Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

In Brief: On this site you will find pictures and information about some of the electronic, electrical and electrotechnical technology relics that the Frank Sharp Private museum has accumulated over the years .

Premise: There are lots of vintage electrical and electronic items that have not survived well or even completely disappeared and forgotten.

Or are not being collected nowadays in proportion to their significance or prevalence in their heyday, this is bad and the main part of the death land. The heavy, ugly sarcophagus; models with few endearing qualities, devices that have some over-riding disadvantage to ownership such as heavy weight,toxicity or inflated value when dismantled, tend to be under-represented by all but the most comprehensive collections and museums. They get relegated to the bottom of the wants list, derided as 'more trouble than they are worth', or just forgotten entirely. As a result, I started to notice gaps in the current representation of the history of electronic and electrical technology to the interested member of the public.


Following this idea around a bit, convinced me that a collection of the peculiar alone could not hope to survive on its own merits, but a museum that gave equal display space to the popular and the unpopular, would bring things to the attention of the average person that he has previously passed by or been shielded from. It's a matter of culture. From this, the Obsolete Technology Tellye Web Museum concept developed and all my other things too. It's an open platform for all electrical Electronic TV technology to have its few, but NOT last, moments of fame in a working, hand-on environment. We'll never own Colossus or Faraday's first transformer, but I can show things that you can't see at the Science Museum, and let you play with things that the Smithsonian can't allow people to touch, because my remit is different.

There was a society once that was the polar opposite of our disposable, junk society. A whole nation was built on the idea of placing quality before quantity in all things. The goal was not “more and newer,” but “better and higher" .This attitude was reflected not only in the manufacturing of material goods, but also in the realms of art and architecture, as well as in the social fabric of everyday life. The goal was for each new cohort of children to stand on a higher level than the preceding cohort: they were to be healthier, stronger, more intelligent, and more vibrant in every way.

The society that prioritized human, social and material quality is a Winner. Truly, it is the high point of all Western civilization. Consequently, its defeat meant the defeat of civilization itself.

Today, the West is headed for the abyss. For the ultimate fate of our disposable society is for that society itself to be disposed of. And this will happen sooner, rather than later.

OLD, but ORIGINAL, Well made, Funny, Not remotely controlled............. and not Made in CHINA.

How to use the site:

- If you landed here via any Search Engine, you will get what you searched for and you can search more using the search this blog feature provided by Google. You can visit more posts scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year,
or you can click on the main photo-page to start from the main page. Doing so it starts from the most recent post to the older post simple clicking on the Older Post button on the bottom of each page after reading , post after post.

You can even visit all posts, time to time, when reaching the bottom end of each page and click on the Older Post button.

- If you arrived here at the main page via bookmark you can visit all the site scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year pointing were you want , or more simple You can even visit all blog posts, from newer to older, clicking at the end of each bottom page on the Older Post button.
So you can see all the blog/site content surfing all pages in it.

- The search this blog feature provided by Google is a real search engine. If you're pointing particular things it will search IT for you; or you can place a brand name in the search query at your choice and visit all results page by page. It's useful since the content of the site is very large.

Note that if you don't find what you searched for, try it after a period of time; the site is a never ending job !

Every CRT Television saved let revive knowledge, thoughts, moments of the past life which will never return again.........

Many contemporary "televisions" (more correctly named as displays) would not have this level of staying power, many would ware out or require major services within just five years or less and of course, there is that perennial bug bear of planned obsolescence where components are deliberately designed to fail and, or manufactured with limited edition specificities..... and without considering........picture......sound........quality........

..............The bitterness of poor quality is remembered long after the sweetness of todays funny gadgets low price has faded from memory........ . . . . . .....
Don't forget the past, the end of the world is upon us! Pretty soon it will all turn to dust!

Have big FUN ! !
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©2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 Frank Sharp - You do not have permission to copy photos and words from this blog, and any content may be never used it for auctions or commercial purposes, however feel free to post anything you see here with a courtesy link back, btw a link to the original post here , is mandatory.
All sets and apparates appearing here are property of
Engineer Frank Sharp. NOTHING HERE IS FOR SALE !

Tuesday, January 10, 2012

MEDIATOR (PHILIPS) 66K365/16Z MULTISTANDARD (PHILIPS KM2) YEAR 1974.






The MEDIATOR (PHILIPS) 66K365/16Z MULTISTANDARD is the first (PHILIPS) color Television featuring multistandard capability for 625 Lines PAL and 819 Lines SECAM semiconductors technology based.

The MEDIATOR (PHILIPS) 66K365/16Z is even the first set completely based on the CTV KM2 chassis with semiconductors technology both germanium and silicium discretes combined with Asic's technolgy.

