Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

In Brief: On this site you will find pictures and information about some of the electronic, electrical and electrotechnical Obsolete technology relics that the Frank Sharp Private museum has accumulated over the years .
Premise: There are lots of vintage electrical and electronic items that have not survived well or even completely disappeared and forgotten.

Or are not being collected nowadays in proportion to their significance or prevalence in their heyday, this is bad and the main part of the death land. The heavy, ugly sarcophagus; models with few endearing qualities, devices that have some over-riding disadvantage to ownership such as heavy weight,toxicity or inflated value when dismantled, tend to be under-represented by all but the most comprehensive collections and museums. They get relegated to the bottom of the wants list, derided as 'more trouble than they are worth', or just forgotten entirely. As a result, I started to notice gaps in the current representation of the history of electronic and electrical technology to the interested member of the public.

Following this idea around a bit, convinced me that a collection of the peculiar alone could not hope to survive on its own merits, but a museum that gave equal display space to the popular and the unpopular, would bring things to the attention of the average person that he has previously passed by or been shielded from. It's a matter of culture. From this, the Obsolete Technology Tellye Web Museum concept developed and all my other things too. It's an open platform for all electrical Electronic TV technology to have its few, but NOT last, moments of fame in a working, hand-on environment. We'll never own Colossus or Faraday's first transformer, but I can show things that you can't see at the Science Museum, and let you play with things that the Smithsonian can't allow people to touch, because my remit is different.

There was a society once that was the polar opposite of our disposable, junk society. A whole nation was built on the idea of placing quality before quantity in all things. The goal was not “more and newer,” but “better and higher" .This attitude was reflected not only in the manufacturing of material goods, but also in the realms of art and architecture, as well as in the social fabric of everyday life. The goal was for each new cohort of children to stand on a higher level than the preceding cohort: they were to be healthier, stronger, more intelligent, and more vibrant in every way.

The society that prioritized human, social and material quality is a Winner. Truly, it is the high point of all Western civilization. Consequently, its defeat meant the defeat of civilization itself.

Today, the West is headed for the abyss. For the ultimate fate of our disposable society is for that society itself to be disposed of. And this will happen sooner, rather than later.

OLD, but ORIGINAL, Well made, Funny, Not remotely controlled............. and not Made in CHINA.

How to use the site:
- If you landed here via any Search Engine, you will get what you searched for and you can search more using the search this blog feature provided by Google. You can visit more posts scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year,
or you can click on the main photo-page to start from the main page. Doing so it starts from the most recent post to the older post simple clicking on the Older Post button on the bottom of each page after reading , post after post.

You can even visit all posts, time to time, when reaching the bottom end of each page and click on the Older Post button.

- If you arrived here at the main page via bookmark you can visit all the site scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year pointing were you want , or more simple You can even visit all blog posts, from newer to older, clicking at the end of each bottom page on the Older Post button.
So you can see all the blog/site content surfing all pages in it.

- The search this blog feature provided by Google is a real search engine. If you're pointing particular things it will search IT for you; or you can place a brand name in the search query at your choice and visit all results page by page. It's useful since the content of the site is very large.

Note that if you don't find what you searched for, try it after a period of time; the site is a never ending job !

Every CRT Television saved let revive knowledge, thoughts, moments of the past life which will never return again.........

Many contemporary "televisions" (more correctly named as displays) would not have this level of staying power, many would ware out or require major services within just five years or less and of course, there is that perennial bug bear of planned obsolescence where components are deliberately designed to fail and, or manufactured with limited edition specificities..... and without considering........picture......sound........quality........
..............The bitterness of poor quality is remembered long after the sweetness of todays funny gadgets low price has faded from memory........ . . . . . .....
Don't forget the past, the end of the world is upon us! Pretty soon it will all turn to dust!

Have big FUN ! !
©2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 Frank Sharp - You do not have permission to copy photos and words from this blog, and any content may be never used it for auctions or commercial purposes, however feel free to post anything you see here with a courtesy link back, btw a link to the original post here , is mandatory.
All sets and apparates appearing here are property of Engineer Frank Sharp. NOTHING HERE IS FOR SALE !
All posts are presented here for informative, historical and educative purposes as applicable within Fair Use.

Monday, December 10, 2012


The THOMSON TF5551 PG5 THOMSQUARE is a 21 inches (51cm) color television with square screen and black matrix, improved focus type crt.

