and makes the high value capacitor 2 discharge through the deflector winding 1, which has a high inductance, so that current i L1 increases linearly.

A few microseconds (5 to 8 μ s) before the end of the trace portion, i.e. at time instant t 1 , the trigger of the second thyristor 11 receives a short voltage pulse V G11 which causes it to turn on as its anode is at this instant at a positive potential with respect to ground, which is due to the charging of the second capacitor 9 through inductances 7 and 8 by the voltage E from the power supply 6.

When thyristor 11 is made conductive at time t 1 , on the one hand, inductance 7 is connected between ground and the voltage source 6 and a linearly increasing current flows through it and, on the other hand, the reactive circuit 8, 9 forms a loop through the second and first switching means 10 and 3, thus forming a resonant circuit which draws an oscillatory current i 8 ,9 of frequency ##EQU1##

This oscillatory current i 8 ,9 will pass through the first switching means 3, i.e. thyristor 4 and diode 5, in the opposite direction to that of current i L1 . Since the frequency f 1 is high, current i 8 ,9 will increase more rapidly than i L1 and will reach the same level at time t 2 , that is to say i 8 ,9 (t 2 ) = -i L1 (t 2 ) and these currents will cancel out in the thyristor 4 in accordance with the well known principle of forced commutation. After time instant t 2 , current i 8 ,9 continues to increase more rapidly than i L1 , but the difference between them (i 8 ,9 - i L1 ) passes the diode 5 (see wave form B) until it becomes zero at time instant t 3 which is the turn off time instant of the first switching means 3, at which the retrace begins.

The interval between the time instant t 2 and t 3 , i.e. (t 3 -t 2 ), during which diode 5 is conductive and the thyristor is reverse biased will be termed in what follows the circuit turn-off time and it should be greater than the turn-off time of the thyristor 4 itself since the latter will subsequently become foward biased (i.e. from t 3 to t 5 ) by the retrace or flyback pulse (see waveform E) which should not trigger it.

At time instant t 3 , the switching means 3 is opened (i 4 and i 5 are both zero -- see waveforms B and C) and the reactive circuit 8, 9 forms a loop through capacitor 2 and the deflection coil 1 and thus a series resonant circuit including (L 1 + L 8 ) and C 9 , C 2 being of high value and representing a short circuit for the flyback frequency ##EQU2## thus obtained.

The retrace which stated at time t 3 takes place during one half-cycle of the resonant circuit formed by reactances L 1 , L 8 and C 9 , i.e. during the interval between t 3 and t 5 . In the middle of this interval i.e. at time instant t 4 , both i L1 (waveform A) and i 8 ,9 (waveform D) pass through zero and change their sign, whereas the voltage at the terminals of the first switching means 3 (V 3 , waveform E) passes through a maximum. Thus, from t 4 onwards, thyristor 11 will be reverse biased and diode 12 will conduct the current from the resonant circuit 1, 8 and 9 in order to turn the second thyristor 11 off.

At time instant t 5 , when current i L1 has reached - I 1m and when voltage v 3 falls to zero, diode 5 of the first switching means 3 becomes conductive and the trace portion of scan begins.

Current i 8 ,9 nevertheless continues to flow in the resonant circuit 8, 9 through diodes 5 and 12, which causes a break to appear in waveform D at t 5 , and a negative peak to appear in waveform D and a positive one in waveform B in the interval between t 5 and t 6 , these being principally due to the distributed capacities of coil 1 or to an eventual capacitor (not shown) connected in parallel to the first switching means 3.

At time instant t 6 , diode 12 of the second switching means 10 ceases to conduct after having allowed thyristor 11 time to become turned off completely.

The level of current i 8 ,9 at time instant t 5 (i.e. I c ) as well as the negative peak I D12 in i 8 ,9 and the positive peak I D5 in i 5 depend on the values of L 8 and C 9 in the same way as does the turn-off time of the circuit (t 3 - t 2 ). If, for example, L 8 and C 9 , are increased I D5 increases towards zero and this could cause diode 5 to be cut off in an undesirable fashion. I c also increases towards zero, which is liable to cause diode 12 to be blocked and thyristor 11 to trigger prematurely.

From the foregoing it can be clearly seen that the choice of values for L 8 and C 9 is subject to four limitations which prevent the values from being increased to lengthen the turn-off time of the driver circuit of first switching thyristor 4 so as to forestall its spurious triggering.

Waveform F shows the voltage v G4 obtained at the gate of thyristor 4 from the secondary winding 16 coupled to the inductor 7. This voltage is positive from t 0 to t 1 and from t 6 to t 7 and is negative between t 2 and t 6 i.e. while the second switching means 10 is conducting.

The present invention makes the lengthening of the turn-off time of thyristor 4 possible without altering the parameters of the circuit such as inductance 8 and capacitor 9.

In the circuit shown in FIG. 3, which illustrates the principle of the present invention, means are added to the circuit in FIG. 1 which enable the turn-off time to be lengthened by connecting a load to diode 5 so as to increase the current which flows through it during the time that it is conductive. These means are here formed by a resistor 18 connected in parallel with a capacitor 20 (which replaces capacitor 2) which is of a higher capacitance so that, in practice, it holds its charge during at least one half of the line period. FIG. 4, which shows the waveform of the current in the first switching means 3 for a circuit as shown in FIG. 3, makes it possible to explain how this lenthening of the turn-off time is achieved.

In FIG. 4, the broken lines show the waveform of the current in the first switch device 3 in the circuit of FIG. 1, this waveform being produced by adding waveforms B and C of FIG. 2. The current i 4 above the axis flows through thyristor 4 and current i 5 below the axis flows through diode 5. When the capacitance C 20 of the capacitor in series with the deflector coil is increased to some tens of microfarads (C 2 having been of the order of 1 μ F) and when there is connected in parallel with capacitor 20 a resistor 18 the value of which is calculated to draw a strong current I R18 from capacitor 20, that is to say a current at least equal to 0,1 I m (I m being of the order of some tens of amperes), current I R18 is added to that i 5 which flows through diode 5 without in any way altering the linearity of the trace portion nor the oscillatory commutation of thyristor 4 which is brought about by the resonant circuit L 8 , C 9 .

The fact of loading capacitor C 20 by means of a resistor 18 thus has the effect of permanently displacing the waveform of the current in the negative direction by I R18 . Thus, during the trace portion of the scan, the transfer of the current from the diode 5 to the thyristor 4 begins at time t 10 instead of t 0 , that is to say with a delay proportional to I R18 . The effect of the triggering pulse delivered by the horizontal oscillator (13 FIG. 1) to the second thyristor 11 at time instant t 1 , will be to start the commutation process of the first thyristor 4 when the current it draws is less by I R18 than that i 4 (t 1 ) which it would have been drawing had there been no resistor 18. Because of this, the turn-off time of the thyristor 4 proper, which as has been mentioned increases with the maximum current level passing throught it, is slightly reduced. Moreover, because the oscillatory current i 8 ,9 (FIG. 2) from circuit L 8 , C 9 which flows through thyristor 4 in the opposite direction is unchanged, it reaches a value equal to that of the current i L1 (FIG. 1) flowing in the coil 1 in a shorter time, that is to say at time t 12 . Diode 5 will thus take the oscillatory current i 8 ,9 (FIG. 2) over in advance with respect ro time instant t 2 and will conduct it until it reaches zero value at a time instant t 13 later than t 3 , the amounts of advance (t 2 - t 12 ) and delay (t 13 - t 3 ) being practically equal.

It can thus be seen in FIG. 4 that the circuit turn-off time T R of a circuit according to the invention and illustrated by FIG. 3 is distinctly longer than that T r of the circuit in FIG. 1. This increase in the turn-off time (T R - T r ) depends on the current I R18 and increases therewith.

It should be noted at this point that the current I R18 produces a voltage drop at the terminals of the resistor the only effect of which is to heat up the resistor since the level of this voltage (40 to 60 volts) does not necessarily have a suitable value to be used as a voltage supply for other circuits in an existing transistorised television receiver.

In accordance with one embodiment of the invention, illustrated in FIG. 5, an application is proposed for the additional current which is to be drawn through diode 5. In FIG. 5, the positive terminal of capacitor 20 is connected by a conductor 19 to the negative pole of the power supply 6 and the voltage at the terminals of capacitor 20 is thus added to that E from the source 6.

In the preferred embodiment of the present invention, which is shown in FIG. 6, it is possible to cause a supplementary current of a desired value to flow through the first diode 5 while obtaining a voltage which has a suitable value for use in another circuit in the television receiver.

If the voltage at the terminals of capacitor 20 in FIG. 3 is not a usable value, it is possible to connect in parallel with the series circuit comprising the deflector coil 1 and the capacitor 2 in FIG. 1, i.e. in parallel with the terminals of the first switching means 3, a series combination of an autotransformer 21 and a high value capacitor 22 (comparable with capacitor 20 in FIGS. 3 and 5). The autotransformer 21 has a tap 23 is suitably positioned between the terminal connected to capacitor 22 at the tap 24 connected to the first switching means 3. This autotransformer 21 may be formed by the one conventionally used for supplying a very high voltage to the cathode ray tube, as described for example in U.S. Pat. No. 3,452,244; such a transformer comprises a voltage step-up winding between taps 24 and 25, which latter is connected to a high voltage rectifier (not shown).

The waveform of the voltage at the various points in the autotransformer is shown in FIG. 7, in which waveform A shows the voltage at the terminals of capacitor 22, waveform B the voltage at tap 24 and waveform C the voltage at tap 23 of the autotransformer 21.

The voltage V c22 at the terminals of capacitor 22 varies slightly about a mean value V cm . It is increasing while diode 5 is conducting and decreasing during the conduction of the thyristor 4.

The voltage v 24 at tap 24 follows substantially the same curve as waveform E in FIG. 2, that is to say that during the retrace time interval from t 13 to t 5 to a positive pulse called the flyback pulse is produced and, during the time interval while the first switching means 3 is conducting, the voltage is zero. The mean valve of the voltage v 24 at tap 24 of the auto-transformer 21 is equal to the mean value V cm of the voltage at the terminals of capacitors 2 and 22.

Thus, there is obtained at tap 23 a waveform which is made up, during the retrace portion, of a positive pulse whose maximum amplitude is less than that of v 24 at tap 24 and, during the trace portion, of a substantially constant positive voltage, the level V of which is less than the mean value V cm of the voltage v c22 at the terminals of capacitor 22. By moving tap 23 towards terminals 24 the amplitude of the pulse during fly-back increases while voltage V falls and conversely by moving tap 23 towards capacitor 22 voltage V increases and the amplitude of the pulse drops.

In more exact terms, the voltage V at tap 23 is such that the means value of v 23 is equal to V cm . It has thus been shown that by choosing carefully the position of tape 23, a voltage V may be obtained during the trace portion of the scan, which may be of any value between V cm and zero.

This voltage V is thus obtained by periodically controlled rectification during the trace portion of the scan. For this purpose an electronic switch is used to periodically connect the tap 23 of trnasformer winding 21 to a load. This switch is made up of a power transistor 26 whose collector is connected to tap 23 and the emitter to a parallel combination formed by a high value filtering capacitor 27 and the load which it is desired to supply, which is represented by a resistor 28. The base of the transistor 26 receives a control voltage to block it during retrace and to unblock it during the whole or part of the trace period. A control voltage of this type may be obtained from a second winding 29 magnetically coupled to the inductance 7 of the deflection circuit and it may be transmitted to the base of transistor 26 by means of a coupling capacitor 30 and a resistor 31 connected between the base and the emitter of transistor 26.