This set has the PHILIPS CHASSIS KM2 and a Delta Electron Gun CRT TUBE and was a monument to high tech combined with fashinating construction art. The electronics are extremely of high complexity and overcrowded, there are TWO convergence panels, miles of wiring and literally dozens of relays all over the place with many components and parts, but despite its complex nature, it was a reliable set.
This set is able to display every possible version of of PAL and SECAM in both 625 and 819 lines.This here was featuring the quick heat version A66-410X CRT's (26" models).
It has a  picture tube apparatus employing the so-called delta gun  shadow mask  The present invention relates to a color television picture tube  type color cathode-ray tube which is provided with three electron guns positioned respectively at the vertices of an equilateral triangle, " the so-called delta gun  shadow mask ".

To obtain a fine color picture on the screen of the cathode-ray tube of this type, the following requirements should be satisfied that the electron beam is emitted from each electron gun onto the center of each corresponding phosphor dot on the screen of the cathode-ray tube, the purity of colors is high and the electron beams are converged onto a group of phosphor dots.
These requirements can be comparatively easily satisfied in the case of the cathode-ray tube with a spherically formed screen, whereas it is difficult to satisfy the requirements in the case of a narrow-necked, wide-angle deflection cathode-ray tube. The wide angle deflection cathode-ray tube is advantageous in practical use because the distance between the electron guns and the screen is small and the screen is almost flat with a curvature approximate to that of a flat surface; however, it is necessary to control the electron beams so that the electron beams may be emitted exactly onto the 3-color phosphor dots on the screen because the incident angle and distance of the electron beams which reach the phosphor dots on the screen have the values proper to respective phospher dots.


 For those not familiar with this chassis, the silver cans on the smaller panel contain plugin circuit modules. They were designed to be easily replaced and usually repaired but few to norhing failed. The power supply lives in the cage in the middle bottom of the case. It is a switchmode design type SMPS: The term switch mode power supply is generally used to indicate an item that can be connected to the mains, or other external supply and used to generate the source power.The Switchmode DC power supply is a solid state AC to DC power conversion system. In other words it is a complete power supply.Power efficiency is a fundamental characteristic of any switch-mode power supply (SMPS), and its measure generally dictates the quality of the conversion device. This SMPS was running almost cool.

The chassis PHILIPS KM2 was replacing the previous KM1 tubes based.
It has a Transistorized horizontal deflection circuits  made up of a horizontal switching or output transistor, a diode, one or more capacitors and a deflection winding. The output transistor, operating as a switch, is driven by a horizontal rate square wave signal and conducts during a portion of the horizontal trace interval. A diode, connected in parallel with the transistor, conducts during the remainder of the trace interval. A retrace capacitor and the deflection yoke winding are coupled in parallel across the transistor-diode combination. Energy is transferred into and out of the deflection winding via the diode and output transistor during the trace interval and via the retrace capacitor during the retrace interval.
In some television receivers, the collector of the horizontal output transistor is coupled to the B+ power supply through the primary windings of the high voltage transformer.

The equivalent model was the PHILIPS 26C365 Mantegna - Chassis KM2


The set has 12 programs preselection with potentiometric tuning search performed in drawbars (see photo).
The mechanical turret approach to television tuning has been used almost exclusively for the past 60 years. Even though replete with the inherent disadvantages of mechanical complexity, unreliability and cost, such apparatus has been technically capable of performing its intended function and as a result the consumer has had to bear the burdens associated with the device. However, with the " recent "  Broadcast demands for parity of tuning for UHF and VHF channels, the increasing number of UHF and cable TV stations have imposed new tuning performance requirements which severely tax the capability of the mechanical turret tuner. Consequently, attempts are now being made to provide all electronic tuning to meet the new requirements.
It has a  sensor keyboard for local commands, includes a plurality of tuning positions each defined by an adjustable potentiometer, a neon bulb indicator, a UHF/VHF switch and a two pole momentary contact touch switch. A common tuning capacitor has a tuning voltage developed thereacross for controlling the tuning of a varactor diode tuner. A source of reference potential is coupled across the tuning potentiometers and closure of any touch switch results in the tuning capacitor being charged from the voltage reference source through the selected one of the tuning potentiometers. The neon bulbs yield a visual indication of the selected tuning position. Circuitry for automatically placing control of the tuner to a preselected one of the tuning positions upon turn on of the receiver is also included.A solid-state voltage-controlled capacitor (varactor or varicap) UHF television tuner is described which includes a varicap preselector tuned circuit, a varicap tuned RF amplifier stage inductively coupled to the preselector circuit, and a varicap tuned oscillator stage, both the oscillator stage and the amplifier stage being inductively coupled to the diode mixer stage from which an IF signal is derived. The tuner employs a single tuning voltage source to tune across the entire UHF range and also includes provision for AGC. Trimmer capacitors and inductance adjusting devices of unique and advantageous configuration are employed to align the tuner. Further disclosed are unique methods of assembly and alignment for the tuner.
The invention relates to a tuning unit with bandswitch for high frequency receivers, especially radio and television receivers, having a potentiometer system for the control of capacity diodes, the said potentiometer system consisting of a plurality of parallel resistance paths along which wiper contacts can be driven by means of screw spindles disposed adjacent one another in a common insulating material housing in which a bandswitch formed of metal rods is associated with each tuning spindle.
In these tuning units, the working voltages of the capacity diodes in the tuning circuits are recorded once a precise tuning to the desired frequency has been performed. A potentiometer tuning system has great advantages over the formerly used channel selectors operating with mechanically adjustable capacitors (tuning condensers) or mechanically adjustable inductances (variometers), mainly because it is not required to have such great precision in its tuning mechanism.
All commands are manual because there is no remote control featured.