It has 39 programs PLL synthesized tuning, AV SCART socket, dual standard feature, front headphone jack.

A SCART Connector (which stands for Syndicat des Constructeurs d'Appareils Radiorécepteurs et Téléviseurs) is a standard for connecting audio-visual equipment together. The official standard for SCART is CENELEC document number EN 50049-1. SCART is also known as Péritel (especially in France) and Euroconnector but the name SCART will be used exclusively herein. The standard defines a 21-pin connector (herein after a SCART connector) for carrying analog television signals. Various pieces of equipment may be connected by cables having a plug fitting the SCART connectors. Television apparatuses commonly include one or more SCART connectors.
Although a SCART connector is bidirectional, the present invention is concerned with the use of a SCART connector as an input connector for receiving signals into a television apparatus. A SCART connector can receive input television signals either in an RGB format in which the red, green and blue signals are received on Pins 15, 11 and 7, respectively, or alternatively in an S-Video format in which the luminance (Y) and chroma (C) signals are received on Pins 20 and 15. As a result of the common usage of Pin 15 in accordance with the SCART standard, a SCART connector cannot receive input television signals in an RGB format and in an S-Video format at the same time.
Consequently many commercially available television apparatuses include a separate SCART connectors each dedicated to receive input television signals in one of an RGB format and an S-Video format. This limits the functionality of the SCART connectors. In practical terms, the number of SCART connectors which can be provided on a television apparatus is limited by cost and space considerations. However, different users wish the input a wide range of different combinations of formats of television signals, depending on the equipment they personally own and use. However, the provision of SCART connectors dedicated to input television signals in one of an RGB format and an S-Video format limits the overall connectivity of the television apparatus. Furthermore, for many users the different RGB format and S-Video format are confusing. Some users may not understand or may mistake the format of a television signal being supplied on a given cable from a given piece of equipment. This can result in the supply of input television signals of an inappropriate format for the SCART connector concerned.
This kind of connector is todays obsoleted !

The set was called thomsquare because was featuring first time the new VIDEOCOLOR FS10 square screen black matrix improved electron gun focusing crt tube, An improved color picture tube has an inline electron gun for generating and directing three electron beams, a center beam and two side beams, along coplanar paths toward a screen of the tube. The gun includes a main focus lens for focusing the electron beams. The main focus lens is formed by two spaced electrode members, each having three separate inline apertures therein, a center aperture and two side apertures. The improvement comprises each of the apertures in each of the focus lens electrodes having a shape that distorts a portion of the focus lens thereat, to at least partially compensate for an astigmatic effect within the tube that acts on an associated electron beam. The side apertures in both of the electrodes are nonsymmetrical about axes that pass through the respective side apertures and are perpendicular to the initial coplanar paths of the electron beams. furthermore the gun includes an additional accelerator electrode after G2 directly connected to HV ultor voltage .The gun includes a plurality of electrodes which form a beam-forming region, a prefocusing lens, and a main focusing lens for the electron beams. The prefocusing lens includes four active surfaces. At least one of the active surfaces has asymmetric prefocusing recesses formed therein.

The THOMSQUARE Tm was even used in bigger models, from 21 to 29 inches screens.

As any THOMSON or any set featuring the THOMSON CHASSIS ICC5 it has extreme superb pictures, bright, higly focused, even today unsurpassed and stunning  image quality.
The ICC5 got a bad press but they were an advanced design and unusual for the time for a European chassis in that they didn't make widespread use of Philips techniques or components.B&O sets have used it like the MX3000, MX4500 and MX5000. B&O had also used the previous ICC3 in the MX2000 and the M20, so they weren't much of a culture shock - the removal of the big mains transformer that the ICC3 had was clearly the key design goal.I found the chassis to be reasonably reliable after reworking and well laid out in general maybe a bit too compact, there were a few quirks without a doubt , the E-W stage once sorted with modified coil etc. wasn't so unreliable after all. The PCB layout was one of the most complex design almost like a computer board. It was only when they aged you started to get some real weird faults. The ICC7/8 were a lot more conventional circuitry wise, and posed few real problems. The ICC9 and IDC2 were not very reliable at all, possibly the least reliable of the lot, the IKC2 was a close second! Personally i disliked the IKC2.This models series are the last featuring the THOMSON CHASSIS ICC5, replaced with THOMSON ICC7, ICC8 SERIES.

