Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

In Brief: On this site you will find pictures and information about some of the electronic, electrical and electrotechnical technology relics that the Frank Sharp Private museum has accumulated over the years .

Premise: There are lots of vintage electrical and electronic items that have not survived well or even completely disappeared and forgotten.

Or are not being collected nowadays in proportion to their significance or prevalence in their heyday, this is bad and the main part of the death land. The heavy, ugly sarcophagus; models with few endearing qualities, devices that have some over-riding disadvantage to ownership such as heavy weight,toxicity or inflated value when dismantled, tend to be under-represented by all but the most comprehensive collections and museums. They get relegated to the bottom of the wants list, derided as 'more trouble than they are worth', or just forgotten entirely. As a result, I started to notice gaps in the current representation of the history of electronic and electrical technology to the interested member of the public.


Following this idea around a bit, convinced me that a collection of the peculiar alone could not hope to survive on its own merits, but a museum that gave equal display space to the popular and the unpopular, would bring things to the attention of the average person that he has previously passed by or been shielded from. It's a matter of culture. From this, the Obsolete Technology Tellye Web Museum concept developed and all my other things too. It's an open platform for all electrical Electronic TV technology to have its few, but NOT last, moments of fame in a working, hand-on environment. We'll never own Colossus or Faraday's first transformer, but I can show things that you can't see at the Science Museum, and let you play with things that the Smithsonian can't allow people to touch, because my remit is different.

There was a society once that was the polar opposite of our disposable, junk society. A whole nation was built on the idea of placing quality before quantity in all things. The goal was not “more and newer,” but “better and higher" .This attitude was reflected not only in the manufacturing of material goods, but also in the realms of art and architecture, as well as in the social fabric of everyday life. The goal was for each new cohort of children to stand on a higher level than the preceding cohort: they were to be healthier, stronger, more intelligent, and more vibrant in every way.

The society that prioritized human, social and material quality is a Winner. Truly, it is the high point of all Western civilization. Consequently, its defeat meant the defeat of civilization itself.

Today, the West is headed for the abyss. For the ultimate fate of our disposable society is for that society itself to be disposed of. And this will happen sooner, rather than later.

OLD, but ORIGINAL, Well made, Funny, Not remotely controlled............. and not Made in CHINA.

How to use the site:

- If you landed here via any Search Engine, you will get what you searched for and you can search more using the search this blog feature provided by Google. You can visit more posts scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year,
or you can click on the main photo-page to start from the main page. Doing so it starts from the most recent post to the older post simple clicking on the Older Post button on the bottom of each page after reading , post after post.

You can even visit all posts, time to time, when reaching the bottom end of each page and click on the Older Post button.

- If you arrived here at the main page via bookmark you can visit all the site scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year pointing were you want , or more simple You can even visit all blog posts, from newer to older, clicking at the end of each bottom page on the Older Post button.
So you can see all the blog/site content surfing all pages in it.

- The search this blog feature provided by Google is a real search engine. If you're pointing particular things it will search IT for you; or you can place a brand name in the search query at your choice and visit all results page by page. It's useful since the content of the site is very large.

Note that if you don't find what you searched for, try it after a period of time; the site is a never ending job !

Every CRT Television saved let revive knowledge, thoughts, moments of the past life which will never return again.........

Many contemporary "televisions" (more correctly named as displays) would not have this level of staying power, many would ware out or require major services within just five years or less and of course, there is that perennial bug bear of planned obsolescence where components are deliberately designed to fail and, or manufactured with limited edition specificities..... and without considering........picture......sound........quality........

..............The bitterness of poor quality is remembered long after the sweetness of todays funny gadgets low price has faded from memory........ . . . . . .....
Don't forget the past, the end of the world is upon us! Pretty soon it will all turn to dust!

Have big FUN ! !
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©2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 Frank Sharp - You do not have permission to copy photos and words from this blog, and any content may be never used it for auctions or commercial purposes, however feel free to post anything you see here with a courtesy link back, btw a link to the original post here , is mandatory.
All sets and apparates appearing here are property of
Engineer Frank Sharp. NOTHING HERE IS FOR SALE !

Wednesday, October 3, 2012

SANYO MODEL CEP1748T T CHASSIS E2-G17 INTERNAL VIEW.










The SANYO CHASSIS E2-G17 is a monocarrier holding all functions of the receiver except for the frontend which is carried on a separated PCB.

SAB3035 COMPUTER INTERFACE FOR TUNING AND CONTROL (CITAC)

GENERAL DESCRIPTION
The SAB3035 provides closed-loop digital tuning of TV receivers, with or without a.f.c., as required. lt
also controls up to 8 analogue functions, 4 general purpose I/O ports and 4 high-current outputs for
tuner band selection.
The IC is used in conjunction with a microcomputer from the MAB8400 family and is controlled via a two-wire, bidirectional I2 C bus.
Featu res
Combined analogue and digital circuitry minimizes the number of additional interfacing components
required
Frequency measurement with resolution of 50 KHz
Selectable prescaler divisor of 64 or 256
32 V tuning voltage amplifier
4 high-current outputs for direct band selection
8 static digital to analogue converters (DACSI for control of analogue functions
Four general purpose input/output (l/O) ports
Tuning with control of speed and direction
Tuning with or without a.f.c.
Single-pin, 4 MHZ on-chip oscillator
I2 C bus slave transceiver

FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION
The SAB3035 is a monolithic computer interface which provides tuning and control functions and
operates in conjunction with a microcomputer via an I2 C bus.
Tuning
This is performed using frequency-locked loop digital control. Data corresponding to the required tuner
frequency is stored in a 15-bit frequency buffer. The actual tuner frequency, divided by a factor of 256
(or by 64) by a prescaler, is applied via a gate to a 15-bit frequency counter. This input (FDIV) is
measured over a period controlled by a time reference counter and is compared with the contents of the frequency buffer. The result of the comparison is used to control the tuning voltage so that the tuner frequency equals the contents of the frequency buffer multiplied by 50 kHz within a programmable tuning window (TUW).

The system cycles over a period of 6,4 ms (or 2,56 ms), controlled by the time reference counter which is clocked by an on-chip 4 lVlHz reference oscillator. Regulation of the tuning voltage is performed by a charge pump frequency-locked loop system. The charge IT flowing into the tuning voltage amplifier is controlled by the tuning counter, 3-bit DAC and the charge pump circuit. The charge IT is linear with the frequency deviation Af in steps of 50 l


TDA3566A PAL/NTSC decoder:

FEATURES
· A black-current stabilizer which
controls the black-currents of the
three electron-guns to a level low
enough to omit the black-level
adjustment
· Contrast control of inserted RGB
signals
· No black-level disturbance when
non-synchronized external RGB
signals are available on the inputs
· NTSC capability with hue control.
APPLICATIONS
· Teletext/broadcast antiope
· Channel number display.
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
The TDA3566A is a decoder for the
PAL and/or NTSC colour television
standards. It combines all functions
required for the identification and
demodulation of PAL/NTSC signals.
Furthermore it contains a luminance
amplifier, an RGB-matrix and
amplifier. These amplifiers supply
output signals up to 4 V peak-to-peak
(picture information) enabling direct
drive of the discrete output stages.
The circuit also contains separate
inputs for data insertion, analog and
digital, which can be used for text
display systems.

FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION
The TDA3566A is a further
development of the TDA3562A. It has
the same pinning and nearly the
same application. The differences
between the TDA3562A and the
TDA3566A are as follows:
· The NTSC-application has largely
been simplified. In the event of
NTSC the chrominance signal is
now internally coupled to the
demodulators, automatic
chrominance control (ACC) and
phase detectors. The chrominance
output signal (pin 28) is thus
suppressed. It follows that the
external switches and filters which
are required for the TDA3562A are
not required for the TDA3566A.
There is no difference between the
amplitudes of the colour output
signals in the PAL or NTSC mode.
· The clamp capacitor at pins 10, 20
and 21 in the black-level
stabilization loop can be reduced to
100 nF provided the stability of the
loop is maintained. Loop stability
depends on complete application.
The clamp capacitors receive a
pre-bias voltage to avoid coloured
background during switch-on.
· The crystal oscillator circuit has
been changed to prevent parasitic
oscillations on the third overtone of
the crystal. Consequently the
optimum tuning capacitance must
be reduced to 10 pF.
· The hue control has been improved
(linear).
Luminance amplifier
The luminance amplifier is voltage
driven and requires an input signal of
450 mV peak-to-peak (positive
video). The luminance delay line must
be connected between the IF
amplifier and the decoder.
The input signal is AC coupled to the
input (pin 8). After amplification, the
black level at the output of the
preamplifier is clamped to a fixed DC
level by the black level clamping
circuit. During three line periods after
vertical blanking, the luminance
signal is blanked out and the black
level reference voltage is inserted by
a switching circuit.
This black level reference voltage is
controlled via pin11 (brightness). At
the same time the RGB signals are
clamped. Noise and residual signals
have no influence during clamping
thus simple internal clamping circuitry
is used.
Chrominance amplifiers
The chrominance amplifier has an
asymmetrical input. The input signal
must be AC coupled (pin 4) and have
a minimum amplitude of
40 mV peak-to-peak.
The gain control stage has a control
range in excess of 30 dB, the
maximum input signal must not
exceed 1.1 V peak-to-peak,
otherwise clipping of the input signal
will occur.
From the gain control stage the
chrominance signal is fed to the
saturation control stage. Saturation is
linearly controlled via pin 5. The
control voltage range is 2 to 4 V, the
input impedance is high and the
saturation control range is in excess
of 50 dB.
The burst signal is not affected by
saturation control. The signal is then
fed to a gated amplifier which has a
12 dB higher gain during the
chrominance signal. As a result the
signal at the output (pin 28) has a
burst-to-chrominance ratio which is
6 dB lower than that of the input
signal when the saturation control is
set at -6 dB.
The chrominance output signal is fed
to the delay line and, after matrixing,
is applied to the demodulator input
pins (pins 22 and 23). These signals
are fed to the burst phase detector. In
the event of NTSC the chrominance
signal is internally coupled to the
demodulators, ACC and phase
detectors.
Oscillator and identification circuit
The burst phase detector is gated
with the narrow part of the sandcastle
pulse (pin 7). In the detector the
(R-Y) and (B-Y) signals are added to
provide the composite burst signal
again.
This composite signal is compared
with the oscillator signal
divided-by-2 (R-Y) reference signal.
The control voltage is available at
pins 24 and 25, and is also applied to
the 8.8 MHz oscillator. The 4.4 MHz
signal is obtained via the divide-by-2
circuit, which generates both the
(B-Y) and (R-Y) reference signals
and provides a 90° phase shift
between them.
The flip-flop is driven by pulses
obtained from the sandcastle
detector. For the identification of the
phase at PAL mode, the (R-Y)
reference signal coming from the PAL
switch, is compared to the vertical
signal (R-Y) of the PAL delay line.
This is carried out in the H/2 detector,
which is gated during burst.
When the phase is incorrect, the
flip-flop gets a reset from the
identification circuit. When the phase
is correct, the output voltage of the
H/2 detector is directly related to the
burst amplitude so that this voltage
can be used for the ACC.
To avoid 'blooming-up' of the picture
under weak input signal conditions
the ACC voltage is generated by peak
detection of the H/2 detector output
signal. The killer and identification
circuits receive their information from
a gated output signal of H/2 detector.
Killing is obtained via the saturation
control stage and the demodulators to
obtain good suppression.

The time constant of the saturation
control (pin 5) provides a delayed
switch-on after killing. Adjustment of
the oscillator is achieved by variation
of the burst phase detector load
resistance between pins 24 and 25
(see Fig.8).
With this application the trimmer
capacitor in series with the 8.8 MHz
crystal (pin 26) can be replaced by a
fixed value capacitor to compensate
for unbalance of the phase detector.
Demodulator
The (R-Y) and (B-Y) demodulators
are driven by the colour difference
signals from the delay-line matrix
circuit and the reference signals from
the 8.8 MHz divider circuit. The (R-Y)
reference signal is fed via the
PAL-switch. The output signals are
fed to the R and B matrix circuits and
to the (G-Y) matrix to provide the
(G-Y) signal which is applied to the
G-matrix. The demodulation circuits
are killed and blanked by by-passing
the input signals.
NTSC mode
The NTSC mode is switched on when
the voltage at the burst phase
detector outputs (pins 24 and 25) is
adjusted below 9 V.
To ensure reliable application the
phase detector load resistors are
external. When the TDA3566A is
used only for PAL these two 33 kW
resistors must be connected to +12 V
(see Fig.8).
For PAL/NTSC application the value
of each resistor must be reduced to
20 kW (with a tolerance of 1%) and
connected to the slider of a
potentiometer (see Fig.9). The
switching transistor brings the voltage
at pins 24 and 25 below 9 V which
switches the circuit tot the NTSC
mode.
The position of the PAL flip-flop
ensures that the correct phase of the
(R-Y) reference signal is supplied to
the (R-Y) demodulator.
The drive to the H/2 detector is now
provided by the (B-Y) reference
signal. In the PAL mode it is driven by
the (R-Y) reference signal. Hue
control is realized by changing the
phase of the reference drive to the
burst phase detector.
This is achieved by varying the
voltage at pins 24 and 25 between
7.0 V and 8.5 V, nominal position
7.65 V. The hue control characteristic
is shown in Fig.6.
RGB matrix and amplifiers
The three matrix and amplifier circuits
are identical and only one circuit will
be described.
The luminance and the colour
difference signals are added in the
matrix circuit to obtain the colour
signal, which is then fed to the
contrast control stage.
The contrast control voltage is
supplied to pin 6 (high-input
impedance). The control range is
+5 dB to -11.5 dB nominal. The
relationship between the control
voltage and the gain is linear (see
Fig.3).
During the 3-line period after blanking
a pulse is inserted at the output of the
contrast control stage. The amplitude
of this pulse is varied by a control
voltage at pin 11. This applies a
variable offset to the normal black
level, thus providing brightness
control.
The brightness control range is 1 V to
3.6 V. While this offset level is
present, the black-current input
impedance (pin 18) is high and the
internal clamp circuit is activated. The
clamp circuit then compares the
reference voltage at pin 19 with the
voltage developed across the
external resistor network RA and
RB (pin 18) which is provided by
picture tube beam current.
The output of the comparator is
stored in capacitors connected from
pins 10, 20 and 21 to ground which
controls the black level at the output.
The reference voltage is composed
by the resistor divider network and the
leakage current of the picture tube
into this bleeder. During vertical
blanking, this voltage is stored in the
capacitor connected to pin 19, which
ensures that the leakage current of
the CRT does not influence the black
current measurement.
The RGB output signals can never
exceed a level of 10.6 V. When the
signal tends to exceed this level the
output signal is clipped. The black
level at the outputs (pins 13, 15 and
17) will be approximately 3 V. This
level depends on the spread of the
guns of the picture tube. If a beam
current stabilizer is not used it is
possible to stabilize the black levels at
the outputs, which in this application
must be connected to the black
current measuring input (pin 18) via a
resistor network.