It may easily be seen that the DC collector/emitter current in transistor 26 flows through the first diode 5 of the first switching means 3 via a resistor 28 and the part of the winding of auto-transformer 21 located between taps 23 and 24.

Experience has shown that a circuit as shown in FIG. 6 can supply 24 volts with a current of 2 amperes to the vertical deflection circuit of the same television set, the voltage at the terminals of capacitor 22 being from 50 to 60 volts.

It should be mentioned that, when the circuit which forms the load of the controlled rectifier 26, 27 does not draw enough current to sufficiently lengthen the circuit turn-off time T R , an additional resistor (not shown) may be connected between the emitter of transistor 26 and ground or in parallel to capacitor 22, which resistor will draw the additional current required.


STERN (ZANUSSI) UBG2231 CHASSIS BS352.0 Gating circuit for television SCR deflection system AND REGULATION / stabilization of horizontal deflection NETWORK CIRCUIT with Transductor reactor / Reverse thyristor energy recovery circuit.

In a television deflection system employing a first SCR for coupling a deflection winding across a source of energy during a trace interval of each deflection cycle and a second SCR for replenishing energy to the source of energy during a commutation interval of each deflection cycle, a gating circuit for triggering the first SCR. The gating circuit employs a voltage divider coupled in parallel with the second SCR which develops gating signals proportional to the voltage across the second SCR.


1. In a television deflection system in which a first switching means couples a deflection winding across a source of energy during a trace interval of each deflection cycle and a second switching means replenishes energy to said source of energy during a commutation interval of each deflection cycle, a gating circuit for said first switching means, comprising:
capacitive voltage divider means coupled in parallel with said second switching means for developing gating signals proportional to the voltage across said second switching means; and
means for coupling said voltage divider means to said first switching means to provide for conduction of said first switching means in response to said gating signals.
2. A gating circuit according to claim 1 wherein said voltage divider includes first and second capacitors coupled in series and providing said gating signals at the common terminal of said capacitors. 3. A gating circuit according to claim 2 wherein said first and second capacitors are proportional in value to provide for the desired magnitude of gating signals. 4. A gating circuit according to claim 3 wherein said means for coupling said voltage divider means to said first switching means includes an inductor. 5. A gating circuit according to claim 4 wherein said inductor and said first and second capacitors comprise a resonant circuit having a resonant frequency chosen to shape said gating signal to improve switching of said first switching means.
Description:
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
This invention relates to a gating circuit for controlling a switching device employed in a deflection circuit of a television receiver.






























Various deflection system designs have been utilized in television receivers. One design employing two bidirectional conducting switches and utilizing SCR's (thyristors) as part of the switches is disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,452,244. In this type deflection system, a first SCR is









employed for coupling a deflection winding across a source of energy during a trace interval of each deflection cycle, and a second SCR is employed for replenishing energy during a commutation interval of each deflection cycle. The first SCR is commonly provided with gating voltage by means of a separate winding or tap of an input reactor coupling a source of B+ to the second SCR.





Various regulator system designs have been utilized in conjunction with the afore described deflection system to provide for uniform high voltage production as well as uniform picture width with varying line voltage and kinescope beam current conditions.
One type regulator system design alters the amount of energy stored in a commutating capacitor coupled between the first and second SCR's during the commutating interval. A regulator design of this type may employ a regulating SCR and diode for coupling the input reactor to the source of B+. With this type regulator a notch, the width of which depends upon the regulation requirements, is created in the current supplied through the reactor and which notch shows up in the voltage waveform developed on the separate winding or tap of the input reactor which provides the gating voltage for the first SCR. The presence of the notch, even though de-emphasized by a waveshaping circuit coupling the gating voltage to the first SCR, causes erratic control of the first SCR.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
In accordance with one embodiment of the invention, a gating circuit of a television deflection system employing a first switching means for coupling a deflection winding across a source of energy during a trace interval of each deflection cycle and a second switching means for replenishing energy to said source of energy during a commutation interval of each deflection cycle includes a voltage divider means coupled in parallel with the second switching means for developing gating signals proportional to the voltage across the second switching means. The voltage divider means are coupled to the first switching means to provide for conduction of the first switching means in response to the gating signals.
A more detailed description of a preferred embodiment of the invention is given in the following description and accompanying drawing of which:
FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram, partially in block form, of a prior art SCR deflection system;
FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram, partially in block form, of an SCR deflection system of the type shown in FIG. 1 including a gating circuit embodying the invention;
FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram, partially in block form, of one type of a regulator system which employs an SCR as a control device and which is suitable for use with the SCR deflection system of FIG.2;
FIG. 4 is a schematic diagram, partially in block form, of another type of a regulator system suitable for use with the deflection circuit of FIG. 2; and
FIG. 5 is a schematic diagram, partially in block form, of still another type of a regulator system suitable for use with the SCR deflection system of FIG. 2.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT
FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram, partially in block form, of a prior art deflection system of the retrace driven type similar to that disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,452,244. This system includes a commutating switch 12, comprising a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) 14 and an oppositely poled damper diode 16. The commutating switch 12 is coupled between a winding 18a of an input choke 18 and ground. The other terminal of winding 18a is coupled to a source of direct current voltage (B+) by means of a regulator network 20 which controls the energy stored in the deflection circuit 10 when the commutating switch is off, during an interval T3 to T0' as shown in curve 21 which is a plot of the voltage level at the anode of SCR 14 during the deflection cycle. A damping network comprising a series combination of a resistor 22 and a capacitor 23 is coupled in parallel with commutating switch 12 and serves to reduce any ringing effects produced by the switching of commutating switch 12. Commutating switch 12 is coupled through a commutating coil 24, a commutating capacitor 25 and a trace switch 26 to ground. Trace switch 26 comprises an SCR 28 and an oppositely poled damper diode 30. An auxiliary capacitor 32 is coupled between the junction of coil 24 and capacitor 25 and ground. A series combination of a horizontal deflection winding 34 and an S-shaping capacitor 36 are coupled in parallel with trace switch 26. Also, a series combination of a primary winding 38a of a horizontal output transformer 38 and a DC blocking capacitor 40 are coupled in parallel with trace switch 26.
A secondary of high voltage winding 38b of transformer 38 produces relatively large amplitude flyback pulses during the retrace interval of each deflection cycle. This interval exists between T1 and T2 of curve 41 which is a plot of the current through windings 34 and 38a during the deflection cycle. These flyback pulses are applied to a high voltage multiplier (not shown) or other suitable means for producing direct current high voltage for use as the ultor voltage of a kinescope (not shown).
An auxiliary winding 38c of transformer 38 is coupled to a high voltage sensing and control circuit 42 which transforms the level of flyback pulses into a pulse width modulated signal. The control circuit 42 is coupled to the regulator network 20.
A horizontal oscillator 44 is coupled to the gate electrode of commutating SCR 14 and produces a pulse during each deflection cycle slightly before the end of the trace interval at T0 of curve 21 to turn on SCR 14 to initiate the commutating interval. The commutating interval occurs between T0 and T3 of curve 21. A resonant waveshaping network 46 comprising a series combination of a capacitor 48 and an inductor 50 coupled between a winding 18b of input choke 18 and the gate electrode of trace SCR 28 and a damping resistor 52 coupled between the junction of capacitor 48 and inductor 50 and ground shapes the signal developed at winding 18b (i.e. voltage waveform 53) to form a gating signal voltage waveform 55 to enable SCR 28 for conduction during the second half of the trace interval occurring between T2 and T1' of curve 41.
The regulator network 20, when of a type to be described in conjunction with FIG. 3, operates in such a manner that current through winding 18a of input choke 18 during an interval between T4 and T5 (region A) of curves 21, 53 and 55 is interrupted for a period of time the duration of which is determined by the signal produced by the high voltage sensing and control circuit 42. During the interruption of current through winding 18a a zero voltage level is developed by winding 18b as shown in interval T4 to T5 of curve 53. The resonant waveshaping circuit 46 produces the shaped waveform 55 which undesirably retains a slump in region A corresponding to the notch A of waveform 53. The slump in waveform 55 applied to SCR 28 occurs in a region where the anode of SCR 28 becomes positive and where SCR 28 must be switched on to maintain a uniform production of the current waveshape in the horizontal deflection winding 34 as shown in curve 41. The less positive amplitude current occurring at region A of waveform 55 may result in insufficient gating current for SCR 28 and may cause erratic performance resulting in an unsatisfactory raster.
FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram, partially in block form, of a deflection system 60 embodying the invention. Those elements which perform the same function in FIG. 2 as in FIG. 1 are labeled with the same reference numerals. FIG. 2 differs from FIG. 1 essentially in that the signal to enable SCR 28 derived from sampling a portion of the voltage across commutating switch 12 rather than a voltage developed by winding 18b which is a function of the voltage across winding 18a of input choke 18 as in FIG. 1. This change eliminates the slump in the enabling signal during the interval T4 to T5 as shown in curve 64 since the voltage across the commutating switch 12 is not adversely effected by the regulator network 20 operation.
A series combination of resistor 22, capacitor 23 and a capacitor 62 is coupled in parallel with commutating switch 12, one terminal of capacitor 62 being coupled to ground. The junction of capacitors 23 and 62 is coupled to the gate electrode of SCR 28 by means of the inductor 50. The resistor 52 is coupled in parallel with capacitor 62.
Capacitors 23 and 62 form a capacitance voltage divider which provides a suitable portion of the voltage across commutating switch 12 for gating SCR 28 via inductor 50. The magnitude of the voltage at the junction of capacitors 23 and 62 is typically 25 to 35 volts. It can, therefore, be seen that the ratio of values of capacitors 23 and 62 will vary depending on the B+ voltage utilized to energize the deflection system. Capacitors 23 and 62 and inductor 50 form a resonant circuit tuned in a manner which provides for peaking of the curve 64 between T4 and T5. This peaking effect further enhances gating of SCR 28 between T4 and T5.
Since the waveshape of the voltage across commutating switch 12 (curve 21) is relatively independent of the type of regulator system employed in conjunction with the deflection system, the curve 64 also is independent of the type of regulator system.
When commutating switch 12 switches off during the interval T3 to T0' curve 21, the voltage across capacitor 62 increases and the voltage at the gate electrode of SCR 28 increases as shown in curve 64. As will be noted, no slump of curve 64 occurs between T3 and T5 because there is no interruption of the voltage across commutating switch 12.



















FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram, partially in block form, of one type of a regulator system which may be used in conjunction with the invention. B+ is supplied through a regulator network 20 which comprises an SCR 66 and an oppositely poled diode 68. The diode is poled to provide for conduction of current from B+ to the horizontal deflection circuit 60 via winding 18a of input choke 18. Current flows through the diode during the period T3 to T4 of curve 21 FIG. 1 after which current tries to flow through the SCR 66 from the horizontal deflection circuit to B+ since the commutating capacitor 25 is charged to a voltage higher than B+.
The horizontal deflection circuit 60 produces a flyback pulse in winding 38a of the flyback transformer 38 which is coupled to winding 38c. The magnitude of the pulse on winding 38c determines how long the signal required to switch SCR 66 on is delayed after T4 curve 21 FIG. 1. If the flyback pulse is greater than desirable, the SCR 66 turns on sooner than if the flyback pulse is less than desirable and provides a discharge path for current in commutating capacitor 25 back to the B+ supply. In this manner a relatively constant amplitude flyback pulse is maintained.
FIG. 4 is a schematic diagram, partially in block form, of another well-known type of a regulator system which may be used in conjunction with the invention shown in FIG. 2. B+ is coupled through winding 18a of input choke 18 and through a series combination of windings 70a and 70b of a saturable reactor 70 and a parallel combination of a diode 72 and a resistor 74 to the horizontal deflection circuit 60. Diode 72 is poled to conduct current from the horizontal deflection circuit 60 to B+.
Flyback pulse variations are obtained from winding 38c of the horizontal output transformer 38 and applied to a voltage divider comprising resistors 76, 78 and 80 of the high voltage sensing and control circuit 42. A portion of the pulse produced by winding 38c is selected by the position of the wiper terminal on potentiometer 78 and coupled to the base electrode of a transistor 82 by means of a zener diode 84. The emitter electrode of transistor 82 is grounded and a DC stabilization resistor 85 is coupled in parallel with the base-emitter junction of transistor 82. When the pulse magnitude on winding 38c exceeds a level which results in forward biasing the base-emitter junction of transistor 82, current flows from B+ through a resistor 86, a winding 70c of saturable reactor 70 and transistor 82 to ground. Due to the exponential increase of current in winding 70c during the period of conduction of transistor 82, the duration of conduction of transistor 82 determines the magnitude of current flowing in winding 70c and thus the total inductance of windings 70a and 70b. The current in winding 70c is sustained during the remaining deflection period by means of a diode 88 coupled in parallel with winding 70c and poled not to conduct current from B+ to the collector electrode of transistor 82. A capacitor 90 coupled to the cathode of diode 88 provides a bypass for B+. Windings 70a and 70b are in parallel with input reactor 18a and thereby affect the total input inductance of the deflection circuit and thereby controls the transfer of energy to the deflection circuit. The dotted waveforms shown in conjunction with a curve 21' indicate variations from a nominal waveform provided at the input of horizontal deflection circuit 60 by the windings 70a and 70b.













FIG. 5 is a schematic diagram of yet another type of a regulator system which may be used in conjunction with the invention. B+ is coupled through a winding 92a and a winding 92b of a saturable reactor to the horizontal deflection circuit 60. Windings 92a and 92b are used to replace the input choke 18 shown in FIGS. 1 and 2 while also providing for a regulating function corresponding to that provided by regulating network 20.
Flyback pulse variations are obtained from winding 38c and applied to the high voltage sensing and control circuit 42 as in FIG. 4. Current flows from B+ through resistor 86, a winding 92c and transistor 82 to ground. As in FIG. 4 the duration of the conduction of transistor 82 determines the energy stored in winding 92c and thus the total inductance of windings 92a and 92b which control the amount of energy transferred to the deflection circuit during each horizontal deflection cycle. The variations in waveforms of curve 21', shown in conjunction with FIG. 4, are also provided at the input of horizontal deflection circuit 60 by windings 92a and 92b.
For various reasons including cost or performance, a manufacturer may wish to utilize a particular one of the regulators illustrated in FIGS. 3, 4 and 5. Regardless of the choice, the gating circuit according to the invention may be utilized therewith advantageously by providing improved performance and the possibility of cost savings by eliminating taps or extra windings on the wound components which heretofore normally provided a source of SCR gating waveforms.

STERN (ZANUSSI) UBG2231 CHASSIS BS352.0 E/W CORRECTION CIRCUIT WITH SATURABLE REACTOR FOR CORRECTING RASTER DISTORTION:

Saturable reactor apparatus in which primary and secondary windings, respectively coupled to horizontal and vertical deflection current sources, are wound on the shaft of a ferrite core at the opposite ends of which are permanent magnets. Flux generated in the core is controlled either by adjustment of the permanent magnets or by the use of a further permanent magnet.


1. Saturable reactor apparatus comprising a ferrite core including a central part and a shaft extending in opposite directions therefrom and flanges on the shaft defining spaces on opposite sides of the central part, primary and secondary windings on the shaft in each of said spaces and in close coupling relationship, the secondary windings being oppositely wound, permanent magnets at opposite ends of the shaft to generate flux in said core, and means to control the thusly generated flux. 2. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1 wherein said means includes means to vary the position of the permanent magnets relative to said shaft. 3. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1 wherein said means includes a further permanent magnet adjacent the core and rotatable about an axis perpendicular to said shaft. 4. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1 wherein said magnets are of plate-form. 5. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1 comprising horizontal and vertical deflection deflection television-receiver circuits generating horizontal and vertical deflection currents, and means for respectively coupling the currents to said primary and secondary windings. 6. Apparatus as claimed in claim 3 wherein said further magnet is of circular form and has peripheral magnetic poles therein. 7. Apparatus as claimed in claim 2 wherein the latter said means includes threaded rods.

A saturable reactor comprised of a cross-shaped core having a yoke on the center portion thereof and protrusions at right angles to the yoke and two coils wound on the yoke. Each coil of the said two coils is divided into two coil parts which are wound on the right and left yoke arms. The first pair of the said two coils is constituted so as to be identical as to the direction of the magnetic generation as is the pair of coils wound on the right and left yoke arms. The second pair of coils is constituted so as to be opposite to each other as to the direction of magnetic flux generation as is the pair of coils wound on the right and left yoke arms.


1. A saturable reactor for correcting raster distortion comprised of a cross-shaped magnetic core consisting essentially of a central yoke portion and a divider portion in the form of a protrusion intersecting the central portion at a right angle and extending to the opposite side thereof, thereby dividing the central yoke portion into separate arm portions and forming a magnetic core which is cross-shaped when viewed in cross-section, and two coils wound on the yoke portion, each of said coils being subdivided into two parts and the thus divided coils being wound on the respective arm portions formed on both sides of the protrusion, the first coil being so constituted that the magnetic fluxes generated in the two divided coil parts assume the same direction when an electric current is caused to flow therethrough, while the said second coil is so constituted that the magnetic fluxes will be generated in opposite directions in the two divided coil parts when an electric current is caused to flow therethrough, and wherein the core is so structured that the cross-sectional dimensions are identical along its entire length, with
2. A saturable reactor for correcting raster distortion according to claim 1, wherein at least one end of the protrusion is extended in a direction 3. A saturable reactor for correcting raster distortion according to claim 1, wherein the protrusion consists of two oppositely positioned 4. A saturable reactor for correcting raster distortion according to claim 1, wherein the protrusion consists of a continuous disc surrounding the 5. A saturable reactor for correcting raster distortion according to claim 1, wherein a cylindrical core is mounted on the cross-shaped core with the inside wall of the cylindrical core in slidable contact with said divider 6. A saturable reactor for correcting raster distortion according to claim 2, wherein the protrusion is extended by attaching thereto core strips in 7. A saturable reactor for correcting raster distortion according to claim 1, wherein a U-shaped permanent magnet having magnetic poles at both ends is mounted on the cross-shaped core so that the said magnetic poles contact the right and left arm portions of the yoke respectively, and 8. A saturable reactor for correcting raster distortion according to claim 1, wherein permanent magnets for bias are mounted on both ends of the 9. A saturable reactor for correcting raster distortion according to claim 1, wherein a cavity is provided in the center of the yoke in the axial direction thereof and a permanent bar magnet magnetized in the axial 10. A saturable reactor for correcting raster distortion according to claim 9, wherein core strips are placed on both ends of the yoke.
Description:
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to a reactor for controlling or modifying "pincushion" type distortion in cathode ray tube displays. It is particularly well suited for use in conjunction with color display tubes.

Pincushion type distortion of cathode ray tube displays has long been recognized. In black-and-white displays, this type of distortion is corrected to a considerable extent through the use of permanent magnets, which are so shaped and fixed in positions relative to the cathode as to produce an appropriate magnetic biasing effect on the cathode ray beam. In the case of color display tubes, which are based on the use of shadow mask or similar principles, however, fixed correcting magnets cannot be used.

One approach, which has been adopted in connection with the correction of pincushion distortion in color displays involves modulation or variation of one of the sweep currents in such a manner as to produce the desired results.

In the arrangement for correction of raster distortion occurring in the vertical direction (e.g., top and bottom pincushion distortion), the cyclically varying vertical scanning current must be modulated at a higher horizontal rate, such as by adding a horizontal rate correction current alternated parabolically to the vertical deflection current.

In the arrangement for the correction of raster distortion occurring in the horizontal direction (e.g., side pincushion distortion), the cyclically varying horizontal scanning must be varied at a lower vertical rate, since the magnitude of a horizontal scanning must be varied at a lower vertical rate, since the magnitude of a horizontal scanning current is parabolical.

It has further been suggested in the prior art that this modulation be accomplished electromagnetically using a combination of magnetic and electrical circuitry which works on the principle of magnetic saturability.

In general, nominal correction can be produced by this means. There are many kinds of saturable reactor device and circuit connections for correcting pincushion distortion such as those described in U.S. Pats. No. 2,906,919, No. 3,346,765, and No. 3,444,422.

The existing reactor, as seen in the aforementioned U.S. patents, is composed of a core that mutually couples the two ends of three parallel yokes, a coil is shunt-wound on the two yokes on both sides of the said core in opposite winding direction and is connected in series, and another coil is wound on the center of the said core. Since the vertical deflection current has been applied to one of the above-mentioned coils and the horizontal deflection current has been applied to the other coil, the device has disadvantages as described herein.

In the manufacture of a reactor, coils are fitted to respective yokes of an E-shaped core, and I-shaped cores are coupled on the free ends of the yokes of the E-shaped core in order to magnetically couple the yokes. Using this process, the manufacturing process has been time-consuming, making it unsuited to mass-production. Magnetic flux leakage has been small, since the yokes formed a closed magnetic path. However, since current magnetic flux density in the closed magnetic path varied markedly depending on the infinitesimal differences in the gaps in the magnetic path, the characteristics of individual products lost uniformity because of disparity in the gap arising in the coupled part of the E-shaped core and the I-shaped core.

The present invention offers saturable reactors extremely easy to assemble and manufacture and with uniform quality of individual products.

SUMMARY

In accordance with the invention there is provided a saturable reactor for correcting raster distortion comprised of a cross-shaped magnetic core having a yoke on the center portion thereof and protrusions being provided at right angles thereto, and two coils wound on the said yoke, each coil of the said two coils being divided into two parts and the divided coils wound on the respective arms formed on both sides of the said protrusions, the first coil being so constituted that the magnetic fluxes generated in the two divided coil parts assume the same direction when an electric current is caused to flow therethrough, while the said second coil is so constituted that the magnetic fluxes will be generated in opposite directions in the two divided coil parts when an electric current is caused to flow therethrough.





















































































































































- Syncronization / Horizontal oscillator BS244.1 TBA940 (ITT)

- Frame oscillators BS287.1

- Video / Croma / Luminance BS354.0 WITH TDA2140 + TDA2161 (TELEFUNKEN)

- IF Video / Demodulator BS313.0 TBA1440 (Siemens)

- IF Sound + Amplifier BS249.5

- E/W Correction BS341.1

- Line deflection power stabiliser BS247.2 with TD2 8F 600 R36 (AEG)

- Tuning / remote control unit BS332.1 with SAA1021 (ITT) + SAA1130 (ITT) + UA739 + SAA1020 (ITT)


STERN (ZANUSSI) UBG2231 CHASSIS BS352.0 ULTRASONIC REMOTE CONTROL RECEIVER CHASSIS BS352.0 BS332.1

An ultrasonic remote control receiver wherein an incoming ultrasonic signal is converted to square wave pulses of the same frequency by a Schmitt trigger circuit; digital circuits are thereafter used to count pulses resulting from the incoming signal over a predetermined period of time; a decoder activates one of a plurality of outputs in dependance to the number of pulses counted, provision is made to prevent interference signals from producing undesired control outputs.