In 1879 Elihu Thomson and Edwin Houston formed the Thomson-Houston Electric Company in the United States.
On April 15, 1892 Thomson-Houston and the Edison General Electric Company merged to form General Electric (GE). Also in 1892 the company formed a French subsidiary, Thomson Houston International.
In 1893 Compagnie Française Thomson-Houston (CFTH) was set up as a partner to GE. It is from this company that the modern Thomson companies would evolve.
In 1966 CFTH merged with Hotchkiss-Brandt to form Thomson-Houston-Hotchkiss-Brandt (soon renamed Thomson-Brandt). In 1968 the electronics business of Thomson-Brandt merged with Compagnie Générale de Télégraphie Sans Fil (CSF) to form Thomson-CSF. Thomson Brandt maintained a significant shareholding in this company (approximately 40%).
In 1982 both Thomson-Brandt and Thomson-CSF were nationalized by François Mitterrand. Thomson-Brandt was renamed Thomson SA (Société Anonyme) and merged with Thomson-CSF.
From 1983 to 1987 a major reorganisation of Thomson-CSF was undertaken, with divestitures to refocus the group on its core activities (electronics and defence). Thomson-CSF Téléphone and the medical division were sold to Alcatel and GE respectively. The semiconductor businesses of Thomson CSF was merged with Finmeccanica. Thomson acquired General Electric’s RCA and GE consumer electronics business in 1987.
In 1988 Thomson Consumer Electronics was formed, renamed Thomson Multimedia in 1995. The French government split the consumer electronics and defence businesses prior to privatisation in 1999, those companies being Thomson Multimedia (today Technicolor SA) and Thomson-CSF (today Thales Group).

Thomson-CSF was a major electronics and defence contractor. In December 2000 it was renamed Thales Group.

...........1996............there are no stranger foreigners than the first ones you come across, the French. This is borne out by the 1996 Thomson situation. Thomson, was a vast company by any reckoning, is a strange beast. It's state controlled, which means that the government owns most but not quite all of it. and consists of two distinct arms, the defence group Thomson-CFS which is quite profitable, and the consumer electronics group Thomson Multimedia which loses a packet. The government wanted  rid of it, but won't sell the bits separately. It doesn't want to be left with the problem of what to do with Thomson Multimedia. You might think that no one would be interested in helping the French government. But in fact there are two contenders to take over Thomson, the telecommunications and power group Alcatel Alsthom and the defence and media group Lagardere. They have been engaging in quite a battle over the ownership, and as we go to press the French government is due to decide whose bid to accept. Whoever wins will end up with the profitable defence company  and the problem of Thomson Multimedia (TMM).

Lagardere has stated that it would sell TMM to Daewoo of Korea. Alcatel Alsthom has not been quite so specific, but has announced that it would take immediate action to reduce TMM's losses and seek an "Asian partner" that "specialises in consumer electronics". The partner would be expected to take over management of TMM, but Alcatel would like to remain a "minority partner" - it sees prospects in the move to digital TV technology that will occur during the next decade. All this gives one a strange feeling of déjà vu. At the time when Thomson took over Ferguson, in June 1987, it was noticed  that Thomson is "now on the government's privatisation list". It's taken almost a decade to happen.

 It's also said that "Thomson may be big, but has not been all that successful in the past in the consumer electronics field". Right on! What has happened to Ferguson in the UK illustrates the dismal Thomson effect. From being the local brand leader, with over ten per cent of the market, Ferguson has ended up being an also ran. It's only fair however to mention that Ferguson was making substantial losses when Thorn EMI was glad to get £90m for it from Thomson. Thomson has been able to survive in the consumer electronics field because it is part of a larger organisation, with those defence profits. It has nevertheless over the years attempted to play a a major role in the international consumer electronics field, keeping up with Philips and the Japanese corporations. From its French origins, it first expanded by picking up various German companies such as NordMende an SABA. It added Telefunken, a venerable name if ever there was one in this industry, in the early eighties, then took what was to be a big move into the UK market when it bought Ferguson. 

