Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

In Brief: On this site you will find pictures and information about some of the electronic, electrical and electrotechnical technology relics that the Frank Sharp Private museum has accumulated over the years .

Premise: There are lots of vintage electrical and electronic items that have not survived well or even completely disappeared and forgotten.

Or are not being collected nowadays in proportion to their significance or prevalence in their heyday, this is bad and the main part of the death land. The heavy, ugly sarcophagus; models with few endearing qualities, devices that have some over-riding disadvantage to ownership such as heavy weight,toxicity or inflated value when dismantled, tend to be under-represented by all but the most comprehensive collections and museums. They get relegated to the bottom of the wants list, derided as 'more trouble than they are worth', or just forgotten entirely. As a result, I started to notice gaps in the current representation of the history of electronic and electrical technology to the interested member of the public.


Following this idea around a bit, convinced me that a collection of the peculiar alone could not hope to survive on its own merits, but a museum that gave equal display space to the popular and the unpopular, would bring things to the attention of the average person that he has previously passed by or been shielded from. It's a matter of culture. From this, the Obsolete Technology Tellye Web Museum concept developed and all my other things too. It's an open platform for all electrical Electronic TV technology to have its few, but NOT last, moments of fame in a working, hand-on environment. We'll never own Colossus or Faraday's first transformer, but I can show things that you can't see at the Science Museum, and let you play with things that the Smithsonian can't allow people to touch, because my remit is different.

There was a society once that was the polar opposite of our disposable, junk society. A whole nation was built on the idea of placing quality before quantity in all things. The goal was not “more and newer,” but “better and higher" .This attitude was reflected not only in the manufacturing of material goods, but also in the realms of art and architecture, as well as in the social fabric of everyday life. The goal was for each new cohort of children to stand on a higher level than the preceding cohort: they were to be healthier, stronger, more intelligent, and more vibrant in every way.

The society that prioritized human, social and material quality is a Winner. Truly, it is the high point of all Western civilization. Consequently, its defeat meant the defeat of civilization itself.

Today, the West is headed for the abyss. For the ultimate fate of our disposable society is for that society itself to be disposed of. And this will happen sooner, rather than later.

OLD, but ORIGINAL, Well made, Funny, Not remotely controlled............. and not Made in CHINA.

How to use the site:

- If you landed here via any Search Engine, you will get what you searched for and you can search more using the search this blog feature provided by Google. You can visit more posts scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year,
or you can click on the main photo-page to start from the main page. Doing so it starts from the most recent post to the older post simple clicking on the Older Post button on the bottom of each page after reading , post after post.

You can even visit all posts, time to time, when reaching the bottom end of each page and click on the Older Post button.

- If you arrived here at the main page via bookmark you can visit all the site scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year pointing were you want , or more simple You can even visit all blog posts, from newer to older, clicking at the end of each bottom page on the Older Post button.
So you can see all the blog/site content surfing all pages in it.

- The search this blog feature provided by Google is a real search engine. If you're pointing particular things it will search IT for you; or you can place a brand name in the search query at your choice and visit all results page by page. It's useful since the content of the site is very large.

Note that if you don't find what you searched for, try it after a period of time; the site is a never ending job !

Every CRT Television saved let revive knowledge, thoughts, moments of the past life which will never return again.........

Many contemporary "televisions" (more correctly named as displays) would not have this level of staying power, many would ware out or require major services within just five years or less and of course, there is that perennial bug bear of planned obsolescence where components are deliberately designed to fail and, or manufactured with limited edition specificities..... and without considering........picture......sound........quality........

..............The bitterness of poor quality is remembered long after the sweetness of todays funny gadgets low price has faded from memory........ . . . . . .....
Don't forget the past, the end of the world is upon us! Pretty soon it will all turn to dust!

Have big FUN ! !
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©2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 Frank Sharp - You do not have permission to copy photos and words from this blog, and any content may be never used it for auctions or commercial purposes, however feel free to post anything you see here with a courtesy link back, btw a link to the original post here , is mandatory.
All sets and apparates appearing here are property of
Engineer Frank Sharp. NOTHING HERE IS FOR SALE !