1. An ultrasonic remote control receiver for applying a control signal to a selected one of a plurality of control channels in response to and dependent on the frequency of a received ultrasonic signal comprising:

2. An ultrasonic remote control receiver comprising:

3. An ultrasonic remote control receiver comprising:

4. The ultrasonic remote control receiver as defined in claim 3, wherein said means producing square pulses is a Schmitt trigger circuit and said means providing a signal input to said sequence controller is a retriggerable monostable multivibrator.

5. An ultrasonic remote control receiver comprising:

6. An ultrasonic remote control receiver comprising:

7. An ultrasonic remote control receiver as defined in claim 6 further comprising a monostable multivibrator between the output of said Schmitt trigger circuit and the remaining elements of said receiver.

8. An ultrasonic remote control receiver as defined in claim 6 further comprising a bistable multivibrator between the output of said Schmitt trigger circuit and the remaing elements of said receiver.

9. The ultrasonic remote control receiver as defined in claim 7 wherein the hold period of said monostable multivibrator is slightly less than one half the period of said square wave pulses from said Schmitt trigger circuit.

Description:
The invention relates to an ultrasonic remote control receiver for receiving signals having different useful frequencies each associated with a channel, comprising a plurality of outputs which are each associated with one of the channels and from which a control signal is emitted on receipt of a signal having the corresponding useful frequency.

To obtain the simplest possible transmitter construction in ultrasonic remote control, modulation of the emitted ultrasonic frequencies is not employed; to control different operations different frequencies are emitted which must be recognized in the receiver and evaluated for carrying out the different functions associated therewith. Presently, to recognize the different frequencies, use is made of resonant circuits, each of which contains one or more coils tuned in each case together with a capacitor to one of the useful frequencies.

These hitherto known receivers have numerous disadvantages. Thus, for example, before starting operation of the receiver a time-consuming alignment procedure must be carried out with which the resonant frequencies of the individual resonant circuits are set. Since it is inevitable that with time the resonant circuits become detuned, it may be necessary to repeat the alignment procedure.

A further disadvantage is that the known receivers cannot be made by integrated techniques because the coils used therein are not suitable for such techniques.

The problem underlying the invention is thus to provide an ultrasonic remote control receiver of the type mentioned at above which is extremely simple to set and in addition can be made by integrated techniques.

To solve this problem, according to the invention an ultrasonic remote control receiver of the type mentioned above contains a counter for counting the useful frequency oscillations received during a fixed measuring time, a sequence control device which determines the measuring time and which is started on receipt of a useful frequency, and a decoder comprising several outputs which is connected to the outputs of the counter, said decoder emitting a control signal at the output associated with the count reached at the end of the measuring time.

In the receiver constructed according to the invention the frequency emitted by the transmitter is identified by counting the oscillations received during a measuring time. The evaluation of the count reached at the end of the measuring time takes place in a decoder which emits a control signal at a certain output according to the count. The measuring time is fixed by a sequence control device which is set in operation on receipt of useful frequency signals.

In such a receiver the only quantity which has to be exactly fixed is the measuring time; it is therefore no longer necessary to align components to certain frequencies. Since no coils are required, the novel receiver can also be made up of integrated circuits.

A further development of the invention resides in that an interference identifying device is provided which on receipt of interference frequencies differing from the useful frequencies interrupts the operation of the sequence control device.

Hitherto known ultrasonic remote control receivers respond to any oscillation received if the frequency thereof has a value which excites a resonant circuit in the receiver. There is no way of distinguishing between oscillations received from the remote control transmitter and from interference sources.

Interfering ultrasonic oscillations may be due to many different causes. For example, noises such as hand clapping, rattling of short keys such as safety keys, operating cigarette lighters, rattling of crockery and the like cover a frequency spectrum reaching from the audio frequency range far into the ultrasonic region. The ultrasonic components may have the effect of simulating a useful frequency and cause an erroneous function in the receiver.

The interference identifying device according to the further development is constructed in such a manner that it recognizes oscillations having frequencies deviating from the useful frequencies and as a result of this recognition switches off the sequence control device. This switching off prevents the counter state reached from being passed to the decoder and consequently the latter cannot emit an erroneous control signal.

With this further development of the ultrasonic remote control receiver the operation of equipment such as radio and television sets is made extremely reliable and interference-free. During the operation of such a set it is no longer possible for the remote control to become operative, triggered by interference noises, eliminating for example the possibility of unintentional program or volume changes.

Examples of embodiment of the invention are illustrated in the drawings, wherein:

FIG. 1 shows a block circuit diagram of a remote control receiver according to the invention;

FIG. 2 is a diagram explaining the mode of operation of the circuit according to FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 shows another embodiment of the invention;

FIG. 4 is a diagram explaining the mode of operation of the circuit according to FIG. 3;

FIG. 5 is a diagram illustrating interference frequency identification in the circuit according to FIG. 3;

FIG. 6 shows a block circuit diagram of another embodiment of part of the circuit according to FIG. 3;

FIG. 7 is a diagram explaining the mode of operation of the embodiment according to FIG. 6;

FIG. 8 is a block circuit diagram of a further embodiment of a part of the circuit according to FIG. and, an

FIG. 9 is a diagram explaining the mode of operation of the embodiment according to FIG. 8.

The ultrasonic remote control receiver shown in FIG. 1 comprises an input 1 which is connected to an ultrasonic microphone intended to receive ultrasonic signals coming from a remote control transmitter. For each function to be performed by the receiver the remote control transmitter emits one of several unmodulated different useful frequencies which are spaced from each other a constant channel spacing Δ f and which all lie within a useful frequency band.

To obtain a signal which is as free as possible from noise at the input 1, a band filter and a limiting amplifier are preferably incorporated between the ultrasonic microphone and the input 1. The band filter may be made up of two active filters whose resonant frequencies are offset with respect to each other so that a pass band curve in the useful frequency band is obtained which is as flat as possible.

The input 1 leads to a Schmitt trigger 2 which converts the electrical signal applied thereto with the frequency of the ultrasonic signal to a sequence of rectangular pulses. The output 3 of the Schmitt trigger 2 is connected to the input 6 of a frequency divider 7 which is in operation for the duration of a control pulse applied to its control input 8 and divides the recurrence frequency of the pulses supplied thereto at the input 6 thereof in a constant division ratio. The output 9 of the frequency divider 7 is connected to the input 10 of a counter 11 which counts the pulses coming from the frequency divider 7. The counter 11 is a four-stage binary counter whose stage outputs are connected to the inputs of a store (register) 12 which is so constructed that on application of a control pulse to the input 12 thereof it takes on the counter state in the counter 11 and stores said counter state until the next pulse at the input 13. The stage outputs of the store 12 are fed to the inputs of a decoder 14 which decodes the counter state contained in the store 12 in such a manner that a control signal is emitted at that one of its outputs D0 to D9 which is associated with the decoded counter state.

The output 3 of the Schmitt trigger 2 is also connected to the input 4 of a monoflop 5 which is brought into its operating state by each pulse at the output 3 of the Schmitt trigger. It returns from this operating state to its quiescent state after expiration of a hold time depending on its intrinsic time constant if it does not receive a new pulse prior to expiration of this hold time. It is held in the operating state by each pulse received during the hold time untilit finally flops back into the quiescent state when the interval between two successive pulses is greater than its hold time.

The output 15 of the monoflop circuit 5 is connected to the input 16 of a sequence control device 17 which is set in operation by the signal emitted in the operating state of the monoflop 5. Supplied to the sequence control device by 17 via a Schmitt trigger 18 at a control input 19 are pulses having a recurrence frequency derived from oscillations of the same frequency, for example, twice the mains frequency of 100 c/s, applied to the input 20. The sequence control device 17 is so constructed that in a cyclically recurring sequence in time with the pulses supplied to it at the input 19 it emits pulses at the outputs 21, 22 and 23 whose duration is equal to the period of the oscillation applied to the input 20. The output 21 of the sequence control device 17 is connected to the control input 8 of the frequency divider 7, the output 22 is connected to the control input 13 of the store 12 and the output 23 thereof is connected to the reset input 24 of the counter 11.

The mode of operation of the circuit of FIG. 1 will now be explained with the aid of the diagram of FIG. 2 which shows the variation with time of the signals at the output 3 of the Schmitt trigger 2 and at the inputs 16 and 19 as well as the outputs 21, 22 and 23 of the sequence control device 17.

It will be assumed that a useful frequency oscillation is being received at the input 1. The Schmitt trigger 2 then emits at the output 3 rectangular pulses whose recurrence frequency is equal to the frequency of said useful frequency oscillation. The first pulse emitted by the Schmitt trigger 2 puts the monoflop 5 into its operating state. The hold time of the monoflop 5 is so dimensioned that for all useful frequencies occurring it is longer than the recurrence period of the rectangular pulses emitted at the output 3. The monoflop 5 therefore remains in its operating state for as long as the useful frequency oscillation is applied to the input 1 and supplies to the control input 16 of the sequence control device 17 a control signal throughout this time.

Due to the control signal applied to the input 16 the sequence control device 17 emits at its outputs 21, 22 and 23 in time with the pulses supplied to it via the Schmitt trigger 18 at the input 19 mutually offset control pulse sequences, the duration of the control pulses being equal to the time interval of the leading edges of the pulses supplied at the input 19 and thus equal to the period of the oscillation applied to the input 20 and the pulse sequences being offset with respect to each other by one pulse duration. The control pulses emitted by the sequence control device 17 perform the following functions:

a. The first control pulse appearing at the output 21 sets in operation for its duration via the input 8 the frequency divider 7 so that the latter divides the recurrence frequency of the pulses supplied thereto from the Schmitt trigger 2 and thus the frequency of the useful frequency oscillations received in a constant ratio and passes counting pulses to the input 10 of the counter 11 with a correspondingly reduced recurrence frequency.

b. Via the input 13 the second pulse occurring at the output 22 causes the store 12 to take on and to store the count of the counter 11 reached at the end of the first control pulse.

c. The third control pulse appearing at the output 23 resets the counter 11 via the reset input 24.

COntrol pulse sequences continue to be emitted for as long as the monoflop 5 remains in its operating state.

Since the stage outputs of the store 12 are permanently connected to the inputs of the decoder 14, the store content is continuously being decoded. The decoder 14 therefore emits a control signal at the output which is associated with the count contained in the store.

During each group of three offset control pulses of the three control pulse sequences emitted by the sequence control device 17, the counter 11 receives counting pulses from the frequency divider 8 only for the duration of the control pulse of the first control pulse sequence emitted at the output 21. The duration of this control pulse thus determines the measuring time during which the oscillations of the useful frequency signal received are counted. Since the duration of the control pulses emitted by the sequence control device 17 is however equal to the period of the oscillation applied to the input 20, the measuring time is fixed by the period of said oscillation.