It used  six brand names in Europe. The largest step however occurred when TMM became a major force in the North American market by taking over General Electric's consumer electronics interests. This also gave it the RCA operation. The idea behind all this seems to have been to achieve success simply by getting bigger. There was always government finance to back the policy, which in the event has not been a success. The TMM debacle is a sad one, since Thomson's research and engineering has had many successes.
 It has not stinted on R and D work, with laboratories in Los Angeles, Indianapolis, Strasbourg, Hanover, Villingen, Tokyo and Singapore. Much work has been done on HD -TV, digital signal processing and other developments that have kept it in the forefront of the technology. Now, it seems, TMM is likely to be swallowed up by one of the Oriental corporate giants. 
If there are any lessons to be drawn, they would seem to be that expansion by itself is no guarantee of success, that to spread ones activities and their control across the globe makes management extremely difficult, and that costs are very hard to control in such a context. Alcatel Alsthom's plans to reduce TMM's losses bear this out. It would close down TMM's US factories, transferring production to the company's modern facilities in Mexico, where wages are much lower.

 It would rationalise the large collection of brands, possibly adopting RCA as the main one worldwide. And there is a suggestion that the company should be run from the USA, since this is its largest market. But all this would be just initial steps towards ceding majority control. Venerable brand names such as Telefunken, GE and RCA would pass to oriental ownership. This will happen whoever wins, Alcatel Alsthom or Lagardere, which would leave just Philips to carry on Europe's traditions in the consumer electronics field............. but we all know how it ended.................

Thomson-CSF independence

Following the privatisation of the Thomson Group Thomson-CSF explored the possibility of merging with Marconi Electronic Systems, however British Aerospace was successful in that aim, forming BAE Systems.
In 2000 Thomson-CSF went through a series of transactions, including with Marconi plc. The major acquisition at this time was the £1.3 billion purchase of the British defence electronics firm, Racal. This made Thomson-CSF the second largest participant in the UK defence industry after BAE. Racal was renamed Thomson-CSF Racal plc.
On December 6, 2000 the group was renamed Thales.


Further reading

  • Jean-Pierre, Thierry (16 October 2003). Taïwan Connection : Scandales et meurtres au cœur de la République [Taiwan Connection – Scandals and Murders at the Heart of the Republic] (in French). Robert Laffont. ISBN 978-2221100820.
  • L'entreprise partagée ? Une pratique différente des relations sociales : l'expérience Thomson-CSF, Robert Thomas (pseudonym for a team-work with Pierre Beretti and Jean-Pierre Thiollet), Paris, Maxima-Laurent du Mesnil Ed., 1999


The THOMSON CHASSIS ICC5 Is a highly engineered chassis (see pictures).

It was introducing high integration of advanced and high precision functions.

It's introducing all digital control of all circuits, from tuning to video matrix and audio.

It was fitted in a very high number of models with screen formats varying from 20 to 32 Inches.

It has known a high rate of improvements and add ons fetures and further functions.

The version here in collection is the second version marketed in 1986 when the ICC5 was developed (5110) which eliminates the reset ic but keeping the basic design here shown.

It has a layout design which is very complex due to high engineering on signal path toghether with integration needings.

Functionally they run very well and stable but it was showing the highest rate of failures caused by dry joint evn almost immediately when new !! !!

To run these in reliable way you have to basically rework all the PCB Joint !!


Quality of components it's very high, all parts here pictured are original from 1986.

Picture produced by this chassis is excellent and this is expecially coming from the accurate and high performed video signal processing.



The TEA2029C is a complete (horizontal and vertical)
deflection processor with secondary to primary
SMPS control for color TV sets.