Wednesday, November 3, 2010

AUTOVOX TVC 2279 "Antares" Tuning Search Motorola Tuning Memory + Drive.






















Television receiver with an automatic station finding arrangement:
MOTOROLA TUNING MEMORY / MEMOTRONIC SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY.

In a radio or television receiver containing an automatic station finder with a digital counter, a clock generator, and a digital-to-analog converter forming the tuning voltage for the varactors, a recall memory consisting of two series-connected parallel memories is connected in parallel with the digital counter. At a stop signal from the automatic station finder the first parallel memory records the instantaneous count of the digital counter; at an automatic-station-finding start signal the second parallel memory, to which the parallel input of the digital counter is connected, records the contents of the first parallel memory.


1. A receiver having automatic station finding capability, comprising:

means for tuning said receiver in response to an applied voltage;

a controllable pulse generator;

means for starting said pulse generator;

circulating counter means having parallel inputs and outputs, a stepping input and a set input, said stepping input connected to and responsive to pulses from said pulse generator for providing a variable digital output;

digital-to-analog converting means for converting the variable digital output from said counter means to a variable analog voltage, said voltage being applied to said tuning means, so that the receiver is tuned to a frequency corresponding to the analog voltage;

means for sensing a received signal and for providing a stop signal to the pulse generator in response thereto, whereby said generator stops providing pulses and the analog voltage remains constant keeping the receiver tuned to the received signal;

memory means having parallel inputs connected to the parallel outputs of said counter means and parallel outputs connected to the parallel inputs of said counter means;

means associated with said memory means for causing the memory means to store a particular digital output from said counter means; and

means associated with the set input of said counter means for selectively causing the digital signal at the counter input to be transferred to the counter output.



2. A receiver as described in claim 1, wherein the memory means comprises: two series connected parallel memories each having a transfer input, a first of said parallel memories having parallel inputs connected to the parallel outputs of the counter means and having the transfer input connected to the stop signal means, a second of said parallel memories having parallel outputs connected to the parallel inputs of the counter means and having the transfer input connected to the means for starting said pulse generator.

3. A receiver as described in claim 2, wherein each of said parallel memories comprises a plurality of semiconductor voltage flip-flops.

4. A receiver as described in claim 2, wherein the two series connected parallel memories are incorporated in an integrated circuit module with the counter means.

5. A receiver as described in claim 2, wherein the transfer input of the first parallel memory is also connected to the means associated with the set input of the counter means.

6. A receiver as described in claim 1, additionally comprising:

an additional memory means having parallel inputs and outputs;

means for connecting the inputs of said additional memory means to the counter means output and the outputs of said additional memory means to the counter inputs;

means for causing said additional memory means to store a digital output; and

means for transferring the stored digital output to the counter means input through the connecting means.



7. A receiver as described in claim 6, additionally comprising gate means disposed at the outputs of the memory means and the additional memory means for selectively connecting either the additional memory means or the memory means to the input of the counter.

8. A receiver as described in claim 6, wherein the additional memory means comprises a plurality of memories and the connecting means comprises a plurality of station switches corresponding in number to the number of additional memories.

9. A receiver as described in claim 1, wherein each memory means comprises a number of flip-flops corresponding to the number of digits to be stored.

Description:

The present invention relates to a radio or television receiver with an automatic station finding arrangement which contains a pulse generator, a circulating counter formed from semiconductor counting flip-flops and having parallel inputs, a digital-to-analog converter converting the count of the counter to a tuning voltage, and a start-stop circuit acting on the flow of counting pulses and controlled over a start and at least one stop line, and with a parallel memory connected between the parallel outputs and parallel inputs of the counter.