The frequency divider 7 is connected in front of the counter 11 so that a small capacity of the counter 11 is sufficient to obtain a clear indication of the received frequency even when the measuring time is so long that a large number of periods of the useful frequency oscillation is received during the measuring time. This is for example, the case when the oscillation supplied to the input 20 has twice the mains frequency. Since the frequency divider 7 divides the frequency of the useful frequency oscillations received in the constant ratio k, the counter 11 need count only the oscillations having a correspondingly reduced frequency. If the division ratio k of the divider 7 is so set that it is equal to the product of the measuring time t and channel spacing Δ f, only a frequency which differs by at least the channel spacing Δ f from a previously received frequency will change the count of the counter 11.

The purpose of the monoflop 5 is to prevent interference frequencies supplied to the input 1 from producing at one of the outputs D0 to D9 of the decoder 14 a control signal which could lead to an erroneous function of the equipment being controlled. The interference sources usually encountered emit a frequency spectrum whose components lie predominantly in the audio region, i.e., below the ultrasonic region. If the hold time of the monoflop 5 is set to a value slightly greater than the period of the smallest useful frequency but smaller than the period of the highest interference frequency occurring, the monoflop 5 returns to its quiescent state before the end of the period of an interference frequency. Since in this state no signal is supplied to the control input 16 of the sequence control device 17, the latter is put out of operation and consequently the received signal cannot be evaluated because the count of the counter 11 is not transferred to the store 12 and thus no decoding takes place.

To facilitate understanding of the invention, the function of the circuit of FIG. 1 will now be explained numerically by way of example. The channel spacing Δ f will be taken as 1,200 c/s so that for a frequency of 100 c/s of the oscillation applied to the input 20 and thus a measuring time of 10 ms a division ratio of the frequency divider 7 of k = t . Δf = 12 results. It will further be assumed that ten different channel frequencies are to be evaluated; the counter 11 is therefore so connected that it has a capacity of 10. With these values, during the measuring time the counter 11 runs through several count cycles. This means that for the received frequency during the measuring time the counter 11 reaches its maximum count several times and then starts counting again from the beginning. The count reached at the end of the measuring time is however still a clear indication of the received useful frequency provided the number of useful frequencies having a channel spacing Δf is at the most equal to the counter capacity Z. The relationship between the useful frequency f received and the count reached at the end of each measuring time t while this useful frequency is being received is expressed by the following equation:

f = (k/t) . (n . Z + m + 0.5)

wherein

f = useful frequency received in c/s

t = measuring time in seconds

k = division ratio of the frequency divider 7

Z = capacity of the counter 11

n = number of count cycles passed through (integral)

m = count

The term 0.5 in brackets is a correction factor which ensures that a new count is reached whenever the received frequency differs at least by half the channel spacing Δf from the channel center frequency of the neighboring channel. With a channel spacing Δ of 1,200 c/s, a measuring time t of 10 ms, a division ratio k of the frequency divider 7 of 12, a capacity Z of the counter 11 of 10 and an input frequency f of 33 k c/s, the count 7 is for example reached after two complete count cycles. This is because the input frequency of 33 k c/s is first divided by 12 by the frequency divider 7 so that pulses having a recurrence frequency of 2.750 k c/s reach the input 10 of the counter 11. Since the frequency divider 7 emits counting pulses only during the measuring time of 10 ms, during said time only 27.5 pulses reach the input 10 of the counter 11. For this number of pulses the counter thus runs through two complete cycles and finally stops at the count 7. Similarly, for an input frequency of 39 k c/s the counter stops at the count 2 after passing through three complete counter cycles. With the numerical values given up to 10 different frequencies may be received without any ambiguity occurring in the evaluation.

FIG. 3 illustrates a further embodiment of an ultrasonic remote control receiver which differs from the embodiment described above primarily in that to fix the measuring time it is not necessary to supply a reference frequency. In the illustration of FIG. 3 the same reference numerals as in FIG. 1 are used for identical circuit components. The part of the circuit enclosed in the dashed line represents the sequence control device 17' which emits at its outputs 21', 22', 23' control signals which have substantially the same functions as the control signals emitted at the outputs 21, 22 and 23 of the sequence control device 17 of FIG. 1.

The useful frequency signal received is again supplied to the input 1. The input 1 is connected to the input of the Schmitt trigger 2 which again converts the input useful frequency oscillations into a sequence of pulses whose recurrence frequency is equal to the input useful frequency. The output 3 of the Schmitt trigger 2 is connected to the input B1 of a monoflop 25 which is contained in the sequence control device 17' and which is so constructed that it is switched to its operating state by a pulse received at the input B1 but during its hold time cannot be tripped again by any further pulse. The output 3 of the Schmitt trigger 2 is also connected to the input 26 of an AND gate 27 whose other input 28 is connected to that output 21' of the sequence control device 17' which is directly connected to the output Q1 of the monoflop 25. The output Q1 of the monoflop 25 which emits the signal complementary to the signal at the output Q1 is connected to the input B2 of a further monoflop 29 whose output Q2 is connected to the input A1 of the monoflop 25. The input 10 of the counter 11 is connected to the output of the AND gate 27. The stage outputs of the counter 11 are connected to the inputs of a gate circuit 30 which on receipt of a control pulse at its input 31 transfers the count contained in the counter 11 to the decoder 14 connected to its outputs. In the decoder 14 the count is then decoded in the manner already explained in conjunction with FIG. 1 so that a control signal is emitted at the output corresponding to the transferred count.

The output 3 of the Schmitt trigger 2 is further connected to the input 32 of an AND gate 33 which is contained in the sequence control circuit 17' and the other input 34 of which is connected to the output of a NOR gate 35. The output Q1 of the monoflop 25 is directly connected to one input 36 of the NOR gate 35 and is connected to the other input 37 via a delay member 38 and an inverter 39.

The output of the AND gate 33 represents the output 22' of the sequence control circuit 17' which is directly connected to the control input 31 of the gate circuit 30. In addition, the output of the AND gate 33 is directly connected to one input 40 of a NOR gate 41 and to the other input 42 thereof via a delay member 43 and an inverter 44. The output of the NOR gate 41 represents the output 23' of the sequence control circuit 17', to which output the reset input 24 of the counter 11 is connected.

The mode of operation of the circuit of FIG. 3 is explained in FIG. 4. Since the measuring time in the arrangement of FIG. 3 is substantially shorter than in the arrangement of FIG. 1, the time scale in FIG. 4 has been enlarged compared with FIG. 2 in order to clarify the illustration. When useful frequency oscillations are supplied to the input 1 of the receiver, pulses whose recurrence frequency is equal to the useful frequency appear at the output 3 of the Schmitt trigger 2. It will be assumed that the presence of a pulse corresponds to the logical signal value 1 whereas a pulse space represents the logical signal value 0. The leading edge of the first pulse at the output 3 puts the monoflop 25 into its operating state in which it emits the signal value 1 for the duration of its hold time at its output Q1, resulting in the control pulse at the output 21', which passes to the input 28 of the AND gate 27. Since the other input 26 of the AND gate 27 is directly connected to the output 3 of the Schmitt trigger 2, for the duration of each pulse at the output 3 the signal value 1 is also applied to the input 26 of the AND gate 27. Thus, the pulses occurring at the output 3 of the Schmitt trigger 2 are transferred for the duration of the control pulse at the output 21', i.e. during the hold time of the monoflop 25, as count pulses to the counter 11 and counted by the latter. The hold time of the monoflop 25 thus determines the measuring time; the capacity of the counter 11 must be greater than the number of pulses received during the measuring time for the greatest useful frequency. The count of the counter 11 reached at the end of the measuring time is then a clear indication of the received useful frequency.

When the monoflop 25 flops back into the quiescent state at the end of its hold time, it applies the signal value 0 via its output Q1 to the input 28 of the AND gate 27 so that no further count pulses can enter the counter 11. At the same time there appears at the output Q1 of the monoflop 25 the signal value 1 which at the input B2 puts the monoflop 29 into the operating state. In this state the monoflop 29 emits at its output Q2 the signal value 1 which blocks the monoflop 25 via the input A1 for the duration of the hold time of the monoflop 29 in such a manner that it cannot be switched into the operating state by pulses at the input B1. This is necessary to enable the sequence control device 17' to have sufficient time to generate the control pulses appearing at the outputs 22' and 23' for the transfer of the count or resetting of the counter.

With the return of the monoflop 25 to its quiescent state, the signal value 0 passes to the input 26 of the NOR gate 35 directly connected to the output Q1. During the operating state of the monoflop 25 the signal value 0 is applied with a delay determined by the delay member 38 via the inverter 39 to the input 37 of the NOR gate 35, said signal value 0 being replaced by the signal value 1 only after the delay time of the delay member 38 and not simultaneously with the flop back of the monoflop 25. Thus, for the duration of this delay time the signal value 0 is applied to both inputs 36 and 37 of the NOR gate 35 and consequently for this period of time the signal value 1 appears at the output of the NOR gate 35. The circuits 35, 38, 39 thus effect the generation of a short pulse which immediately follows the return of the monoflop 25 and the duration of which is determined by the delay of the delay member 38. This pulse is applied to the input 34 of the AND gate 33 (FIG. 4). The same effect could obviously alternatively be obtained with a monoflop which is tripped by the signal at the output Q1 changing from the value 1 to the value 0.

Now, if during this time a pulse is emitted at the output 3 of the Schmitt trigger 2, i.e., a signal value 1 is at the input 32 of the AND gate 33, said gate supplies to the control input 31 of the gate circuit 30 a control pulse for the duration of the delay of the delay member 38. This control pulse opens the gate circuit so that it allows the count reached at the end of the hold time of the monoflop 25 to pass to the decoder 14. The latter then emits a control signal at the output associated with this count. The signal value 1 present at the output of the AND gate 33 during the delay of the delay member 38 also passes directly to the input 40 of the NOR gate 41, at the other input 42 of which the signal value 0 is applied for the duration of the same pulse but with a delay determined by the delay member 43. Thus, in a manner similar to the circuits 35, 38, 39 the circuits 41, 43, 44 produce a short pulse which immediately follows the end of the output pulse of the AND gate 33 and appears at the output 23' of the sequence control circuit and is applied to the reset input 24 of the counter 11 (FIG. 4). This pulse resets the counter 11.

The hold time of the monoflop 29 is so set that it flops back into its quiescent state again only when the transfer process from the counter to the decoder via the gate circuit and the resetting of the counter has been effected. When the monoflop 29 returns to its quiescent state, it emits at its output Q2 the signal value 0 which brings the monoflop 25 via the input A1 thereof into such a condition that it can again be brought into its operating state by a pulse at the output 3 of the Schmitt trigger 2. In this manner the measuring and evaluating periods can be repeated for as long as useful frequency oscillations are supplied to the input 1.

In the circuit according to FIG. 3, interference frequencies are suppressed by setting a certain hold time of the monoflop 25. It is apparent from the above description of the function that the transfer of the count of the counter 11 to the decoder 14 takes place immediately following the end of the hold time of the monoflop 25, i.e., immediately following the end of the measuring time. However, a control signal initiating the transfer can be applied by the AND gate 33 to the control input 31 of the gate circuit 30 only when simultaneously with the end of the measuring time a pulse, i.e., the signal value 1, is present at the output 3 of the Schmitt trigger 2. Now, if the hold time of the monoflop 25 is made equal to the reciprocal of the channel spacing Δf, this coincidence at the AND gate 33 at the end of the measuring time occurs only when quite definite frequencies are applied to the input 1; these frequencies lie only within frequency bands which in the example described here, in which the output pulses of the Schmitt trigger 2 have a pulse duty factor of 1:2, have the width of half a channel spacing. These frequency bands each contain one of the useful frequencies. Between these frequency bands there are gaps having the width of half the channel frequency and frequencies falling in these gaps do not produce coincidence at the AND gate 33 and consequently cannot be evaluated by transfer of the count of the counter 11 to the decoder 14. Thus, frequency windows are formed over the entire frequency range which can occur at the input 1 and only frequencies lying within these windows are treated by the circuit according to FIG. 3 as useful frequencies. All intermediate frequencies are recognized as interference frequencies and excluded from evaluation.