This integrated circuit uses I2L bipolar technology
and combines analog signal processing with digital
Timing signals are obtainedfrom a voltage-controlled
oscillator (VCO) operatingat 500KHzby means
of a cheap ceramic resonator. This avoids the
frequency adjustment normally required with line
and frame oscillators.
A chain of dividers and appropriate logic circuitry
produce very accurately defined sampling pulses
and the necessary timing signals.
The principal functions implemented are :
- Horizontal scanning processor.
- Frame scanning processor. Two applications are
possible :
- D Class : Power stage using an external
- B Class : Powerstageusing an externalpower
amplifier with fly-back generator
such as the TDA8170.
- Secondary switch mode power regulation.
The SMPS output synchronize a primary I.C.
(TEA2260/61)at the mains part.
This concept allows ACTIVE STANDBY facilities.
- Dual phase-locked loop horizontal scanning.
- High performance frameand line synchronization
with interlacing control.
- Video identification circuit.
- Super sandcastle.
- AGC key pulse output.
- Automatic 50-60Hz standard identification.
- VCR input for PLL time constant and frame synchro
- Frame saw-tooth generator and phase modulator.
- Switchingmode regulated power supplycomprising
error amplifier and phase modulator.
- Security circuit and start-up processor.
- 500kHzVCO
The circuit is supplied in a 28 pin DIP case.
VCC = 12V.
Synchronization Separator
Line synchronization separator is clamped to
black level of input video signal with synchronization
pulse bottom level measurement.
The synchronization pulses are divided centrally
between the black level and the synchronization
pulse bottom level, to improve performance on
video signals in noise conditions.
Frame Synchronization
Frame synchronization is fully integrated (no external
capacitor required).
The frame timing identification logic permits automatic
adaptation to 50 - 60Hz standards or non-interlaced
An automatic synchronization window width system
provides :
- fast frame capture (6.7ms wide window),
- good noise immunity (0.4ms narrow window).
The internal generator starts the discharge of the
saw-tooth generator capacitor so that it is not disturbed
by line fly back effects.
Thanks to the logic control, the beginning of the
charge phase does not depend on any disturbing
effect of the line fly-back.
A 32ms timing is automatically applied on standardized
transmissions, for perfect interlacing.
In VCR mode, the discharge time is controlled by
an internal monostable independent of the line
frequency and gives a direct frame synchronization.
Horizontal Scanning
The horizontalscanningfrequencyis obtainedfrom
the 500kHz VCO.
The circuit uses two phase-locked loops (PLL) :
the first one controls the frequency, the second one
controls the relative phase of the synchronization
and line fly-back signals.
The frequency PLL has two switched time constants
to provide :
- capture with a short time constant,
- good noise immunity after capture with a long
time constant.
The output pulse has a constant duration of 26ms,
independent of VCC and any delay in switching off
the scanning transistor.
Video Identification
The horizontal synchronization signal is sampled
by a 2ms pulse within the synchronization pulse.
The signal is integrated by an external capacitor.
The identification function provides three different
levels :
- 0V : no video identification
- 6V : 60Hz video identification
- 12V : 50Hz video identification
This information may be used for timing research
in the case of frequency or voltage synthetizer type
receivers, and for audio muting.
Super Sandcastle with 3 levels : burst, line flyback,
frame blanking
In the event of vertical scanning failure, the frame
blanking level goes high to protect the tube.
Frame blanking time (start with reset of Frame
divider) is 24 lines.
VCR Input
This provides for continuous use of the short time
constant of the first phase-locked loop (frequency).
In VCR mode, the frame synchronization window widens out to a search window and there is no
delay of frame fly-back (direct synchronization).
Frame Scanning
to charge the capacitoris automatically switched to
60Hz operation to maintain constant amplitude.
INPUTS). The output signal is a pulse
at the line frequency, pulse width modulatedby the
voltage at the differential pre-amplifier input.
This signal is used to control a thyristor which
provides the scanning current to the yoke. The
saw-tooth output is a low impedance,however, and
can therefore be used in class B operation with a
power amplifier circuit.
Switch Mode Power Supply (SMPS) Secondary
to Primary Regulation
This power supply uses a differential error amplifier
with an internal reference voltage of 1.26V and a
phase modulator operating at the line frequency.
The powertransistor is turnedoff bythe falling edge
of the horizontal saw-tooth.
The ”soft start” device imposes a very small conduction
angle on starting up, this angle progressively
increases to its nominal regulation value.
The maximum conductionangle may be monitored
by forcing a voltage on pin 15. This pin may also
be used for current limitation.
The outputpulse is sent to the primaryS.M.P.S. I.C.
(TEA2261) via a low cost synchro transformer.
Security Circuit and Start Up Processor
When the security input (pin 28) is at a voltage
exceeding 1.26V the three outputs are simultaneously
cut off until this voltagedrops below the 1.26V
threshold again. In this case the switch mode
power supply is restarted by the ”soft start” system.
If this cycle is repeated three times, the three
outputs are cut off definitively. To reset the safety
logic circuits, VCC must be zero volt.
This circuit eliminates the risk to switch off the TV
receiver in the event of a flash affecting the tube.
On starting up, the horizontal and vertical scanning
functions come into operation at VCC = 6V. The
power supply then comes into operation progressively.
On shutting down, the three functions are interrupted
simultaneously after the first line fly-back.


Fundamentals (see Figure 80)
The secondary winding of EHT transformer provides
the energy required by frame yoke.
The frame current modulation is achieved by
modulating the horizontal saw-tooth current and
subsequent integration by a ”L.C” network to reject
the horizontal frequency component.