Such a radio receiver is known from, e.g., the journal "Funkschau 1971", pp. 535 to 538 and 587 to 589. With the aid of the free-running pulse generator, the up-counter, and the digital-to-analog converter, the automatic station finding arrangement generates a sawtoothlike tuning voltage for the varactors contained as frequency-setting tuning elements in the resonant circuits of the receiver's radio-frequency portion. If a transmitter is received which meets the receiving criteria set in the receiver, the pulse generator is stopped so that the tuning voltage now remains constant until the operator continues the automatic station finding operation by actuating a start switch.

It is frequently desirable to tune in once again the station at which the start switch for automatic station finding was actuated last - either for comparison or because of the more interesting program. To do this in the case of a receiver with provision for unidirectional automatic station search, the entire search range must be scanned once or several times by repeatedly actuating the start switch, depending on whether the desired station is detected immediately or not.

It is the object of the invention to provide measures for a receiver of the kind referred to by way of introduction which permit the transmitter received before the actuation of the start switch to be found again with a high degree of safety by simple manipulation.

The invention is characterized in that the parallel memory consists of two series-connected parallel memories having one transfer input each, that the transfer input of the (first) parallel memory, whose parallel inputs are connected to the parallel outputs of the counter, are connected directly or indirectly to the stop line, that the transfer input of the (second) parallel memory, whose parallel outputs are connected to the parallel inputs of the counter, is connected directly or indirectly to the start line, that the counter has a set input for through-connecting the parallel inputs of the counter to the flip-flops of the counter, and that a recall switch is connected to the set input of the counter.

Particularly advantageously, the memory locations of the two series-connected parallel memories are storage flip-flops using semiconductor technology. In that case it is possible to arrange the counter and the parallel memories on a common chip of an integrated-circuit module. Such a module has only two terminals more than a module formed by the counter only.

The measures characterized by the invention thus require, aside from an additional recall switch, no additional space and involve nearly no additional expense. To recall the station previously tuned in it is only necessary to depress a button, for example, whereby the receiver is safely tuned to the station's carrier wave even if at the instant of the depression the local received field strength is temporarily too low for sufficient reception.

The invention will now be described in more detail with reference to the accompanying drawing, showing, by way of example, two embodiments of the invention, and wherein:

FIG. 1 is a block diagram showing the radio- and intermediate-frequency portions of a receiver with an automatic station finding arrangement and a recall arrangement;

FIG. 2 shows diagrams a to g explaining the operation of the recall storage, and

FIG. 3 shows a receiver similar to the one of FIG. 1 in which the automatic station finding counter and the recall memories are arranged together on the chip of an integrated-circuit module.

The receivers shown in the block diagrams of FIGS. 1 and 3 have a radio-frequency-receiving section 1, an intermediate-frequency amplifier 2, and a demodulator section 3, to whose output 4 are connected the arrangements processing the modulation frequency. The tunable resonant circuits of the radio-frequency section contain varactors as tuning elements. Connected to the radio-frequency section is an automatic station finding arrangement in which a digital-to-analog converter 5 generates from the count of a digital counter 7, which receives signals at a stepping input T and advances at the rate of a pulse generator 6, a nearly sawtooth-shaped tuning voltage for the varactors. With a sufficient received field strength at the antenna 8 of the receiver a signal is formed in the demodulator section 3 which signal can be used as stop signal 9 to change the state of a start-stop circuit 10 which may be a flip flop. In the "stop" state the start-stop circuit interrupts the pulse generation or the pulse flow in the pulse generator so that the receiver remains tuned to the station being received. By operating a start-button switch 11 a start signal 12 is generated in the receiver which signal places the start-stop circuit in the "automatic station finding" state and thus continues the automatic station finding operation until next station meeting the receiver's receiving requirements is received.

In the embodiment of FIG. 1, two series-connected parallel memories 15 and 16 are connected, respectively, over two groups of lines 13 and 14 consisting of n lines each, between the n outputs Q 11 to Q n1 and the parallel inputs A 11 to A n1 of the digital counter 7 containing n counting flip-flops. Each parallel memory contains n storage flip-flops and, besides the parallel bit inputs and outputs B and X, a transfer input S. If a transfer signal appears at the transfer input, the parallel memory records the bit word applied its parallel inputs B 1 to B n , which erases the previously entered bit word and now, in turn, appears at the memory outputs X 1 to X n .