Data insertion
Each colour amplifier has a separate
input for data insertion.
A 1 V peak-to-peak input signal
provides a 3.8 V peak-to-peak output
signal.
To avoid the black-level of the
inserted signal differing from the black
level of the normal video signal, the
data is clamped to the black level of
the luminance signal. Therefore AC
coupling is required for the data
inputs.
To avoid a disturbance of the blanking
level due to the clamping circuit, the
source impedance of the driver circuit
must not exceed 150 W. The data
insertion circuit is activated by the
data blanking input (pin 9). When the
voltage at this pin exceeds a level of
0.9 V, the RGB matrix circuits are
switched off and the data amplifiers
are switched on.
To avoid coloured edges, the data
blanking switching time is short. The
amplitude of the data output signals is
controlled by the contrast control at
pin 6. The black level is equal to the
video black level and can be varied
between 2 and 4 V (nominal
condition) by the brightness control
voltage at pin 11.
Non-synchronized data signals do not
disturb the black level of the internal
signals.
Blanking of RGB and data signals
Both the RGB and data signals can
be blanked via the sandcastle input
(pin 7). A slicing level of 1.5 V is used
for this blanking function, so that the
wide part of the sandcastle pulse is
separated from the remainder of the
pulse. During blanking a level of +1 V
is available at the output. To prevent
parasitic oscillations on the third
overtone of the crystal the optimum
tuning capacitance should be 10 pF.

Notes to the characteristics
1. Signal with the negative-going sync; amplitude includes sync pulse amplitude.
2. Indicated is a signal with 75% colour bar, so the chrominance-to-burst ratio is 2.2 : 1.
3. Nominal contrast is specified as the maximum contrast -5 dB and nominal saturation as maximum -6 dB. This figure
is valid in the PAL-condition. In the NTSC-condition no output signal is available at pin 28.
4. Cross coupling is measured under the following condition: input signal nominal, contrast and saturation such that
nominal output signals are obtained. The signals at the output at which no signal should be available must be
compared with the nominal output signal at that output.
5. The signal-to-noise ratio is defined as peak-to-peak signal with respect to RMS noise.
6. All frequency variations are referenced to the 4.4 MHz carrier frequency. All oscillator specifications have been
measured with the Philips crystal 4322 143 ... or 4322 144 ... series.
7. The change in burst with VP is proportional.
8. These signal amplitudes are determined by the ACC circuit of the reference part.
9. This value depends on the gain setting of the RGB output amplifiers and the drift of the picture tube guns. Higher
black level values are possible (up to 5 V) however, in that condition the amplitude of the available output signal is
reduced.
10. The variation of the black-level during brightness control in the three different channels is directly dependent on the
gain of each channel. Discolouration during adjustments of contrast and brightness does not occur because
amplitude and the black-level change with brightness control are directly related.
11. With respect to the measuring pulse.
12. This difference occurs when the source impedance of the data signals is 150 W and the black level clamp pulse width
is 4 ms (sandcastle pulse). For a lower impedance the difference will be lower.
13. For correct operating of the black level stabilization loop, the leading and trailing edges of the sandcastle pulse
(measured between 1.5 V and 3.5 V) must be within 200 ns and 600 ns respectively.
14. The voltage at pins 24 and 25 can be changed by connecting the load resistors (20 kW, 1%, in this condition) to the
slider bar of the hue control potentiometer (see Fig.6). When the transistor is switched on, the voltage at pins 24 and
25 is reduced below 9 V, and the circuit is switched to NTSC mode. The width of the burst gate is assumed to be
4 ms typical.

THE PHILIPS TDA3562A Circuit arrangement for the control of a picture tube :

 1. Circuit arrangement for the control of at least one beam current in a picture tube by a picture comprising
a control loop which in one sampling interval obtains a measuring signal from the value of the beam current on the occurrence of a given reference level in the picture signal, stores a control signal derived therefrom until the next sampling interval and thereby adjusts the beam current to a value preset by a reference signal.
and a trigger circuit which suppresses auxiliary pulses used to generate the beam current after the picture tube has been started up and issues a switching signal for the purpose of closing the control loop during the sampling intervals and for releasing the control of the beam current by the picture signal after the measuring signal has exceeded the threshold value,
a change detection arrangement which delivers a change signal when the stored signal has assumed a largely constant value, and
a logic network which does not release the control of the beam current by the picture signal outside the sampling intervals until the change signal has also been issued after the switching signal.


2. Circuit arrangement as set forth in claim 1, in which the picture signal comprises several color signals for the control of a corresponding number of beam currents for the display of a color picture in the picture tube and the control loop stores a part measuring signal or a part control signal derived therefrom for each color signal, characterized in that the change detection arrangement includes a change detector for each color signal which delivers a part change signal when the relevant stored signal has assumed a largely constant value, and the logic network does not release the control of the beam currents by the color signals outside the sampling intervals until the part change signals have been delivered by all change detectors.

3. Circuit arrangement as set forth in claim 1, including a comparator arrangement which compares the measuring signal with the reference signal and derives the control signal from this comparison, characterized in that the change detection arrangement detects a change in the control signal with respect to time and issues the change signal when the control signal has assumed a largely constant value.

4. Circuit arrangement as set forth in claims 1, 2, 3 including a control signal memory which contains at least one capacitor, characterized in that the change detection arrangement delivers the change signal when a charge-reversing current of the capacitor occuring during the starting up of the picture tube falls below a limit value.

5. Circuit arrangement as set forth in claim 2, including a comparator arrangement which compares the measuring signal with the reference signal and derives the control signal from this comparison, characterized in that the change detection arrangement detects a change in the control signal with respect to time and issues the change signal when the control signal has assumed a largely constant value.

Description:
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

The invention relates to a circuit arrangement for the control of at least one beam current in a picture tube by a picture signal with a control loop which in one sampling interval obtains a measuring signal from the value of the beam current on the occurrence of a given reference level in the picture signal, stores a control signal derived therefrom until the next sampling interval and by this means adjusts the beam current to a value preset by a reference signal, and with a trigger circuit which suppresses auxiliary pulses used to generate the beam current after the picture tube is turned on and issues a switching signal for the purpose of closing the control loop during the sampling intervals and releasing the control of the beam current by the picture signal after the measuring signal has exceeded a threshold value.
Such a circuit arrangement has been described in Valvo Technische Information 820705 with regard to the integrated color decoder circuit PHILIPS TDA3562A and is used in this as a so-called cut-off point control. In the known circuit arrangement, such a cut-off point control provides automatic compensation of the so-called cut-off point of the picture tube, i.e. it regulates the beam current in the picture tube in such a way that for a given reference level in the picture signal the beam current has a constant value despite tolerances and changes with time (aging, thermal modifications) in the picture tube and the circuit arrangement, thereby ensuring correct picture reproduction.
Such a blocking point control is particularly advantageous for the operation of a picture tube for the display of color pictures because in this case there are several beam currents for different color components of the color picture which have to be in a fixed ratio with one another. If this ratio changes, for example, as the result of manufacturing tolerances or ageing processes, distortions of the colors occur in the reproduction of the color picture. The beam currents, therefore, have to be very accurately balanced. The said cut-off point control prevents expensive adjustment and maintenance time which is otherwise necessary.
Conventional picutre tubes are constructed as cathode-ray tubes with hot cathodes which require a certain time after being turned on for the hot cathodes to heat up. Not until a final operating temperature has been reached do these hot cathodes emit the desired beam currents to the full extent, while gradually rising beam currents occur in the time interval when the hot cathodes are heating up. The instantaneous values of these beam currents depend on the instantaneous temperatures of the hot cathodes and on the accelerating voltages for the picture tube which build up simultaneously with the heating process and are undefined until the end of the heating time. After the picture tube is turned on, these values initially produce a highly distorted picture until the beam currents have attained their final value. These picture distortions after the picture tube is turned on are even further intensified by the fact that the cut-off point control is not yet adjusted to the beam currents which flow after the heating time is over.
For the purpose of suppressing distorted pictures during the heating time of the hot cathodes, the known circuit arrangement has a turn-on delay element operating as a trigger circuit which, in essence, contains a bistable flip-flop. When the picture tube and the circuit arrangement controlling the beam currents flowing in it are turned on, the flip-flop is switched into a first state in which it interrupts the supply of the picture signal to the picture tube. Thus, during the heating time the beam currents are suppressed, and the picture tube does not yet display any picture. In sampling intervals which are provided subsequent to flybacks of the cathode beam into an initial position on the changeover from the display of one picture to the display of a subsequent picture and even within the changeover, that is outside the display of pictures, the picture tube is controlled for a short time in such a way that beam currents occur when the hot cathodes are sufficiently heated up and an accelerating voltage is resent. If these currents exceed a certain threshold value, the flip-flop circuit switches into a second state and releases the picture signal for the control of the beam currents and the cut-off point control.
It is found, however, that the picture displayed in the picture tube immediately after the switching over of the flip-flop is still not fault-free. Because, in fact, the beam currents are supported during the heating time of the hot cathodes, the cut-off point control cannot respond yet. This response of the cut-off point control takes place only after the beam currents are switched on, i.e. after the flip-flop is switched into the second state and therefore at a time in which the picture signal already controls the beam currents. In this way the response of the blocking point control makes its presence felt in the picture displayed.
With the known circuit arrangement the brightness of the picture gradually increases, during the response of the cut-off point control, from black to the final value.
This slow increase in the picture brightness after the tube is turned on is disturbing to the eyes of the viewer not only in the case of the black-and-white picture tubes with one hot cathode, but especially so in the case of colour picture tubes which usually have three hot cathodes. With a color picture tube, color purity errors can also occur in addition to the change in the picture brightness if, as a result of different speeds of response of the cut-off point control for the three beam currents, there are found to be intermittent variations from the interrelation between the beam currents required for a correct picture reproduction.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
The aim of the invention is to create a circuit arrangement which suppresses the above-described disturbances of brightness and color of the displayed picture when the picture tube is being started.
The invention achieves this aim in that a circuit arrangement of the type mentioned in the preamble contains a change detection arrangement which emits a change signal when the stored signal has assumed an essentially constant value, and a logic network which does not release the control of the beam current by the picture signal until the change signal has also been emitted after the switching signal.
In the circuit arrangement according to the invention, therefore, the display of the picture is suppressed after the picture tube is turned on until the cut-off point control has responded. If the picture signal then starts to control the beam current, a perfect picture is displayed immediately. In this way, all the disturbances of the picture which affect the viewer's pleasure are suppressed. The circuit arrangement of the invention is of simple design and can be combined on one semiconductor wafer with the existing picture signal processing circuits and also, for example, with the known circuit arrangement for cut-off point control. Such an integrated circuit arrangement not only requires very little space on the semiconductor wafer, but also needs no additional external leads. Thus the circuit arrangement of the invention can be arranged, for example, in an integrated circuit which has precisely the same external connections as known integrated circuits. This means that an integrated circuit containing the circuit arrangement of the invention can be directly incorporated in existing equipment without the need for additional measures.
In one embodiment of the said circuit arrangement, in which the picture signal contains several color signals for the control of a corresponding number of beam currents for representing a color picture in the picture tube and, for each color signal, the control loop stores a part measuring signal or a part control signal derived from it, the change detection arrangement contains a change detector for each color signal which emits a part change signal when the relevant stored signal has assumed an essentially constant value, and the logic network does not release the control of the beam currents by the color signals outside the sampling intervals until the part change signals have been emitted from all change detectors.
In principle, therefore, such a circuit arrangement has three cut-off point controls for the three beam currents controlled by the individual color signals. To reduce the cost of the circuitry, the measuring stage is common to all the cut-off point controls, as in the known circuit arrangement. All three beam currents are then measured successively by this measuring stage. In this way, a part measuring signal or a part control signal derived from it is obtained for each beam current and is stored sesparately according to which of the beam currents it belongs. Changes in the part measuring signal or part control signal are detected for each beam current by one of the change detectors each time. Each of these change detectors issues a part change signal to the logic network. The latter does not release the control of the beam currents by the picture signal outside the sampling intervals until all the part change signals indicate that the part measuring signal or the part control signal, as the case may be, remains constant. This ensures that the cut-off point controls for the beam currents of all color signals have responded when the picture appears in the picture tube.
In a further embodiment of the circuit arrangement according to the invention with a comparator arrangement which compares the measuring signal with the reference signal and derives the control signal from this comparison, the change detection arrangement detects a change in the control signal with respect to time and issues the change signal when the control signal has assumed an essentially constant value. In the case of the representation of a color signal the comparator arrangement derives several part control signals, whose changes with time are detected by the change detectors, from a corresponding comparison of the part measuring signals with the reference signal. In this embodiment of the circuit arrangement of the invention, preference is given to storage of only the control signal or the part control signals for the purpose of controlling the beam currents.
In another embodiment of the circuit arrangement of the invention which includes a control signal memory which contains at least one capacitor in which a charge or voltage corresponding to the control signal is stored, the change detection arrangement issues the change signal when a charge-reversing current of the capacitor occurring during the turning on of the picture tube has fallen below a limit value and has thus at least largely decayed. Such a detection of the steady state of the cut-off point control is independent of the actual magnitude of the control signal and therefore independent of, for example, the level of the picture tube cut-off voltage, circuit tolerances or ageing processes in the circuit arrangement or the picture tube.