On the rear side a switch rail for setting up deflections for 625 lines PAL and 819 Lines SECAM.

Lines 625/819
Picture mod. POS/NEG
Sound IF 5,5/6,5/11,15
Sound mod. FM/AM
System PAL/SECAM
Backporch 25%/30%/75%

The set is branded MEDIATOR which was the SWISS brand of PHILIPS combined with JURA sondyna and resonar.

The set is build with a Modular chassis design because as modern television receivers become more complex the problem of repairing the receiver becomes more difficult. As the number of components used in the television receiver increases the susceptibility to breakdown increases and it becomes more difficult to replace defective components as they are more closely spaced. The problem has become even more complicated with the increasing number of color television receivers in use. A color television receiver has a larger number of circuits of a higher degree of complexity than the black and white receiver and further a more highly trained serviceman is required to properly service the color television receiver.
Fortunately for the service problem to date, most failures occur in the vacuum tubes used in the television receivers. A faulty or inoperative vacuum tube is relatively easy to find and replace. However, where the television receiver malfunction is caused by the failure of other components, such as resistors, capacitors or inductors, it is harder to isolate the defective component and a higher degree of skill on the part of the serviceman is required.
Even with the great majority of the color television receiver malfunctions being of the "easy to find and repair" type proper servicing of color sets has been difficult to obtain due to the shortage of trained serviceman.
At the present time advances in the state of the semiconductor art have led to the increasing use of transistors in color television receivers. The receiver described in this application has only two tubes, the picture tube and the high voltage rectifier tube, all the other active components in the receiver being semiconductors.
One important characteristic of a semiconductor device is its extreme reliability in comparison with the vacuum tube. The number of transistor and integrated circuit failures in the television receiver will be very low in comparison with the failures of other components, the reverse of what is true in present day color television receivers. Thus most failures in future television receivers will be of the hard to service type and will require more highly qualified servicemen.
The primary symptoms of a television receiver malfunction are shown on the picture tube of the television receiver while the components causing the malfunction are located within the cabinet. Also many adjustments to the receiver require the serviceman to observe the screen. Thus the serviceman must use unsatisfactory mirror arrangements to remove the electronic chassis from the cabinet, usually a very difficult task. Further many components are "buried" in a maze of circuitry and other components so that they are difficult to remove and replace without damage to other components in the receiver.
Repairing a modern color television receiver often requires that the receiver be removed from the home and carried to a repair shop where it may remain for many weeks. This is an expensive undertaking since most receivers are bulky and heavy enough to require at least two persons to carry them. Further, two trips must be made to the home, one to pick up the receiver and one to deliver it. For these reasons, the cost of maintaining the color television receiver in operating condition often exceeds the initial cost of the receiver and is an important factor in determining whether a receiver will be purchased.
Therefore, the object of this invention is to provide a transistorized color television receiver in which the main electronic chassis is easily accessible for maintenance and adjustment. Another object of this invention is to provide a transistorized color television receiver in which the electronic circuits are divided into a plurality of modules with the modules easily removable for service and maintenance. The main electronic chassis is slidably mounted within the cabinet so that it may be withdrawn, in the same manner as a drawer, to expose the electronic circuitry therein for maintenance and adjustment from the rear closure panel after easy removal. Another aspect is the capability to be serviced at eventually the home of the owner.


Some History of the 625-line television standardization:

In July 1948 at the CCIR meeting in Stockholm Russia proposed a 625-line standard! The exact origins are not entirely clear, but the most plausible story is that immediately after the war, in the Russian-occupied zone, captured German engineers were forced to re-design NTSC sets received from the Americans under the Lend-Lease war program into a 50Hz-compatible new one. That resulted in a 625-line/50Hz standard with a line frequency of 15.625Hz, which is indeed very close to the 15.700Hz of the 525-line/60Hz NTSC system. One can say this is the same exercise Philips did with its 567-line standard, although with fewer compromises.
This 625-line proposal generated quite a shock and received immediately considerable support from technical experts, not from the political side.
 This was namely yet another standard next to the 405, 567 and 819-line proposals. And there was one more complication: the Russian standard positioned itself roughly halfway the Philips 567-line standard, which was at the time the highest resolution (quasi)-operational standard, and the French 819-line high-definition proposal, still a few years out from operational use. 
It proposed an 8MHz channel bandwidth with 6MHz video and 6,5MHz sound carrier distance. Many countries (i.e. the national telecom organisations like the Dutch PTT) and set makers considered this 8MHz channel bandwidth at this time as overly ambitious and uneconomical. It would allow fewer channels in VHF and make receivers expensive. And then there was of course the starting Cold War, so adopting a Russian standard was not a politically correct thing to do.