If the measuring time is made exactly equal to the reciprocal of the channel spacing the frequency bands in which evaluation takes place are such that the rated frequencies of the signals transmitted by the transmitter are disposed at the lower end of the frequency bands. Thus, in this case only frequencies starting from a rated frequency in each case and extending up to the frequency in the center between two channels would be evaluated as useful frequencies. Since the frequency of the signals emitted by the transmitter can however also fluctuate below the rated frequency, it is desirable to place the frequency bands in which evaluation takes place so that the rated frequencies lie substantially in the center of the bands. To achieve this, the hold time of the monoflop 25 and thus the measuring time is lengthened by a quarter of the reciprocal of the maximum rated frequency. Although with this setting only the maximum rated frequency lies exactly in the center of the corresponding frequency band, the other rated frequencies still lie within the corresponding frequency bands and consequently the frequencies of the useful signals can also deviate from the rated frequency downwardly without preventing evaluation. The frequency gaps including the frequencies treated as interference frequencies then lie in each case substantially in the center between two rated frequencies.

To facilitate understanding of the type of interference identification just outlined attention is drawn to FIG. 5; the latter shows at Q1 the output signal of the monoflop 25 determining the measuring time, at 3-F1, 3-F2, 3-F3 the pulse sequences appearing at the output 3 of the Schmitt trigger 2 for three different useful frequencies F1, F2, F3 and at 3-FS the pulse sequence which appears at the output 3 when an interference frequency FS is received which lies between the useful frequencies F2 and F3. It is apparent from this diagram that at the end of the measuring time a pulse is present at the output 3 of the Schmitt trigger only when useful frequencies are being received and that when an interference frequency is applied there is a pulse space at the end of the measuring time. Thus, at the AND gate 33 the presence of a pulse at the end of the measuring time is employed as criterion for the receipt of a useful frequency. It is also apparent from FIG. 5 that with the useful frequency F1 the counter 11 counts 4 pulses, with the useful frequency F2 up to 5 pulses and with the useful frequency F3 6 pulses.

Isolated short interference pulses which could reach the input 1 of the circuit of FIG. 3 between two useful pulses and undesirably increase the count may be made ineffective by inserting a flip-flop circuit 45 between the output 3 of the Schmitt trigger 2 and the rest of the circuit as illustrated in FIG. 6. The mode of operation of this flip-flop circuit 45 will be explained with the aid of FIG. 7, which shows the signals at the output 3 of the Schmitt trigger 2 and at the output 3a of the flip-flop circuit 45 firstly without interference and secondly with interference. The flip-flop circuit 45 is tripped by the leading edge of each output pulse of the Schmitt trigger 2. If a short interference pulse is received, the flip-flop circuit 45 supplies at its output 3a the signal value 0 for example on receipt of the useful pulse preceding the interference pulse, the signal value 1 on receipt of the interference pulse and the signal value 0 on receipt of the next useful pulse. If no interference pulse had occurred, the flip-flop circuit would not have been switched to the signal value 1 at the output until receipt of the next useful pulse. The flip-flop circuit thus effects on receipt of an interference pulse (and in general on receipt of an odd number of interference pulses) between two useful pulses a reversal of the signal values so that at the end of the measuring time coincidence is not reached at the gate 33 although a useful frequency was received. Without the flip-flop circuit 45 the count would be transferred, although because of the interference pulse received it would not correspond to the useful frequency received.

The embodiment of FIG. 3 differs from the embodiment of FIG. 1 also in that instead of the store (register) 12 the gate circuit 30 is used that allow the count to be evaluated to pass briefly only once in a measuring and evaluating time. Thus, at the output of the decoder 14, instead of a uniform signal as in the case of the embodiment of FIG. 1, a series of pulses appears with the spacing of the control signals at the input 31 of the gate circuit 30. The use of a gate circuit instead of a store is suitable in applications where the equipment to be controlled must be actuated with control pulses and not with a uniform signal.

The immunity to interference may be further increased if in accordance with FIG. 8 a further monoflop 46 which cannot be triggered again during its hold time is inserted between the output 3 of the Schmitt trigger 2 (or the output 3a of the flip-flop circuit 45 of FIG. 6) and the remainder of the circuit. This hold time is set to half the period of the highest useful frequency. This modification is effective against a particular type of interferences, i.e., cases where an amplitude break occurs within an oscillation at the input 1 of the Schmitt trigger 2; this break would lead at the output 3 of the Schmitt trigger to the emission of two pulses instead of the single pulse per oscillation emitted in the normal case. These two pulses give the same effect as the receipt of a frequency which is twice as high and consequently without the additional monoflop 46 erroneous evaluations could arise. However, the monoflop 46 prevents the two pulses from becoming separately effective because it always emits pulses having the duration of its hold time; short double pulses which can arise due to amplitude breaks in the received signal thus cannot have any effect. FIG. 9 shows the action of the monoflop 46 when an amplitude break occurs at the input 1 of the Schmitt trigger 2 which produces a double pulse at the output 3 of the Schmitt trigger. As is apparent, the pulses at the output 3b of the monoflop 46 are not affected by this double pulse.

One embodiment of the remote control receiver may also reside in that a sequence control counter fed by the pulses at the output of the Schmitt trigger 18 is used for the sequence control device 17 of FIG. 1; the stage outputs of said counter are connected to a decoder which is so designed that it activates one after the other one of its outputs for each count. Thus, for example, this decoder may have 10 outputs which are activated successively in each counting period of the sequence control counter. Since in accordance with the description of the example of embodiment of FIG. 1 a total of three control signals are required for the evaluation of the frequency received, the output signals at the fourth, fifth and seventh outputs may be used respectively for activating the frequency divider 7, opening the store 12 and resetting the counter 11. Since in this case the evaluation of the received frequency by the control pulses emitted from the output of the decoder of the sequence control device does not begin until the decoder emits a signal at its fourth output, there is an evaluation delay which has the advantage that short interference pulses produce no response in the receiver.

The advantageous formation of frequency band windows are used in the embodiment of FIG. 3 can also be applied in the embodiment of FIG. 1 if instead of the retriggerable monoflop 5 a monoflop is used which has no dead time and which is not retriggerable again during its hold time which as in the monoflop 35 of FIG. 3 is made equal to the reciprocal of the channel spacing Δ f. This monoflop thus always flops back into its quiescent state when there is a pulse pause at its input at the end of its hold time whereas it is returned to its operating state practically without dead time by a pulse applied to its input at the end of the hold time. Since a pulse at the input of the monoflop at the end of its hold time however occurs only for frequencies lying within the frequency bands mentioned in connection with the description of FIG. 3, only frequencies which lie within the frequency bands can be treated as useful frequencies. For all intermediate frequencies, the monoflop returns to its quiescent state in which it interrupts the sequence control device and thus prevents evaluation of said frequencies. For the same reasons as in the circuit of FIG. 3, in this case as well the hold time of the monoflop should be lengthened by a quarter of the reciprocal of the highest useful frequency.

The ultrasonic remote control receiver described above can be used not only to control television sets, radio sets and the like but is particularly suitable also for industrial use in which high immunity to interference is very important. It may, for example, be used for remote control of cranes on large building sites, where there are a great number of different interference sources. The ultrasonic remote control receiver according to the above description is so immune to interference that it operates satisfactorily even under the difficult conditions encountered in the aforementioned use.

The following table provides examples of integrated circuits from Texas Instruments Incorporated which may be used in the foregoing invention.

______________________________________ Schmitt-triggers 2 and 18 SNX 49713 Monoflops 25, 29 and 46 SN 74121 Monoflop 5 SN 74122 Frequency divider 7 SN 7492 Counter 11 SN 7490 Store 12 SN 7475 Control 17 SN 7476 Gate 30 SN 7432 Decoder 14 SN 7442 ______________________________________


STERN (ZANUSSI) UBG2231 CHASSIS BS352.0 Method and system for increasing the number of instructions transmitted in digital systems, I.A. in systems for remote control of television receiver:ITT VOLTAGE SYNTHSIZER TUNING SEARCH SYSTEM

Method of increasing the number of instructions according to the invention consists therein that withing the command signal (6) additional instructions are transmitted, which after being decoded in the instruction decoder (1) and processed in the strobbin signal generation circuit (4) strobes the operation of additional controlled units (5) and control the transmission of the signal through the register (2) to the controlled units (3).
In the system according to the invention, between one of the outputs od the instruction decoder (1) and the unit (3) to be controlled the register (2) is connected, provided with an additional input for the record inhibiting instruction (10), whereas to the second output of the instruction decoder (1) the strobbing signal generation circuit (4) is connected aimed at controlling the additional controlled units (5). The register (2) and the strobbing signal generation circuit (4), employed in the system according to the invention, can be built-in into each of the integrated circuits or made in form of a separate integrated circuit.