Detection of whether or not the charge-reversing current exceeds the limit value is performed preferentially by a current detector which is designed with a current mirror system which is arranged in a supply line to a capacitor acting as a control signal store. A current mirror arrangement of this kind supplies a current which coincides very precisely with the charging current of the capacitor. This current is then compared, preferably in a further device contained in the change detection arrangement, with a current representing a limit value or, after conversion into a voltage, with a voltage representing the limit value. The change signal is obtained from the result of this comparison.
On the other hand, digital memories may also be used as control signal memories, especially when the picture signal is supplied as a digital signal and the blocking point control is constructed as a digital control loop. In such a case, the comparator arrangement, the change detection arrangement and the trigger circuit are also designed as digital circuits. Then, the change detection arrangement advantageously forms the difference of the signals stored in the control signal memory in two successive sampling intervals and compares this with the limit value formed by a digital value. If the difference falls short of the limit value, the change signal is issued.


BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

An embodiment of the invention is described in greater detail below with the aid of the drawings in which:

FIG. 1 shows a block circuit diagram of the embodiment,
FIG. 2 shows a somewhat more detailed block circuit diagram of the embodiment,
FIG. 3 shows time-dependency diagrams of some signals occurring in the circuit diagram shown in FIG. 2, and
FIG. 4 shows a somewhat moredetailed block circuit diagram of a part of the circuit diagram shown in FIG. 2.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
FIG. 1 shows a block circuit diagram of a circuit arrangement to which a picture signal is fed via a first input 1 of a combinatorial stage 2. From the output 3 of the combinatorial stage 2 the picture signal is fed to the picture signal input of a controllable amplifier 5 which at an output 6 issues a current controlled by the picture signal. This current is fed via a measuring stage 7 to a hot cathode 8 in a picture tube 9 and forms therein a beam current of a cathode ray by means of which a picture defined by the picture signal is displayed on a fluorescent screen of the picture tube 9.
The measuring stage 7 measures the current fed to the hot cathode 8, i.e. the the beam current in the picture tube 9, and at a measuring signal output 10, issues a measuring signal corresponding to the magnitude of this current. This is fed to a measuring signal input 11 of a comparator arrangement 12 to which a reference signal is supplied at a reference signal input 13. In a preferably periodically recurring sampling interval during the occurrence of a given reference level in the picture signal, the comparator arrangement 12 forms a control signal from the value of the measuring signal fed to the measuring signal input 11 at this time, on the one hand, and the reference signal, on the other, by means of substraction and delivers this at a control signal output 14. From there the control signal is fed to an input 15 of a control signal memory 16 and is stored in the latter. The control signal is fed via an output 17 of the control signal memory 16 to a second input 18 of combinatorial stage 2 in which it is combined with the picture signal, e.g. added to it.
The combinatorial stage 2, the controllable amplifier 5, the measuring stage 7, the comparator arrangement 12 and the control signal memory 16 form a control loop with which the beam current is guided towards the reference signal in the sampling interval during the occurrence of the reference level in the picture signal. For the reference level, use is made in particular of a black level or a level with small, fixed distance from the black level, i.e. a value in the picture signal which produces a black or almost back picture area in the displayed picture in the picture tube. In this case the control loop, as described, forms a cut-off point control for the picture tube. If the reference level is away from the black level, the control loop is also designated as quasi-cut-off-point control.
The circuit arrangement as shown in FIG. 1 also has a trigger circuit 19 to which the measuring signal from the measuring signal output 10 of measuring stage 7 is fed at a measuring signal input 20. When the circuit arrangement and therefore the picture tube are turned on, the trigger circuit 19 is set in a first state in which by means of a first connection 21 it blocks the comparator arrangement 12 in such a way that the latter delivers no control signal or a control signal with the value zero at its control signal output 14. This prevents the control signal memory 16 from storing undefined values for the control signal at the moment of turning on or immediately thereafter.

The circuit arrangement shown in FIG. 1 also has a logic network 22 which is connected via a second connection 23, by means of which a switching signal is supplied, with the trigger circuit 10 and via a third connection 24 with the controllable amplifier 5. Like the trigger circuit 19, the logic network 22 also finds itself controlled, when the circuit arrangement is being turned on, by the switching signal in a first stage in which by way of the third connection 24 it blocks the controllable amplifier 5 with a blocking signal in such a way that no beam currents controlled by the picture signal can yet flow in the picture tube 9. Thus the picture tube 9 is blanked; no picture is displayed yet.
When picture tube 9 is turned on, the hot cathode 8 is still cold so that no beam current can flow anyhow. The hot cathode 8 is then heated up and, after a certain time, begins gradually to emit electrons as the result of which a cathode ray and therefore a beam current can form. However, during the heating up of the hot cathode 8, and because the cut-off point control has not yet responded, this would be undefined and is therefore suppressed by the controllable amplifier 5. Only in time intervals which are provided immediately subsequent to flybacks of the cathode rays into an initial position at the changeover from the display of one image to that of a subsequent image, but even before the start of the display of the subsequent image, the controllable amplifier 5 delivers a voltage in the form of an auxiliary pulse for a short time at its output 6, and when the hot cathode 8 in the picture tube 9 is heated up sufficiently, this voltage produces a beam current. The time interval for the delivery of this voltage is selected in such a way that a cathode ray produced by its does not produce a visible image in the picture tube 9, and coincides for example with the sampling interval.

The measuring stage 7 measures the short-time cathode current produced in the manner described and, at its measuring signal output 10, delivers a corresponding measuring signal which is passed via measuring signal output 20 to the trigger circuit 19. If the measuring signal exceeds a definite preset threshold value, the trigger circuit 19 is switched into a second state in which it releases the comparator arrangement 12 via the first connection 12 and, by means of the second connection 23, uses the switching signal to also bring the logic network 22 into a second state. The comparator arrangement 12 now evaluates the measuring signal supplied to it via the measuring signal input 11, i.e. it forms the control signal as the difference between the measuring signal and the reference signal supplied via the reference signal input 13. The control signal is transferred via the control signal output 14 and the input 15 into the control signal memory 16. It is subsequently fed via the output 17 of the control signal memory 16 to the second input 18 of the combinatorial stage 2 and is there combined with the picture signal at the first input 1, e.g. is superimposed on it by addition. This superimposed picture signal is fed to the picture signal input 4 of the controllable amplifier 5 via the output 3 of the combinatorial stage 2.
In the second state of the logic network 22 the controllable amplifier 5 is switched via the third connection 24 by the blocking signal in such a way that the picture signal controls the beam currents only during the sampling intervals and that, for the rest, no image appears yet in the picture tube. The cut-off point control now gebins to respond, i.e. the value of the control signal is changed by the control loop comprising the combinatorial stage 2, the controllable amplifier 5, the measuring stage 7, the comparator arrangement 12 and the control signal memory 16 until such time as the beam current in the picture tube 9 at the blocking point or at a fixed level with respect to it is adjusted to a value preset by the reference signal. For this purpose the sampling interval, in which the picture signal controls the beam current via the controllable amplifier 5 is selected in such a way that within it the picture signal just assumes a value corresponding to the cut-off point or to a fixed level with respect to it.

During the response of the cut-off point control the control signal fed to the control signal memory 16 changes continuously. Between the control signal output 14 of the comparator arrangement 12 and the input 15 of the control signal memory 16 is inserted a changed detection arrangement 25 which detects the variations of the control signal. When the cut-off point control has responded, i.e. the control signal has assumed a constant value, the change detection arrangement 25 delivers a change signal at an output 26 which indicates that the steady stage of the cut-off point control is achieved and the said signal is fed to a change signal input 27 of the logic network 22. The logic network then switches into a third state in which via the third connection 24 it enables the controllable amplifier 5 in such a way that the beam currents are now controlled without restriction by the picture signal. Thus a correctly represented picture appears in the picture tube 9.
A shadow-like representation of individual constituents of the circuit arrangement in FIG. 1 is used to indicate a modification by which this circuit arrangement is equipped for the representation of color pictures in the picture tube 9. For example, three color signals are fed in this case as the picture signal via the input 1 to the combinatorial stage 2. Accordingly, the input 1 is shown in triplicate, and the combinatorial stage 2 has a logic element, e.g. an adder, for example of these color signals. The controllable amplifier 5 now has three amplifier stages, one for each of the color signals, and the picture tube now contains three hot cathodes 8 instead of one so that three independent cathode rays are available for the three color signals.
However, to simplify the circuit arrangement and to save on components, only one measuring stage 7 is provided which measures all three beam currents successively. Also, the comparator arrangement 12 forms part control signals from the successively arriving part measuring signals for the individual beam currents with the reference signal, and these part control signals are allocated to the individual color signals and passed on to three storage units which are contained in the control signal memory 16. From there, the part control signals are sent via the second input 18 of the combinatorial stage 2 to the assigned logic elements.
The circuit arrangement thus forms three independently acting control loops for the cut-off point control of the individual color signals, in which case only the measuring stage 7 and to some extent at least the comparator arrangement 12 are common to these control loops.
The change detection arrangement 25 now has three change detectors each of which detects the changes with time of the part control signals relating to a color signal. Then via the output 26 each of these change detectors delivers a part change signal to the change signal input 27 of the logic network 22. These part change signals occur independently of one another when the relevent control loop has responded. The logic network 22 evaluates all three part change signals and does not switch into its third stage until all part change signals indicate a steady state of the control loops. Only then, in fact, is it ensured that all the color signals from the beam currents controlled by them are correctly reproduced in the picture tube, and thus no distortions of the displayed image, especially no color purity errors, occur. The color picture displayed then immediately has the correct brightness and color on its appearance when the picture tube is turned on.


FIG. 2 shows a somewhat more detailed block circuit diagram of an embodiment of a circuit arrangement equipped for the processing of a picture signal containing three colour signals. Three color signals for the representation of the colors red, green and blue are fed to this circuit arrangement via three input terminals 101, 102, 103. A red color signal is fed via the first input terminal 101 to a first adder 201, a green colour signal is fed via the second input terminal to a second adder 202, and a blue colour signal is fed via the third input terminal 103 to a third adder 203. From outputs 301, 302 and 303 of the adders 201, 202, 203 the color signals are fed to amplifier stages 501, 502 and 503 respectively. Each of the amplifier stages contains a switchable amplifier 511, 512 and 513, an output amplifier 521, 522 and 523 as well as a measuring transistor 531, 532 and 533 respectively. The emitters of these measuring transistors 531, 532, 533 are each connected to a hot cathode 801, 802, 803 of the picture tube 9 and deliver the cathode currents, whereas the collectors of measuring transistors 521, 532, 533 are connected to one another and to a first terminal 701 of a measuring resistor 702 the second terminal of which 703 is connected to earth. The current gain of the measuring transistors 531, 532 and 533 is so great that their collector currents coincide almost with the cathode currents. By measuring the voltage drop produced by the cathode currents at the measuring resistor 802 it is then possible to measure the cathode currents and therefore the beam currents in the picture tube 9 with great accuracy.
The falling voltage at the measuring resistor 702 is fed as a measuring signal to an input 121 of a buffer amplifier 120 with a gain factor of one, at the output 122 of which the unchanged measuring signal is therefore available at low impedance. From there it is fed to a first terminal 131 of a reference voltage source 130 which is connected with its second terminal 132 to inverting inputs 111, 112 and 113 of three differential amplifiers 123, 124, 125 respectively. The differential amplifiers 123, 124, 125 also each have a non-inverting input 114, 115, and 116 respectively. These are connected to each other at a junction 117, to earth via a leakage current storage capacitor 126 and to the output 122 of the buffer amplifier 120 via decoupling resistor 118 and a leakage current sampling switch 119. In addition, the input 121 of the buffer amplifier 120 can be connected to earth via a short-circuiting switch 127.
From outputs 141, 142, and 143 respectively of the differential amplifiers 123, 124 and 125, part control signals relating to the individual color signals are fed in the form of electrical voltages (or, in some cases, charge-reversing currents) via control signal sampling switches 154, 155 and 156, in the one instance, to first terminals 151, 152 and 153 respectively of control signal storage capacitors 161, 162, 163 which form the storage units of the control signal memory 16 and store inside them charges corresponding to these voltages (or formed by the charge-reversing currents). In the other instance, the part control signals are fed to second inputs 181, 182 and 183 of the first, second or third adders 201, 202, 203 respectively and are added therein to the color signals from the first, second or third input terminals 101, 102 or 103 respectively.

The operation of the comparator arrangement 12 which consists mainly of the buffer amplifier 120, the reference voltage source 130 and differential amplifiers 123, 124, 125 will be explained below with the aid of the pulse diagrams in FIG. 3. FIG. 3a shows a horizontal blanking signal for a television signal which, as the picture signal, controls the beam currents in the picture tube 9. In this diagram, H represents horizontal blanking pulses which follow one another in the picture signal at the time interval of one line duration and by means of which the beam currents are switched off during line flyback between the display of the individual picture lines in the picture tube. FIG. 3b shows a vertical blanking pulse V by means of which the beam currents are switched off during the change ober from the display of one picture to the display of the next picture. FIG. 3c shows a measuring signal control pulse VH which is formed from a vertical blanking pulse lengthened by three line duration.
The short-circuiting switch 127 is now controlled in such a way that it is non-conducting only throughout the duration of the measuring signal control pulse VH and during the remaining time short-circuits the input 121 of the buffer amplifier 120 to earth. This means that a measuring signal only reaches the comparator arrangement 12 during frame change so that the parts of the picture signal which control the beam currents producing the picture in the picture tube exert no influence on comparator arrangement 12 and therefore on the blocking point control.