General Description
The basic circuit is the phase comparator ”C1”
which compares the horizontal saw-tooth and the
output voltage of Error Amplifier ”A”.
The comparator output will go ”high” when the
horizontal saw-tooth voltage is higher than the ”A”
output voltage. Thus, the Pin 4 output signal is
switched in synchronization with the horizontal frequency
and the duty cycle is modulated at frame
A driver stage delivers the current required by the
external power switch.
The external thyristor provides for energy transfer
between transformer and frame yoke.
The thyristor will conduct during the last portion of
horizontal trace phase and for half of the horizontal
The inverse parallel-connected diode ”D” conducts
during the second portion of horizontal retrace and
at the beginning of horizontal trace phase.
Main advantages of this system are :
- Power thyristor soft ”turn-on”
Once the thyristor has been triggered, the current
gradually rises from 0 to IP, where IP will reach
the maximumvalue at the end of horizontal trace.
The slope current is determined by, the current
available through the secondary winding, the
yoke impedance and the ”L.C.” filter characteristics.
- Power thyristor soft ”turn-off”
The secondary output current begins decreasing
and falls to 0 at the middle of retrace. The thyristor
is thus automatically ”turned-off”.
- Excellent efficiency of power stage dueto very
low ”turn-on” and ”turn-off” switching losses.

Frame Flyback
During flyback, due to the loop time constant, the
frame yoke current cannot be locked onto the
reference saw-tooth. Thus the output of amplifier
”A” will remain high and the thyristor is blocked.
The scanning current will begin flowing through
diode ”D”. As a consequence, the capacitor ”C”
starts charging upto the flyback voltage.The thyristor
is triggeredas soon as the yoke current reaches
the maximum positive value.

The TDA4443 is a Video IF amplifier with standard
switch for multistandard colour or monochromeTV
sets, and VTR’s.


This video IF processing circuit integrates the following
functional blocks : .Three symmetrical, very stable, gain controlled
wideband amplifier stages - without feedback
by a quasi-galvanic coupling. .Demodulator controlled by the picture carrier .Video output amplifier with high supply voltage
rejection .Polarity switch for the video output signal .AGC on peak white level .GatedAGC .Discharge control .Delayed tuner AGC .At VTR Reading mode the video output signal
is at ultra white level.


Sound IF amplifier, with FM processing for quasi
parallel sound system.
Sound IF amplifier, with FM processing and AM
demodulator, for multi-standard sound TV appliances.
TDA4445Badditionnal :
Bistandard applications (B/G and L)
No adjustment of the AM demodulator
Low AMdistortion.

This circuit includes the following functions : .Three symmetrical and gain controlled wide
band amplifier stages, which are extremely stable
by quasiDC coupling without feedback. .Averaging AGC with discharge control circuit .AGC voltage generator
Quasi parallel sound operation : .High phase accuracy of the carrier signal processing,
independentfrom AM .Linear quadrature demodulator .Sound-IF-amplifier stage with impedance converter
AM-Demodulation (only TDA4445B) : .Carrier controlled demodulator .Audio frequency stage with impedance converter
.Averaging low passAGC.

TDA4556 Multistandard decoder

The TDA4555 and TDA4556 are monolithic integrated
multistandard colour decoders for the PAL, SECAM,
NTSC 3,58 MHz and NTSC 4,43 MHz standards. The
difference between the TDA4555 and TDA4556 is the
polarity of the colour difference output signals (B-Y)
and (R-Y).
Chrominance part
· Gain controlled chrominance amplifier for PAL, SECAM
and NTSC
· ACC rectifier circuits (PAL/NTSC, SECAM)
· Burst blanking (PAL) in front of 64 ms glass delay line
· Chrominance output stage for driving the 64 ms glass
delay line (PAL, SECAM)
· Limiter stages for direct and delayed SECAM signal
· SECAM permutator
Demodulator part
· Flyback blanking incorporated in the two synchronous
demodulators (PAL, NTSC)
· PAL switch
· Internal PAL matrix
· Two quadrature demodulators with external reference
tuned circuits (SECAM)
· Internal filtering of residual carrier
· De-emphasis (SECAM)
· Insertion of reference voltages as achromatic value
(SECAM) in the (B-Y) and (R-Y) colour difference output
stages (blanking)
Identification part
· Automatic standard recognition by sequential inquiry
· Delay for colour-on and scanning-on
· Reliable SECAM identification by PAL priority circuit
· Forced switch-on of a standard
· Four switching voltages for chrominance filters, traps
and crystals
· Two identification circuits for PAL/SECAM (H/2) and
· PAL/SECAM flip-flop
· SECAM identification mode switch (horizontal, vertical
or combined horizontal and vertical)
· Crystal oscillator with divider stages and PLL circuitry
(PAL, NTSC) for double colour subcarrier frequency
· HUE control (NTSC)
· Service switch.

