Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

In Brief: On this site you will find pictures and information about some of the electronic, electrical and electrotechnical technology relics that the Frank Sharp Private museum has accumulated over the years .

Premise: There are lots of vintage electrical and electronic items that have not survived well or even completely disappeared and forgotten.

Or are not being collected nowadays in proportion to their significance or prevalence in their heyday, this is bad and the main part of the death land. The heavy, ugly sarcophagus; models with few endearing qualities, devices that have some over-riding disadvantage to ownership such as heavy weight,toxicity or inflated value when dismantled, tend to be under-represented by all but the most comprehensive collections and museums. They get relegated to the bottom of the wants list, derided as 'more trouble than they are worth', or just forgotten entirely. As a result, I started to notice gaps in the current representation of the history of electronic and electrical technology to the interested member of the public.


Following this idea around a bit, convinced me that a collection of the peculiar alone could not hope to survive on its own merits, but a museum that gave equal display space to the popular and the unpopular, would bring things to the attention of the average person that he has previously passed by or been shielded from. It's a matter of culture. From this, the Obsolete Technology Tellye Web Museum concept developed and all my other things too. It's an open platform for all electrical Electronic TV technology to have its few, but NOT last, moments of fame in a working, hand-on environment. We'll never own Colossus or Faraday's first transformer, but I can show things that you can't see at the Science Museum, and let you play with things that the Smithsonian can't allow people to touch, because my remit is different.

There was a society once that was the polar opposite of our disposable, junk society. A whole nation was built on the idea of placing quality before quantity in all things. The goal was not “more and newer,” but “better and higher" .This attitude was reflected not only in the manufacturing of material goods, but also in the realms of art and architecture, as well as in the social fabric of everyday life. The goal was for each new cohort of children to stand on a higher level than the preceding cohort: they were to be healthier, stronger, more intelligent, and more vibrant in every way.

The society that prioritized human, social and material quality is a Winner. Truly, it is the high point of all Western civilization. Consequently, its defeat meant the defeat of civilization itself.

Today, the West is headed for the abyss. For the ultimate fate of our disposable society is for that society itself to be disposed of. And this will happen sooner, rather than later.

OLD, but ORIGINAL, Well made, Funny, Not remotely controlled............. and not Made in CHINA.

How to use the site:

- If you landed here via any Search Engine, you will get what you searched for and you can search more using the search this blog feature provided by Google. You can visit more posts scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year,
or you can click on the main photo-page to start from the main page. Doing so it starts from the most recent post to the older post simple clicking on the Older Post button on the bottom of each page after reading , post after post.

You can even visit all posts, time to time, when reaching the bottom end of each page and click on the Older Post button.

- If you arrived here at the main page via bookmark you can visit all the site scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year pointing were you want , or more simple You can even visit all blog posts, from newer to older, clicking at the end of each bottom page on the Older Post button.
So you can see all the blog/site content surfing all pages in it.

- The search this blog feature provided by Google is a real search engine. If you're pointing particular things it will search IT for you; or you can place a brand name in the search query at your choice and visit all results page by page. It's useful since the content of the site is very large.

Note that if you don't find what you searched for, try it after a period of time; the site is a never ending job !

Every CRT Television saved let revive knowledge, thoughts, moments of the past life which will never return again.........

Many contemporary "televisions" (more correctly named as displays) would not have this level of staying power, many would ware out or require major services within just five years or less and of course, there is that perennial bug bear of planned obsolescence where components are deliberately designed to fail and, or manufactured with limited edition specificities..... and without considering........picture......sound........quality........

..............The bitterness of poor quality is remembered long after the sweetness of todays funny gadgets low price has faded from memory........ . . . . . .....
Don't forget the past, the end of the world is upon us! Pretty soon it will all turn to dust!

Have big FUN ! !
-----------------------

©2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 Frank Sharp - You do not have permission to copy photos and words from this blog, and any content may be never used it for auctions or commercial purposes, however feel free to post anything you see here with a courtesy link back, btw a link to the original post here , is mandatory.
All sets and apparates appearing here are property of
Engineer Frank Sharp. NOTHING HERE IS FOR SALE !

Saturday, August 3, 2013

SONY KV-2092ET CHASSIS SCC-743A-A INTERNAL VIEW.













The SONY KV-2092ET  CHASSIS  SCC-743A-A  is amonocarrier type with a left sided board carrying the tuner and tuning system and VIF SIF sections.

The chassis is an excellent example of reliability and durability and is  based around SONY AND PHILIPS Semiconductors.

It's slightly rare and was fitted only in those screen formats.

The chassis runs almost in excellent way and this because the development is really well made toghether with quality of all components and parts.


SONY KV-2092ET  CHASSIS  SCC-743A-A  Synchronized switch-mode power supply:

In a switch mode power supply, a first switching transistor is coupled to a primary winding of an isolation transformer. A second switching transistor periodically applies a low impedance across a second winding of the transformer that is coupled to an oscillator for synchronizing the oscillator to the horizontal frequency. A third winding of the transformer is coupled via a switching diode to a capacitor of a control circuit for developing a DC control voltage in the capacitor that varies in accordance with a supply voltage B+. The control voltage is applied via the transformer to a pulse width modulator that is responsive to the oscillator output signal for producing a pulse-width modulated control signal. The control signal is applied to a mains coupled chopper transistor for generating and regulating the supply voltage B+ in accordance with the pulse width modulation of the control signal.

Description:

The invention relates to switch-mode power supplies.

Some television receivers have signal terminals for receiving, for example, external video input signals such as R, G and B input signals, that are to be developed relative to the common conductor of the receiver. Such signal terminals and the receiver common conductor may be coupled to corresponding signal terminals and common conductors of external devices, such as, for example, a VCR or a teletext decoder.

To simplify the coupling of signals between the external devices and the television receiver, the common conductors of the receiver and of the external devices are connected together so that all are at the same potential. The signal lines of each external device are coupled to the corresponding signal terminals of the receiver. In such an arrangement, the common conductor of each device, such as of the television receiver, may be held "floating", or conductively isolated, relative to the corresponding AC mains supply source that energizes the device. When the common conductor is held floating, a user touching a terminal that is at the potential of the common conductor will not suffer an electrical shock.

Therefore, it may be desirable to isolate the common conductor, or ground, of, for example, the television receiver from the potentials of the terminals of the AC mains supply source that provide power to the television receiver. Such isolation is typically achieved by a transformer. The isolated common conductor is sometimes referred to as a "cold" ground conductor.

In a typical switch mode power supply (SMPS) of a television receiver the AC mains supply voltage is coupled, for example, directly, and without using transformer coupling, to a bridge rectifier. An unregulated direct current (DC) input supply voltage is produced that is, for example, referenced to a common conductor, referred to as "hot" ground, and that is conductively isolated from the cold ground conductor. A pulse width modulator controls the duty cycle of a chopper transistor switch that applies the unregulated supply voltage across a primary winding of an isolating flyback transformer. A flyback voltage at a frequency that is determined by the modulator is developed at a secondary winding of the transformer and is rectified to produce a DC output supply voltage such as a voltage B+ that energizes a horizontal deflection circuit of the television receiver. The primary winding of the flyback transformer is, for example, conductively coupled to the hot ground conductor. The secondary winding of the flyback transformer and voltage B+ may be conductively isolated from the hot ground conductor by the hot-cold barrier formed by the transformer.

It may be desirable to synchronize the operation of the chopper transistor to horizontal scanning frequency for preventing the occurrence of an objectionable visual pattern in an image displayed in a display of the television receiver.

It may be further desirable to couple a horizontal synchronizing signal that is referenced to the cold ground to the pulse-width modulator that is referenced to the hot ground such that isolation is maintained.

A synchronized switch mode power supply, embodying an aspect of the invention, includes a transfromer having first and second windings. A first switching arrangement is coupled to the first winding for generating a first switching current in the first winding to periodically energize the second winding. A source of a synchronizing input signal at a frequency that is related to a deflection frequency is provided. A second switching arrangement responsive to the input signal and coupled to the second winding periodically applies a low impedance across the energized second winding that by transformer action produces a substantial increase in the first switching current. A periodic first control signal is generated. The increase in the first switching current is sensed to synchronize the first control signal to the input signal. An output supply voltage is generated from an input supply voltage in accordance with the first control signal.


    NEC uPC1394C :

The uPC1394C is a switching regurator IC especially designed for TV sets. It can be used for both type of TV sets, insulated
 type and no insulated type. .

It operates in synchronizing with the horizontal retrace pulse, so does not generates any visual noise in the picture on CRT.
The output transistor in a powersupply circuit is protected doubly by the internal protection circuit for over load.

ON/OFF operation of the powersupply is able to operated easily without any mechanical relay using provided terminal. So
timer operation, remote control and etc. are very easy.



FEATURES
 Wide range of regulating input line voltage.
AC 80 to 280 V
The output power transistor is doubly protected by thecurrent limitter and the shut down circuit.
No visual noise due to horizontal synchronous operation.
A terminal for remote control, timer operation and etc. of the powersupply is provided.
 Shut down circuit is easily resetable using ON/OFF terminal.
 Low standby and starting current. (2 mA)


0#1 (Error Voltage Input)
This terminal is an inversion input of error amplifier. A feedback voltage of output is applied to this.

o#2 (Duty Limit)

This terminal is for setting maximum value of output transistor’s on time. This value is decided by setting the ratio of the
resistance value between terminal 2 and Vcc to one between terminal 2 and 3.

This terminal can also be used for soft-start function on applying the primary voltage.

0#3 ION/OFF Output)
0#4 (ON/OFF Input) _
These terminals are used for ON/OFF control of output, so that it is conviniently used for remote control of the power

source of the set. .
When terminal 3 is low level, the output is on and when it is high, the output is off. It can be directly driven for low active

control signal, but for high active signal, it is convinient to use built-in ON/OFF circuit.

O#5 (Current Limit) .

This terminal is used for protecting the control transistor from instantaneous overload. As input to this terminal, a waveform
similar to emitter current of the output transistor, when operating the over current limiting function, terminal 7 is kept on a
high level but a pulse-is out again in the next period. '

o#6 (Shut Down)

This terminal is used for shutting down the output when the overcurrent limiting function is operated. The voltage of this
terminal is rising up gradually when operating the overcurrent limiting function and it rises up certain voltage (about 3 V),
shut down function is operated.