Like in all democratic standardization committees the solution to opposing and conflicting proposals is a working group, which was formed to tour the countries and laboratories that proposed a standard. 
France played the power card, and on November 20, 1948 François Mitterand, the later president but then Secretary of State for Information, issued a decree that France had officially chosen for the 819-line standard. 
France also put heavy pressure on its French-speaking neighbours Belgium and Luxembourg. Efforts of the Dutch government to align with Belgium on a single standard thus didn't lead to anything, since the Belgian government wanted to keep all options open. Throughout 1949 the CCIR committee must have visited all players including Philips, which gave demo's of its 567-line system and the PET transmissions. 

Target was the next meeting May 1950 in London. By this time a competing/alternative 625-line system was proposed, mainly by engineers of Telefunken of which at least Walter Bruch was a former Russian prisoner who worked on the Russian 625-line standard. This system copied the 625-line/50HHz basics of the original Russian standard, but at reduced channel bandwidth (7MHz instead of 8), video bandwidth (5MHz vs. 6MHz) and sound carrier (5.5 vs. 6.5MHz). Interestingly the new Bundesrepublik Deutschland, founded May 1949, was a strong supporter of the 625-line standard with the main argument that they wanted no two different standards in the two German zones. 
However, the BRD was not yet a member of the CCIR! At the May meeting in London there was still no agreement, if only for the reason that Britain could not let a meeting in London agree on anything else than a British standard. However, support for the ageing 502-line standard was minimal outside the UK, while the French 819-line high-definition standard was seen as too far fetched. That the pressure to come to a single standard and a compromise with the French was high is illustrated by the fact that end of 1949 even a 729-line standard was proposed [from De geschiedenis van Koninklijke Philips Electronics NV by J. Blanken, pt V, p37]. But the French had issued their state decree and didn't want to accept a compromise. The battle was in fact between the two versions of the 625-line standard.

As a next step yet another sub-committee was created, led by what was considered to be the neutral chairman Dr. Walter Gerber, an engineer of the Swiss telecom organization. During a meeting in Geneva Switzerland in July 1950, the countries Sweden, Denmark, Italy, the Netherlands and (Flemish) Belgium agreed on the modified 625-line standard, which was consequently for a long time known as the "Gerber-norm". Of course Germany supported the proposal in the background. But in the next formal CCIR meeting May 1951 in Geneva still no agreement could be reached on a single European standard, and from that moment onwards four different standards were to exist in parallel. 
To complicate matters further Vlaanderen (Flanders, the Dutch-speaking part of Belgium) defined their 625-line system as a compromise with the French 819-line standard, so AM sound and positive modulation, whereas Wallonie, the French-speaking part of Belgium as well as Luxembourg, opted for the 819-line system but squeezed into the 7MHz channel.
It goes without saying that Russia stuck to its original 8MHz 625-line standard, the UK to its 405-lines and France continued its path towards 819 lines. As a typical result their were consequently six different television standards in Europe!



The Story About the MEDIATOR (PHILIPS) 66K365/16Z MULTISTANDARD:

A television lasted longer than his owner !

This television set is a truly amazing example of nerverdie CRT telly, or almost a way of eternity of everlasting.

- One day approx 8 years ago in 2004, a blonde mature lady called me at the phone saying that she have a tellye to give to me. I've asked what tellye she  was talking about and she answered to me "the big MEDIATOR from Switzerland" of his defunct husband.

I wasn't aware that her husband died but anyway i've made an appointment with her to do the job of the pick up of the set.

First  , This set was known as an all day tellye, so it was powered on almost 15 or 18 hours per day from 1974 when purchased until 2004.
The original owner bought this set in Switzerland in 1974 and was heavily used all days with no exceptions since first day of his life.

Secondly, In 1991 the original owner has added a external Satellite receiver tuner to tv the setup and connected it to the tellye via RF tuner antenna BNC and permanetly powered on first program, further he was using the remote control of the Satellite Receiver for program changing and therefore added more channels and more use !
For this , a lot of More hours of use were added to the tellye, reaching sometimes even 20 hours per day of use.


The owners was watching all kind of programs with no exceptions and even when doing
something different in his house the MEDIATOR (PHILIPS) 66K365/16Z was everytime powered on like an all day radio with pictures.

When i went to lady's house i've seen the MEDIATOR (PHILIPS) 66K365/16Z still running in their living room showing perfect pictures with perfect contrast and without any convergence error or any issue at all.
Seeing this I've asked why the tellye is running and no one is watching it ?