The U4647 - TEA5040S is a serial bus-controlled videoprocessing
device which integrates a complex architecture
fulfilling multiple functions.


An automatic contrast control circuit in a color television receiver for stabilizing the average DC level of the luminance information at a desired level and preventing focus blooming. The control circuitry, which is suitable for fabrication as a monolithic integrated circuit, contemplates the provision of a gain-controlled luminance amplifier stage for driving an image reproducer with luminance information having a stabilized black level. An average detector coupled to the amplifier stage output develops a control signal representative of the average DC level of the luminance information and applies it to the amplifier stage, varying its gain inversely with changes in the average luminance level. A peak limiter circuit is also provided for modifying the control signal to reduce the amplifier stage's gain whenever an AC brightness component comprising the luminance information exceeds a defined threshold level, regardless of the average DC level of the luminance information.

1. In a television receiver having a luminance processing channel for translating instantaneous luminance signals derived from received broadcast transmissions to an image reproducer, said luminance signals including black level reference information, an automatic contrast control circuit comprising in combination:

2. An automatic contrast control circuit in accordance with claim 1, wherein adjustable level shifting means are interposed between said amplifier stage and said average detector means, said adjustable level shifting means providing a contrast control for manually varying the average DC level of said luminance signals.

3. An automatic contrast control circuit in accordance with claim 1, wherein said average detector means includes a capacitor having an output terminal coupled to said amplifier stage and a second terminal coupled to a plane of reference potential, said capacitor being charged by luminance signals from said amplifier stage and developing control signals representative of the average DC level of said luminance signals.

4. An automatic contrast control circuit in accordance with claim 3, wherein said control signals with respect to a plane of reference potential are equal to the potential at which black level is stabilized minus the potential drop between black level and the average DC level of said luminance information, said control signal increasing with respect to said plane of reference potential responsive to decreasing average DC levels of said luminance signals and decreasing responsive to increasing average DC levels.

5. An automatic contrast control circuit in accordance with claim 3, wherein said peak detector means includes a semi-conductor arrangement for providing said capacitor with a low impedance discharge path whenever said brightness components exceed a predetermined threshold level, the impedance of said discharge path being dependent on the amplitude of said brightness components and the discharge interval of said semiconductor arrangement being the time period during which said brightness components exceed said threshold level, said semiconductor arrangement further decreasing said control signals with respect to said plane of reference potential irrespective of the average DC level of said luminance signals.

6. An automatic contrast control circuit in accordance with claim 5, wherein said semiconductor arrangement comprises first and second transistors, said luminance signals from said amplifier stage being coupled to the input base electrode of said first transistor, said first transistor further having an emitter electrode coupled to said capacitor output terminal and a collector electrode coupled to the base electrode of said second transistor, said second transistor having a collector electrode coupled to said capacitor output terminal and an emitter electrode coupled to said plane of reference potential, said semiconductor arrangement being conductive to provide said capacitor with a low impedance discharge path whenever said brightness components exceed the base-emitter junction breakdown voltage of said first transistor.

7. An automatic contrast control circuit in accordance with claim 6, wherein said gain-controlled luminance amplifier stage includes a pair of transistors arranged in a differential amplifier configuration, the gain of which is dependent on the bias applied to the base electrodes of said transistors.

8. An automatic contrast control circuit in accordance with claim 7, wherein inverter means invert and couple said control signals to said base electrodes in said amplifier stage, the inverted control signals increasing the gain of said amplifier stage whenever the average DC level of said luminance signals decreases and decreasing the gain of said amplifier stage whenever the average DC level of said luminance information increases or whenever said brightness components exceed said threshold level.

9. An automatic contrast control circuit in accordance with claim 3, wherein said beam current limiter means provide a low impedance discharge path for said capacitor whenever the beam current exceeds a predetermined level.

10. An automatic contrast control system in accordance with claim 9, wherein said beam current limiter means monitors pulses from a voltage multiplier high-voltage system, said pulses being proportional to the beam current generated during the previous horizontal scan line.