The transfer input S of the parallel memory 15, whose parallel inputs are connected over the group of lines 13 to the outputs of the counter 7, is connected to the stop line 17, while the transfer input S of the parallel memory 16, whose parallel outputs are connected over the group of lines 14 to the parallel inputs of the counter 7, is connected to the start line 18.

Connected to a set input P of the digital counters 7 is a switch 19 whose operation generates a set signal. The set signal sets the counter to a count which is equal to the bit word at the parallel inputs A 1 to A n of the counter. At the same time, the set signal acts over the line 20 and via an OR circuit provided for isolation on the transfer input S of the first parallel memory 15.

The diagrams a to g of FIG. 2 explain the operation of the automatic station finding arrangement in conjunction with the recall memories. In diagram a each of the blocks II, III, etc. represents the bit word for a count of the digital counter 7. The blocks in the diagrams b and c are the bit words which are stored in the parallel memories 15 and 16 and can be taken off the latter's parallel outputs, the blocks with equal Roman numerals (e.g. V) representing equal bit words. The diagram d shows the counting pulses 22 for the digital counter 7, the diagram e the stop pulses 9, the diagram f the start pulses 12, and the diagram g the set pulse 23 triggered by the recall switch 19.

The respective count from which the digital-to-analog converter 5 forms the tuning voltage for the varactors is applied simultaneously to the input of the digital-to-analog converter and, as a bit word (e.g. II, III, IV . . . , diagram a), to the input of the first parallel memory 15. At the occurence of a stop signal 9 during the automatic station finding operation, the stop signal 9 acts as a transfer signal on the first parallel memory 15, and the count (e.g. V, diagram a) at which the stop pulse (e.g. 9a) was generated is entered into the first parallel memory 15 (V in diagram b). At the next start pulse 12a triggered via the start-button switch 11 the automatic station finding operation begins anew, starting from the instantaneous count (e.g. V, diagram a) of the counter. The start signal (12a in diagram f) acts as a transfer signal on the transfer input S of the second parallel memory 16, whereby the second parallel memory takes over the bit word (e.g. V) of the first. The next stop signal (e.g. 9b, diagram e) at a new count (e.g. VIII, diagram a) stops the automatic station search and enters the new count as a bit word (e.g. VIII, diagram b) into the first parallel memory 15.

If the operator operates the recall switch 19 so as to recall the setting to the previously received station, the set pulse 23 triggered by the recall switch sets the counter 7 to the count (e.g. V, diagram a) of the bit word (e.g. V, diagram c) stored in the second parallel memory 16, and the newly set count is entered into the first parallel memory 15 (e.g. V, diagram b). The next start signal (e.g. 12b, diagram f) initiates the automatic station finding operation as described.

In the embodiment of FIG. 3, the two series-connected parallel memories 15 and 16 are incorporated on the chip of an integrated-circuit module 25 which also comprises the circulating digital counter 7 and, for example, the circuit 26 of a station memory device. The station memory device has the memory inputs D 1 to D n and the memory outputs Y 1 to Y n of its circuit 26 connected in parallel with the digital counter 7 in the same manner as the recall memory consisting of the two series-connected parallel memories 15 and 16. Therefore, gate circuits 27 and 28 are inserted between the parallel outputs of these memories and the parallel inputs A 1 to A n of the digital counter. The gate circuit 27 between the recall memory and the counter is opened by the set signal of the recall switch 19. The gate circuit 28 between the station memory and the counter is opened by the set signal of a switch 29 for calling the bit word of a station preselected by the station buttons 30. In front of the set input 8 of the digital counter the two set signals are separated from one another in an OR circuit 31.