If output shut down operation is unnecessary, terminal 6 is grounded.

0#7 (Pulse Output)

This is a Pulse output terminal for controling the output transistor. The low level is on timing of the controller. Therefore,
when overcurrent limit and shut down circuit operate, output is pulled up to high level.

0#8 (Power Supply)

This is a power supply terminal, as a shunt regulator is built in, this terminal can be connected to the primary voltage through a
resistance, the recommended range of input current is 10 to 15 mA.

0#9 (Ground)

O#10 (Synchronization)
This terminal is used for synchronizing the operation to external signal. Horizontal fly-back pulse can usually be used for this.
When synchronization is not needed, terminal 10 is left open.

O#11 (Oscillation)

o#12 (Comparator Input)
Output of error amplifier is input to this terminal. The change of input voltage is converted to the change of pulse width and it

controls the output pulse width of terminal 7.
O#13 (Error Amplifier Output) ’ '

o#14 (Reference Voltage Input) _ '
This terminal is a non-inversion input of error amplifier. For reference voltage, it is suitable to divide a zener diode of about

6 V into two. It can be used to the voltage of terminal 8.

 
PHILIPS TDA2579B Horizontal/vertical synchronization circuit


GENERAL DESCRIPTION
The TDA2579B generates and synchronizes horizontal and vertical signals. The device has a 3 level sandcastle output;
a transmitter identification signal and also 50/60 Hz identification.
Features
· Horizontal phase detector, (sync to oscillator), sync separator and noise inverter
· Triple current source in the phase detector with automatic selection
· Second phase detector for storage compensation of the horizontal output
· Stabilized direct starting of the horizontal oscillator and output stage from mains supply
· Horizontal output pulse with constant duty cycle value of 29 ms
· Internal vertical sync separator, and two integration selection times
· Divider system with three different reset enable windows
· Synchronization is set to 628 divider ratio when no vertical sync pulses and no video transmitter is identified
· Vertical comparator with a low DC feedback signal
· 50/60 Hz identification output combined with mute function
· Automatic amplitude adjustment for 50 and 60 Hz and blanking pulse duration
· Automatic adaption of the burst-key pulsewidth



FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION
Vertical part (pins 1,2,3,4)
The IC embodies a synchronized divider system for generating the vertical sawtooth at pin 3. The divider system has an
internal frequency doubling circuit, so the horizontal oscillator is working at its normal line frequency and one line period
equals 2 clock pulses. Due to the divider system no vertical frequency adjustment is needed. The divider has a
discriminator window for automatically switching over from the 60 Hz to 50 Hz system. The divider system operates with
3 different divider reset windows for maximum interference/disturbance protection.
The windows are activated via an up/down counter. The counter increases its counter value by 1 for each time the
separated vertical sync pulse is within the searched window. The count is decreased by 1 when the vertical sync pulse
is not present.
Large (search) window: divider ratio between 488 and 722
This mode is valid for the following conditions:
1. Divider is looking for a new transmitter.
2. Divider ratio found, not within the narrow window limits.
3. Up/down counter value of the divider system operating in the narrow window mode decreases below count 1.
4. Externally setting. This can be reached by loading pin 18 with a resistor of 220 kW to earth or connecting a 3.6 V
diode stabistor between pin 18 and ground.
Narrow window: divider ratio between 522-528 (60 Hz) or 622-628 (50 Hz).
The divider system switches over to this mode when the up/down counter has reached its maximum value of 12 approved
vertical sync pulses. When the divider operates in this mode and a vertical sync pulse is missing within the window the
divider is reset at the end of the window and the counter value is decreased by 1. At a counter value below count 1 the
divider system switches over to the large window mode.
Standard TV-norm
When the up/down counter has reached its maximum value of 12 in the narrow window mode, the information applied to
the up/down counter is changed such that the standard divider ratio value is tested. When the counter has reached a
value of 14 the divider system is changed over to the standard divider ratio mode. In this mode the divider is always reset
at the standard value even if the vertical sync pulse is missing. A missed vertical sync pulse decreases the counter value
by 1. When the counter reaches the value of 10 the divider system is switched over to the large window mode.
The standard TV-norm condition gives maximum protection for video recorders playing tapes with anti-copy guards.
No-TV-transmitter found: (pin 18 < 1.2 V)
In this condition, only noise is present, the divider is rest to count 628. In this way a stable picture display at normal height
is achieved.
Video tape recorders in feature mode
It should be noted that some VTRs operating in the feature modes, such as picture search, generate such distorted
pictures that the no-TV-transmitter detection circuit can be activated as pin V18 drops below 1.2 V. This would imply a
rolling picture (see Phase detector, sub paragraph d). In general VTR-machines use a re-inserted vertical sync pulse in
the feature mode. Therefore the divider system has been made such that the automatic reset of the divider at count 628
when V18 is below 1.2 V is inhibited when a vertical sync pulse is detected.
The divider system also generates the anti-top-flutter pulse which inhibits the Phase 1 detector during the vertical sync.
pulse. The width of this pulse depends on the divider mode. For the divider mode a the start is generated at the reset of
the divider. In mode b and c the anti-top-flutter pulse starts at the beginning of the first equalizing pulse.

The anti-top-flutter pulse ends at count 8 for 50 Hz and count 10 for 60 Hz. The vertical blanking pulse is also generated
via the divider system. The start is at the reset of the divider while the pulse ends at count 34 (17 lines) for 60 Hz, and at
count 44 (22 lines) for 50 Hz systems. The vertical blanking pulse generated at the sandcastle output pin 17 is made by
adding the anti-top-flutter pulse and the blanking pulse. In this way the vertical blanking pulse starts at the beginning of
the first equalizing pulse when the divider operates in the b or c mode. For generating a vertical linear sawtooth voltage
a capacitor should be connected to pin 3. The recommended value is 150 nF to 330 nF (see Fig.1).
The capacitor is charged via an internal current source starting at the reset of the divider system. The voltage on the
capacitor is monitored by a comparator which is activated also at reset. When the capacitor has reached a voltage value
of 5.85 V for the 50 Hz system or 4.85 V for the 60 Hz system the voltage is kept constant until the charging period ends.
The charge period width is 26 clock pulses. At clock pulse 26 the comparator is switched off and the capacitor is
discharged by an npn transistor current source, the value of which can be set by an external resistor between pin 4 and
ground (pin 9). Pin 4 is connected to a pnp transistor current source which determines the current of the npn current
source at pin 3. The pnp current source on pin 4 is connected to an internal zener diode reference voltage which has a
typical voltage of » 7.5 volts. The recommended operating current range is 10 to 75 mA. The resistance at pin R4 should
be 100 to 770 kW. By using a double current mirror concept the vertical sawtooth pre-correction can be set on the desired
value by means of external components between pin 4 and pin 3, or by connecting the pin 4 resistor to the vertical current
measuring resistor of the vertical output stage. The vertical amplitude is set by the current of pin 4. The vertical feedback
voltage of the output stage has to be applied to pin 2. For the normal amplitude adjustment the values are DC = 1 V and
AC = 0.8 V. Due to the automatic system adaption both values are valid for 50 Hz and 60 Hz.
The low DC voltage value improves the picture bounce behaviour as less parabola compensation is necessary. Even a
fully DC coupled feedback circuit is possible.
Vertical guard
The IC also contains a vertical guard circuit. This circuit monitors the vertical feedback signal on pin 2. When the level
on pin 2 is below 0.35 V or higher than 1.85 V the guard circuit inserts a continuous level of 2.5 V in the sandcastle output
signal of pin 17. This results in the blanking of the picture displayed, thus preventing a burnt-in horizontal line. The guard
levels specified refer to the zener diode reference voltage source level.
Driver output
The driver output is at pin 1, it can deliver a drive current of 1.5 mA at 5 V output. The internal impedance is approximately
170 W. The output pin is also connected to an internal current source with a sink current of 0.25 mA.
Sync separator, phase detector and TV-station identification (pins 5,6,7,8 and 18)
The video input signal is connected to pin 5. The sync separator is designed such that the slicing level is independent of
the amplitude of the sync pulse. The black level is measured and stored in the capacitor at pin 7. The slicing level value
is stored in the capacitor at pin 6.

Black level detector
A gating signal is used for the black level detector. This signal is composed of an internal horizontal reference pulse with
a duty factor of 50% and the flyback pulse at pin 12. In this way the TV-transmitter identification operates also for all DC
conditions at input pin 5 (no video modulation, plain carrier only).
During the frame interval the slicing level detector is inhibited by a signal which starts with the anti-top flutter pulse and
ends with the reset vertical divider circuit. In this way shift of the slicing level due to the vertical sync signal is reduced
and separation of the vertical sync pulse is improved.
Noise level detector
An internal noise inverter is activated when the video level at pin 5 decreases below 0.7 V. The IC also embodies a
built-in sync pulse noise level detection circuit. This circuit is directly connected to pin 5 and measures the noise level at
the middle of the horizontal sync pulse. When a signal-to-noise level of 19 dB is detected a counter circuit is activated.
A video input signal is processed as “acceptable noise free” when 12 out of 15 sync pulses have a noise level below
19 dB for two successive frame periods. The sync pulses are processed during a 15 line width gating period generated
by the divider system. The measuring circuit has a built-in noise level hysteresis of approximately 3 dB. When the
“acceptable noise free” condition is found the phase detector of pin 8 is switched to not gated and normal time constant.
When a higher sync pulse noise level is found the phase detector is switched over to slow time constant and gated sync
pulse phase detection. At the same time the integration time of the vertical sync pulse separator is adapted.