1. A method of increasing the number of instructions transmitted in remote control systems of television receivers and the like in which decoded signals directly control receiving units, comprising transmitting coded instructions in a command signal (6), decoding said instructions into a first part of an instruction signal (8), processing said first part of the instruction signal (8) in a strobing signal generation circuit (4) to provide a first signal (10) in a form for enabling the transmission of a control signal (7) through a register (2) in the form of a stored signal (11) to first receiving units (3) to be controlled while simultaneously providing a second signal (9) in a form for blocking the reception of one of said instruction signal (8) and said control signal (7) by additional receiving units (5) to be controlled, transmitting an additional coded instruction in said command signal, decoding said additional instruction into a second part of the instruction signal (8), processing said second part of the instruction signal (8) in said strobing signal generation circuit (4) to provide said first signal (10) in a form for blocking further storage of said control signal (7) in said register (2) while simultaneously providing said second signal (9) in a form for enabling the reception of said one of said instruction signal (8) and said control signal (7) by said additional receiving units (5) to be controlled, and transmitting a coded erasing instruction in said command signal for restarting the method. 2. A method according to claim 1, wherein the controlling of said additional receiving units (5) by one of said instruction signal (8) and said control signal (7) is performed while controlling said first receiving units (3) by said stored signal (11). 3. A system for increasing the number of instructions transmitted in remote control systems of television receivers and the like, comprising an instruction decoder (1), a first unit (3) to be controlled, a main register (2) connected between a first output of said instruction decoder and said first unit, an additional unit (5) to be controlled, and a strobing generation circuit (4) connected to a second output of said instruction decoder for controlling said additional unit, said additional unit having respective inputs connected to a strobing signal output of said strobing generation circuit and one of said first and second outputs of said instruction decoder. 4. A system according to claim 3, wherein said strobing generation circuit (4) has an inhibiting signal output (10) connected to an input of said main register (2) for inhibiting the storage in said main register of signals received from said first output of said instruction decoder. 5. A system according to claim 3, wherein said strobing generation circuit (4) includes an internal decoder (12), an internal register (14) and an adding gate (25), said internal decoder having outputs (13,15,16,17,18) connected to said internal register, said internal register having outputs (19-22) connected to said additional unit (5) and to said adding gate, said adding gate providing said inhibiting signal output (10) both to said main register (2) and to an inhibit input of said internal register.
Description:
This invention relates to a method and a system making it possible to increase the number of instructions transmitted in systems of remote control of television or radio receivers, and the like.
One of the known remote control systems is a system based on integrated circuits of the firm ITT. Similarly as in other systems, the instructions transmitted remotely are coded by a transmitter, for instance SAA1024, in an electric signal modulating a wave being able to propagate in the environment. In the receiver for instance SAA 1130, the coded electric signal is received and gives at its outputs the completely decoded output information signal and decoded output control signals.
In known application notes of the firm ITT the decoded output control signals control directly the receiving devices SAA1021, SAA1020. The decoder of information transmits also other decoded control signals, for instance analog adjustment signals, turning a signal on the power supply, and other signals necessary for the operation of the system. A certain part of the total number of instructions transmitted in the coded input signal constitutes a group of additional instructions for decoding by an additional instructions decoder controlled by the output signal.
The method of increasing the number of instructions transmitted in digital systems, i.a. in remote control systems of television receivers, according to the invention comprises transmitting in the control signal additional instructions which, on being decoded in an instruction decoder and after processing in a circuit for generating strobing signals, strobe the operation of additional controlled devices and control the transmission of the control signal through a register to main controlled units. In the system according to the invention two variants of operation of the system are distinguished. In the first variant an inhibiting signal coming out of the strobing signal generation circuit enables storage by the register of the real values being decoded, the output control signals, and controls with a suitable signal the main controlled units, while blocking by another suitable signal the additional controlled devices. In the second variant of the method according to the invention, after transmission of the additional instruction in the input signal, the storage inhibiting signal inhibits the register which stores the previous instruction and interruptedly controls the controlled unit, whereby simultaneously another strobing signal enables the additional controlled units to receive the controlling instruction.
In the system according to the invention the controlling of additional units is performed in the course of uninterrupted operation of controlled units.
In the system for increasing the number of instructions transmitted in digital systems, i.a. in remote control systems of television receivers, according to the invention, between one output of the instruction decoder and first controlled units a register is connected, having an additional input for a recording inhibiting signal, whereas to another output of the instruction decoder a strobing signal generation circuit is connected for controlling additional controlled units.
The inputs of the additional controlled units are connected with any outputs of the instruction decoder and with outputs of a register of the strobing circuit. The register and the strobing generation circuit, employed in the system according to the invention, can be built-in in one integrated circuit or may be made in the form of separate integrated circuits.
Referring to the aforementioned system of the firm ITT, the list of instructions thereof comprises 10 instructions used for basic servicing of the television receivers, 16 instructions for program selection and 5 additional instructions. In the method according to the invention, by using all the additional instructions, additionally 5×16 instructions are obtained. The number of all useful instructions in the method according to the invention amounts to 10+16+5×16=106 instructions, and thus by 75 instructions more than it was foreseen by the manufacturer of said systems.
Employing of the method and the system in a simple constructional arrangement enables one to multiply the number of transmitted signals, and simultaneously the number of units to be controlled. With reference to the system of the firm ITT, based on integrated circuits SAA1024, SAA1130, SAA1021, SAA1020, this enables one to employ additionally a teletext, a time programmer, an electronic watch, remote control of a radio receiver, tuning of a second head to observe another program, and other uses that were not possible and not foreseen by the manufacturer of said circuits.
The method and system according to the invention will be now described by means of an exemplary embodiment with reference to the accompanying drawing, wherein:
FIG. 1 is the block diagram of the system, and
FIG. 2 is the connection diagram of the strobing circuit.
The system of an instruction invention consists of the decoder 1, one output of which is connected through a register 2 with units 3 to be controlled. Another output of the instruction decoder 1 is connected with a strobing signal generation system 4 to the output of which is connected an additional controlled unit 5 having inputs connected with either output of the decoder 1.
The strobing circuit 4 is equipped with a decoder 12 an output 13 of which is connected with the clearing input of a register 14, and outputs 15, 16, 17, 18 of which are connected with the recording inputs of the register 14. The registers outputs 19, 20, 21, and 22, however, are connected with the additional unit 5 (FIG. 1) and with an adding gate 23, the output 10 of which is connected with the record inhibiting input of the register 14 and with the record inhibiting input of the register 2.
In the method according to the invention, the control signal 6 received by the instruction decoder 1 is decoded into groups of instructions 7 and 8. The instructions 8 after being processed in the strobing signal generating circuit 4 strobe the operation of additional devices 5 in the form of a signal 9, and in the form of the inhibiting signal 10 they control the operation of the register 2. A part of instructions 8, after processing in the strobbing circuit 4, enables with the signal 10 the transmission of the instructions 7 through the register 2 to the controlled units 3 in the form of the decoded control signal 11. Simultaneously, the decoded instruction 8 blocks with the strobing signal 9 the receiving of instructions 7 or 8 by the additional units 5 to be controlled. After transmitting the additional information from the second part of the instructions 8 in the signal 6, the instruction 8 after processing in the strobing signal generating circuit 4 blocks with the signal 10 the register 2, which stores the previous signal 7 and uninterruptedly controls the units 3 to be controlled, and simultaneously enables the additional controlled units 5 to receive instructions 7 or 8. The transmission of an erasing instruction in the signal 6 causes the return to the previous way of transmission and the turning off of the additional units 5.
The controlling of additional units 5 in the method according to the invention by means of the signal 7 or 8 is performed in the course of uninterrupted controlling of the units 3 by means of the signal 11 from the register 2.





NOTE:

Some units are coming from the old BS250 (DELTA TUBE) and others are coming from the BS290 (first 20AX Chassis) the rest are born toghether with this BS3520.0
Basically Zanussi has re-used / shared the old things even for the CHASSIS BS352.0 and has developed for this only few specific units.


STERN (ZANUSSI) UBG2231 CHASSIS BS352.0 VARACTOR TUNER BAND SWITCHING AND SIGNAL INDICATING CIRCUITRY:

A signal receiver having VHF and UHF varactor tuners and a channel indicating group for the upper and lower VHF channels and for the UHF channel includes band switching circuitry for selectively coupling a plurality of power sources to the tuners in accordance with activation of a particular channel indicating group. Also, the band switching circuitry is utilized in conjunction with a channel indicating meter circuit for providing a visual indication of the channel selected in each one of the channel indicating groups.

1. In a signal receiver having first, second, and third potential sources; VHF and UHF varactor tuners; first, second, and third channel indicating groups formed for selective coupling to the first potential source; and band switching circuitry having first, second, and third switching means for coupling the potential sources to the VHF and UHF tuners, channel indicating meter circuitry comprising: 2. The channel indicating meter circuitry of claim 1 wherein said means for coupling one of said pair of terminals of said channel indicating meter to a potential reference level and to the junction of said second switching means and third potential source includes a first unidirectional conduction device coupled intermediate said terminal and said potential reference level and a second unidirectional conduction device coupling the junction of said first unidirectional conduction device and potential reference level to said junction of said second switching means and third 3. The channel indicating meter circuitry of claim 1 wherein said means for coupling the other one of said pair of terminals of said channel indicating meter includes a first impedance coupling said terminal to a potential reference level and a second impedance coupling said terminal to 4. The channel indicating meter circuitry of claim 1 wherein said channel indicating meter provides a visual
indication of a selected signal channel in accordance with the potential applied thereto from said channel 5. The channel indicating meter circuitry of claim 1 wherein said channel indicating meter includes a plurality of meter scales for visually indicating channels in the upper and lower bands of the VHF varactor tuner 6. In a signal receiver having first, second, and third potential sources; VHF and UHF varactor tuners; first, second, and third channel indicating groups each formed for selective coupling to a first potential source, band switching and channel indicating meter circuitry comprising in combination: 7. The band switching and channel indicating meter circuitry combination of claim 6 including a first impedance coupling said first terminal to said potential reference level and a second impedance coupling said first 8. The band switching and channel indicating meter circuitry combination of claim 6 including a first unidirectional conduction device coupling said 9. The band switching and channel indicating meter circuitry combination of claim 6 including a first unidirectional conduction device coupling said second terminal to said potential reference level and a second unidirectional conduction device coupled to said first unidirectional conduction device and potential reference level and to said second switching means and third potential source.
Description:
CROSS-REFERENCE TO OTHER APPLICATIONS

An application entitled "Pushbutton Tuning System" filed concurrently herewith in the names of William Lee Arrington and Lee Irving Merz (Ser. No. 326,759) and assigned to the assignee of the present application relates to a pushbutton tuner for selecting a signal channel wherein each one of the channels provide an output potential suitable for use with the band switching and channel indicating meter circuitry set forth in the present application.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Generally, present-day television receivers utilize both VHF and UHF tuners with the VHF tuner having the usual upper band portion covering channels 7-13 and a lower band portion covering channels 2-6. Also, present-day tuners are commonly of the varactor type wherein channel or frequency selection is determined by the potentials applied to the tuners.

In the prior art it has been a common practice to provide ordinary mechanical switches for band switching the high and low bands of the VHF tuner and the UHF tuner. Moreover, printed circuit type switches have been utilized in an effort to overcome the usual problems associated with mechanical switches. However, printed circuits have not provided the answers for such mechanical problems as wear, contact failure, and lack of reliability even though the cost is undesirably increased.

Additionally, total electronic tuning systems using logic and digital techniques have been proposed for use with varactor tuners. In one known example, channel numbers are coded into binary numbers and the selection of a preset voltage on varactor diodes is made by a corresponding binary coded signal.

However, electronic tuning systems using logic and digital systems appear to be relatively expensive, require a large number of components, and have a reliability and repeatability factor which is relatively unknown in the industry. Moreover, repair and service problems associated with such a departure from known and more frequently employed techniques remains an unknown factor.

Additionally, it is highly desirable to provide some form of visual indicating apparatus whereby an operator is aware of the approximate tuning of the receiver. Obviously, the provision of such visual indicating apparatus at a minimum cost of materials and labor is of utmost importance.

OBJECTS AND SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

An object of the present invention is to provide enhanced band switching circuitry for a multi-band signal receiver. Another object of the invention is to provide improved electronic band switching circuitry for varactor tuners in a signal receiver. Still another object of the invention is to provide improved visual indicating apparatus utilized with band switching circuitry in a multi-band signal receiver.

These and other and further objects, advantages and capabilities are achieved in one aspect of the invention by a multi-band signal receiver having VHF and UHF varactor tuners with channel indicating groups for the upper and lower VHF bands and the UHF band and band switching circuitry for selectively coupling a plurality of potential sources to the tuners in accordance with the particular channel indicating group selected. Also, channel indicating meter circuitry acts in conjunction with the band switching circuitry to provide a visual indication of the signal channel selected.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING

FIG. 1 is a diagrammatic illustration, in block and schematic form, of electronic band switching and channel indicating meter circuitry suitable for use in a multi-band signal receiver; and

FIG. 2 is an alternative embodiment of a channel indicating meter circuit.

PREFERRED EMBODIMENT OF THE INVENTION

For a better understanding of the present invention, together with other and further objects, advantages and capabilities thereof, reference is made to the following disclosure and appended claims in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.