In the embodiment of FIG. 3, the start-stop circuit 10 is designed in the manner of a flip-flop and can assume a "stop" state and an "automatic station finding" state. The transfer inputs S of the recall memory's parallel memories 15 and 16 are connected via the lines 32 and 33 to the outputs of the start-stop circuit. Since the signals at the outputs of the start-stop circuit are continuous signals, the lines 32 and 33 to the transfer inputs include pulse shapers 34 and 35, respectively.

In embodiments corresponding to FIG. 3 and having no station memory device, besides the circuit 26, the gate circuits 27 and 28 and the OR circuit 31 are omitted.



Tuning Search + Drive
Employs the Motorola Tuning Memory System.
a complex circuitry with mixed signals technology.
- UAA1008 (Tuning Drive + AFC)
-MC14426 (Memory Control)


An automatic fine tuning (AFT) circuit is provided which generates an AFT control signal in response to a video intermediate frequency (I.F.) signal. The I.F. signal is supplied to the inputs of two buffer amplifiers, which couple signals of like phase relationship to two inputs of a discriminator network. The discriminator network is tuned to the desired frequency of the video I.F. signal, and is responsive to the buffered I.F. signals for causing respective signal voltages to be developed at its inputs which vary differentially in magnitude in response to the frequency deviation of the I.F. signals from the desired I.F. frequency. The differentially related signals are detected by two peak detector networks for use as AFT control signals. The buffer amplifiers and peak detectors may be conveniently fabricated on a single I.C. chip. The discriminator network is coupled to the buffer amplifiers by two external I.C. terminals.


1. In an automatic fine tuning circuit including an integrated circuit chip having first and second contact areas for coupling to discrete circuit elements located external to said integrated circuit chip, apparatus comprising:

means located on said integrated circuit chip for supplying input signals having a frequency within a band including a predetermined reference frequency to said first and second contact areas;

a discriminator network, located external to said integrated circuit chip and coupled to said first and second contact areas, and responsive to said input signals for providing respective signals at said first and second contact areas which vary differentially in magnitude in response to the frequency deviation of said input signals from said reference frequency; and

first and second detector networks located on said integrated circuit chip and having respective input terminals direct current coupled to said first and second contact areas for detecting the magnitudes of said differentially varying signals.



2. In a television receiver, including a source of tuning voltage, and a tuner, including a reactive element responsive to said tuning voltage and an automatic frequency control signal, for producing a mixing signal to convert radio frequency television signals to intermediate frequency television signals within a band including a predetermined reference frequency, an automatic frequency control signal generator comprising:

first and second amplifiers, each having an input terminal for receiving a common intermediate frequency television signal having a frequency within a band including said predetermined reference frequency and an output terminal; said amplifiers supplying respective signal currents of like phase relationship to said output terminals in response to said common input signal;

a discriminator network coupled to said output terminals of said first and second amplifiers for causing respective signal voltages developed at said output terminals of said first and second amplifiers to vary differentially in magnitude in response to the frequency deviation of said intermediate frequency television signal from said reference frequency;

first and second detector networks respectively coupled to said output terminals of said first and second amplifiers for detecting the magnitudes of said differentially varying signal voltages;

a differential amplifier for developing output signals which vary differentially in sense and magnitude in response to the magnitudes of the signals detected by said first and second detector networks; and

means coupled to said differential amplifier for combining said output signals to develop an automatic frequency control signal which varies in sense and magnitude in response to the frequency deviation of said intermediate frequency signal from said predetermined reference frequency,


wherein said amplifiers, said detector networks, said differential amplifier, and said combining means and couplings therebetween are realized in integrated circuit form on a common monolithic integrated circuit chip, wherein each of said output terminals comprises an external connection terminal of said integrated circuit chip, wherein said discriminator network comprises components separate from said chip and coupled to said chip terminals, and wherein said automatic frequency control signal is coupled to said reactive element at a third chip terminal to control the frequency of said mixing signal.



3. The automatic frequency control signal generator of claim 2, further comprising:

a controllable current source having an input responsive to said tuning voltage and having an output coupled to said differential amplifier for varying the magnitude of the sum of said output signals for a given deviation of said intermediate frequency signals from said reference frequency, wherein said current source is located on said integrated circuit chip and said input is coupled to a fourth chip terminal to receive said tuning voltage.