Phase detector
The phase detector circuit is connected to pin 8. This circuit consists of 3 separate phase detectors which are activated
depending on the voltage of pin 18 and the state of the sync pulse noise detection circuit. For normal and fast time
constants all three phase detectors are activated during the vertical blanking period, this with the exception of the
anti-top-flutter pulse period, and the separated vertical sync-pulse time. As a result, phase jumps in the video signal
related to the video head, take over of video recorders are quickly restored within the vertical blanking period. At the end
of the blanking period the phase director time constant is increased by 1.5 times. In this way there is no requirement for
external VTR time constant switching, and so all station numbers are suitable for signals from VTR, video games or home
computers.
For quick locking of a new TV station starting from a noise only signal condition (normal time constant) a special circuit
is incorporated. A new TV station which is not locked to the horizontal oscillator will result in a voltage decrease below
0.1 V at pin 18. This will activate a frame period counter which switches the phase detector to fast for 3 frame periods
during the vertical scan period.
The horizontal oscillator will now lock to the new TV-station and as a result, the voltage on pin 18 will increase to
approximately 6.5 V. When pin 18 reaches a level of 1.8 V the mute output transistor of pin 13 is switched OFF and the
divider is set to the large window. In general the mute signal is switched OFF within 5 ms (pin C18 = 47 nF) after reception
of a new TV-signal. When the voltage on pin 18 reaches a level of 5 V, usually within 15 ms, the frame counter is switched
OFF and the time constant is switched from fast to normal during the vertical scan period.

If the new TV station is weak, the sync-noise detector is activated. This will result in a change over of pin 18 voltage from
6.5 V to »10 V. When pin 18 exceeds the level of 7.8 V the phase detector is switched to slow time constant and gated
sync pulse condition. The current is also reduced during the vertical blanking period by 1 mA. When desired, most
conditions of the phase detector can also be set by external means in the following way:
a. Fast time constant TV transmitter identification circuit not active, connect pin 18 to earth (pin 9).
b. Fast time constant TV transmitter identification circuit active, connect a resistor of 220 kW between pin 18 and ground.
This condition can also be set by using a 3.6 V stabistor diode instead of a resistor.
c. Slow time constant, (with exception of frame blanking period), connect pin 18 via a resistor of 10 kW to + 12 V, pin 10.
In this condition the transmitter identification circuit is not active.
d. No switching to slow time constant desired (transmitter identification circuit active), connect a 6.8 V zener diode
between pin 18 and ground.

Supply (pins 9, 10 and 16)
The IC has been designed such that the horizontal oscillator and output stage can start operating by application of a very
low supply current into pin 16.
The horizontal oscillator starts at a supply current of approximately 4 mA. The horizontal output stage is forced into the
non-conducting stage until the supply current has a typical value of 5 mA. The circuit has been designed so that after
starting the horizontal output function a current drop of » 1 mA is allowed. The starting circuit has the ability to derive the
main supply (pin 10) from the horizontal output stage. The horizontal output signal can also be used as the oscillator
signal for synchronized switched mode power supplies. The maximum allowed starting current is 9.7 mA (Tamb = 25 °C).
The main supply should be connected to pin 10, and pin 9 should be used as ground. When the voltage on pin 10
increases from zero to its final value (typically 12 V) a part of the supply current of the starting circuit is taken from pin 10
via internal diodes, and the voltage on pin 16 will stabilize to a typical value of 9.4 V.
In a stabilized condition (pin V10 > 10 V) the minimum required supply current to pin 16 is » 2.5 mA. All other IC functions
are switched on via the main supply voltage on pin 10. When the voltage on pin 10 reaches a value of » 7 V the horizontal
phase detector circuit is activated and the vertical ramp on pin 3 is started. The second phase detector circuit and burst
pulse circuit are started when the voltage on pin 10 reaches the stabilized voltage value of pin 16 which is typically 9.4 V.
To close the second phase detector loop, a flyback pulse must be applied to pin 12. When no flyback pulse is detected
the duty factor of the horizontal output stage is 50%.
For remote switch-off pin 16 can be connected to ground (via a npn transistor with a series resistor of » 500 W) which
switches off the horizontal output.
Horizontal oscillator, horizontal output transistor, and second phase detector (pins 11, 12, 14 and 15)
The horizontal oscillator is connected to pin 15. The frequency is set by an external RC combination between pin 15 and
ground, pin 9. The open collector horizontal output stage is connected to pin 11. An internal zener diode configuration
limits the open voltage of pin 11 to » 14.5 V.
The horizontal output transistor at pin 11 is blocked until the current into pin 16 reaches a value of » 5 mA.
A higher current results in a horizontal output signal at pin 11, which starts with a duty factor of » 40% HIGH.
The duty factor is set by an internal current-source-loaded npn emitter follower stage connected to pin 14 during starting.
When pin 16 changes over to voltage stabilization the npn emitter follower and current source load at pin 14 are switched
OFF and the second phase detector circuit is activated, provided a horizontal flyback pulse is present at pin 12.
When no flyback pulse is detected at pin 12 the duty factor of the horizontal output stage is set to 50%.
The phase detector circuit at pin 14 compensates for storage time in the horizontal deflection output stage. The horizontal
output pulse duration is 29 ms HIGH for storage times between 1 ms and 17 ms (flyback pulse of 12 ms). A higher storage
time increases the HIGH time. Horizontal picture shift is possible by forcing an external charge or discharge current into
the capacitor at pin 14.

Mute output and 50/60 Hz identification (pin 13)
The collector of an npn transistor is connected to pin 13. When the voltage on pin 18 drops below 1.2 V
(no TV-transmitter) the npn transistor is switched ON.
When the voltage on pin 18 increases to a level of » 1.8 V (new TV-transmitter found) the npn transistor is switched OFF.
Pin 13 has also the possibility for 50/60 Hz identification. This function is available when pin 13 is connected to pin 10
(+ 12 V) via an external pull-up resistor of 10 to 20 kW. When no TV-transmitter is identified the voltage on pin 13 will be
LOW (< 0.5 V). When a TV-transmitter with a divider ratio > 576 (50 Hz) is detected the output voltage of pin 13 is HIGH
(+ 12 V).
When a TV-transmitter with a divider ratio < 576 (60 Hz) is found an internal pnp transistor with its emitter connected to
pin 13 will force this pin output voltage down to » 7.6 V.
Sandcastle output (pin 17)
The sandcastle output pulse generated at pin 17, has three different voltage levels. The highest level, (10.4 V), can be
used for burst gating and black level clamping. The second level (4.5 V) is obtained from the horizontal flyback pulse at
pin 12, and is used for horizontal blanking. The third level (2.5 V) is used for vertical blanking and is derived via the
vertical divider system. For 50 Hz the blanking pulse duration is 44 clock pulses and for 60 Hz it is 34 clock pulses started
from the vertical divider reset. For TV-signals which have a divider ratio between 622 and 628 or between 522 and 528
the pulse is started at the first equalizing pulse. With the 50/60 Hz information the burst-key pulse width is switched to
improve the behaviour in multi-norm concepts.

 PHILIPS TDA4555 Multistandard decoder.


GENERAL DESCRIPTION
The TDA4555 and TDA4556 are monolithic integrated
multistandard colour decoders for the PAL, SECAM,
NTSC 3,58 MHz and NTSC 4,43 MHz standards. The
difference between the TDA4555 and TDA4556 is the
polarity of the colour difference output signals (B-Y)
and (R-Y).
Features
Chrominance part
· Gain controlled chrominance amplifier for PAL, SECAM
and NTSC
· ACC rectifier circuits (PAL/NTSC, SECAM)
· Burst blanking (PAL) in front of 64 ms glass delay line
· Chrominance output stage for driving the 64 ms glass
delay line (PAL, SECAM)
· Limiter stages for direct and delayed SECAM signal
· SECAM permutator
Demodulator part
· Flyback blanking incorporated in the two synchronous
demodulators (PAL, NTSC)
· PAL switch
· Internal PAL matrix
· Two quadrature demodulators with external reference
tuned circuits (SECAM)
· Internal filtering of residual carrier
· De-emphasis (SECAM)
· Insertion of reference voltages as achromatic value
(SECAM) in the (B-Y) and (R-Y) colour difference output
stages (blanking)
Identification part
· Automatic standard recognition by sequential inquiry
· Delay for colour-on and scanning-on
· Reliable SECAM identification by PAL priority circuit
· Forced switch-on of a standard
· Four switching voltages for chrominance filters, traps
and crystals
· Two identification circuits for PAL/SECAM (H/2) and
NTSC
· PAL/SECAM flip-flop
· SECAM identification mode switch (horizontal, vertical
or combined horizontal and vertical)
· Crystal oscillator with divider stages and PLL circuitry
(PAL, NTSC) for double colour subcarrier frequency
· HUE control (NTSC)
· Service switch.

PHILIPS TDA3505

Video control combination circuit
with automatic cut-off control


GENERAL DESCRIPTION
The TDA3505 and TDA3506 are monolithic integrated circuits which perform video control functions in a PAL/SECAM
decoder. The TDA3505 is for negative colour difference signals -(R-Y), -(B-Y) and the TDA3506 is for positive colour
difference signals +(R-Y), +(B-Y).
The required input signals are: luminance and colour difference (negative or positive) and a 3-level sandcastle pulse for
control purposes. Linear RGB signals can be inserted from an external source. RGB output signals are available for
driving the video output stages. The circuits provide automatic cut-off control of the picture tube.
Features
· Capacitive coupling of the colour difference and
luminance input signals with black level clamping in the
input stages
· Linear saturation control acting on the colour difference
signals
· (G-Y) and RGB matrix
· Linear transmission of inserted signals
· Equal black levels for inserted and matrixed signals
· 3 identical channels for the RGB signals
· Linear contrast and brightness controls, operating on
both the inserted and matrixed RGB signals
· Peak beam current limiting input
· Clamping, horizontal and vertical blanking of the three
input signals controlled by a 3-level sandcastle pulse
· 3 DC gain controls for the RGB output signals (white
point adjustment)
· Emitter-follower outputs for driving the RGB output
stages
· Input for automatic cut-off control with compensation for
leakage current of the picture tube


SONY KV-2092ET  CHASSIS  SCC-743A-A  SONY DST EHT FBT TRANSFORMER Bobbin structure for high voltage transformers EHT Output.A coil bobbin for a fly-back transformer or the like having a bobbin proper. A plurality of partition members or flanges are formed on the bobbin proper with a slot between adjacent ones. At least first and second coil units are formed in the bobbin proper, each having several slots, formed between the flanges, and first and second high voltage coils are wound on the first and second coil units in opposite directions, respectively. A rectifying means is connected in series to the first and second coil units, and a cut-off portion or recess is provided on each of the partition members. In this case, a wire lead of the coil units passes from one slot to an adjacent slot through the cut-off portion which is formed as a delta groove, and one side of the delta groove is corresponded to the tangent direction to the winding direction.