Throughout the duration of the measuring signal control pulse VH, the measuring signal from output 122, reduced by a reference voltage issued by the reference voltage source 130 between its first 131 and its second terminal 132, is present at the inverting inputs 111, 112, 113 of differential amplifiers 123, 124, 125. If the differential amplifiers 123, 124, 125 were not present, this difference would be fed directly as part control signals to the control signal storage capacitors 161, 162, 162. The differential amplifiers 123, 124, 125 amplify the difference and thus form the control amplifiers of the control loops.
The comparator arrangement 12 further contains a device for compensation of the influence of any leakage currents occurring in the picture tube 9. For this purpose, a voltage to which the leakage current storage capacitor 126 is charged is fed to the non-inverting inputs 114, 115, 116 of the three differential amplifiers 123, 124 and 125. The charging is performed by the measuring signal from output 122 of the buffer amplifier 120 via the decoupling resistor 118 and the leakage current sampling switch 119 which is closed only within the period of the vertical blanking pulse V, and in certain cases only during part of the latter. Within this time the beam currents are, in fact, totally switched off by the picture signal so that in certain cases only a leakage current flows through the measuring resistor 702. Consequently, throughout the duration of the vertical blanking pulse V the measuring signal corresponds to this leakage current. Because the leakage current also flows during the remaining time, even outside the duration of the vertical blanking pulse the measuring signal contains a component originating from the leakage current which therefore is also contained in the voltage fed to the inverting inputs 111, 112, 113 of differential amplifiers 123, 124, 125 and is subtracted out in the differential amplifiers 123, 124, 125.
The part control signal is fed from output 141 of differential amplifier 123 by the first control signal sampling switch 154 to the first terminal 151 of the first control signal storage capacitor 161 during the period of a storage pulse L1 and is stored in the said capacitor. Similarly, the part control signal from output 143 of differential amplifier 125 is fed to the third control signal storage capacitor 163 during the period of a storage pulse L2 and the part control signal from output 142 of differential amplifier 124 is fed to the second control signal storage capacitor 162 during a storage pulse L3. The storage pulses L1, L2 and L3 are illustrated in FIGS. 3d, e and f. They lie in sequence in one of the three line periods by which the measuring signal control pulse VH is longer than the vertical blanking pulse V. These three line periods form the sampling interval for the measuring signal or the part measuring signals, as the case may be. During the remaining periods the outputs, 141, 152, 143 of the differential amplifiers 123, 124, 125 are isolated from the control signal storage capacitors 161, 162, 163 so that no interference can be transmitted from there and any distortion of the stored part control signals caused thereby is eliminated. For the duration of storage pulses L1, L2 and L3 the color signals at the input terminals 101, 102, 103 are at their reference level i.e. in the present embodiment at a level, corresponding to the blocking point or at a fixed level with respect to it so that the control loops can adjust to this level.

The switchable amplifiers 511, 512, and 513 each receive at each input 241, 242, 243 a blanking signal BL1, BL2, BL3 respectively, the curves of which are shown in FIGS. 3g, h, i. These blanking signals interrupt the supply of the color signals during line flybacks and frame change, i.e. during the period of the measuring signal control pulse VH, and thus the beam currents in these time intervals are switched off. Naturally, the red color signal is let through during the first line period after the end of the vertical blanking pulse V, the blue color signal during the second line period after the end of the vertical blanking pulse V and the green color signal during the third line period after the end of the vertical blanking pulse V by the switchable amplifiers 511, 512, 513 respectively so that they can control the beam currents. Blanking signals BL1, BL2 and BL3 also provide for interruptions in the frame change blanking pulse, which corresponds to the measuring signal control pulse, in the corresponding time intervals. In these time intervals the beam currents are measured and part control signals are determined from the part measuring signals and stored in the control signal storage capacitors 161, 162, 163.

The circuit arrangement shown in FIG. 2 further contains a trigger circuit 19 to which a supply voltage is fed via a supply terminal 190. Via a reset input 191 a voltage is also supplied to the trigger circuit 19 from a third terminal 133 of the reference voltage source 130. When the circuit arrangement is turned on, this voltage is designed so as to be delayed with respect to the supply voltage so that when the circuit arrangement is brought into operation the interplay of the two voltages produces a switch-on reset signal such that a low-value voltage pulse occurs at the reset input 191 during turn on, which means that the trigger circuit 19 is set in its first state. The reset input 191 can also be connected to another circuit of any configuration which generates a switch-on reset signal when the picture tube is turned on.
The trigger circuit 19 is further connected via a second connection 23 to a logic network 22 which, when the circuit arrangement is turned on, is also set into a first state via the second connection 23. In this first state the logic network 22 delivers a blocking signal at a blocking output 240 which is fed to the three switchable amplifiers 511, 512, 513. By this means the supply of the color signals to the output amplifiers 521, 522, 523 is interrupted completely so that no beam currents can be generated by these. No picture is therefore displayed.

An insertion signal EL which extends over the three line periods by which the measuring signal control pulse VH is longer than the vertical blanking pulse V, i.e. over the sampling interval, is also fed via a line 233 to the trigger circuit 19 and the logic network 22. As long as the trigger circuit 19 is in its first state, this insertion pulse EL is issued via a control output 192 from the trigger circuit 19 and fed to the pulse generator 244. During the period of the insertion pulse EL this generator produces a voltage pulse of a definite magnitude and passes this to output amplfiiers 521, 522, 523 as an auxiliary pulse via switching diodes 245, 246, 247. By this means the beam currents are switched on for a short time so as to receive a measuring signal despite the disconnected color signals as soon as at least one of the hot cathodes 801, 802, 803 delivers a beam current.
In its first state the trigger circuit 19 also delivers a signal via a control line 211, and this signal is used to switch the outputs 141, 142, 143 of the differential amplifiers 123, 124, 125 to earth potential or practically to earth potential. This suppresses effects of voltages at the inputs 111 to 116 of the differential amplifiers 123, 124, 125, especially effects of the reference voltage source 130 which may in some cases initiate incorrect charging of the control signal storage capacitors 161, 162, 163.
The measuring signal produced by means of the pulse generator 244 at the input 121 of the buffer amplifier 120 is also fed to the trigger circuit 19 via a measuring signal input 20. If it exceeds a preset threshold value, the trigger circuit 19 switched into its second state. The logic network 22 is then also switched into its second state via the second connection 23. The differential amplifiers 123, 124, 125, too, are triggered by the signal along the control line 211 into issuing a control signal defined by the difference in the voltages at its inputs 111 to 116. The pulse generator 244 is blocked by the control output 192. The blocking signal issued from the blocking output 240 of the logic network 22 now turns on the switchable amplifiers 511, 512, 513 in the time intervals defined by the storage pulses L1, L2, L3 in such a way that in these time intervals the color signals can produce beam currents to form a measuring signal by which the control loops respond. However, the display of the picture is still suppressed. The control signal storage capacitors 161, 162, 163 are charged up in this process. In the leads to the first terminals 151, 152, 153 there are change detectors 251, 252, 253 which detect the changes of the charging currents of the control signal storage capacitors 161, 162, 163 and at their outputs 261, 262, 263 in each case deliver a part change signal when the charging current of the control signal storage capacitor in question has decayed and thus the relevant control loop has responded. The part change signals are fed to three terminals 271, 272, 273 of the change signal input 27 of the logic network 22.
When part change signals are present from all change detectors 251, 252, 253, when therefore all control loops have responded, the logic network 22 switches from its second to its third state. The blocking signal from the blocking output 240 is now completely disconnected such that the switchable amplifiers 511, 512, 513 are now switched only by the blanking signals BL1, BL2, BL3. The colour signals are then switched through to the output amplifiers 521, 522, 523 and the picture is displayed in the picture tube.

FIG. 4 shows an embodiment for a trigger circuit 19 and a logic network 22 of the circuit arrangements as shown in FIGS. 1 or 2. The trigger circuit 19 contains a flip-flop circuit formed from two NAND-gates 194, 195 to which the switch-on reset signal, by which the trigger circuit 19 is returned to its first stage, is fed via the reset input 191. All the elements of the circuit arrangement in FIG. 4 are shown in positive logic. Thus, a short-time low voltage at the reset input 191 immediately after the circuit arrangement is started up is used to set the flip-flop circuit 194, 195 in such a way that a high voltage occurs at the output of the second NAND gate 194 and a low voltage at the output of the second NAND gate 195. The low voltage at the output of the second NAND gate 195 blocks differential amplifiers 123, 124, 125 via the control line 211 in the manner described.
The insertion pulse EL is fed via the line 233 to the trigger circuit 19, is combined via an AND gate 196 with the signal from the output of the first NAND gate 194 and is delivered at the control output 192 for the purpose of controlling the pulse generator 244.
The signals from the outputs of the NAND-gates 194, 195 are fed via a first line 231 and a second line 232 of the second connection 23 as a switching signal to the logic network 22. The first line 231 is connected to reset inputs R of three part change signal memories 221, 222, 223 in the form of bistable flip-flop circuits which when the circuit arrangement is started up are reset via the first line 231 in such a way that they carry a low voltage at their outputs Q. The second line 232 of the second connection 23 leads via three AND gates 224, 225, 226 to setting inputs S of the three part change signal memories 221, 222, 223. By means of the AND gates 224, 225, 226 the signal on the second line 232 of the second connection 23 is combined each time with one of the part change signals supplied via the terminals 271, 272, 273. The signals from the outputs Q of the part change signal memories 221, 222, 223 are combined by means of a collecting gate 227 in the form of an NAND gate and are held ready at its output 228.
The measuring signal is fed to the trigger circuit 19 via the measuring signal input 20 and passed to a first input 197 of a threshold detector 198 to which at a second input a threshold value, in the form of a threshold voltage for example, produced by a threshold generator 199 is also supplied. When the voltage at the first input 197 of the threshold detector 198 is smaller than the voltage delivered by the threshold generator 199, the threshold detector 198 delivers a high voltage at its output 200. When, on the other hand, the voltage at the first input 197 is greater than the voltage of the threshold generator 199, the voltage at the output 200 jumps to a low value. This voltage is supplied as the setting signal of the flip-flop circuit 194, 195, reverses the latter and thereby switches the trigger circuit 19 into its second state when the voltage at the first input 197 exceeds the voltage of the threshold generator 199.
Between the output 200 and the flip-flop circuit 194, 195 in the circuit arrangement shown in FIG. 4 there is inserted an inquiry gate 181 in the form of an OR gate to which an inquiry pulse is fed via an inquiry input 193 of the trigger circuit 19. This ensures that the flip-flop circuit 194, 195 is switched over only at a time fixed by the inquiry pulse--in the present case a negative voltage pulse--and not at any other times due to disturbances. As such an inquiry pulse it is possible to use, for example, a pulse which occurs in the second line period after the end of the vertical blanking pulse V, i.e. one which largely corresponds to the storage pulse L2.
After the switching over of the flip-flop circuit 194, 195 corresponding to the setting of the trigger circuit 19 into the second state, appropriately modified signals are supplied via the control line 211 and the output 192 for the purpose of controlling the pulse generator 244 and the differential amplifiers 123, 124, 125. Modified voltages also appear on the lines 231, 232 of the second connection 23, and these voltages release the part change signal memories 221, 222, 223 such that they can each be set when the part change signals reach the terminals 271, 272, 273.
In certain cases, a further flip-flop circuit 234 is inserted in the lines 231, 232 to delay the signals passing along these lines; this is reset via the first line 231 when the circuit arrangement is started up and thus it also resets the part change signal memories 221, 222, 223. However, after the trigger circuit 19 is switched into the second state the further flip-flop circuit 234 is not set via the second line 232 of the second connection 23 until a release pulse arrives via a release input 235 and another AND gate 236, for example a period of approximately the interval of two vertical blanking pulses V after the switching of the trigger circuit 19 into the second state. In this way it is possible to bridge a period of time in which no defined signal values are present at the terminals 271, 272, 273.
The signal at the output 228 of the collecting gate 227 changes its state when the last of the three part change signals has also arrived and has set the last of the three part change signal memories. The signal is then combined via a gate arrangement 229 of two NAND gates and one AND gate with the insertion pulse EL of line 223 and with the signal on the second line 232 of the second connection 23 or from the output Q of the further flip-flop circuit 234 to the blocking signal delivered at the blocking output 24 which is fed to the switchable amplifiers 511, 512, 513.
FIGS. 31, m, n show the combinations of the blocking signal with the blanking signals BL1, BL2, and BL3 at the blanking inputs 241, 242, 243 of the switchable amplifiers 511, 512, 513 in the form of logic AND operations. The dot-dash lines show resulting insertion signals A1, A2, A3 formed by these operations after the starting up of the circuit arrangement and before the occurrence of a beam current, i.e. in the first state of the logic network 22. Here the resulting insertion signals A1, A2, A3 are constant at low level. The dash curves show the resulting insertion signals A1, A2, A3 after the appearance of a beam current and before the steady state of the cut-off point control is reached, i.e. in the second state of the logic network 22, while the continuous curves represent the resulting insertion signals A1, A2, A3 in the steady state of the cut-off point control, i.e. in the third state of logic network 22. The dash curves have similar shapes to storage pulses L1, L2, L3, whereas the continuous curves correspond in shape to the inverses of the blanking signals BL1, BL2, BL3. In this case a high level of the resulting insertion signals A1, A2 or A3 means that the switchable amplifier 511, 512 or 513 feeds the colour signal to the relevant output amplifier 521, 522 or 523 respectively, whereas a low level in the resulting insertion signal A1, A2 or A3 means that the relevant switchable amplifier 511, 512 or 513 is blocked for the color signal.
The circuit arrangement described is designed in such a way that the trigger circuit 19 remains in its second state and logic network 22 remains in its third state even if charging currents reappear at the difference signal storage cpacitors 161, 162, 163 due to disturbances during the operation of the circuit arrangement. The cutoff point control then makes readjustments without the displayed picture being disturbed.
In the circuit arrangement shown in FIG. 2, the green color signal can also be let through during the second line period after the end of the vertical blanking pulse V and the blue color signal during the third line period after the end of the vertical blanking pulse V by the switchable amplifiers 511, 512, 513 for the purpose of controlling the beam currents. The storage pulses L2 and L3 at the control signal sampling switches 155 and 156 and the second and third blanking signals BL2 and BL3 at the blanking inputs 242 and 243 are then to be interchanged. The resulting insertion signals A2 and A3 as shown in FIGS. 3m and n are also interchanged then accordingly.
In FIG. 2 a dashed line is used to indicate which components of the circuit arrangement can be combined advantageously to form an integrated circuit. The first terminals 151, 152, 153 of the difference signal storage capacitors 161, 162, 163, one terminal 128 of leakage current storage capacitor 126, three terminals 524, 525, 526 in the leads to the output amplifiers 521, 522, 523 as well as a line connection 704 between the first terminal 701 of the measuring resistor 702 and the input 121 of the buffer amplifier 120 will then form the connecting contacts of this integrated circuit

SANYO MODEL CEP1748T T  CHASSIS E2-G17 Television receiver including a teletext Videotext decoder circuit :
In a teletext decoder circuit the character generator supplies picture elements at a rate of nominally approximately 6 MHz under the control of display pulses occurring at the same rate. These display pulses are derived from reference clock pulses which occur at a rate which is not a rational multiple of 6 MHz. The character generator comprises a generator circuit which receives the reference clock pulses and selects, from each series of N reference clock pulses, as many pulses as correspond to the number of horizontal picture elements constituting a character, while the time interval of N reference clock pulses corresponds to the desired width of the characters to be displayed. The character generator supplies picture elements of distinct length, while the length of a picture element is dependent on the ordinal number of this picture element in the character.