After a bit of conversation , the lady talked to me about his defunct husband, she said that from the day of his death the MEDIATOR (PHILIPS) 66K365/16Z was never powered off even overnight because of the fact that her husband died at the age of 83 years old by natural causes in a calm sleep watching this television but, after......... he never again wake up .  (he ceased to live in front of the running  MEDIATOR (PHILIPS)  66K365/16Z )

The lady also said that she was a bit concerned if powering off the tellye will do somewhat bad to the memory of her husband and for this she got a bit of scary .


I talked to the lady for around 30 minutes and calmed her concerns down and powered off the tellye. After a more talk of various things i've waited to cool down the set before fitting it in my car (1990's VW PASSAT MK3) because the set was running 3 months 24H/7  continuosly  without absolutely no stop.

The lady at the end was happy to give to me the set because she was sure it will go in good hands even if was the greatest memory of her defunct husband and a good family entertainer for a couple of husband / wife for 30 YEARS.


(
The lady who gave me the telly MEDIATOR (PHILIPS)  66K365/16Z MULTISTANDARD (PHILIPS KM2)   died 4 years ago at 82 years age.)

The MEDIATOR (PHILIPS) 66K365/16Z here shown Is still functional and WAS NEVER SERVICED OR OPENED BEFORE !
I've opened for first time after 38 YEARS to do the photographing service for Obsolete Technology Tellye ! web museum.


MEDIATOR Philips (Schweiz) AG: Ab 1927 Verkauf Importgeräte ab Zürich. Ab 1933 Fabrikation in La Chaux-de-Fonds bis 1957, dann TV bis 1973. Kl. Firmengeschichte siehe [1-164]. Die Philips-Lampen AG, Zürich, verkauft zumindest ab 1924 auch Röhren [322502]. Parallel mit den Radios auch Produktion für die Marken Médiator, Jura u.a. Ab 1953 auch TV-Apparate (s/w) und Modifikationen Farbgeräte. TV-Gerätefabrikation auch für Sondyna, Biennophone und Resonar. Immer auch Importgeräte aus D, F, NL!



Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. (Royal Philips Electronics Inc.), most commonly known as Philips, (Euronext: PHIA, NYSE: PHG) is a multinational Dutch electronics corporation.

Philips is one of the largest electronics companies in the world. In 2009, its sales were €23.18 billion. The company employs 115,924 people in more than 60 countries.

Philips is organized in a number of sectors: Philips Consumer Lifestyles (formerly Philips Consumer Electronics and Philips Domestic Appliances and Personal Care), Philips Lighting and Philips Healthcare (formerly Philips Medical Systems).
he company was founded in 1891 by Gerard Philips, a maternal cousin of Karl Marx, in Eindhoven, Netherlands. Its first products were light bulbs and other electro-technical equipment. Its first factory survives as a museum devoted to light sculpture. In the 1920s, the company started to manufacture other products, such as vacuum tubes (also known worldwide as 'valves'), In 1927 they acquired the British electronic valve manufacturers Mullard and in 1932 the German tube manufacturer Valvo, both of which became subsidiaries. In 1939 they introduced their electric razor, the Philishave (marketed in the USA using the Norelco brand name).
Philips was also instrumental in the revival of the Stirling engine.

As a chip maker, Philips Semiconductors was among the Worldwide Top 20 Semiconductor Sales Leaders.

In December 2005 Philips announced its intention to make the Semiconductor Division into a separate legal entity. This process of "disentanglement" was completed on 1 October 2006.

On 2 August 2006, Philips completed an agreement to sell a controlling 80.1% stake in Philips Semiconductors to a consortium of private equity investors consisting of Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co. (KKR), Silver Lake Partners and AlpInvest Partners. The sale completed a process, which began December 2005, with its decision to create a separate legal entity for Semiconductors and to pursue all strategic options. Six weeks before, ahead of its online dialogue, through a letter to 8,000 of Philips managers, it was announced that they were speeding up the transformation of Semiconductors into a stand-alone entity with majority ownership by a third party. It was stated then that "this is much more than just a transaction: it is probably the most significant milestone on a long journey of change for Philips and the beginning of a new chapter for everyone – especially those involved with Semiconductors".

In its more than 115 year history, this counts as a big step that is definitely changing the profile of the company. Philips was one of few companies that successfully made the transition from the electrical world of the 19th century into the electronic age, starting its semiconductor activity in 1953 and building it into a global top 10 player in its industry. As such, Semiconductors was at the heart of many innovations in Philips over the past 50 years.

Agreeing to start a process that would ultimately lead to the decision to sell the Semiconductor Division therefore was one of the toughest decisions that the Board of Management ever had to make.

On 21 August 2006, Bain Capital and Apax Partners announced that they had signed definitive commitments to join the expanded consortium headed by KKR that is to acquire the controlling stake in the Semiconductors Division.