1. A fly-back transformer comprising a coil bobbin comprising a plurality of parallel spaced discs with a first adjacent plurality of said disc formed with delta shaped slots having first edges which extend tangentially to a first winding direction and a first winding wound on said first adjacent plurality of said discs in said first winding direction, a second adjacent plurality of said discs formed with delta shaped slots having first edges which extend tangentially to a second winding direction opposite said first winding direction and a second winding wound on said second adjacent plurality of said discs in said second winding direction, a third adjacent plurality of said discs formed with delta shaped slots having first edges which extend tangentially to said first winding direction and a third winding wound on said third adjacent plurality of said discs in said first winding direction and said second plurality of adjacent discs mounted between said first and third plurality of adjacent discs. 2. A fly-back transformer according to claim 1 wherein adjacent ones of said first adjacent plurality of discs are mounted such that their delta shaped slots are orientated 180 degrees relative to each other. 3. A fly-back transformer according to claim 2 including a first winding turning partition mounted between said first and second adjacent plurality of discs and formed with grooves and notches for changing winding direction between said first and second windings and a second winding turning partition mounted between said second and third adjacent plurality of discs and formed with grooves and notches for changing the winding direction between said second and third windings. 4. A fly-back transformer according to claim 3 wherein said first and second winding turning partitions are formed with winding guiding slots for guiding the winding between the first, second and third adjacent plurality of discs. 5. A fly-back transformer according to claim 2 including a first rectifying means connected between one end of said first winding and one end of said second winding, and a second rectifying means connected between the second end of said second winding and one end of said third winding. 6. A fly-back transformer according to claim 5 wherein the second end of said first winding is grounded and a third rectifying means connected between the second end of said third winding and an output terminal.
Description:
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
1. Field of the Invention
The present invention relates generally to a bobbin structure for high voltage transformers, and is directed more particularly to a bobbin structure for high voltage transformer suitable for automatically winding coils thereon.
2. Description of the Prior Art
In the art, when a wire lead is reversely wound on a bobbin separately at every winding block, a boss is provided at every winding block and the wire lead is wound on one block, then one end of the wire lead is tied to the boss where it will be cut off. The end of the wire lead is tied to another boss, and then the wire lead is wound in the opposite direction. Therefore, the prior art winding method requires complicated procedures and the winding of the wire lead cannot be rapidly done and also the winding can not be performed automatically. Further, the goods made by the prior art method are rather unsatisfactory and have a low yield.
OBJECTS AND SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
Accordingly an object of the invention is to provide a coil bobbin for a fly-back transformer or the like by which a wire lead can be automatically wound on winding blocks of the coil bobbin even though the winding direction is different among the different winding blocks.
Another object of the invention is to provide a coil bobbin for a fly-back transformer or the like in which a bridge member and an inverse engaging device for transferring a wire lead from one wiring block to an adjacent wiring block of the coil bobbin and wiring the wire lead in opposite wiring directions between adjacent wiring blocks, and a guide member for positively guiding the wire lead are provided.
According to an aspect of the present invention, a coil bobbin for a fly-back transformer or the like is provided which comprises a plurality of partition members forming a plurality of slots, a first coil unit having several slots on which a first high voltage coil is wound in one winding direction, a second coil unit having several slots on which a second high voltage coil is wound in the other direction, a rectifying means connected in series to the first and second coil units, and a cut-off portion provided on each of the partition members, a wire lead passing from one slot to an adjacent slot through the cut-off portions, each of the cut-off portions being formed as a delta groove, and one side of the delta groove corresponding to a tangent to the winding direction.
The other objects, features and advantages of the present invention will become apparent from the following description taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings through which the like reference numerals and letters designate the same elements and parts, respectively.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram showing the construction of a fly-back transformer;
FIG. 2 is a connection diagram showing an example of the electrical connection of the fly-back transformer shown in FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram showing an example of a device for automatically winding a wire lead of the fly-back transformer on its bobbin;
FIG. 4 is a perspective view showing an example of the coil bobbin according to the present invention;
FIG. 5 is a plan view of FIG. 4;
FIGS. 6 and 7 are views used for explaining recesses or cut-off portions shown in FIGS. 4 and 5; and FIGS. 8A and 8B cross-sectional views showing an example of the inverse engaging means according to the present invention.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT
When the high voltage winding of a fly-back transformer used in a high voltage generating circuit of a television receiver is divided into plural ones and then wound on a bobbin, the divided windings (divided coils) are connected in series through a plurality of rectifying diodes.
When the winding is divided into, for example, three portions, such as divided coils La, Lb and Lc, they are wound on a bobbin proper 1 from, for example, left to right sequentially in this order as shown in FIG. 1. In this case, if the divided coils La and Lc are selected to have the same sense of turn and the middle coil Lb is selected to have the opposite sense of turn from the coils La and Lc, the distance between the terminal end of coil La and the start of coil Lb and the distance between the terminal end of coil Lb and the start of coil Lc can be got relatively long. Therefore, diodes Da and Db can be mounted by utilizing the space above the block on which the middle coil Lb is wound as shown in FIG. 1, so that it becomes useless to provide spaces for diodes between the divided coils La and Lb and between the divided coils Lb and Lc and hence the bobbin proper 1 can be made compact.
FIG. 2 is a connection diagram showing the connection of the above fly-back transformer. In FIG. 2, reference numeral 2 designates a primary winding (Primary coil) of the fly-back transformer, reference letter L designates its high voltage winding (secondary coil), including divided coils La, Lb and Lc, 3 an output terminal, and 4 a lead wire connected to the anode terminal of a cathode ray tube (not shown), respectively.
An example of the bobbin structure according to the invention, which is suitable to automatically wind coils, which are different in sense of turn in each winding block as shown in FIG. 1, on the bobbin, will be hereinafter described with reference to the drawings.
FIG. 3 is a diagram showing an automatic winding apparatus of a wire lead on a coil bobbin. If it is assumed that the wire lead is wound in the order of winding blocks A, B and C in FIG. 1 and the wire lead is wound on the block A with the bobbin proper 1 being rotated in the counter-clockwise direction as shown in FIG. 3, the relation between the bobbin proper 1 and the wire lead becomes as shown in FIG. 3. In this figure, reference numeral 6 designates a bobbin for feeding the wire lead.
Turning to FIG. 4, an example 10 of the bobbin structure or coil bobbin according to the present invention will be described now. In this example, the winding blocks A, B and C for the divided coils La, Lb and Lc are respectively divided into plural slots or sections by plural partition members or flanges 11, and a cut-off portion or recess 12 is formed on each of the flanges 11 through which the wire lead in one section is transferred to the following winding section.
As shown in FIG. 6, each recess 12 is so formed that its one side extends in the direction substantially coincident with the tangent to the circle of the bobbin proper 1 and its direction is selected in response to the sense of turn of the winding or wire lead. In this case, the direction of recess 12 means the direction of the opening of recess 12, and the direction of recess 12 is selected opposite to the sense of turn of the winding in the present invention.
Now, recesses 12A, which are formed in the winding block A, will be now described by way of example. The positions of recesses 12A formed on an even flange 11Ae and an odd flange 11A 0 are different, for example, about 180° as shown in FIGS. 6A and 6B. Since the bobbin proper 1 is rotated in the counter-clockwise direction in the winding block A and hence the sense of turn of the wire lead is in the clockwise direction, the recess 12A is formed on the even flange 11Ae at the position shown in FIG. 6A. That is, the direction of recess 12A is inclined with respect to the rotating direction of bobbin proper 1 as shown in FIG. 6A. In this case, one side 13a of recess 12A is coincident with the tangent to the circle of bobbin proper 1, while the other side 13b of recess 12A is selected to have an oblique angle with respect to the side 13a so that the recess 12A has a predetermined opening angle.
The opening angle of recess 12A is important but the angle between the side 13a of recess 12A and the tangent to the circle of bobbin proper 1 is also important in the invention. When the wire lead is bridged or transferred from one section to the following section through the recess 12A, the wire lead in one section advances to the following section in contact with the side 13a of recess 12A since the bobbin proper 1 is rotated. In the invention, if the side 13a of recess 12A is selected to be extended in the direction coincident with the tangent to the circle of bobbin proper 1, the wire lead can smoothly advance from one section to the next section without being bent.
In the invention, since the middle divided coil Lb is wound opposite to the divided coil La, a recess 12B provided on each of flanges 11B of the winding block B is formed to have an opening opposite to that of recess 12A formed in the winding block A as shown in FIGS. 6C and 6D.
As shown in FIG. 5, terminal attaching recesses 14 are provided between the winding blocks A and B to which diodes are attached respectively. In the illustrated example of FIG. 5, a flange 15AB is formed between the flanges 11A 0 and 11B 0 of winding blocks A and B, and the recesses 14 are formed between the flanges 11A 0 and 15AB and between 15AB and 11B 0 at predetermined positions. Then, terminal plates 16, shown in FIG. 4, are inserted into the recesses 14 and then fixed there to, respectively. The terminal plates 16 are not shown in FIG. 5. Between the winding blocks B and C and between the blocks A and B, similar terminal attaching recesses 14 are formed, and terminal plates 16 are also inserted thereinto and then fixed thereto.
As described above, since the divided coil Lb is wound opposite to the divided coils La and Lc, it is necessary that the winding direction of the wire lead be changed when the wire lead goes from the block A to block B and also from the block B to block C, respectively.
Turning to FIG. 7, an example of the winding or wire lead guide means according to the present invention will be now described. In FIG. 7, there are mainly shown a bridge member for the wire lead and an inverse member or means for the wire lead which are provided between the winding blocks A and B. At first, a bridge means 20 and its guide means 21, which form the bridge member, will be described. The bridge means 20 is provided by forming a cut-out portion or recess in the middle flange 15AB located between the winding blocks A and B. In close relation to the bridge means or recess 20, the guide means 21 is provided on a bridge section X A at the side of block A. This guide means 21 is formed as a guide piece which connects an edge portion 20a of recess 20 at the winding direction side to the flange 11A 0 of block A in the oblique direction along the winding direction through the section X A .
Next, an inverse engaging means 22 will be now described with reference to FIGS. 7 and 8. If the flange 11B 0 of FIG. 7 is viewed from the right side, the inverse engaging means 22 can be shown in FIG. 8A. In this case, the tip end of one side 13a of recess 12B 1 is formed as a projection which is extended outwards somewhat beyond the outer diameter of flange 11B 0 . The inverse engaging means 22 may take any configuration but it is necessary that when the rotating direction of the bobbin proper 1 is changed to the clockwise direction, the wire lead can be engaged with the recess 12B 1 or projection of one side 13a and then suitably transferred to the next station.
Another guide means 23 is provided on a bridge section X B at the side of winding block B in close relation to the inverse engaging means 22. The guide means 23 is formed as a guide surface which is a projected surface from the bottom surface of section X B and extended obliquely in the winding direction. This guide means or guide surface 23 is inclinded low into the means 22 and has an edge 23a which is continuously formed between the middle flange 15AB and the flange 11B 0 .
In this case, it is possible that the guide means 21 and guide surface 23 are formed to be the same in construction. That is, both the guide means 21 and 23 can be made of either the guide piece, which crosses the winding section or guide surface projected upwards from the bottom surface of the winding section. It is sufficient if the guide means 21 and 23 are formed to smoothly transfer the wire lead from one section to the next section under the bobbin proper 1 being rotated.
Although not shown, in connection with the middle flange 15BC between the winding blocks B and C, there are provided similar bridge means 20, guide means 21, inverse engaging means 22 and another guide means 23, respectively. In this case, since the winding direction of the wire lead is reversed, the forming directions of the means are reverse but their construction is substantially the same as that of the former means. Therefore, their detailed description will be omitted.
According to the bobbin structure of the invention with the construction set forth above, the wire lead, which is transferred from the block A to the section X A by the rotation of bobbin proper 1, is wound on the section X B from the section X A after being guided by the guide piece 21 to the recess 20 provided on the middle flange 15AB, and then transferred to the recess 22 provided on the flange 11B 0 guide surface 23, bridged once to the first section of winding block B through the recess 22 (refer to dotted lines b in FIG. 7). Then, if the rotating direction of the bobbin proper 1 is reversed, the wire lead is engaged with the bottom of recess 22 (refer to solid lines b in FIG. 7). Thus, if the above reverse rotation of bobbin proper 1 is maintained, the wire lead is wound on the block B in the direction reverse to that of block A. When the wire lead is transferred from the block B to block C, the same effect as that above is achieved. Therefore, according to the present invention, the wire lead can be automatically and continuously wound on the bobbin proper 1.
After the single wire lead is continuously wound on blocks A, B and C of bobbin proper 1 as set forth above, the wire lead is cut at the substantially center of each of its bridging portions. Then, the cut ends of the wire lead are connected through diodes Da, Db and Dc at the terminal plates 16, respectively by solder.
In the present invention, the projection piece, which has the diameter greater than that of the flange 11B, is provided in the bridge recess 12 to form the inverse engaging means 22 as described above, so that when the winding direction is changed, the wire lead engages with the inverse engaging means 22 without errors when reversing the winding direction of the wire lead.
If the diameter of the projection piece of means 22 is selected, for example, to be the same as that of the flange 11B, it will not be certain that the wire lead engages with the means 22 because it depends upon the extra length of the wire lead and hence errors in winding cannot be positively avoided.
Further, in this invention, the bridge means is provided on the flange positioned at the bridging portion of the bobbin which has a number of dividing blocks separated by flanges, and the inverse engaging means is provided and also the guide means is provided at the former winding section to cooperate with the inverse engaging means. Therefore, the wire lead can be positively fed to the bridge means, and the transfer of the wire lead to the following winding section can be carried out smoothly.
Further, in this invention since one side of the recess 12 is selected coincident with the tangent of the outer circle of the bobbin proper 1 and also with the winding direction, the wire lead can be smoothly bridged to the following section. Due to the fact that the direction of recess 12 is changed in response to the winding direction, even if there is a block on which the wire lead is wound in the opposite direction to that of the other block, the wire lead can be continuously and automatically wound through the respective blocks.
The above description is given for the case where the present invention is applied to the coil bobbin for the high voltage winding of a fly-back transformer, but it will be clear that the present invention can be applied to other coil bobbins which require divided windings thereon with the same effects.
It will be apparent that many modifications and variations could be effected by one skilled in the art without departing from the spirits or scope of the novel concepts of the present invention, so that the spirits or scope of the invention should be determined by the appended claims only.