4. In an automatic frequency control signal circuit including an integrated circuit chip having first, second and third contact areas for coupling to discrete circuit elements located external to said integrated circuit chip, apparatus comprising:

means located on said integrated circuit chip for supplying input signals having a frequency within a band including a predetermined reference frequency to said first and second contact areas;

a discriminator network, located external to said integrated circuit chip and coupled to said first and second contact areas, and responsive to said input signals for providing respective signals at said first and second contact areas which vary differentially in magnitude in response to the frequency deviation of said input signals from said reference frequency;

first and second detector networks located on said integrated circuit chip and having respective input terminals coupled to said first and second contact areas for detecting the magnitudes of said differentially varying signals;

a differential amplifier located on said integrated circuit chip and coupled to said detector networks for developing output signals which vary differentially in sense and magnitude in response to the detected magnitudes of said differentially varying signals; and

means located or said integrated circuit chip and coupled to said differential amplifier for combining said output signals to develop an automatic frequency control signal at said third contact area which varies in sense and magnitude in response to the frequency deviation of said input signals from said predetermined reference frequency.



5. The automatic frequency control signal circuit of claim 4, further comprising:

a controllable current source located on said integrated circuit chip and having an input coupled to a fourth contact area and an output coupled to said differential amplifier; and

means external to said integrated circuit chip and coupled to said fourth contact area for varying the magnitude of the sum of said output signals for a given deviation of said input signals from said predetermined reference frequency.



6. Frequency discriminating apparatus comprising:

means for supplying input signals having a frequency within a band including a predetermined reference frequency;

a discriminator network, coupled to said input signal means, which provides respective signals which vary differentially in magnitude in response to the frequency deviation of said input signals from said reference frequency;

means for detecting the respective magnitudes of said discriminator network signals;

an amplifier coupled to said detecting means for developing first and second output currents respectively representative of said respective signal magnitudes;

means for combining said first and second output currents to develop a difference current which is related in sense and magnitude to the frequency deviation of said input signals from said reference frequency; and

a controllable current source coupled to said amplifier for controlling the magnitude of the sum of said first and second output currents for a given frequency deviation of said input signals from said reference frequency.



7. Frequency discriminating apparatus comprising:

means for supplying input signals having a frequency within a band including a predetermined reference frequency;

a discriminator network, coupled to said input signal means, which provides respective signals which vary differentially in magnitude in response to the frequency deviation of said input signals from said reference frequency;

means for detecting the respective magnitudes of said discriminator network signals;

an amplifier coupled to said detecting means for developing first and second output currents respectively representative of said respective signal magnitudes;

means for combining said first and second output currents to develop a difference current which is related in sense and magnitude to the frequency deviation of said input signals from said reference frequency; and

first and second transistors each disposed in a common base amplifier configuration to receive one of said respective output currents from said amplifier and having respective output electrodes coupled to said current combining means.



8. Frequency discriminating apparatus comprising:

means for supplying input signals having a frequency within a band including a predetermined reference frequency;

first and second terminals;

first and second transistors each having an input electrode coupled to said input signal supplying means and respective output electrodes coupled to said first and second terminals for supplying signals of like phase relationship at said terminals;

a discriminator network coupled to said first and second terminals for causing the signals developed at said first and second terminals to vary differentially in magnitude in response to the frequency deviation of said input signals from said reference frequency;

means for detecting the magnitudes of said differentially varying signals; and

a differential amplifier responsive to the detected magnitudes of said differentially varying signals for developing an output signal which varies in sense and magnitude in response to the frequency deviation of said input signals from said reference frequency,

wherein said discriminator network is tuned to said reference frequency and comprises:

a first parallel combination of a capacitor and an intermediate tapped inductor, coupled between said first and second terminals; and

a second parallel combination of a capacitor and an inductor, coupled between said intermediate tap of said inductor of said first parallel combination, and a source of supply voltage.