1. A receiver for television signal s including a teletext decoder circuit for decoding teletext signals constituted by character codes which are transmitted in the television signal, and comprising:
a video input circuit receiving the television signal and converting it into a serial data flow;
an acquisition circuit for receiving the serial data flow supplied by the video input circuit and selecting that part therefrom which corresponds to the teletext page described by the viewer;
a character generator comprising:
a memory medium addressed by the character codes which together represent the teletext page desired by the user and which in response to each character code successively supply m2 series of m1 simultaneously occurring character picture element codes each indicating wether a corresponding picture element of the character must be displayed in the foreground colour or in the background colour;
a generator circuit receiving a series of reference clock pulses and deriving display clock pulses therefrom;
a converter circuit receiving each series of m1 simultaneously occurring character picture element codes as well as the display clock pulses for supplying the m1 character picture element codes of a series one after the other and at the display clock pulse rate;
a display control circuit receiving the serial character picture element codes and converting each into an R, a G and a B signal for the relevant picture element of the character to be displayed;
characterized in that
the generator circuit is adapted to partition the series of reference clock pulses applied thereto into groups of N reference clock pulses each, in which N reference clock pulse periods correspond to the desired width of a character to be displayed, and to select from each such group m1 clock pulse to function as display clock pulses;
the converter circuit is adapted to supply each character picture element code during a period which is dependent on the ordinal number of the character picture element code in the series of m1 character picture element codes.
2. A character generator for use in a receiver teletext claim 1, comprising:
a memory medium which is addressable by character codes and successively applies m2 series of m1 simultaneously occurring character picture element codes in response to a character code applied as an address thereto, each character picture element code indicating whether a corresponding picture element of the character must be displayed in the foreground colour or in the background colour;
a generator circuit receiving a series of reference clock pulses and deriving display clock pulses therefrom;
a converter circuit receiving each series of m1 simultaneously occurring character picture element codes and the display clock pulses for supplying the m1 character picture element codes of the series one after the other at the display clock pulse rate;
a display control circuit receiving the serial character picture element codes and converting each into an R, a G and a B signal for the relevant picture element of the character to be displayed; characterized in that
the generator circuit is adapted to partition the series of reference clock pulses applied thereto into groups of N reference clock pulses each, in which N reference clock pulse periods correspond to the desired width of a character to be displayed, and to select from each such group m1 clock pulses to function as display clock pulses;
the converter circuit is adapted to supply each character picture element code during a period which is dependent on the ordinal number of the character picture element code in the series of m1 character picture element codes.
Description:
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
1. Field of the Invention
The invention generally relates to receivers for television signals and more particularly to receivers including teletext decoders for use in a teletext transmission system.
2. Description of the Prior Art
As is generally known, in a teletext transmission system, a number of pages is transmitted from a transmitter to the receiver in a predetermined cyclic sequence. Such a page comprises a plurality of lines and each line comprises a plurality of alphanumerical characters. A character code is assigned to each of these characters and all character codes are transmitted in those (or a number of those) television lines which are not used for the transmission of video signals. These television lines are usually referred to as data lines.
Nowadays the teletext transmission system is based on the standard known as "World System Teletext", abbreviates WST. According to this standard each page has 24 lines and each line comprises 40 characters. Furthermore each data line comprises, inter alia, a line number (in a binary form) and the 40 character codes of the 40 characters of that line.
A receiver which is suitable for use in such a teletext transmission system includes a teletext decoder enabling a user to select a predetermined page for display on a screen. As is indicated in, for example, Reference 1, a teletext decoder comprises, inter alia, a video input circuit (VIP) which receives the received television signal and converts it into a serial data flow. This flow is subsequently applied to an acquisition circuit which selects those data which are required for building up the page desired by the user. The 40 character codes of each teletext line are stored in a page memory which at a given moment thus comprises all character codes of the desired page. These character codes are subsequently applied one after the other and line by line to a character generator which supplies such output signals that the said characters become visible when signals are applied to a display.
For the purpose of display each character is considered as a matrix of m 1 ×m 2 picture elements which are displayed row by row on the screen. Each picture element corresponds to a line section having a predetermined length (measured with respect to time); for example, qμsec. Since each line of a page comprises 40 characters and each character has a width of m 1 qμsec, each line has a length of 40 m 1 μsec. In practice a length of approximately 36 to 44 μsec appears to be a good choice. In the teletext decoder described in Reference 1 line length of 40 μsec and a character width of 1 μsec at m 1 =6 have been chosen.
The central part of the character generator is constituted by a memory which is sub-divided into a number of submemories, for example, one for each character. Each sub-memory then comprises m 1 ×m 2 memory locations each corresponding to a picture element and the contents of each memory location define whether the relevant picture element must be displayed in the so-called foreground colour or in the so-called background colour. The contents of such a code memory location will be referred to as character picture element code. This memory is each time addressed by a character code and a row code. The character code selects the sub-memory and the row code selects the row of m 1 memory elements whose contents are desired. The memory thus supplies groups of m simultaneously occurring character picture element codes which are applied to a converter circuit. This converter circuit usually includes a buffer circuit for temporarily storing the m 1 substantially presented character picture element codes. It is controlled by display clock pulses occurring at a given rate and being supplied by a generator circuit. It also supplies the m 1 character picture element codes, which are stored in the buffer circuit, one after the other and at a rate of the display clock pulses. The serial character picture element codes thus obtained are applied to a display control circuit converting each character picture element code into an R, a G and a B signal value for the relevant picture element, which signal values are applied to the display device (for example, display tube).
The frequency f d at which the display clock pulses occur directly determines the length of a picture element and hence the character width. In the above-mentioned case in which m 1 =6 and in which a character width of 1 μsec is chosen, this means that f d =6 MHz. A change in the rate of the display clock pulses involves a change in the length of a line of the page to be displayed (now 40 μsec). In practice a small deviation of, for example, not more than 5% appears to be acceptable. For generating the display clock pulses the generator circuit receives reference clock pulses. In the decoder circuit described in Reference 1 these reference clock pulses are also supplied at a rate of 6 MHz, more specifically by an oscillator specially provided for this purpose.
OBJECT AND SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
A particular object of the invention is to provide a teletext decoder circuit which does not include a separate 6 MHz oscillator but in which for other reasons clock pulses, which are already present in the television receiver, can be used as reference clock pulses, which reference clock pulses generally do not occur at a rate which is a rational multiple of the rate at which the display clock pulses must occur.
According to the invention,
the generator circuit is adapted to partition the series of reference clock pulses applied thereto into groups of N reference clock pulses each, in which N clock pulse periods correspond to the desired width of a character to be displayed, and to select of each such group m 1 clockpulses to function as display clock pulses;
the converter circuit is adapted to supply each character picture element code during a period which is dependent on the ordinal number of the character picture element code in the series of m 1 character picture element codes.
The invention has resulted from research into teletext decoder circuits for use in the field of digital video signal processing in which a 13.5 MHz clock generator is provided for sampling the video signal. The 13.5 MHz clock pulses supplied by this clock generator are now used as reference clock pulses. The generator circuit partitions these reference clock pulses into groups of N clock pulses periods each. The width of such a group is equal to the desired character width. Since a character comprises rows of m 1 picture elements, m 1 reference clock pulses are selected from such a group which clock pulses are distributed over this group as regularly as possible. Since the mutual distance between the display clock pulses thus obtained is not constantly the same, further measures will have to be taken to prevent undesired gaps from occurring between successive picture elements when a character is displayed. Since the length of a picture element is determined by the period during which the converter circuit supplies a given character picture element code, this period has been rendered dependent on the ordinal number of the character picture element code in the series of m 1 character picture element codes.
REFERENCES
1. Computer-controlled teletext, J. R. Kinghorn; Electronic Components and Applications, Vol. 6, No. 1, 1984, pages 15-29.
2. Video and associated systems, Bipolar, MOS; Types MAB 8031 AH to TDA 1521: Philips' Data Handbook, Integrated circuits, Book ICO2a 1986, pages 374,375.
3. Bipolar IC's for video equipment; Philips' Data Handbook, Integrated Circuits Part 2, January 1983.
4. IC' for digital systems in radio, audio and video equipment, Philips' Data Handbook, Integrated Circuits Part 3, September 1982.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
FIG. 1 shows the general structure of a television receiver including a teletext decoder circuit;
FIG. 2 shows different matrices of picture elements constituting a character;
FIG. 3 shows diagrammatically the general structure of a character generator;
FIG. 4 shows an embodiment of a converter circuit and a generator circuit for use in the character generator shown in FIG. 3, and
FIG. 5 shows some time diagrams to explain its operation;
FIG. 6 shows another embodiment of a converter circuit and a generator circuit for use in the character generator shown in FIG. 3, and
FIG. 7 shows some time diagrams to explain its operation;
FIG. 8 shows a modification of the converter circuit shown in FIG. 6, adapted to round the characters.
EXPLANATION OF THE INVENTION
General structure of a TV receiver
FIG. 1 shows diagrammatically the general structure of a colour television receiver. It has an antenna input 1 connected to an antenna 2 receiving a television signal modulated on a high-frequency carrier, which signal is processed in a plurality of processing circuits. More particularly, it is applied to a tuning circuit 23 (tuner or channel selector). This circuit receives a band selection voltage V B in order to enable the receiver to be tuned to a frequency within one of the frequency bands VHF1, VHF2, UHF, etc. The tuning circuit also receives a tuning voltage V T with which the receiver is tuned to the desired frequency within the selected frequency band.
This tuning circuit 3 supplies an oscillator signal having a frequency of f OSC on the one hand and an intermediate frequency video signal IF on the other hand. The latter signal is applied to an intermediate frequency amplification and demodulation circuit 4 supplying a baseband composite video signal CVBS. The Philips IC TDA 2540 described in Reference 3 can be used for this circuit 4.
The signal CVBS thus obtained is also applied to a colour decoder circuit 5. this circuit supplies the three primary colour signals R', G' and B' which in their turn are applied via an amplifier circuit 6 to a display device 7 in the form of a display tube for the display of broadcasts on a display screen 8. In the colour decoder circuit 5 colour saturation, contrast and brightness are influenced by means of control signals ANL. The circuit also receives an additional set of primary colour signals R, G and B and a switching signal BLK (blanking) with which the primary colour signals R', G' and B' can be replaced by the signals R, G and B of the additional set of primary colour signals. A Philips IC of the TDA 356X family described in Reference 3 can be used for this circuit 5.
The video signal CVBS is also applied to a teletext decoder circuit 9. This circuit comprises a video input circuit 91 which receives the video signal CVBS and converts it into a serial data flow. This flow is applied to a circuit 92 which will be referred to as teletext acquisition and control circuit (abbreviated TAC circuit). This circuit selects that part of the data applied thereto which corresponds to the teletext page desired by the viewer. The character codes defined by these data are stored in a memory 93 which is generally referred to as page memory and are applied from this memory to a character generator 94 supplying an R, a G and a B signal for each picture element of the screen 8. It is to be noted that this character generator 94 also supplies the switching signal BLK in this embodiment. As is shown in the Figure, the teletext acquisition and control circuit 92, the page memory 93 and the character generator 94 are controlled by a control circuit 95 which receives reference clock pulses with a frequency f o from a reference clock oscillator 10. The control circuit 95 has such a structure that it supplies the same reference clock pulses from its output 951 with a phase which may be slightly shifted with respect to the reference clock pulses supplied by the clock pulse oscillator 10 itself. The reference clock pulses occurring at this output 951 will be denoted by TR.
The Philips IC SAA 5030 may be used as video input circuits 91, the Philips IC SAA 5040 may be used as teletext acquisition and control circuit, a 1K8 RAM may be used as page memory, a modified version of the Philips IC SAA 5050 may be used as character generator 94 and a modified version of the Philips IC SAA 5020 may be used as control circuit 95, the obvious modification being a result of the fact that this IC is originally intended to receive reference clock pulses at a rate of 6 MHz for which 13.5 MHz has now been taken.
The acquisition and control circuit 92 is also connected to a bus system 11. A control circuit 12 in the form of a microcomputer, an interface circuit 13 and a non-volatile memory medium 14 are also connected to this system. The interface circuit 13 supplies the said band selection voltage V B , the tuning voltage V T and the control signals ANL for controlling the analog functions of contrast, brightness and colour saturation. It receives an oscillator signal at the frequency f' OSC which is derived by means of a frequency divider 15, a dividing factor of which is 256, from the oscillator signal at the frequency f OSC which is supplied by the tuning circuit 3. Tuning circuit 3, frequency divider 15 and interface circuit 13 combined constitute a frequency synthesis circuit. The Philips IC SAB 3035 known under the name of CITAC (Computer Interface for Tuning and Analog Control) and described in Reference 4 can be used as interface circuit 13. A specimen from the MAB 84XX family, manufactured by Philips, can be used as a microcomputer.
The memory medium 14 is used, for example, for storing tuning data of a plurality of preselected transmitter stations (or programs). When such tuning data are applied to the interface circuit 13 under the control of the microcomputer 12, this circuit supplies a given band selection voltage V B and a given tuning voltage V T so that the receiver is tuned to the desired transmitter.
For operating this television receiver an operating system is provided in the form of a remote control system comprising a hand-held apparatus 16 and a local receiver 17. This receiver 17 has an output which is connected to an input (usually the "interrupt" input) of the microcomputer 12. It may be constituted by the Philips IC TDB 2033 described in Reference 4 and is then intended for receiving infrared signals which are transmitted by the hand-held apparatus 16.
The hand-held apparatus 16 comprises an operating panel 161 with a plurality of figure keys denoted by the FIGS. 0 to 9 inclusive, a colour saturation key SAT, a brightness key BRI, a volume key VOL, and a teletext key TXT. These keys are coupled to a transmitter circuit 162 for which, for example, the Philips IC SAA 3004, which has extensively been described in Reference 4, can be used. When a key is depressed, a code which is specific of that key is generated by the transmitter circuit 162, which code is transferred via an infrared carrier to the local receiver 17, demodulated in this receiver and subsequently presented to the microcomputer 12. This microcomputer thus receives operating instructions and activates, via the bus system 11, one of the circuits connected thereto. It is to be noted that an operating instruction may be a single instruction, that is to say, it is complete after depressing only one key. It may also be multiple, that is to say, it is not complete until two or more keys have been depressed. This situation occurs, for example, when the receiver is operating in the teletext mode. Operation of figure keys then only yields a complete operating instruction when, for example, three figure keys have been depressed. As is known, such a combination results in the page number of the desired teletext page.
The character generator
As already stated, a character is a matrix comprising m 2 rows of m 1 picture elements each. Each picture element corresponds to a line section of a predetermined length (measured with respect to time); for example, q/μsec. Such a matrix is indicated at A in FIG. 2 for m 1 =6 and m 2 =10. More particularly this is the matrix of a dummy character. The character for the letter A is indicated at B in the same FIG. 2. It is to be noted that the forty characters constituting a line of teletext page are contiguous to one another without any interspace. The sixth column of the matrix then ensures the required spacing between the successive letters and figures.
FIG. 3 shows diagrammatically the general structure of the character generator described in Reference 2 and adapted to supply a set of R, G and B signals for each picture element of the character. This character generator comprises a buffer 940 which receives the character codes from memory 93 (see FIG. 1). These character codes address a sub-memory in a memory medium 941, which sub-memory consists of m 1 ×m 2 memory elements each comprising a character picture element code. Each m 1 ×m 2 character picture element code corresponds to a picture element of the character and defines, as already stated, whether the relevation picture element must be displayed in the so-called foreground colour or in the so-called background colour. Such a character picture element code has the logic value "0" or "1". A "0" means that the corresponding picture element must be displayed in the background colour (for example, white). The "1" means that the corresponding picture element must be displayed in the foreground colour (for example, black or blue). At C in FIG. 2 there is indicated, the contents of the sub-memory for the character shown at B in FIG. 2.
The addressed sub-memory is read now by row under the control of a character row signal LOSE. More particularly, all first rows are read of the sub-memories of the forty characters of a teletext line, subsequently all second rows are read, then all third rows are read and so forth until finally all tenth rows are read.
The six character element codes of a row will hereinafter be referred to as CH(1), CH(2), . . . CH(6). They are made available in parallel by the memory medium 941 and are applied to a converter circuit 942 operating as a parallel-series converter. In addition to the six character picture element codes it receives display clock pulses DCL and applies these six character picture element codes one by one at the rate of the display clock pulses to a display control circuit 943 which converts each character picture element code into a set of R, G, B signals.
The display clock pulses DCL and the character row signal LOSE are supplied in known manner (see Reference 2, page 391) by a generator circuit 944 which receives the reference clock pulses TR from the control circuit 95 (see FIG. 1), which reference clock pulses have a rate f 0 . In the character generator described in Reference 2, page 391, f 0 is 6 MHz and the display clock pulses DCL occur at the same rate. The converter circuit thus supplies the separate character picture element codes at a rate of 6 MHz. The picture elements shown at A and B therefore have a length of 1/6 μsec each and a character thus has a width of 1 μsec.
When the rate of the reference clock pulses increases, the rate of the display clock pulses also increases and the character width decreases. Without changing the character width the above-described character generator can also be used without any essential changes if the rate of the reference clock pulses is an integral multiple of 6 MHz. In that case the desired display clock pulses can e derived from the reference clock pulses by means of a divider circuit with an integral dividing number. However, there is a complication if f 0 is not a rational multiple of 6 MHz, for example, if f 0 =13.5 MHz and each character nevertheless must have a width of substantially 1 μsec. Two generator circuits and a plurality of converter circuits suitable for use in the character generator shown in FIG. 3 and withstanding the above-mentioned complication will be described hereinafter.
FIG. 4 shows an embodiment of the generator circuit 944 and the converter circuit 942. The reference clock pulses TR are assumed to occur at a rate of 13.5 MHz. To derive the desired display clock pulses from these reference clock pulses, the generator circuit 944 comprises a modulo-N-counter circuit 9441 which receives the 13.5 MHz reference clock pulses TR indicated at A in FIG. 5. The quantity N is chosen to be such that N clock pulse periods of the reference clock pulses substantially correspond to the desired character width of, for example, 1 μsec. This is the case for N=14, which yields a character width of 1.04 μsec.
An encoding network 9442 comprising two output lines 9443 and 9444 is connected to this modulo-N-counter circuit 9441. This encoding network 9442 each time supplies a display clock pulse in response to the first, the third, the sixth, the eighth, the eleventh and the thirteenth reference clock pulse in a group of fourteen reference clock pulses. More particularly the display clock pulse, which is obtained each time in response to the first reference clock pulse of a group, is applied to the output line 9443, whilst the other display clock pulses are applied to the output line 9444. Thus, the pulse series shown at B and C in FIG. 5 occur at these output lines 9443 and 9444, respectively.
The converter circuit 942 is constituted by a shift register circuit 9420 comprising six shift register elements each being suitable for storing a character picture element code CH(.) which is supplied by the memory medium 941 (see FIG. 3). This shift register circuit 9420 has a load pulse input 9421 and a shift pulse input 9422. The load pulse input 9421 is connected to the output line 9443 of the encoding network 9442 and thus receives the display clock pulses indicated at B in FIG. 5. The shift pulse input 9422 is connected to the output line 9444 of the encoding network 9442 and thus receives the display clock pulses indicated at C in FIG. 5.
This converter circuit operates as follows. Whenever a display clock pulse occurs at the load pulse input 9421, the six character picture element codes CH(.) are loaded into the shift register circuit 9420. The first character picture element code CH(1) thereby becomes immediately available at the output. The contents of the shift register elements are shifted one position in the direction of the output by each display clock pulse at the shift pulse input 9422.
Since the display clock pulses occur at mutually unequal distances, the time interval during which a character picture element code is available at the output of the shift register circuit is longer for the one character picture element code than for the other. This is shown in the time diagrams D of FIG. 5. More particularly the diagrams show for each character picture element code CH(.) during which reference clock pulse periods the code is available at the output of the shift register circuit. The result is that the picture elements from which the character is built up upon display also have unequal lengths as is indicated at D and E in FIG. 2.
The same character display is obtained by implementing the converter circuit 942 and the generator circuit 944 in the way shown in FIG. 6. The generator circuit 944 again comprises the modulo-N-counter circuit 9441 with N=14 which receives the 13.5 MHz reference clock pulses TR shown at A in FIG. 7. An encoding network 9445 is also connected to this counter circuit, which network now comprises six output lines 9446(.). This encoding network 9445 again supplies a display clock pulse in response to the first, the third, the sixth, the eighth, the eleventh and the thirteenth reference clock pulse of a group of fourteen reference clock pulses, which display clock pulses are applied to the respective output lines 9446(1), . . . , 9446(6). Thus, the pulse series indicated at B, C, D, E, F and G in FIG. 7 occur at these outputs.
The converter circuit 942 has six latches 9423(.) each adapted to store a character picture element code CH(.). The outputs of these latches are connected to inputs of respective AND gate circuits 9424(.). Their outputs are connected to inputs of an OR gate circuit 9425. The AND gate circuit is 9424(.) are controlled by the control signals S(1) to S(6), respectively, which are derived by means of a pulse widening circuit 9426 from the display clock pulses occurring at the output lines 9446(.) of the encoding network 9445 and which are also shown in FIG. 7. Such a control signal S(i) determines how long the character picture element code CH(i) is presented to the output of the OR gate circuit 9425 and hence determines the length of the different picture elements of the character on the display screen.
As is shown in FIG. 6, the pulse widening circuit 9426 may be constituted by a plurality of JK flip-flops 9426(.) which are connected to the output lines of the encoding network 944, in the manner shown in the Figure. It is to be noted that the function of the pulse widening circuit 9426 may also be included in the encoding network 9445. In that case this function may be realized in a different manner.
In the above-described embodiments of the converter circuit 942 and the generator circuit 944 the character generator supplies exactly contiguous picture elements on the display screen. This means that the one picture elements begins immediately after the previous picture element has ended. The result is that round and diagonal shapes become vague. It is therefore common practice to realize a rounding for such shapes. This rounding can be realized with the converter circuit shown in FIGS. 4 and 6 by ensuring that two consecutive picture elements partly overlap each other. This is realized in the converter circuit shown in FIG. 4 by means of a rounding circuit 9427 which receives the character picture element codes occurring at the output of the shift register circuit 9420. This rounding circuit 9427 comprises an OR gate 9427(1) and a D flip-flop 9427(2). The T input of this flip-flop receives the clock pulses shown at E in FIG. 5, which pulses are derived from the reference clock pulses TR by means of a delay circuit 9427(3). This circuit has a delay time t 0 for which a value in the time diagram indicated at E in FIG. 5 is chosen which corresponds to half a clock pulse period of the reference cock pulses. The character picture element codes supplied by the shift register circuit 9420 are now applied directly and via the D flip-flop 9427(2) to the OR gate which thereby supplies the six character picture element codes CH(.) in the time intervals as indicated at F in FIG. 5. The result of this measure for the display of the character with the letter A is shown at F in FIG. 2.
The same rounding effect can be realized by means of the converter circuit shown in FIG. 6, namely by providing it with a rounding circuit as well. This is shown in FIG. 8. In this FIG. 8 the elements corresponding to those in FIG. 6 have the same reference numerals. The converter circuit 942 shown in FIG. 8 differs from the circuit shown in FIG. 6 in that the said rounding circuit denoted by the reference numeral 9428 is incorporated between the pulse widening circuit 9426 and the AND gate circuits 9424(.). More particularly this rounding circuit is a pluriform version of the rounding circuit 9427 shown in FIG. 4 and is constituted by six D flip-flops 9428(.) and six OR gates 9429(.). These OR gates receive the respective control signals S(1) to S(6) directly and via the D flip-flops. The T inputs of these D flip-flops again receive the version of the reference clock pulses delayed over half a reference clock pulse period by means of the delay circuit 94210. This rounding circuit thus supplies the control signals S'(.) shown in FIG. 7.