SONY Automatic pre-programming system for TV receiver/ Automatically presetting channel Program selecting system :

"
A channel selecting system for use in a receiver having a voltage controlled tuning element which has an automatic channel presetting function which utilizes a pulse generator and a binary counter connected to the generator to count the pulses and to generate a binary coded output in accordance with the sum of the pulses. A digital-to-analog converter changes the binary coded output into a linearly increasing tuning sweep voltage which in turn conditions the voltage controlled tuning element to scan the frequency range of the tuner as the tuning voltage increases. As the frequencies are scanned, a detector, connected to the tuning element, senses the presence of a broadcast channel. When a channel is detected, the scan is interrupted and a binary memory is utilized to store the binary coded output which corresponds to the frequency of the detected broadcast channel. A control gate signal generator driven by the detector controls the pulse generator and memory such that the scan is continued until the entire frequency range has been scanned. Channel selection is accomplished by switch means actuatable to address the memory to read out a selected binary code output corresponding to the channel desired which causes the converter to generate a voltage to condition the tuning element to tune to the desired frequency. The voltage control tuning element may comprise several different elements, one for each of a plurality of different frequency ranges. Means are provided for selecting an appropriate tuner such that channels from any of the frequency ranges may be selected. "

An automatic tuning scheme for use in TV receivers includes a start/stop circuit which creates a search start signal and a search stop signal upon the receipt of a search start instruction and a detected incoming signal, respectively, a tuning voltage generator which generates a gradually varying tuning voltage under control of the search start signal and search stop signal, and a memory circuit for storing the tuning voltage from the generator when desired. The tuning voltage stored in the memory circuit is supplied to a tuner including a well known voltage-sensitive capacitance diode.