9. In a television receiver, automatic frequency control apparatus for providing an automatic frequency control signal which varies in response to the frequency deviation of an intermediate frequency signal from a predetermined reference frequency, comprising:

means responsive to said intermediate frequency signal for providing first and second input signals of like phase relationship;

a discriminator network, coupled to said input signal means, and responsive to said first and second input signals, for causing said input signals to vary differentially in magnitude in response to the frequency deviation of said input signals from said reference frequency;

means coupled to the junction of said input signal means and said discriminator network for detecting the magnitudes of said differentially varying signals;

a differential amplifier coupled to said detecting means for developing output signals which vary in sense and magnitude in response to the detected magnitudes of said differentially varying signals; and

a current mirror circuit coupled to said differential amplifier for combining said output signals to develop an automatic frequency control signal which varies in sense and magnitude in response to the frequency deviation of said intermediate frequency signal from said predetermined reference frequency, wherein said automatic frequency control signal may be used to control the frequency of said intermediate frequency signal.



10. The automatic frequency control apparatus of claim 9, further comprising:

a controllable current source coupled to said differential amplifier and having an input for controlling the magnitude of the sum of the output signals developed by said differential amplifier for a given deviation of said intermediate frequency signal from said reference frequency.



11. In a television receiver, including a source of tuning voltage, and a tuner, including a reactive element responsive to said tuning voltage and an automatic frequency control signal, for producing a mixing signal to convert radio frequency television signals to intermediate frequency television signals within a band including a predetermined reference frequency, an automatic frequency control signal generator comprising:

means responsive to said intermediate frequency signals for developing signals which vary differentially in magnitude in response to the frequency deviation of said intermediate frequency signals from said reference frequency;

a differential amplifier for developing output signals which vary differentially in sense and magnitude in response to the magnitudes of the signals developed by said differential signal means; and

means coupled to said differential amplifier for combining said output signals to develop an automatic frequency control signal which varies in sense and magnitude in response to the frequency deviation of said intermediate frequency signal from said predetermined reference frequency, wherein said automatic frequency control signal is coupled to said reactive element to control the frequency of said mixing signal.



12. The automatic frequency control signal generator of claim 11, further comprising:

a controllable current source responsive to said tuning voltage and having an output coupled to said differential amplifier for varying the magnitude of the sum of said output signals for a given deviation of said intermediate frequency signals from said reference frequency.



Description:

This invention relates to automatic frequency control apparatus in general, and, in particular, to such apparatus for deriving a frequency dependent error-correction signal to control the tuning of a local oscillator in a superheterodyne receiver.

It is the function of a television tuner to select a narrow range of frequencies from among the many broadcast frequencies in the radio frequency band. A conventional television tuner performs this function through the use of a radio frequency amplifier, a mixer, and a local heterodyne oscillator. The output of this oscillator is compared to, or beat with, the radio frequency television signal received from the receiver antenna by the mixer. This beating action creates both the sum and difference frequencies of the original radio frequency and local oscillator frequencies. All but the difference frequencies, called intermediate frequencies (I.F.), are filtered out. These I.F. frequencies are amplified and detected by the television receiver to recreate the desired sound and picture information.

In order to provide the optimum image on the television screen, together with accurate sound reproduction, it is necessary that the receiver local oscillator be adjusted so that the picture and sound carriers are located at the correct points in the I.F. passband of the television receiver. This is especially true in the tuning of color television receivers. Not only must the picture and sound carriers be situated at their proper positions in the I.F. passband but the color subcarrier must also be properly positioned in order that the colors will be reproduced by the kinescope with proper hue and saturation characteristics. If the local oscillator is for any reason not set at the proper frequency, the intermediate frequencies will be incorrect, and may deleteriously affect the reproduced sound and picture. As is well known, this mistuning may be due to improper fine tuning by the television viewer, local oscillator drift, or inaccurate resetability of the detenting action of a mechanical tuner. In order to overcome these problems, conventional receivers are provided with means for compensating for variations in the intermediate frequencies.