Other References:
Philips Data Handbook, Electronic Components and Materials "Integrated Circuits: Part 3, Sep. 1982: ICs for Digital Systems in Radio, Audio, and Video Equipment: SAA5030 Series", pp. 1-10.
Philips Data Handbook, Electronic Components and Materials "Integrated Circuits: Part 3, Sep. 1982: ICs for Digital Systems in Radio, Audio, and Video Equipment: SAA5020 Series", pp. 1-10.
Philips Data Handbook, Electronic Components and Materials "Integrated Circuits: Book IC02a, 1986: Video and Associated Systems: Bipolar, MOS: Types MAB8031AH to TDA1521", pp. 374-375.
F. J. R. Kinghorn, "Computer Controlled Teletext"; Electronic Components and Applications; vol. 6, No. 1, 1984, pp. 15-29.
"World System Teletext Technical Specification", Revised Mar. 1985, pp. 1-10 and 38-41.
Philips Data Handbook, Electronic Components and Materials; "Integrated Circuits, Part 2: Jan. 1983: Bipolar ICs for Video Equipment: TDA2540, TDA2540Q"; pp. 1-8.
Philips Data Handbook, Electronic Components and Materials; "Integrated Circuits: Part 2: Jan. 1983: Bipolar ICs for Video Equipment: TDA 3562A"; pp. 1-16.
Philips Data Handbook, Electronic Components and Materials "Integrated Circuits: Part 3, Sep. 1982: IC's for Digital Systems in Radio, Audio, and Video Equipment: SAA3004"; pp. 1-10.
Philips Data Handbook, Electronic Components and Materials, "Integrated Circuits: Part 3, Sep. 1982: Ics for Digital Systems in Radio, Audio, and Video Equipment: SAB3035", pp. 1-4.
Philips Data Handbook, Electronic Components and Materials "Integrated Circuits: Part 3, Sep. 1982: ICs for Digital Systems in Radio, Audio and Video Equipment: TDB2033", pp. 1-9.



SANYO MODEL CEP1748T T  CHASSIS E2-G17  Teletext / Videotext Error correction circuit using character probability :

An error correction circuit in a television receiver for receiving, for example, Teletext information, Viewdata information or information of comparable systems. The codes representing symbol information received by the receiver are classified into one out of two or more classes in dependence on the frequency of their occurrence, this classification being an indication of the extent to which it is probable that a received code is correctly received.
In FIG. 1, a picture text television receiver has a receiving section, audio and video amplifiers 4 and 9 and a picture tube 10, 11. A text decoder 21 receives symbol information which is stored in a store 25 for display. An error detector circuit 40 including a comparison circuit 43 and two parity circuits 41 and 42, and checks for parity between newly received and already stored symbol information. A reliability circuit 60 is also included.