Referring to the drawings, band switching and channel indicating meter circuitry suitable for use in a television receiver includes first, second, and third channel indicating groups 3, 5, and 7 respectively. Each one of the channel indicating groups, 3, 5, and 7 includes a plurality of parallel coupled signal channels and each signal channel has a series connected neon bulb 9 and selector switch 11 coupled to a first potential source 13. Also, each channel includes a signal selector switch 14, ganged to the selector switch 11, and connected to an adjustable resistor 12 intermediate the first potential source 13 and a potential reference level such as circuit ground. Thus, the first channel indicating group 3, preferably includes signal channels 7-13, the second channel indicating group 5, includes signal channels 2-6, and the third channel indicating group 7 includes a selection of channels 14-83.

In operation, selection of a signal channel in any one of the first, second, or third channel indicating groups 3, 5, and 7 is effected upon closure of a selector switch 11 whereupon a potential from the first potential source 13 is applied to the series connected neon bulb 9 by the selector switch 11. Also, a potential representative of a signal channel within the channel indicating group 3, 5, and 7 is available at the ganged signal selector switch 14. Thus, there is provided a potential representative of the channel indicating group and another potential representative of a specific channel within the channel indicating group.

Coupled to the channel indicating groups 3, 5, and 7 respectively, is band switching circuitry including first, second, and third switching means 15, 17, and 19 respectively. The first switching means 15, in the form of a transistor 16 in this instance, has a base electrode coupled to the first channel indicating group 3, representative of the upper band of signal channels 7-13. A collector electrode is coupled to a second potential source B+ while an emitter electrode is coupled to a varactor or varicap VHF type tuner 21. Obviously, the transistor may be replaced by other forms of electronic switching apparatus.

The second switching means 17 includes a pair of DC coupled PNP and NPN transistors, 23 and 25 respectively. The PNP transistor 23 has an emitter coupled to the second potential source B+, a collector DC coupled to the base of the NPN transistor 25, and a base electrode coupled via a biasing resistor 27 to circuit ground and by way of a first unidirectional conduction device 29 to the second channel indicating group 5 (channels 2-6). Also, a second unidirectional conduction device 31 couples the junction of the first unidirectional conduction device 29 and second channel indicating group 5 to the junction of the first channel indicating group 3 and first switching means 15. The NPN transistor 25 has a collector electrode coupled to the second potential source B+ and an emitter electrode coupled via a resistor 33 to a third potential source B- and to the VHF varactor or varicap tuner 21.

The third switching means 19 includes a transistor 35 having a base electrode connected to the third channel indicating group 7 and a collector electrode coupled to the second potential source B+. The emitter electrode of the transistor 35 is coupled to a UHF varicap or varactor tuner 37.

Additionally, channel indicating meter circuitry includes a meter 39 having a first terminal 41 coupled via resistors 42 and 44 to the signal selector switches 14 of the series connected first, second, and third channel indicating groups 3, 5, and 7 respectively and to the junction of the VHF and UHF tuners 21 and 37. This first terminal 41 of the meter 39 is also connected via a series connected first unidirectional conduction device 43 and resistor 45 to circuit ground. The junction of this first unidirectional conduction device 43 and resistor 45 is coupled via a second unidirectional conduction device 47 to the junction of the second switching means 17, the resistor 33 connected to the third potential source B-, and to the VHF tuner 21. Moreover, a second terminal 49 of the indicating meter 39 is coupled by a first resistor 51 to a potential reference level and by a second resistor 53 to the second potential source B+.

FIG. 2 illustrates an alternative form of channel indicating circuitry wherein an indicating meter 39 has a first terminal 55 coupled to the signal indicating or tuning means 57 of the first, second, and third channel indicating groups 3, 5, and 7 and via a series connected diode 59, first alterable resistor 61, and second alterable resistor 63 to a potential reference level. The terminal 55 is also coupled to the second alterable resistor 63.

A second terminal 65 of the meter 39 is coupled to the second potential source B+ and to the potential reference level. Also, the second terminal 65 is coupled via a resistor 67 and diode 69 to the junction of the second switching means 17, to the resistor 33 coupled to the third potential source B-, and to the VHF tuner 21. Moreover, a third diode 71 couples the second diode 69 and junction of the second switching means 17 to the alterable resistor 61.

As to operation, selection of any one of the parallel connected signal channels (channels 7-13) of the first channel indicating group 3 causes application of a potential from the first potential source 13 to the first switching means 15. The first switching means 15 including the transistor 16 is normally nonconductive or open-circuited. However, application of a potential from the potential source 13 renders the transistor 16 conductive whereupon a potential from the second potential source B+ is applied to the VHF tuner 21.

Also, it is to be noted that the second switching means 17 is normally conductive whereupon the potential from the third potential source B- coupled to the VHF tuner 21 is "swamped-out" by the potential from the second potential source B+. Thus, activation of a signal channel (channels 7-13) of the first channel indicating group 3 causes application of a potential from the second potential source B+ to the VHF tuner 21 and "swamping-out" of a potential from the third potential source B- which is, in turn, coupled to the band switching terminal of the VHF tuner 21.

Activation of a parallel connected signal channel of the second channel indicating group 5 which includes the low portion (channels 2-6) of the VHF signal band, causes application of a potential from the first potential source 13 to the first switching means 15 via the diode 31 and to the second switching means 17 via diode 29. Thereupon, the first switching means 15 is rendered conductive and a potential from the second potential source B+ is applied to the VHF tuner 21. The second switching means 17 is rendered non-conductive, due to the bias potential developed across the resistor 27 via diode 29, whereupon the third potential source B- is no longer "swamped-out" but rather, is applied to the band switching terminal of the VHF tuner 21.

Selection of one of the parallel connected signal channels (channels 14-83) in the UHF band of signals causes activation of the third channel indicating group 7. Thereupon, a potential from the first potential source 13 is applied to the third switching means 19. This applied potential renders the transistor 35 conductive whereupon a potential from the second potential source B+ is applied to the UHF tuner 3. Thus, activation of the UHF tuner 3 is provided upon selection of a high frequency signal channel (channels 14-83).

It may be noted that each one of the switches 11 in each channel of the first, second, and third channel indicating groups 3, 5, and 7 is mechanically connected to the others in a manner such that only one of the switches 11 is operable at a time. In other words, activation of a second one of the switches 11 causes de-activation of a first one of the switches 11. Such a switching system is clearly set forth in the cross-referenced application entitled "Pushbutton Tuning System" filed concurrently herewith.

Additionally, the channel indicating meter circuitry is responsive to selection of a channel in any one of the first, second, and third channel indicating groups 3, 5, and 7. Upon selection of a channel (channels 7-13) in the upper portion of the VHF signal range, a positive potential provided by second potential source B+ will appear at the junction of the second switching means 17, resistor 33 coupled to the third potential source B-, and the band switching terminal of the VHF tuner 21. This positive potential appears at the junction of the first and second unidirectional conduction devices 43 and 47 back biasing the first unidirectional conduction device 43 whereupon conduction therethrough ceases and the potential of the first terminal 41 of the indicating meter 39 is raised to provide an approximate half-scale reading of the channel indicating meter 39. The indicating meter 39 is further advanced in accordance with a potential applied to the first terminal 41 via the series connected resistors 42 and 44 coupled to the particular channel (channels 7-13) selected. Thus, this further advance of the indicating meter 39 is effected by current flow via the series connected resistors 44 and 42, the indicating meter 39 and the resistor 51 coupled to circuit ground.

Upon selection of a channel (channels 2-6) in the lower portion of the VHF signal band, the third potential source B- is no longer "swamped-out" because of the non-conductivity of the second band switching circuitry 17 but rather, is applied to the second unidirectional conduction device 47 to effect a back-bias thereon. Thus, current supplied by the tuning voltage, derived via the first potential source 13 and second channel indicating group 5, flows through the indicating meter 39 via the resistors 44 and 42 and to circuit ground by way of the resistor 51. Also, a predetermined portion of this current flows to circuit ground by way of the first unidirectional conduction device 43 and resistor 45 coupled thereto. Thus, compression to the lower portion of the scale of the indicating meter 39 provides a maximum utilization of scale length.

In the UHF signal band (channels 14-83), a positive potential appears at the first terminal 41 as previously explained with respect to the upper portion (channels 7-13) of the VHF signal band. Also, a substantially equal positive potential is applied to the second terminal 49 of the indicating meter 39 as derived from the second potential source B+ via the resistor 53 coupled to the second terminal 49. Thus, by application of substantially equal potentials to the first and second terminals 41 and 49 of the indicating meter 39, the total length of the indicating scale may be employed. Moreover, the tuning voltage, as derived from the first potential source 13 and third channel indicating group 7, is applied via the resistors 44 and 42 to the first terminal 41 of the indicating meter 39 to provide a visual indication of the channel selected.

Thus, there has been provided a unique band switching circuit as well as a unique channel indicating meter circuit for a multi-channel signal receiver employing both VHF and UHF varicap or varactor tuners. This improved circuitry is inexpensive of components, circuitry, and assembly time while reliability and repeatability of results are enhanced. Not only is the undesired wear associated with mechanical systems eliminated but, more importantly, the electronic switching technique increases the time switching capabilities without appreciable increase in cost.

While there has been shown and described what is at present considered the preferred embodiment of the invention, it will be obvious to those skilled in the art that various changes and modifications may be made therein without departing from the invention as defined by the appended claims.



FRAME DEFLECTION OUTPUT:2N3055
The 2N3055 transistor is a silicon NPN power transistor intended for general purpose applications. It was introduced in the early 1960's by RCA using their "hometaxial" power transistor process. It was one of the first silicon power transistors, offered unrivalled second breakdown immunity and found many applications particularly in audio power amplifiers and linear power supplies.

The exact specs depend on the manufacture, it is important to reference the datasheet for the exact device and brand you are dealing with.

Packaged in a TO3 can, it is a 15A amp, 60V volt, 115W watt power transistor with a Beta of 20 to 70 at a collector current of 4A. It gained popularity because it had 100 % safe-operating-area, (SOA), meaning that it could dissipate 115W at a collector voltage of 60V (Ic=1.9A), provided the case temperature did not exceed 25 deg.C. It was designed for medium current and high power circuits. Commercially, it was used in many linear power supplies, audio amplifiers and low frequency power converters. One limitation was that its frequency response was rather slow (typically the unity-gain frequency was 1 MHz) The 2N3055 power transistor was the first multi-amp silicon transistor to sell for less than one dollar! It was a huge success in the power supply market..

With changes to the technology, the original process became uneconomical and a similar device, now using the name 2N3055 transistor, was supplied using epitaxial base technology. The maximum voltage and current ratings of this device are the same as the original, but the power handling (safe operating area) is limited at high voltage to a lower current than the original. However, the cut-off frequency is higher, so allowing the newer type of 2N3055 transistor to be more efficient in switching power supplies. Also the higher frequency response improves the performance when used in audio amplifiers. Some suppliers offer a high safe-operating-area version of the 2N3055 power transistor using the "H" suffix.

The 2N3054 transistor is a lower power version of the 2N3055 transistor, rated at 25W, 55V and 4A, but became almost obsolete about the late 1980's when many TO-66 devices were withdrawn from mainstream manufacturers's lists. In many cases a TO-220 packaged version, such as MJE3055T, can be used instead of the 2N3054 as well as in some 2N3055 power transistor applications. An MJ2955 is a complementary (PNP) transistor for the 2N3055 transistor, which is also manufactured using the epitaxial process today.


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