1. An automatic tuning scheme for use in TV receivers including an AFT detector comprising:
start/stop circuit means for creating a search start signal and a search stop signal upon the receipt of a search start instruction and the presence of a detected incoming signal, respectively, the presence of a detected incoming signal being determined at least in part in response to an output of said AFT detector;
tuning voltage generator means for generating a gradually varying tuning voltage under control of the search start signal and search stop signal;
memory circuit means for storing the tuning voltage from said tuning voltage generator means;
signal decision circuit means for determining whether the detected incoming signal is a true television signal including a television synchronizing signal by detecting the presence of the television synchronizing signal and the search stop signal, said signal decision circuit means providing a memory store instruction for the memory circuit means in the presence of the true television signal and providing a search re-start instruction for the start/stop circuit means in the absence of the true television signal, the tuning voltage stored in the memory circuit means being supplied to a tuner including a voltage-sensitive capacitance diode.
2. The automatic tuning scheme according to claim 1 further comprising a memory skip circuit for inhibiting the supply of the memory store instruction to the memory circuit and skipping an undesired broadcasting station. 3. An automatic tuning scheme for use in TV receivers including an AFT detector comprising:
start/stop circuit means for creating a search start signal and a search stop signal upon the receipt of a search start instruction and a detected incoming signal, respectively;
tuning voltage generator means for generating a gradually varying tuning voltage under control of the search start signal and search stop signal;
memory circuit means for storing the tuning voltage from the tuning voltage generator means
means for detecting the presence of synchronizing signals within the detected incoming signal;
noise skip circuit means which determines whether the detected synchronizing signal is a true synchronizing signal or noise and provides a search re-start instruction for the start/stop circuit means in the presence of noise; and
signal decision circuit means for determining whether there is a true television signal by counting the number of the true synchronizing signals derived from the noise skip circuit means and counting a predetermined number of the true synchronizing signals in a predetermined period of time, and then providing a memory store instruction for the memory circuit means in the presence of the true television signal and a search re-start instruction to the start/stop circuit means in the absence thereof, the tuning voltage stored in the memory circuit means being supplied to a tuner.
4. In an automatic tuning scheme for use in TV receivers including an AFT detector, which produces search start and stop signals upon receipt of a search start instruction and a detected incoming signal, a combination comprising:
means for detecting the presence of synchronizing signals within the detected incoming signal;
noise skip circuit means for determining whether the synchronizing signal is a true synchronizing signal or noise and provides a search restart instruction to said tuning scheme in the presence of noise; and
means for adjusting a skip level in the noise skip circuit means in accordance with the intensity of the detected incoming signal.
5. An automatic tuning scheme for use in TV receivers including an AFT detector comprising:
start/stop circuit means which creates a search start signal and a search stop signal upon the receipt of a search start instruction and a detected incoming signal, respectively;
tuning voltage generator means for generating a gradually varying tuning voltage under control of the search start signal and search stop signal;
memory circuit means for storing the tuning voltage from the generator, the tuning voltage stored in the memory circuit means being supplied to a tuner;
speed changer means for reducing the rate of variation in the tuning voltage derived from the tuning voltage generator means to enable a low speed searching operation slower than that of the normal searching operations when detecting an AFT detector output;
means for detecting the presence of synchronizing signals within the detected incoming signal; and
means for determining whether the synchronizing signal is a true synchronizing signal or noise and providing a search re-start instruction to said tuning scheme in the presence of noise.
6. An automatic tuning scheme for use in TV receivers including an AFT detector comprising:
start/stop circuit means for creating a search start signal and a search stop signal upon the receipt of a search start instruction and a detected incoming signal, respectively;
tuning voltage generator means for generating a gradually varying tuning voltage under control of the search start signal and search stop signal;
memory circuit means for storing the tuning voltage from the tuning voltage generator means, the tuning voltage stored in the memory circuit means being supplied to a tuner; and
speed changer means for reducing the rate of variation in the tuning voltage derived from the tuning voltage generator means to enable a low speed searching operation slower than that of the normal searching operation when detecting an AFT detector output, the direction of variation of the tuning voltage being reversed in accordance with the polarity of the AFT detector output.
7. An automatic tuning scheme for use in TV receivers including an AFT detector comprising:
start/stop circuit means for creating a search start signal and a search stop signal upon the receipt of a search start instruction and a detected incoming signal, respectively;
tuning voltage generator means for generating a gradually varying tuning voltage under control of the search start signal and search stop signal;
memory circuit means for storing the tuning voltage from the tuning voltage generator means, the tuning voltage stored in the memory circuit means being supplied to a tuner;
out-of-tuning detector means for supplying a search re-start signal to the start/stop circuit means when detecting the out-of-tuning condition;
means for detecting the presence of synchronizing signals within the detected incoming signal; and
means for determining whether the synchronizing signal is a true synchronizing signal or noise and providing a search re-start instruction to said tuning scheme in response thereto.
8. The automatic tuning scheme according to claim 7 wherein the out-of-tuning condition is sensed by comparing the AFT detector output to a given reference voltage. 9. An automatic tuning scheme for use in TV receivers including an AFT detector comprising:
start/stop circuit means for creating a search start signal and a search stop signal upon the receipt of a search start instruction and a detected incoming signal, respectively;
tuning voltage generator means for generating a gradually varying tuning voltage under control of the search start signal and search stop signal;
means for detecting the presence of synchronizing signals within the detected incoming signal; and
means for determining whether the detected synchronizing signal is a true synchronizing signal or noise and providing a search re-start instructions to said tuning scheme in the presence of noise.
10. The automatic tuning scheme according to claim 9 further comprising alarm means enabled by the tuning instruction for notifying the operator of the automatic tuning operation. 11. The automatic tuning scheme according to claim 10 wherein said alarm means release alarm signals in the form of sound. 12. The automatic tuning scheme according to claims 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, or 9 wherein the reception of a true television signal is determined by the use of said true synchronizing signal and an AFT output.
Description:
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to an automatic pre-programming tuning circuit which performs tuning operation automatically.
It is customary to perform the tuning operations in TV receivers while a viewer manually rotates a tuning knob. However, the tuning operation is bothersome particularly in case of the continuously varying tuning operation such as in UHF reception. Though tuning operation is considerably simpler in case of TV receivers of the recently developed touch control type or remote control type, it is difficult for a non-skilled person the to preset tuning operation, namely, to adjust the tuning frequencies for respective broadcasting stations before starting to watch a TV receiver.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide an automatic tuning scheme which enables automatic preselectable tuning operation by sequentially memorizing tuning voltages of respective automatically selected broadcasting channels.
In its broadest aspect, an automatic tuning device of the present invention comprises a tuning voltage generator which generates a tuning voltage gradually variable during tuning operation, a memory circuit which receives the tuning voltage derived from the generator upon receipt of normal reception signals and memorizes a plurality of discrete tuning voltages each associated with a respective one of normal reception signal corresponding to a serviceable broadcasting station and means for picking up selectively one of the discrete tuning voltages from the memory circuit and supplying it to a tuner.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
Other objects and attendant advantages of the present invention will be easily appreciated as the same becomes better understood by reference to the following detailed description when considered in conjunction with the accompanying drawings in which like reference numerals designate like part throughout the figures thereof, and wherein:
FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of the automatic tuning apparatus embodying the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a more detailed circuit diagram of the automatic tuning apparatus shown in FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of another embodiment of the present invention;
FIGS. 4 and 5 are a circuit diagram and a waveform diagram showing a noise skip circuit included in FIG. 3 embodiment;
FIG. 6 is an improvement in the noise skip circuit shown in FIGS. 4 and 5;
FIGS. 7 and 8 are embodiments effective to modify the searching speed in the automatic tuning apparatus;
FIGS. 9 through 11 are refresh means effective in the automatic tuning apparatus of the present invention;
FIG. 12 shows another embodiment including a memory skip circuit effective in the automatic tuning apparatus;
FIGS. 13 and 14 show alarm means effective in the automatic tuning apparatus.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
A basic circuit of a TV receiver having an automatic tuning scheme implemented with the present invention is shown in FIG. 1, which includes an antenna 1, a tuner 2, an intermediate frequency (IF) circuit 3, an automatic fine tuning (AFT) circuit 4, a video circuit 5, a synchronizing separator 6, a deflection circuit 7, a picture tube 8. According to the present invention, a start/stop circuit 9, a tuning voltage generator 10, a memory circuit 11 and a signal decision circuit 12 are further provided to form the automatic tuning scheme of the present invention.
It will be noted that the tuner 2 can be implemented with a well known electronic tuning circuit which includes a voltage-sensitive capacitance diode as disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,233,179 entitled "AUTOMATIC FINE TUNNING CIRCUIT USING CAPACITANCE DIODES" issued on Feb. 1, 1966.
If the start/stop circuit 9 is given a search start command or au automatic tuning instruction prior to effecting of the preset tuning operation, then the start/stop circuit 9 will develop a search start pulse which is turn is supplied to the tuning voltage generator 10. Under the circumstance the tuning voltage generator 10 develops a sweep voltage or staircase voltage which is gradually rising or dropping during the automatic tuning operation. The sweep or staircase voltage is supplied as the tuning voltage to the tuning capacitance diode in the tuner 2 by way of the memory circuit 11. This implies that the reception frequency in the tuner 2 is gradually varied.
In this way, when the television signal of a specific broadcasting channel is received, the television video signal is derived from the IF circuit 3 and the synchronizing signal from the synchronizing separator 6. These signals are applied to the start/stop circuit 9. Meantime, the AFT detector output is derived from the AFT circuit 4 and supplied to the start/stop circuit 9.
More particularly, when the television signal is accurately received, the AFT detector output voltage will change in polarity so that the start/stop circuit 9 is permitted to develop a search stop pulse and the vertical synchronizing signal. In the given example the vertical synchronizing signal may serve as the search stop pulse. The search stop pulse is supplied to the tuning voltage generator 10, barring the generator 10 from developing the sweep or staircase voltage. The voltage at this moment remains unchanged since then and keeps being supplied as the tuning voltage to the tuner 2 via the memory circuit.
The vertical synchronizing signal derived from the start/stop circuit 9 is supplied to the signal decision circuit 12 to determine as to whether the signal being received is a normal or true television signal. If the affirmative answer is given, then the signal decision circuit 12 will issue a memory instruction which in turn is supplied to the memory circuit 11 so that the instantaneous tuning voltage derived from the generator 10 is stored within the memory circuit 11.
Contrarily, if a false synchronizing signal is derived from the start/stop circuit 9, then the signal decision circuit 12 reacts to it so that the circuit 12 issues a search re-start pulse. This is supplied to the start/stop circuit 9 to repeat the same procedure as when executing the first search start pulse. The procedure is repeated in this manner until the start/stop circuit 9 recognizes a true television vertical synchronizing signal or accurate reception is available by the tuner 2.
In other words, the memory instruction is not issued from the signal decision circuit 12 until the optimum reception state is guaranteed. Upon issuance of the memory instruction the instantaneous tuning voltage is stored in the memory circuit 11 and subsequently supplied to the tuner 2.