1. An error correction circuit for a receiving device for receiving digitally transmitted symbol information, the transmission of this information being repeated one or more times, the receiving device having a decoding circuit for decoding the received information, an information store coupled to said decoding circuit for storing the information, a circuit for generating synchronizing signals and a video converter circuit coupled to said information store and said generating circuit for converting information and synchronizing signals into a composite video signal for application to a standard television receiver, a symbol address in the information store corresponding with a symbol location on a television picture screen, a symbol location being a portion of a text line which is displayed with a number of video lines greater than one, the error correction circuit being coupled to said decoding circuit and said information store and including means coupled between said decoding circuit and said information store for checking newly received symbol information against symbol information stored in the information store for the corresponding symbol location, a write-switch having one input coupled to said decoding circuit and an output coupled to said information store, and a write-setting circuit, coupled to another input of said write-switch, which determines whether the newly received information is written or not written into the information store, said write-setting circit having an input coupled to said checking means whereby the results of said checking are a factor in the setting of said write-switch by said write-setting circuit, characterized in that the error correction circuit further comprises a classification circuit coupled to the output of said decoding circuit for classifying a newly received and decoded symbol in one of at least two classes on the basis of the probability of occurrence of the newly received symbol, the input of the classification circuit being coupled to another input of the write-setting circuit. 2. An error correction circuit for a receiving device as claimed in claim 1, characterized in that the write-setting circuit includes a reliability circuit and the information store comprises an additional storage element for each symbol address in the information store for storing a reliability bit associated with that symbol address, inputs of the reliability circuit being coupled to the classification circuit and to the information store for accessing the additional storage elements, for determining, from the additional storage element corresponding with the symbol address position of newly received symbol information, a new reliability bit, an output of the reliability circuit being coupled back to the information store for writing this new reliability bit into the corresponding additional storage element when the reliability bit for this symbol address changes its value. 3. An error correction circuit for a receiving device as claimed in claim 2, characterized in that the checking means comprises a comparison circuit for bit-wise comparing a newly received and decoded symbol with a symbol read from an address of the information store, this address corresponding with the symbol location, a comparison output of the comparison circuit being coupled to a further input of the reliability circuit. 4. An error correction circuit for a receiving device as claimed in any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the classification circuit comprises a parity circuit for classifying newly received symbols for respective particular symbol locations into one of two classes which correspond to an even and an odd parity respectively, of the newly received information, and for classifying symbol information already stored in the corresponding symbol addresses in the information store. 5. An error correction circuit for a receiving device as claimed in claim 2, characterized in that the reliability circuit comprises a reliability flipflop and a reliability read circuit for this flipflop, an output of which also constitutes the output of the reliability circuit. 6. An error correction circuit for a receiving device as claimed in claim 1, characterized in that the error correction circuit comprises a second classification circuit, coupled between said other classification circuit and said write-setting circuit and having inputs coupled to said information store, for classifying a symbol read from the information store. 7. An error correction circuit for a receiving device as claimed in claim 1 characterized in that the information store comprises, for each symbol address in the information store, at least one further storage element for storing the classification associated with the symbol for that symbol address.
Description:
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The invention relates to an error correction circuit of a type suitable for a receiving device for receiving digitally transmitted symbol information (picture and/or text), the transmission of this information being repeated one or more times, the receiving device comprising a deconding circuit for decoding the received information, an information store for storing the information, a circuit for generating synchronizing signals and a video converter circuit for converting information and synchronizing signals for applying a composite video signal to a standard television receiver, a symbol address in the information store corresponding with a symbol location on a television picture screen, a symbol location being a portion of a text line which is displayed with a number of videolines greater than one, the error correction circuit comprising means for checking newly received symbol information against symbol information stored in the information store for the corresponding symbol location, together with a write-switch having a write-setting circuit which determines whether the newly received information is written or not written into the information store, the position of the switch being determined on the basis of the result of said checking.
Error correction circuits of the above type are used in auxiliary apparatus for the reception of Teletext transmissions or comparable transmissions, these auxiliary apparatus being connected to a standard television receiver either by applying video signals to a so-called video input, or by applying these video signals, modulated on a carrier, to an aerial input of the television set. There are already television receivers with a built-in Teletext receiver already including an error correction circuit of the above-mentioned type.
The present Teletext system as it is already used rather widely in the UK, is based on an 8-bit symbol teletext code having 7 information bits and 1 parity bit; this parity bit is chosen so that each 8-bit symbol in the code has a so-called "odd" parity, that is to say there is an odd number of ones in a symbol, and, consequently, also an odd number of zeros. A display on the television picture screen comprises a "page" consisting of a number of rows (e.g. 24) of symbols.
Only symbols with the "odd" parity are stored in the information store. Each symbol represents either an alpha-numeric or a graphics character for display on the picture screen, or a control symbol.
If, in a subsequent transmission cycle for the same symbol location of the same page, a faulty symbol is detected, then, assuming that only a single error occurs within a symbol, this faulty symbol will have an even parity, that is to say a "one" changed into a "zero", or vice versa, as the result of the error. In this case the information store is not written into and the old information is retained in the relevant symbol address.
As the probability is very great that this old information is correct, the parity check does not only furnish an error detection, but also an error correction, partly because of the fact that some knowledge has already been gained from the previous history. Of course, this does not hold for the first transmission cycle. Should an "even" parity be found in a 8-bit symbol in the first transmission cycle, a space ("blank") is generally recorded in the relevant symbol address and, consequently, displayed as a space. The easiest way to do this is by filling the entire information store with space symbols when a new Teletext page is requested, so that also in the first cycle no information need be written into the information store on receipt of a symbol having an "even" parity.
For a poor transmission condition an error probability of 0.01 is assumed, that is to say one symbol out of a hundred symbols is received incorrectly. In a complete page having 960 Teletext symbol locations, (i.e. up to 24 rows of up to 40 symbols per row) the displayed page then shows, after the first cycle, 9 to 10 erroneous spaces on average. In the present system substantially all these erroneous spaces are likely to have been corrected in the second cycle.
When the receiving conditions are better, this situation is already correspondingly more favourable in the first cycle. Even in the poorest receiving conditions, it appears that the number of double errors is so small that they may be neglected. Double errors therefore are hardly ever taken into consideration hereafter. It will be apparent that in this system each symbol has a certain degree of redundancy in the form of the parity bit, but this is off-set by the drawback that the 8-bit code, which has 256 (=2 8 ) combinations, is utilized for only 50% of this capacity, i.e. only for the 128 symbols having "odd" parity.
Although, for the U.K. itself, such a code has a sufficient capacity to contain all desired symbols for control, graphics elements, letters, figures, punctuation marks, etc. as required for Teletext and also, for example, for Viewdata, it is not possible to allot a specific symbol to all of the special characters occurring in various other languages.
Several European languages, in so far they are written in latin characters, have all sorts of "extra" characters, for example Umlaut letters, accent letters, etc. When all these extra characters are totalled, including Icelandic, Maltese and Turkish, then it appears that a total of approximately 220 symbols is required, namely the 128 known symbols plus further symbols for these "extra" characters.
Several solutions have been proposed to solve this, but so far none of these have been satisfactory as they are either very cumbersome or allow only one language within one page, so that it is impossible or very difficult e.g. to quote foreign names in a page of text.
Alternatively it has been proposed--and this is of course very obvious--to use the entire 8-bit code for symbols. As the redundancy in the code has now been reduced to zero, no correction can be effected in the second cycle. If two codes for one symbol location differ from one another in different transmission cycles, it is theoretically impossible to decide with certainty which one of the two codes is correct. An additional information store is required to enable a comparison between a newly received symbol in the third cycle and a symbol from the second and the first cycles, and to take the frequently used majority decision thereafter. This is possible, but three reading cycles are necessary before the number of errors is reduced to an acceptable level. As each transmission cycle of a completely full magazine (i.e. a plurality of pages) takes approximately 25 seconds, the correct text is not known until after approximately 75 seconds.
As the present system displays the text correctly after approximately 50 seconds already, such a solution would mean an increase in the so-called access time.
If a new parity bit were added to the 8-bit code, each symbol would require 8+1=9 bits so that it is no longer possible, as is done in the present system, to accommodate the symbols for one text line of 40 characters in one video line, whereas on the other hand the average transmission rate decreases if more video lines are needed for the information transmission. This solution is generally considered to be unacceptable, also because the compatibility with existing receivers would be fully lost.
Although any language to be displayed can be considered to contain redundancy both as regards text and graphics, so that a viewer may "overlook" many errors, in the sense that there is still an intelligible display, this does not offer a satisfactory solution.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
It is the object of the invention to provide an error correction circuit of the type referred to for a receiving device for Teletext and comparable systems, which offers such a solution for the problem outlined above that also for an 8-bit code without a parity bit substantially all errors, if any, can be corrected in the second transmission cycle which is received.
According to the invention an error correction circuit of the type referred to is characterized in that it comprises at least one classification circuit for classifying a newly received and decoded symbol in one of at least two classes on the basis of the probability of occurrence of the newly received symbol, an output of the classification circuit being coupled to an input of the write-setting circuit.
The classification circuit utilizes the hitherto unrecognized fact that the "language" used for the Teletext system and for associated systems comprises a third form of redundancy, namely the frequency with which the different symbols occur in any random text.
From counts performed on longer texts in several languages, including texts that quote words or names from other languages, it is found that, on average, these texts did not contain more than approximately 5% "extra" symbols, in spite of the fact that the extra symbols constitute approximately 50% of the different code combinations. The remaining 95% are symbols from the original 50% of the different code combinations, that is to say control, graphics and text symbols which were already used in the existing system. For simplicity, these latter symbols are hereinafter denoted A-symbols, and the "extra" symbols are denoted B-symbols.
If now an A-symbol is received in the first cycle and a B-symbol in the second cycle, or vice versa, it is already possible to decide with a high degree of certainty which of the two is correct.
Let us assume that an identified A-symbol is transmitted from the transmitter end for the same symbol location in those first and second cycles, whereas the receiver receives an A-symbol in the first cycle and a B-symbol in the second cycle.
It can be seen that some form of A-symbol is obtained in the receiver when either a real A-symbol is properly received or a real B-symbol is erroneously received. Assuming there is an error probability of 0.01, the probability that the first-mentioned situation occurs is 0.95×0.99=0.9405 and the probability that the second situation occurs is 0.05×0.01=0.0005 so that the probability that an A-symbol is received totals 0.941. A B-symbol results from a real B-symbol (0.05×0.99=0.0495) or a faulty A-symbol (0.95×0.01=0.0095), adding up to a total probability of 0.059. Of course 0.941+0.059=1.000, based on the assumption that double errors do not occur, so that any A-symbol A x will never be received as another A-symbol A y from the same class. The probability that a received A-symbol is correct is 0.9405/0.941=0.9995. The probability that a received B-symbol is correct is 0.0495/0.059=0.839.
For the above mentioned case, it is correctly assumed that the A-symbol in the first cycle is correct, and that the B-symbol in the second cycle is incorrect.
Consequently, there is an A-symbol in the information store in both cycles. In the second cycle the B-symbol must not be stored, and the A-symbol obtained from the first cycle must be retained.
Should a B-symbol be received first, then a B-symbol is written into the information store, (the probability that this B-symbol is correct is still 84%) but it is not retained in the second cycle, and the A-symbol received in the second cycle must now be recorded in the information store.
At the end of the second cycle it is seen that in this manner the then remaining error is less than one in approximately 5 full pages, as applied to the Teletext system. Such a number of errors is so small that apparently they are not noticed by a viewer.
When an A-symbol is received in the first cycle and in the second cycle or a B-symbol is received in both cycles then there is no doubt, after symbol sequences A, B or B, A there is little doubt, but the symbol stored in the information store must be considered to be somewhat suspect. This also applies to each B-symbol recorded in the first cycle, which may lead to a further improvement when a decision is taken.
Another advantageous embodiment of an error correction circuit according to the invention is characterized in that the error correction circuit comprises a reliability circuit and the information store comprises an additional storage element for each symbol address in the information store for storing a reliability bit associated with that symbol address, inputs of the reliability circuit being coupled to the classification circuit and to a read circuit for the additional storage elements, for determining from the additional storage element corresponding with the symbol address of newly received symbol information a new reliability bit, this new reliability bit being written at least into the corresponding additional storage element when the reliability bit for this symbol address changes its value.
When the transmitter successively transmits an A-symbol for a certain symbol and location and symbols ABA are successively received, then the A-symbol may be recorded as being "non-suspect" after the first cycle, indicated by an R (reliable) hereinafter. An R' after the second (A), the brackets indicating that the information is retained (not written into the information store) indicates the assumed non-reliability of this retained (A)-symbol, and an A and an R in the third cycle indicates the reliability of the correctly received A-symbol. The A-symbol in the information store is now again assumed to be reliable for this symbol sequence.
In like manner, when the transmitter transmits a B for a certain symbol location, and the symbols B, A, B, B are successively received, symbols and reliability states B. R', A.R', B. R' and B.R are recorded.
All this depends on the decision logic opted for.
It is assumed here that the possibility of an error for the same symbol location in two consecutive cycles is also extremely small; when the transmitter transmits symbols A, A, A, A in successive cycles, the probability that the receiver would receive, for example, symbols A, B, B, A is assumed to be zero. From practical experiments it was seen that this form of a double error can be fully neglected.
This improvement makes it of course necessary for

reliability state R or R' to be retained together with the related symbol in the information store and that it must be revised every cycle, if necessary. Each symbol address now has 9 bits instead of 8 in the Teletext receiver memory. This has hardly any consequences for the price as a standard RAM having a capacity of 1kx9 can be used.
As is apparent from the foregoing examples, it can be advantageous to make different decisions in the case a symbol sequence B-A is formed after the first cycle or after a further cycle.
A further advantageous embodiment of an error correction circuit is characterized in that the error correction circuit comprises a counting circuit for counting information transmission cycles following a new request for (always) a full picture of the requested symbol information, a counting output of this counting circuit being coupled at least to another input of the reliability circuit, this counting output being, for example, also coupled to a further input of the write-setting circuit.
As seen earlier in the history of data transmission and information processing equipment, the need was felt also for Teletext and comparable systems, to realise the extension with new symbols by doubling the number of symbols identified by an n-bit code, in such a way that the original symbols retain as far as possible their existing bit combustion.
This results inter alia in that transmission in a new, extended, code are also displayed reasonably well by existing receivers. A receiver for the original symbols only allots the correct symbol to approximately 95% or more of the symbol locations in the display. A limited compatability is therefore still possible, and even a full compatibility if a normal "English" text is transmitted.
In the example considered herein all the original symbols remain the same, and all the "extra" symbols have even parity.
This symbol set is now under discussion as an international standardization proposal.
It will be apparent that in the last-mentioned case no intricate classification circuit is required to decide for each symbol whether this symbol must be allocated to the A or to the B group.
A further advantageous embodiment of an error correction circuit according to the invention is therefore characterized in that the classification circuit comprises a parity circuit for classifying newly received symbols for respective particular symbol locations into one of two classes which correspond to an even and an odd parity, respectively, of the newly received information, and for classifying symbol information already stored in the corresponding symbol addresses in the information store.
This results, at first sight, in very strange circuit, as now a parity check is performed on a code which contains no parity bit at all.
It is, of course, alternatively possible to record the relevant classification of a symbol in the information store, but this requires at least a tenth bit for each symbol address and, for a classification in more than two groups, it requires even more. It is, however, more advantageous, when a newly received symbol for a particular symbol location is compared with the symbol already stored in the corresponding symbol address of the information store, to determine the classification of the symbol again when it is read from the address, as this requires less material and the advantage that a standard 1 Kx9 RAM can be used is retained.
A further advantageous embodiment is characterized in that the error correction circuit comprises a second classification circuit for classifying a symbol read from the information store.
In the most advantageous case, wherein all extra symbols are even parity codes, this means a second parity check circuit.
In the case that classification in two classes coincides with an even and an odd parity, respectively, of the symbols, it furthermore appears to be possible to enter the classification in the information store in such a way that the notation of the classification does not require an additional storage bit.
An embodiment of an error correction circuit according to the invention, which is advantageous for this case, is characterized in that the error correction circuit comprises a modification circuit which after having determined the "0" or "1" parity value of a newly received symbol means of the parity circuit replaces the content of a fixed bit position of the newly received symbol by this parity value.
Any random bit can be selected as the fixed bit position in the symbol, for example, the eight bit in the case of an 8-bit symbol, whereas a ninth bit is used as, for example, the reliability bit.
There are four distruct possibilities:
TABLE I
______________________________________
Modified Class Symbol (n+1) Parity symbol (n+1) Parity
______________________________________