This compensation is normally accomplished by deriving an automatic fine tuning (AFT) voltage from the output of the I.F. amplifying stage of the receiver. The AFT voltage is representative of the sense and degree that the I.F. signal departs from the desired I.F. signal. The AFT voltage is applied to a voltage responsive reactance device in the local oscillator to correct the mistuning of the oscillator and thereby optimize the sound and picture reproduction.

There are presently two types of AFT circuits in general use: the quadrature detector type and the differential envelope detector type. The quadrature detector type AFT circuit converts frequency shifts of a frequency modulated signal to differentially phase-shifted signals by applying the frequency modulated signal to a filter network, which develops two differentially phase-shifted, or delayed, signals at its output ports. The differentially phase-shifted signals are coupled to a quadrature, or phase, detector, which converts the relative phase difference between the signals at the filter output ports to an amplitude-varying AFT control signal. The differential envelope detector type AFT circuit, such as that described in the present application, utilizes a linear filter network to convert frequency shifts of a frequency modulated signal to differentially related, amplitude varying signals. These signals are coupled to envelope detectors, which convert the amplitude varying signals to AFT control signals. The differential envelope detector AFT circuit generally requires fewer components than the quadrature detector type, and is preferred in many applications because of its ability to produce a narrower, more precisely controlled AFT bandwidth. The narrower bandwidth reduces the effect of I.F. noise on the AFT control system and produces sharper AFT response in the vicinity of the I.F. picture carrier being controlled by the system.

In order to minimize the size and number of components required to construct an AFT circuit, it is desirable to fabricate the circuit in integrated circuit form on a single monolithic integrated circuit chip. However, certain AFT circuit elements, specifically, the reactive components used to construct the discriminator network necessary to convert frequency shifts of the I.F. signal to amplitude modulated signals, do not readily lend themselves to integrated circuit fabrication and must be located external to the I.C. chip. The I.C. chip has only a limited number of external connection points, or terminals, for connection to external components. Hence, it is desirable to construct the AFT circuit in a manner which reduces the number of required connections to external components.

In accordance with the principles of the present invention, an AFT circuit is provided which generates AFT control signals in response to a video I.F. signal. The I.F. signal is supplied to the inputs of two buffer amplifiers, which couple parallel signals of like phase relationship to two inputs of a discriminator network. The discriminator network is tuned to the desired I.F. frequency, and is responsive to the buffered I.F. signals for providing respective signals at its inputs which vary differentially in sense and degree with the frequency deviation of the buffered I.F. signals from the desired I.F. frequency. The differentially related signals are detected by two peak detector networks for use as AFT control signals. The buffer amplifiers and peak detector networks may be conveniently fabricated on a single I.C. chip. The discriminator network is coupled to the buffer amplifiers and peak detectors through two external I.C. terminals.

The peak detected signals may be combined and amplified to produce an AFT signal for application to the local oscillator. However, a circuit with an AFT signal which varies over a fixed voltage range is restricted to operation with local oscillators which respond to the specific voltage range of that circuit. Such an AFT circuit can be used with a wide variety of local oscillators of differing characteristics only if additional interfacing circuitry is interposed between the AFT circuit and the local oscillator. Such interfacing circuitry can add undesirable delays and complexity to the AFT system.

In accordance with a further aspect of the present invention, the detected, differentially related signals are combined by a differential amplifier and coupled to a current mirror circuit to provide an AFT current signal. The current mirror circuit is contained on the same I.C. chip as the buffer amplifiers and detector networks. Through the use of a suitable external load resistor, the AFT current signal may be used to produce a wide variety of AFT voltage ranges. In addition, means are provided for varying the magnitude of the AFT current signal to permit accurate matching of the AFT circuit to the signal requirements of the local oscillator. The magnitude of the AFT current signal may be modified during operation of the television receiver, for example, to provide continuously variable AFT current signal ranges over the full range of television channels.





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