Once the preset tuning operation (i,e, the presetting of the optimum reception frequency) has been completed for the specific broadcasting channel, the tuning voltage stored in the memory circuit 11 will be automatically supplied to the tuner in response to release of a tuning instruction from an operational panel of the known touch control type or remote control type. The searching procedure is not required at this time.
It is obvious that the memory circuit 11 shown in FIG. 1 includes a predetermined number of memory elements the number of which corresponds to the number of serviceable broadcasting stations. The same searching or presetting procedure is repeated when it is desired to search and memorize a predetermined number of discrete tuning voltages prior to use of a TV receiver.
As noted earlier, when the search start instruction is given and the search start signal is released from the start/stop circuit 9, the tuning voltage generator 10 starts generating the sweep voltage (or the staircase voltage), which is supplied to the tuner 2 via the memory circuit 11 while showing a gradual variation. Alternatively, the gradually varying voltage may be supplied to the tuner 2 directly. If the search stop signal is derived from the start/stop circuit 9 upon receipt of the television signal, the sweep voltage generating function of the tuning voltage generator will come to a halt. The instantaneous tuning voltage supplied to the tuner 2 is held unchanged for a while.
At this time the signal decision circuit 12 decides whether the received signal is true or false. After confirming the presence of the true television signal, the memory instruction is issued for the memory circuit 11 so that the tuning voltage available from the tuning voltage generator 10 is held within the memory circuit 10 to complete the presetting of the optimum reception frequency for the specific television station.
On the contrary, when the signal decision circuit 12 does not sense the presence of the true television signal, the search re-start signal is issued for the start/stop circuit 9 to start the above mentioned operation again. Each time the memorizing operation or the tuning frequency presetting operation is completed in the memory circuit 11 for a specific one of broadcasting stations, the search start instruction is issued again for the start/stop circuit 9. Eventually, a plurality of discrete tuning voltages are stored in sequence in the memory circuit 9, completing the over-all loading operation of the discrete tuning voltages.
FIG. 2 shows a detailed way of implementation of the present invention briefly described with respect to FIG. 1. When a search switch SW1 is turned on, a latch FF1 is placed to the set state with the Q output at a high level "H" and the Q output at a low level "L". A gate G3 is enabled such that clock pulses from a clock pulse generator 13 are sequentially supplied to a counter 14 to increment it at a high speed. The output of the counter 14 is supplied to a digital-to-analog converter 15 which converts the output of the counter 14 into a DC voltage correspondingly. This DC voltage is supplied as the tuning voltage to the tuner 2. Therefore, the gradually rising sweep voltage is transferred from the digital-to-analog converter 15 to the tuner 2 so that the reception frequency in the tuner 2 is gradually varied in the ascending order.
When the television signal of a specific broadcasting station is received, the television video signal is derived from the IF circuit 3 and the horizontal and vertical synchronizing signals are derived from the synchronizing separator 6. In the case where the detector output voltage from the AFT circuit 4 is positive, a gate G2 is enabled to place the latch FF1 into the reset state. At the moment the Q and Q outputs of the latch FF1 are respectively inverted into "L" and "H" levels. A gate G3 is disabled to stop supply of the clock pulses to the counter 14 so that the digital-to-analog converter 15 supplies the tuner 2 with the output voltage of a fixed value. In other words, the searching operation comes to a halt.
When the true television signal is being received, the horizontal synchronizing pulse derived from the synchronizing separator 6 is in phase with the flyback pulse derived from the deflection circuit 7. A transistor Tr1 is turned on in reponse to the horizontal synchronizing pulse with an increase in the emitter potential thereof. Gates G4 and G5 are enabled so that the vertical synchronizing pulse is supplied as the memory instruction to the memory circuit 11 via these gates G4 and G5. At this moment the output of the counter 14 is loaded into the first address of the memory circuit 11 in a digital fashion.
However, if the signal being received is not the true television signal, then the horizontal synchronizing pulse will neither be synchronous with the flyback pulse nor will the transistor Tr1 be turned on. Even though the vertical synchronizing pulse from the synchronizing separator 6 or the false synchronizing pulse forces the latch FF1 into the reset state, the gate G5 is never enabled but the gate G6 is enabled. The pulse transferred via the gate G6 is supplied as the search re-start pulse to the latch FF1 which then resorts to the reset state again to restart the searching procedure.
After the searching/memory operation has been completed for a specific one of broadcasting stations, the memory circuit 11 releases the search start pulse again, which is then supplied to the latch FF1 via the gate G1 to set the latch FF1.
The same operation is thus repeated. A different tuning voltage of the next suceeding station is digitally stored at the second address of the memory circuit 11. In this way, a predetermined number of discrete tuning voltages are digitally stored in sequence until the end of the presetting operation.
Once the presetting operation has been accomplished, all that is necessary for the operator to do is to select a desired one of channel selection switches 161 through 16n. Then, digital information indicative of the tuning voltage previously stored at its associated address of the memory circuit 11 is called forth in accordance with its associated selection codes within an address specifying circuit 17. The digital information is applied via the counter 14 to the digital-to-analog converter 15 which decodes it into the analog tuning voltage. The tuning voltage is supplied to the tuning capacitance diode included within the tuner 2.
FIG. 3 shows another example of the tuning scheme further comprising a noise skip circuit. As described above, when the true television signal is received, the output from the AFT detector will change in polarity and upon such change the television synchronizing signal will be derived from the start/stop circuit 9. This synchronizing signal is supplied to a noise skip circuit 18 to decide whether or not this is the true television vertical synchronizing signal. Particularly when the true vertical synchronizing signal is confirmed, this is applied to the signal decision circuit 12 and simultaneously applied as the search stop pulse to the tuning voltage generator 10. Contrarily, when concluded as noise and not the synchronizing signal, this will be supplied as the re-start pulse to the start/stop circuit 9. This permits the recurring of the same operation as when the search start instruction is issued for the first time. In the given example, the vertical synchronizing signal obtained from the noise skip circuit 18 is utilized as the search stop pulse.
In this way the search stop pulse is developed from noise skip circuit 18 and sent to the tuning voltage generator 10, stopping the generator 10 from generating the sweep voltage. The instantaneous voltage is thereafter kept and sent to the tuner 2 via the memory circuit 11. Under these circumstances the signal decision circuit 12 determines again whether the vertical synchronizing signal developed from the start/stop circuit 9 is the true television synchronizing signal.
By way of example, the signal decision circuit 12 may be adapted to count the number of the synchronizing signals and determine whether a predetermined number of the synchronizing signals are present during a given period of time. If the true synchronizing signal is sensed, then the signal decision circuit 12 will release the memory instruction, permitting the memory circuit 11 to store the tuning voltage supplied from the generator 10.
Nevertheless, even if the noise skip circuit 18 delivers the false synchronizing signal inadvertently, the signal decision circuit 12 never overlooks it so that the circuit 12 issues the search re-start pulse. The start/stop circuit 9 receives such pulse to repeat the above mentioned operation. In other words, the operation is repeated to assure the optimum reception condition until the true television synchronizing signal is available from the start/stop circuit 9 and the noise skip circuit 18. The memory instruction will be issued immediately after the optimum reception condition is reached.
Details of the noise skip circuit 18 are shown in FIG. 4. This is split into three major portions: an integration circuit portion 21 consisting of resistors R1 and R2 and capacitors C1 and C2 ; a noise detection circuit portion 22 consisting of transistors Q1, Q2 and Q3, a diode D1 and so on; and a synchronizing signal amplifier portion 23 consisting of a transistor Q4 and so on. Assume now that the true television synchronizing signal (with negative polarity) as viewed from FIG. 5 a is derived from the start/stop circuit 9. This signal is integrated with the integration circuit portion 21 as shown in FIG. 5 b . The base bias voltage of the first stage transistor Q1 in the noise detector portion 22 is fixed, say at approximately 0.3 volts, by the resistors R3, R4 and R5 and the diode D1. Thus, this signal at the positive polarity side is extremely shallow and the transistor Q1 is placed into the cut off state as long as the genuine vertical synchronizing signal is derived. The remaining transistors Q2 and Q3 are also placed into the cut off state. Therefore, the noise detector portion 22 does not deliver the output signal or the search stop pulse. The vertical synchronizing pulse as shown in FIG. 5 c is applied to the base of the transistor Q4 via the capacitor C3 for amplification. The vertical synchronizing signal with the positive polarity as shown in FIG. 5 d is developed at the collector of the transistor Q4 and supplied to the signal decision circuit 12 and as the search stop pulse to the tuning voltage generator 10.
On the other hand, if the noise signal, for example, as shown in FIG. 5 e is derived from the start/stop circuit 9, then this will be integrated with the integration circuit portion 21. The result is shown in FIG. 5 f , which has both positive and negative polarity components. Since the positive polarity component is well above the conduction level (say, 0.6 volts) of the transistor Q1, the transistor Q1 is turned on whenever an the transistors Q2 and Q3 are also turned on. The signal appearing at the emitter of the transistors Q3 is shown in FIG. 5 h and returned as the search re-start pulse to the start/stop circuit 9.
By the action of the noise skip circuit 18. Whether the signal derived from the start/stop circuit 9 is the true synchronizing signal or noise is determined by the positive voltage level of that signal. Then, the synchronizing signal is supplied to the signal decision circuit 12 and the tuning voltage generator 10, while the noise is supplied as the search re-start pulse to the start/stop circuit. As shown in FIG. 6, a skip level adjusting variable resistor VR1 installed in the noise detector portion 22 makes the above mentioned positive voltage level freely variable. It also becomes possible to supply the noise as the search re-start pulse to the start/stop circuit 9 when the normal television synchronizing signal is received but relatively strong noise is superimposed thereon.
Within the tuning scheme having the noise skip circuit, there is no opportunity inadvertently the tuning voltage generator 10 with the search stop instruction due to noise. In addition, only broadcasting stations with comparatively strong television signals can be preset in sequence while skipping ones with comparatively weak television signals. Although in the illustrated example the noise skip level is manually variable through the use of the variable resistor VR1, it is noted that the skip level can be varied in response to the intensity of the television signals being received by applying an AGC voltage thereto.
Details of modifications in the start/stop circuit 9 and the tuning voltage generator 10 are shown in FIG. 7 wherein the search speed is variable.
Provided that the search start instruction or the search restart pulse is supplied via an OR gate 34 to a reset input terminal of an R-S type latch 33, the latch 33 will be in the reset state so that the Q output thereof assumes a "H" level to enable an AND gate 35. Another latch 39 of the R-S type 39 is also placed into the reset state in response to the search start instruction or the search re-start pulse. The Q ouput of the latch 39 assumes a "L" level and the Q output assumes a "H" level, enabling an AND gate 40. At this time clock pulses of, for example, 320 Hz are generated via an AND gate 40, an OR gate 47 and an AND gate 35 from a high speed clock pulse generator 36 and supplied to a counter 42 in the tuning voltage generator 10. The count of the counter 42 varies sequentially at a relatively high rate and is converted through a digital-to-analog converter 43. As a consequence, the converter 43 develops a gradually rising or dropping DC voltage, which is supplied to the tuner 2 via the memory circuit 11. A rate of variations in the tuning voltage derived from the generator 43 is relatively high and the searching procedure is carried out at a high speed.
While a specific television signal is received, the detector output is derived from the AFT circuit 4 and the vertical synchronizing signal is derived from the synchronizing separator 6. When an AFT negative output detector 44 senses the AFT detector output of the negative polarity, the output of the detector 44 increases to a "H" level. The AND gate 45 is enabled so that the vertical synchronizing signal is supplied to a set input terminal of the R-S type latch 39. The latch 39 is placed into the set state with the Q output thereof having a "H" level and the Q output thereof having a "L" level. The AND gate 40 is disabled concurrently with the enabling of the AND gate 46. Under these circumstances clock pulses of, for example, 160 Hz from a low speed clock pulse generator 47 are supplied to the counter 42 via the AND gate 46, the OR gate 41 and the AND gate 35. The counter 42 performs the counting operation at a low speed. A rate of variations in the tuning voltage or the DC voltage obtainable from the digital-to-analog converter 43 is reduced to one-half its initial rate and the searching procedure is carried out at a low speed.