On 1 September 2006, it was announced in Berlin that the name of the new semiconductor company founded by Philips is NXP Semiconductors.

Coinciding with the sale of the Semiconductor Division, Philips also announced that they would drop the word 'Electronics' from the company name, thus becoming simply Koninklijke Philips N.V. (Royal Philips N.V.).


PHILIPS FOUNDATION:

The foundations of Philips were laid in 1891 when Anton and Gerard Philips established Philips & Co. in Eindhoven, the Netherlands. The company begun manufacturing carbon-filament lamps and by the turn of the century, had become one of the largest producers in Europe. Stimulated by the industrial revolution in Europe, Philips’ first research laboratory started introducing its first innovations in the x-ray and radio technology. Over the years, the list of inventions has only been growing to include many breakthroughs that have continued to enrich people’s everyday lives.



In the early years of Philips &; Co., the representation of the company name took many forms: one was an emblem formed by the initial letters of Philips ; Co., and another was the word Philips printed on the glass of metal filament lamps.



One of the very first campaigns was launched in 1898 when Anton Philips used a range of postcards showing the Dutch national costumes as marketing tools. Each letter of the word Philips was printed in a row of light bulbs as at the top of every card. In the late 1920s, the Philips name began to take on the form that we recognize today.



The now familiar Philips waves and stars first appeared in 1926 on the packaging of miniwatt radio valves, as well as on the Philigraph, an early sound recording device. The waves symbolized radio waves, while the stars represented the ether of the evening sky through which the radio waves would travel.



In 1930 it was the first time that the four stars flanking the three waves were placed together in a circle. After that, the stars and waves started appearing on radios and gramophones, featuring this circle as part of their design. Gradually the use of the circle emblem was then extended to advertising materials and other products.



At this time Philips’ business activities were expanding rapidly and the company wanted to find a trademark that would uniquely represent Philips, but one that would also avoid legal problems with the owners of other well-known circular emblems. This wish resulted in the combination of the Philips circle and the wordmark within the shield emblem.



In 1938, the Philips shield made its first appearance. Although modified over the years, the basic design has remained constant ever since and, together with the wordmark, gives Philips the distinctive identity that is still embraced today.

The first steps of CRT production by Philips started in the thirties with the Deutsche Philips Electro-Spezial gesellschaft in Germany and the Philips NatLab (Physics laboratory) in Holland. After the introduction of television in Europe, just after WWII there was a growing demand of television sets and oscilloscope equipment. Philips in Holland was ambitious and started experimental television in 1948. Philips wanted to be the biggest on this market. From 1948 there was a small Philips production of television and oscilloscope tubes in the town of Eindhoven which soon developed in mass production. In 1976 a part of the Philips CRT production went to the town of Heerlen and produced its 500.000'th tube in 1986. In 1994 the company in Heerlen changed from Philips into CRT-Heerlen B.V. specialized in the production of small monochrome CRT's for the professional market and reached 1.000.000 produced tubes in 1996. In this stage the company was able to produce very complicated tubes like storage CRT's.
In 2001 the company merged into Professional Display Systems, PDS worked on LCD and Plasma technology but went bankrupt in 2009. The employees managed a start through as Cathode Ray Technology which now in 2012 has to close it's doors due to the lack of sales in a stressed market. Their main production was small CRT's for oscilloscope, radar and large medical use (X-ray displays). New experimental developments were small Electron Microscopy, 3D-TV displays, X-Ray purposes and Cathode Ray Lithography for wafer production. Unfortunately the time gap to develop these new products was too big.


28 of September 2012, Cathode Ray Technology (the Netherlands), the last Cathode Ray Tube factory in Europe closed. Ironically the company never experienced so much publicity as now, all of the media brought the news in Holland about the closure. In fact this means the end of mass production 115 years after Ferdinand Braun his invention. The rapid introduction and acceptation of LCD and Plasma displays was responsible for a drastic decrease in sales. Despite the replacement market for the next couple of years in the industrial, medical and avionics sector.
The numbers are small and the last few CRT producers worldwide are in heavy competition.

Gerard Philips:

Gerard Leonard Frederik Philips (October 9, 1858, in Zaltbommel – January 27, 1942, in The Hague, Netherlands) was a Dutch industrialist, co-founder (with his father Frederik Philips) of the Philips Company as a family business in 1891. Gerard and his younger brother Anton Philips changed the business to a corporation by founding in 1912 the NV Philips' Gloeilampenfabrieken. As the first CEO of the Philips corporation, Gerard laid with Anton the base for the later Philips multinational.



Early life and education

Gerard was the first son of Benjamin Frederik David Philips (1 December 1830 – 12 June 1900) and Maria Heyligers (1836 – 1921). His father was active in the tobacco business and a banker at Zaltbommel in the Netherlands; he was a first cousin of Karl Marx.



Career

Gerard Philips became interested in electronics and engineering. Frederik was the financier for Gerard's purchase of the old factory building in Eindhoven where he established the first factory in 1891. They operated the Philips Company as a family business for more than a decade.