A xxxxxxx 1 1 xxxxxxx 1 1

A xxxxxxx 0 1 xxxxxxx 1 0

B xxxxxxx 1 0 xxxxxxx 0 1

B xxxxxxx 0 0 xxxxxxx 0 0

______________________________________
In this case only one 8-bit parity circuit is needed.
It is of course alternatively possible to realize the second classification circuit virtually by using the first classification circuit twice on a time-sharing basis, first as the first and then as the second classification circuit. This requires some additional control logic and some additional time, so that the provision of a second classification circuit will be preferred, especially in the case where a simple parity check is performed.
The above-mentioned solution with its possible extensions will furnish the best result if all these extensions are provided. This is at the same time the most expensive solution. Error correction circuits which do not have all the above-described extensions are cheaper and hardly less good.
DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
One specific combination will now be discussed in greater detail by way of example with reference to the drawings. On the basis thereof, any other combination can be easily implemented by one skilled in the art.
In the drawings:
FIG. 1 shows a simplified block diagram of a television receiver comprising a Teletext receiving section including an error correction circuit according to the invention.
FIG. 2 shows a simplified time diagram in which a number of different error combinations is shown in an exaggerated burst of errors.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT
The embodiment chosen for FIG. 1 is suitable for reception in accordance with the proposed new code and comprises two clasification circuits consisting of two parity circuits, a comparison circuit for the bit-wise comparison of two symbols, a reliability circuit comprising a reliability flipflop and, in addition, the elements already known for a television plus Teletext receiver.
FIG. 1 shows a television receiver by means of a simplified block diagram.
A receiving section 1 having an aerial input 2 comprises the high-frequency receiving section, the intermediate-frequency amplifier section, the detection and the synchronizing circuits of the receiver. An audio output 3 is coupled to one or more loudspeakers 5 via an audio amplifier 4. Via control switches 7 and 8 a video output 6 is coupled for normal television reception to a video amplifier 9 for a picture tube 10 comprising the picture screen 11. Via a control switch 13 a synchronizing output 12 is coupled during normal television reception to a time-base circuit 14 which supplies the deflection voltages for the picture tube 10 via an output 15.
However, the control switches 7, 8 and 13 are shown in the position for Teletext reception and display.
Via the switch 7 the video signal is applied to an input 20 of a Teletext decoder 21, a synchronizing input 22 of which is coupled to the synchronizing output 12 of the receiving section 1.
In the Teletext decoder 21, serially received Teletext symbols are successively entered in parallel into a buffer register 23 thereof. Depending on the action decided upon, the contents of the buffer register 23 can be transferred to a storage register 24 of an information store 25, and from the storage register 24, the consecutive symbol addresses each corresponding to a symbol location on the picture screen 11 are filled, until the entire information store 25 is filled with the symbol information which corresponds to the desired Teletext page.
This and also the further processing operations are fully in agreement with the existing Teletext system. Addressing, reading of the information store, etc. are therefore not further described.
An output 26 of the information store 25 is coupled to a video (Teletext) generator 27, an output 28 of which is connected to the video amplifier 9 via the switch 8. In addition, there is provided in known manner a signal generator 29 and a generator 30 for generating several timing signals required in the receiver, which are applied to several other elements via outputs 31 to 35, inclusive. Synchronizing signals which can be applied to the time-base circuit 14 via the switch 13 are produced at the output 32.
The decision whether the content of the buffer register 23 must be transferred or not transferred to the storage register 24 is taken by an error correction circuit, which would, in the known Teletext system, consist of a parity check circuit.
The error correction circuit according to the invention consists of an error detection circuit 40 and, in the specific embodiment being described, a reliability circuit 60. The error detection circuit 40 comprises a parity circuit 41 for the buffer register 23, a parity circuit 42 for the storage register 24, a comparison circuit 43 for comparing the contents of buffer and storage registers 23, 24 with one another, and a number of write switches 44-0 to 44-7 inclusive. In this example these write switches are represented as respective AND-gates each having two inputs and an output. An input 45-i of each of the write switches is always connected to a corresponding output 46-i of the buffer register 23, these outputs also being connected respectively to inputs 47-1 to 47-8 inclusive, of the parity circuit 41 and to inputs 48-0 to 48-7 inclusive, of the comparison circuit 43.
The other input 49-i of each of the write switches is connected to a common write command input 50 of the error detection circuit 40.
In addition, output 51-i of the storage register 24 are connected to respective inputs 52-1 to 52-8 inclusive, of the parity circuit 42 and to corresponding further inputs 53-i of the comparison circuit 43 and to outputs 54-i of the write switches 44-0 to 44-7.
An odd parity-output 55 ("1" for odd-parity) of the parity circuit 41, is connected to an input 52-9 of the additional parity circuit 42, which has an output 56 for even or odd parity at the inputs 52-1 to 52-9, inclusive.
A Signetics IC No. 54180 or No. 8262 may, for example, be used for the parity circuit 41. If the parity of the symbol in the buffer register 23 is odd or even, a "1" and "0", respectively, appears at the output 55.
A Signetics IC No. 8262 may also be used for the parity circuit 42. If the parity of the symbol in the storage register 24 is odd and a "1" has appeared at the output 55, then a "1" appears at the output 56 for the even parity of the parity circuit 42, that is to say both symbols had an odd parity. If both symbols have an even parity the input 52-9 receives a zero, so that the total number of ones is even again and the output 56 shows an "1" again. Should the parities of the buffer register 23 and the storge register 24 be unequal, then the output 56 shows "0".
Thus the output 56 (Even Parity) may be considered to be an output which indicates by means of the "1", that the investigated symbols have an equal parity (Equal Parity, EP).
The comparison circuit 43 has an output 57 which becomes a "1" as soon as all the bits of the compared symbols are mutually equal. The signal thus obtained will be denoted EB (Equal Bytes).
The reliability circuit 60 comprises a flipflop 61 having number of writing gates 62. A JK flipflop is chosen for the described example but this is not essential to the inventive idea. One half of a Signetics 54112 may, for example, be used as a JK flipflop. Descriptions, truth tables and time diagrams of the above-mentioned Signetics circuits are known from the Philips Signetics Data Handbook.
The reliability circit 60 satisfies the following equations:
CK R =CLK, obtained from the clock signal generator 29. J R =R/WR G +(R/W)'EP (I) K R =R/WR G +(R/W)'EB (II)
in which R G is the reliability status as stored in the memory 25,
The operation of the JK-flipflop can be explained as follows, reference also being made to the time diagram of FIG. 2.
Within successive periods of approximately 25 seconds the symbols for 960 symbol locations (i.e. a page of text) are repeatedly received. The solid line sections 100 represent the symbol processing of the symbol S x in consecutive cycles 0 to 7, inclusive, indicated as S x ,0 to S x ,7 inclusive. The broken line sections represent in a very concise manner the processing of S 0 to S x -1, inclusive, and S x +1 to S 959 , inclusive, one processing period comprising, for example, two cycles of the clock signal 101 of the clock signal generator 29 and one read/write cycle consisting of the portions R/W and (R/W)', read and write respectively, controlled by the signal 102, obtained from the output 31 of time signal generator 30. During the read portion 103 of cycle 102 the contents of a symbol address which correspond with the signal combination entered in the buffer register 23 for a given symbol location, is entered into the storage register 24. As each symbol address has a ninth bit for a reliability bit, a status value R G appears simultaneously at an output 63 of the information store 25. On the first rising clock edge 104 only the first terms of the equations I and II are operative, as R/W="1" and consequently (R/W)'="0". This means that at the instant 104 the flipflop 61, R assumes the value "1" when R G ="1" and the value "0" when R G ="0", as shown in the line sections 105. At the next clock edge 106 only the second terms are operative, and the flipflop 61 can now retain the previously adjusted value or assume the other value. This final value at the output 64 of the flipflop 61 is applied to an input 65 of the information store for writing a next R G in the ninth bit of the corresponding storage address.
The output 66 (R') of the flipflop 61, which is connected to thewrite command signal input 50 of the error detection circuit 50, further determines whether the contents of the buffer register 23 can be transferred to the storage register 24 during the write cycle 107 (see FIG. 2).
Finally, the lines 108, 109 of FIG. 2 represent two bit contents of the storage register and 110, 111 represent two bit contents of the buffer register. For clarity's sake the remaining bits have been omitted.
The signal EP is denoted by 112, and the signal EB by 113.
In this example the following set of decision rules has been realised in the circuit.
TABLE II
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Decision Read Write SR EP EB R G 23➝24 Written S R K R
______________________________________


1 0 0 0 1 0 0 x

2 1 0 0 1 1 1 x

3 1 1 0 1 1 1 x

5 1 1 1 0 1 x 1

6 1 0 1 0 0 x 0

7 0 0 1 0 0 x 0

(4) 1 0 0 1 0 0 x

______________________________________
The states, indicated by an x, of J R and K R are irrelevant for the position of the flipflop. The equations I and II have been chosen thus that the required values "0" and "1" for J R and K R are produced.
FIG. 2 shows the states and EP, EB and R in the line sections 112, 113 and 105, respectively, by means of an example which shows an unprobable burst of received errors, such that each one of the decisions occurs at least once.
When the first cycle starts, the entire information store 25 is filled with space symbols. The space symbol is an A-symbol, denoted in FIG. 2 by A. It is assumed that the transmitter transmits a B-symbol and continues to do so. A faulty B-symbol has the same parity as A and is denoted by B'. On the basis of decision 1, EP=0, EB=0 and R G ="0" in the second half of the cycle a B' (erroneously received B with an even number of errors) is written into the storage register 24. The new R G remains "0" because J R =0, K R =x.
In the next cycle the buffer register 23 contains a correctly received B, which is transferred to the storage register 24 in accordance with decision 2.
The further cycles need no explanation. (B) indicates when there is no transfer to the store. The B already present in the relevant symbol address is not changed.
Throughout the example of the transmitter
transmitted: B B B B B B B B
received: B' B B' B B A B B
dislayed: B' B (B) B B (B) B B
The displayed error B' in the first cycle can of course not be avoided in this example, all following results are correct.
Any other possible received sequence can be followed in a similar manner.
Two of the decisions need some further explanation.
Decision 2 with EP="1" and EB="0", seems to indicate a multiple and, consequently, very rare error. As the information store 25 is initially filled with A's and the probability that an A will be received is high, this "error" will occur very frequently, especially in the first cycle.
Any double error occurring at a later instant will be treated likewise, in that very rare event.
Decision 6 deals with an equally rare event, but with R G ="1". It shortens the elimination of a multiple error, but will be rarely necessary. However, this decision 6 can be combined cheaply with decision 7.
In the embodiment explained on the basis of Table I the processing of EP in particular is simplified.
The following simple process can now, for example, be applied.
A newly received symbol is applied to the input of the parity circuit 41.
If the newly received symbol (n+1) is a symbol from the A group, then the parity circuit 41 indicates an odd parity that is to say a "1" at the output "odd parity".
This "1" is transferred to the eight bit of the buffer register 23.
By comparing a corresponding symbol (n) from the information store 25 with a modified symbol (n+1), EP can now be found by comparing the two eights bits of the buffer register 23 and the storage register 24. EB can be determined as previously to detect whether there is or there is not a difference between the two (modified) symbols.
In dependence on EP, EB and R, it is decided in a conventional manner whether the modified symbol will be written or not written into the information store 25. Thus the information store 25 comprises modified symbols only, so that in checking with the comparator 43, this check must be made against the also modified, newly received symbol.
During the display of the page, the parity circuit 41 is available for remodification, it only being necessary to invert the eighth bit if the eighth bit of the symbol to be displayed differs from the parity of this symbol, that is to say it is sufficient to replace the eighth bit of the storge register 24 by the parity now found..
A slight improvement can still be obtained by means of the additional decision (see at the bottom of the Table II). However, to enable the use of this additional decision, instead of decision 2 which can then only hold for the first cycle, a cycle counter must now be incorporated which forms with New Request="1" an additional condition for decision 2 and which, in all subsequent cycles with NR="0" results in decision 4 when EP=1, EB=0 and R G =0.
In view of what was described herefore such an extension can be easily realized by one normally skilled in the art of logic design.
In extremely rare cases this embodiment results in a further small improvement.
A simplified embodiment produces for all normal single errors an equally satisfactory result but it deals with the multiple errors in a less satisfactory way. However, the total result remains very satisfactory for the user.
The entire comparison circuit is omitted from this simplified embodiment. The decision table is now reduced to:
TABLE III
______________________________________
Read Write Written Decision EP R G 23-24 R G
______________________________________


1A 1 0 1 1

2A 1 1 1 1

3A 0 0 1 0

4A 0 1 0 0

______________________________________
Again this embodiment can be easily realized by one normally skilled in the art, using what has been described herein.
The same applies if smll changes are desired in the decisions, and also when, for example, the circuit must be implemented in the form of one or more Large Scale Integrated circuits (LSI), or when it is realized wholly or partly by means of a micro-processor.



You can see the complexity of the tellye even only from the wiring around it.

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