If the polarity of the AFT detector output changes from negative to positive during the low speed searching operation, then the output of an AFT positive output detector will increase to a "H" level. The AND gate 38 is enabled and the vertical synchronizing signal is supplied via the AND gates 38 and 48 to the set input terminal of the R-S type latch 33 (the AND gate 48 is now enabled because of the Q output of the latch 39 at a "H" level). The latch 33 is therefore set. As a result, the Q output of the latch 33 changes to a "L" level to disable the AND gate 35. The counter 42 is supplied with the clock pulses no longer. Afterward, the count of the counter 42 remains unchanged and the tuning voltage derived from the digital-to-analog converter 43 is held at a fixed value. The searching operation comes to a stop.
Then, when the search start instruction of the search re-start pulse is issued again, the latch 33 and 39 are reset to enable AND gates 35 and 40. The clock pulses from the high speed clock pulse generator 36 are supplied to the counter 42, restarting the searching operation.
Another modification in the start/stop circuit 9 and the tuning voltage generator 10 is shown in FIG. 8. When the search start instruction or the search re-start pulse is supplied to the reset input terminal of the latch 33 via the OR gate 34, the Q output of the latch 33 in the reset state will assume a "H" level with the AND gates 35 and 49 enabled. The other latches 39 and 50 are also reset in response to the search start instruction or the search re-start pulse with the Q outputs thereof at a "L" level and the Q outputs thereof a "H" level. The AND gate 40 is enabled while the AND gate 46 and 51 remain disabled. The 320 Hz clock pulses from the high speed clock pulse generator 36 are derived via the AND gate 40, the OR gate 41 and the AND gate 35 and supplied to a count up input terminal of an up/down counter 42' in the tuning voltage generator 10. The counter 42' is sequentially incremented at a high speed, the count of which is supplied to the digital-to-analog converter 43. As a result, the converter 43 develops a gradually rising DC voltage which is supplied as the tuning voltage to the tuner 2 via the memory circuit 11. In this case variations in the tuning voltage are comparatively quicker and the searching operation is carried out by the increase of the local oscillation frequency.
Under these circumstances, when the television signal is received, The AFT circuit 4 develops the AFT detector output and the synchronizing separator 6 develops the vertical synchronizing signal. If there is the negative output sensed by the AFT negative output detector 44, the output of the detector 44 will assume a "H" level to enable the AND gate 45. The vertical synchronizing signal is supplied to the set input terminal of the R-S type latch 39 via the AND gate 45, setting the same. Since the Q and Q outputs of the latch 39 assume "H" and "L" levels respectively, the AND gate 46 is enabled and the AND gate 40 is disabled. The clock pulses with 160 Hz from the low frequency clock pulse generator 47 are supplied via the AND gate 46, the OR gate 41 and the AND gate 35 to the count up input terminal of the counter 42' to execute the counting operation at a relatively low speed. The DC voltage or the tuning voltage derived from the digital-to-analog converter 43 shows variations at a rate which is reduced to one half its initial rate. The searching operation is carried out with low speed in order to eventually increase the local oscillation frequency.
Thereafter, when the polarity of the AFT detector output changes from negative to positive during the slow searching operation, the output of the AFT positive output detector 37 increases to a "H" level, enabling the AND gate 38 such that the vertical synchronizing signal is supplied to a set input terminal of an R-S type latch 50 therethrough. The result is that the latch 50 is placed into the set state with the Q output thereof at a "H" level and the Q output thereof at a "L" level. An AND gate 57 is enabled and the AND gates 40 and 46 are disabled. Therefore, clock pulses with, for example, 20 Hz are derived from an extremely low speed clock pulse generator 52 and supplied to a count down input terminal of the counter 42' via AND gates 51 and 49. The count of the counter 42' is gradually decremented at an extremely low speed. A gradually dropping tuning voltage is suddenly obtainable from the converter 43 and a rate of variations in the tuning voltage is reduced to a large extent. The searching operation is carried out with extremely low speed in a sense to decrease the local oscillation frequency.
If the output of the AFT positive output detector 37 changes to a "L" level while executing the extremely slow searching operation in the opposite direction, an output of an inverter 53 will change to a "L" level with the output of the AND gate 48 at a "H" level. The latch 33 is set with the Q output changing to a "L" level. The AND gates 35 and 49 are disabled to stop supplying the counter 42' with the clock pulses any more. Thereafter, the content of the counter 42' is fixed and the tuning voltage from the digital-to-analog converter 43 remains unchanged. In this way, the searching operation comes to a halt at the normal point of local oscillation.
If the search start instruction or the search re-start pulse is then given, then all of the latches 33, 39 and 50 are reset to enable the AND gates 35 and 40 again. The clock pulses from the high speed clock pulse generator 36 are supplied to the counter 42', executing the high speed searching operation.
Although in the given example the three clock pulse generators 36, 47 and 52 are employed for the high speed phase, low speed phase and extremely low speed phase of the searching operation, a single clock pulse generator with the frequency division ability can be a substitute therefor.
An embodiment of the present invention shown in FIGS. 9 through 11 includes an out-of-tuning detector 65 in addition to the start/stop circuit 9, the tuning voltage generator 10, the memory circuit 11 and the signal decision circuit 12.
When the search start instruction is given to the start/stop circuit 9 during the presettable tuning operation, an AFT ON/OFF switch 64 will be turned off automatically, shifting from one terminal a to another b . A reference voltage from a reference voltage generator 63 is supplied to an AFT terminal of the tuner 2. The preset tuning operation keeps on under these circumstances.
The re-preset tuning operation is carried out in the following manner. If the memory circuit 11 associated with a desired channel is given the tuning instruction, then the tuning voltage stored in that memory circuit 11 is supplied to the tuner 2 via the tuning voltage generator 10 in order to select the desired channel.
The out-of-tuning detector 65 is enabled at a moment upon receipt of the above mentioned tuning instruction, where the AFT detector output voltage obtained from the AFT circuit 4 is compared with the given reference voltage from the reference voltage generator 63. If there is almost no deviation from the optimum tuning point, both the voltages are substantially equal with no development of the output pulse. On the other hand, if a difference therebetween exceeds a critical value, this is sensed to deliver the output pulse which in turn is supplied as the search re-start pulse to the start/stop circuit 9. The preset tuning operation restarts when the tuner 2 has becomes out of tuning.
The out-of-tuning detector 65 is illustrated in detail in FIG. 10, which comprises switches SW11 and SW12, transistor Q11 and Q12, resistors R11, R12 and R13, an OR gate OR11 and so on. Upon receipt of the tuning instruction the switches SW11 and SW12 are turned on instantly so that the reference voltage from the reference voltage generator 63 is applied to the base of the transistor Q11 and the emitter of the transistor Q12 via the switch SW11 and the resistor R11, whereas the AFT detector output voltage from the AFT circuit 4 is applied to the emitter of the transistor Q11 and the base of the transistor Q12 via the switch SW12. Provided that the local oscillation frequency stands at the normal point without any substantial deviation, the AFT detector output voltage will be nearly equal to the reference voltage (say, within one volt) and the transistors Q11 and Q12 will be in the cut off state. No output voltage is developed at the collectors of the transistors Q11 and Q12. When being in the out-of-tuning state, the AFT detector output voltage will tend to somewhat increase over the reference voltage (say, one volt higher), placing the transistor Q11 into the on state with a positive pulse voltage appearing at the collector thereof. This pulse is supplied to the tuning voltage generator 10 directly or via the start/stop circuit 9 and supplied as the start/stop pulse to the start/stop circuit 9 via the OR gate OR11. As a result, the re-search operation is initiated and the tuning voltage at the tuning voltage generator 10 is gradually increased. Therefore, the local oscillation frequency will be reverted back to the normal point of tuning. When the signal decision circuit 12 issues the memory instruction, the instantaneous tuning voltage is loaded into the memory circuit 11 thereby completing the re-preset tuning operation. If the local oscillation frequency will be increased above the normal point, the transistor Q12 is turned on to develop the output pulse at the collector thereof. This is supplied to the start/stop circuit 9 and the tuning voltage generator 10, gradually decreasing the tuning voltage at the tuning voltage generator 10.
An embodiment shown in FIG. 12 is effective with the ability of temporarily inhibiting the supply of the memory instructions to the memory circuit and skipping the memorizing of undesired channels when the capacity of the memory circuit 11 is small. There is further provided a memory skip circuit 66 which controls the transferring of the memory instructions from the signal decision circuit 12 to the memory circuit 11. While the memory skip circuit 11 is normally connected to the contact a , the memory instruction is supplied from the signal decision circuit 12 to the memory circuit 13 via the skip circuit 13 each time a specific channel is selected. The respective tuning voltages are therefore stored in the memory circuit 11 at these moments.
If an undesired channel is selected and received, then a skip instruction is given to the memory skip circuit 66 by way of any means, putting it toward the contact b . At this moment the memory instruction is supplied as the search restart pulse to the start/stop circuit 9 which restarts the searching operation to seek the next succeeding channel. Since the memory skip circuit 66 has then been returned to the contact a , the next memory instruction is supplied to the memory circuit 11, loading the tuning voltage of that channel into the memory circuit 11.
In an embodiment shown in FIG. 13, the tuning instruction from the signal decision circuit 12 is supplied to a blinking enable circuit 70 which comprises an AND gate and an amplifying transistor. Pulses derived from a pulse oscillator 71 are gated as well as the tuning instruction, energizing a light emitting diode 72 to notify the operator of the tuning operation.
An embodiment shown in FIG. 14 is adapted to produce audiable sounds instead of release of light. An audio silence circuit 75 is enabled by the tuning instruction from the signal decision circuit 12, which provides the output thereof for an audio circuit 76 to shut out the television audio signals. No television audio signals are released from a loud speaker 77. Meanwhile, the tuning instruction is supplied to an intermittent sound generator 78 which creates intermittent sound signals through synthesis of pulse signals from a pulse oscillator 79 and a frequency divider 80. The synthesized sound signals are supplied to the audio circuit 76.
As a result, intermittent sounds are released from the loud speaker 7 during the automatic tuning operation. Once the tuning operation has been completed and the true television signal has been received, these intermittent sounds are prohibited and the true television sounds are released from the loud speaker 77.
The tuning instruction with a "H" level from the signal decision circuit 12 is amplified by the audio silence circuit 75 and supplied to the audio circuit 76, which shuts out the television sound signals. The tuning instruction with a "H" level is also supplied to an AND gate 81 in the intermittent sound circuit 78. The AND gate 81 always receives pulses from the pulse oscillator 79 consisting of a multivibrator. These pulses are also supplied to the frequency divider 80 such that the AND gate 81 develops intermittent pulse signals, which are supplied to the audio circuit 76 and then the loud speaker 77.
The invention being thus described, it will be obvious that the same may be varied in many ways. Such variations are not to be regarded as a departure from the spirit and scope of the invention, and all such modifications are intended to be included within the scope of the following claims.



No comments:

Post a Comment

The most important thing to remember about the Comment Rules is this:
The determination of whether any comment is in compliance is at the sole discretion of this blog’s owner.

Comments on this blog may be blocked or deleted at any time.
Fair people are getting fair reply. Spam and useless crap and filthy comments / scrapers / observations goes all directly to My Private HELL without even appearing in public !!!

The fact that a comment is permitted in no way constitutes an endorsement of any view expressed, fact alleged, or link provided in that comment by the administrator of this site.
This means that there may be a delay between the submission and the eventual appearance of your comment.

Requiring blog comments to obey well-defined rules does not infringe on the free speech of commenters.

Resisting the tide of post-modernity may be difficult, but I will attempt it anyway.

Your choice.........Live or DIE.
That indeed is where your liberty lies.