Marriage and family

On March 19, 1896 Philips married Johanna van der Willigen (30 September 1862 – 1942). They had no children.

Gerard was an uncle of Frits Philips, whom he and his brother brought into the business. Later they brought in his brother's grandson, Franz Otten.


Gerard and his brother Anton supported education and social programs in Eindhoven, including the Philips Sport Vereniging (Philips Sports Association), which they founded. From it the professional football (soccer) department developed into the independent Philips Sport Vereniging N.V.



Anton Philips:

Anton Frederik Philips (March 14, 1874, Zaltbommel, Gelderland – October 7, 1951, Eindhoven) co-founded Royal Philips Electronics N.V. in 1912 with his older brother Gerard Philips in Eindhoven, the Netherlands. He served as CEO of the company from 1922 to 1939.



Early life and education

Anton was born to Maria Heyligers (1836 – 1921) and Benjamin Frederik David Philips (December 1, 1830 – June 12, 1900). His father was active in the tobacco business and a banker at Zaltbommel in the Netherlands. (He was a first cousin to Karl Marx.) Anton's brother Gerard was 16 years older.



Career

In May 1891 the father Frederik was the financier and, with his son Gerard Philips, co-founder of the Philips Company as a family business. In 1912 Anton joined the firm, which they named Royal Philips Electronics N.V.

During World War I, Anton Philips managed to increase sales by taking advantage of a boycott of German goods in several countries. He provided the markets with alternative products.

Anton (and his brother Gerard) are remembered as being civic-minded. In Eindhoven they supported education and social programs and facilities, such as the soccer department of the Philips Sports Association as the best-known example.

Anton Philips brought his son Frits Philips and grandson Franz Otten into the company in their times. Anton took the young Franz Otten with him and other family members to escape the Netherlands just before the Nazi Occupation during World War II; they went to the United States. They returned after the war.

His son Frits Philips chose to stay and manage the company during the occupation; he survived several months at the concentration camp of Vught after his workers went on strike. He saved the lives of 382 Jews by claiming them as indispensable to his factory, and thus helped them evade Nazi roundups and deportation to concentration camps.

Philips died in Eindhoven in 1951.

Marriage and family

Philips married Anne Henriëtte Elisabeth Maria de Jongh (Amersfoort, May 30, 1878 – Eindhoven, March 7, 1970). They had the following children:

* Anna Elisabeth Cornelia Philips (June 19, 1899 – ?), married in 1925 to Pieter Franciscus Sylvester Otten (1895 – 1969), and had:
o Diek Otten
o Franz Otten (b. c. 1928 - d. 1967), manager in the Dutch electronics company Philips
* Frederik Jacques Philips (1905-2005)
* Henriëtte Anna Philips (Eindhoven, October 26, 1906 – ?), married firstly to A. Knappert (d. 1932), without issue; married secondly to G. Jonkheer Sandberg (d. September 5, 1935), without issue; and married thirdly in New York City, New York, on September 29, 1938 to Jonkheer Gerrit van Riemsdijk (Aerdenhout, January 10, 1911 – Eindhoven, November 8, 2005). They had the following children:
o ..., Jonkheerin Gerrit van Riemsdijk (b. Waalre, October 2, 1939), married at Waalre on February 17, 1968 to Johannes Jasper Tuijt (b. Atjeh, Koeta Radja, March 10, 1930), son of Jacobus Tuijt and wife Hedwig Jager, without issue
o ..., Jonkheerin Gerrit van Riemsdijk (b. Waalre, April 3, 1946), married firstly at Calvados, Falaise, on June 6, 1974 to Martinus Jan Petrus Vermooten (Utrecht, September 16, 1939 – Falaise, August 29, 1978), son of Martinus Vermooten and wife Anna Pieternella Hendrika Kwantes, without issue; married secondly in Paris on December 12, 1981 to Jean Yves Louis Bedos (Calvados, Rémy, January 9, 1947 – Calvados, Lisieux, October 5, 1982), son of Georges Charles Bedos and wife Henriette Louise Piel, without issue; and married thirdly at Manche, Sartilly, on September 21, 1985 to Arnaud Evain (b. Ardennes, Sedan, July 7, 1952), son of Jean Claude Evain and wife Flore Halleux, without issue
o ..., Jonkheerin Gerrit van Riemsdijk (b. Waalre, September 4, 1948), married at Waalre, October 28, 1972 to Elie Johan François van Dissel (b. Eindhoven, October 9, 1948), son of Willem Pieter
Jacob van Dissel and wife Francisca Frederike Marie Wirtz, without issue.



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A comment...........of a 1996 reality ..................
Philips, which seems to be a perennial walking wounded case. The company had appeared to be on the mend after a worldwide cost- cutting programme which was started five years ago when Jan Timmer took over as chairman.
 But, following a sharp profits fall, with the company's first quarterly loss since 1992, a further shake up is being undertaken.
The difficulty is that the company operates in a mature market, in which prices are falling at an annual rate of six per cent. Manufacturers are competing by cutting costs to gain a larger share of static demand. It's not a situation in which any firm that does its own manufacturing can achieve much. Philips' latest plan involves an overall loss of 6,000 jobs in its consumer electronics business, with far greater reliance placed on a group of external suppliers which are referred to as "a cluster of dedicated subcontractors".

This is an approach that was pioneered many years ago by major Japanese manufacturers. Rather than make everything yourself, you rely on subcontractors who, in return, rely on you for their main source of work. It is hardly a cosy arrangement: the whole point seems to be that the major fain can exert pressure on its subcontractors, thereby - in theory - achieving optimum efficiency and cost-effectiveness. What happens when lower and lower prices are demanded for subcontracted work is not made clear.

The whole edifice could collapse. However that might be, this is the course on which Philips has now embarked. The company is also to carry out distribution, sales and marketing on a regional rather than a national basis, and has said that it will not support Grundig's losses after this year.

But Philips' chief financial officer Dudley Eustace has said that it has "no intention of abandoning the television and audio business". One has to assume that the subcontracting will also be done on an international basis, as major Japanese firms have had to do. There is a sense of déjà vu about this, though one wishes Philips well - it is still one of the major contributors to research and development in our industry.

Toshiba, which has also just appointed a new top man, Taizo Nishimoro, provides an interesting contrast. Mr Nishimoro thinks that the western emphasis on sales and marketing rather than engineering is the way to go. So the whole industry seems to be moving full circle. Taizo Nishimoro has become the first non engineering president of Toshiba. Where the company cannot compete effectively on its own, he intends to seek international alliances or go for closures. He put it as follows. "The technology and the businesses we are engaged in are getting more complex.
 In these circumstances, if we try to do everything ourselves we are making a mistake." Here's how Minoru Makihara, who became head of Mitsubishi Corporation four years ago, sees it. "Technologies are now moving so fast that it is impossible for the top manager to know all the details. 
Companies are now looking for generalists who can understand broad changes, delegate and provide leadership." Corporate change indeed amongst our oriental colleagues. Major firms the world over are facing similar problems and having to adopt similar policies.
In a mature market such as consumer electronics, you have to rely on marketing to squeeze the last little bit of advantage from such developments as Dolby sound and other added value features. The consumer electronics industry has been hoping that the digital video disc would come to its aid and get sales and profits moving ahead.
The DVD was due to be released in Sept 1996 , but we are unlikely to hear much more about it yet awhile. There's no problem with the technology: the difficulty is with licensing and software. There is obviously no point in launching it without adequate software support. But the movie companies, which control most of the required supply of software, are concerned that a recordable version of the disc, due in a couple of years' time, would be a gift to pirates worldwide. Concessions have been made by the electronics industry, in particular that different disc formats should be used in different parts of the world. But a curious problem has arisen.
 The other main use of the DVD is as a ROM in computer systems. For this application flexible copying facilities are a major requirement. But the movie companies are unwilling to agree to this. At present the situation is deadlocked and the great hope of an autumn launch, all important for sales, has had to be postponed. Next year maybe? It's a great pity, since the DVD has much to offer.
There's a lot of sad news on the retail side as well. Colorvision has been placed in administrative receivership in 1996 , with a threat to 800 jobs at its 76 stores, while the Rumbelows shops that were taken over by computer retailer Escom have suffered a similar fate. The receivers have closed down the UK chain with the loss of 850 jobs at some 150 stores. Nothing seems to be going right just now.


 References:


 Philips Research Philips Technical Review Volumes 1-13 (1936-1954).
 Philips Electron Tube Division Electronic Application Bulletin volumes 10-16, 1949-1955.
 Philips Electron Tube Division Television Receiving Tubes EF80 ECL80 PL81 PL83 PY80, 1950
 Philips series Electron Valves, volumes I-VIII, published 1940-1953.

 F. Kerkhof and W. Werner, Televisie, Philips Technische Bibliotheek, 1951

 Philips Service Manuals of individual television receiver models; partly private collectin and found on the internet.

 Electron, the monthly publication of the Dutch Vereniging of Radio Amateurs, volumes 1947-1952. Was especially      useful for the "external view"on the PET-period of experimental transmissions.

 I.J. Blanken, Geschiedenis van de Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V., Europese Bibliotheek, Zaltbommel, 2002. Especially pt.4 "Onder Duits beheer" and pt.5 "Een industriële revolutie".

 A.A.A. de la Bruhèze, H.W. Lintsen, Arie Rip, J.W. Schot Techniek in Nederland in de twintigste eeuw. Deel 5. Transport, communicatie, 2002. Good background story on the broader development of television broadcast in the Netherlands.

 Mark Burgess, History of Philips Semiconductors in the 1950's, 2009.


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