11. An automatic contrast control circuit in accordance with claim 10, wherein said beam current limiter means comprises a transistor having a base electrode coupled to said voltage multiplier high-voltage system, an emitter electrode coupled to a plane of reference potential and a collector electrode coupled to said capacitor, said transistor providing a low impedance discharge path whenever said pulses exceed the base-emitter junction breakdown voltage of said transistor.


This invention relates in general to control circuitry for color television receivers and more particularly to an automatic contrast control circuit incorporated in the luminance processing channel. In accordance therewith, a variable DC control signal is derived from the luminance signal information as a function of the average luminance level. The DC control signal is applied to a gain-controlled amplifier stage in the luminance channel, varying its gain and thereby insuring that excessive beam currents will not be generated due to high average luminance levels. Conversely, the circuit is effective to increase the gain of the amplifier stage when under-modulated signals are received thereby providing the desired contrast level. When the white content of the instantaneous received signal exceeds a predetermined level, however, the DC control signal is modified to reflect the excessive white content even though the average luminance level may be low. Accordingly, the amplifier stage's gain is reduced to prevent defocusing.

In color television receivers, the various elemental areas of differing brightness levels, or shades, in the televised image correspond to the amplitude levels of the instantaneous brightness components of the luminance signals which, together with the chrominance signal, reproduce the transmitted picture information on the image display tube. The intensity of the electron beams developed in the receiver's image display tube are varied, for the most part, according to the detected amplitude levels of the instantaneous luminance signals. Accordingly, progressively higher amplitude levels generate higher intensity electron beams and, consequently, progressively lighter shades. In addition, suitable viewer-adjustable controls are customarily provided in the television receiver whereby a particularized contrast and brightness setting may be selected according to viewer preference.

It is desirable that the level of the luminance signal component corresponding to black in the televised image be maintained at the cut-off of the image reproducer. But even in those instances where there is a measure of DC coupling, the DC components of the luminance signal coupled from the video detector to the luminance channel may be degraded or otherwise restricted due to the nature of the processing circuitry as well as to other factors. Moreover, the luminance processing channel itself may well permit a degradation or undesirable shift in the desired DC characteristics. The result is that the DC level in the processed luminance signal is not properly maintained, such that, upon application to the image display tube, the black level is shifted to some undesirable reference. This leads to less than faithful half-tone reproduction on the screen of the image display tube. Gray tones can be lost simply because they are beyond the cut-off of the display tube. In other instances, blacks may appear as grays on the image display tube screen.

Thus, it is desirable to make provision for the maintenance of black level in the televised image at some stabilized reference. Various systems are of course known in the art for accomplishing this objective and take various forms and configurations. For example, an arrangement commonly known as a DC restorer circuit which includes a clamping device may be employed. However, when the black level is effectively stabilized at the image reproducer's cut-off bias point, the average level of the luminance signal information may reach the point where excessive average beam currents capable of severely damaging the image reproducer are generated. In addition, the high voltage power supply during instances of high beam current may be incapable of delivering the required beam current. Such overloading reduces the power supply output voltage and results in undesirable "focus blooming." That is, there will be a loss of brightness, reduction of horizontal widths and severe defocusing of the reproduced image. The problem in this regard has been further compounded by the "new generation" high-brightness cathode-ray tubes which require higher beam currents in order to illuminate the tube to its fullest capability during high-modulation (white) scenes. In view of the added demands on the high voltage power supply and the danger of damaging the image display tube, some method for effectively limiting the beam current is required.

Accordingly, automatic contrast control systems have been developed which reduce the gain of the luminance amplifier stage to prevent the generation of excessive beam currents or increase the gain when under-modulated signals are received. Most of these prior art automatic contrast control systems, however, measure only the average level of the luminance signals to derive the control signal utilized to vary the gain of the luminance amplifier. Consequently, when all or a major portion of the luminance signal's white content is of a high amplitude level and is concentrated on a very small portion of the image reproducer's screen, the control signal derived from the average luminance level is low, permitting the luminance amplifier stage to operate at nearly maximum gain. By concentrating the high-amplitude white content into a small area of the screen, the image display tube is likely to be overdriven during that period of time and "focus blooming" will result. Some automatic contrast systems, on the other hand, derive a control signal based on the peak amplitudes of the instantaneous luminance signals without regard to the average luminance level. Thus, while preventing blooming on high-amplitude white content, such systems are susceptible to luminance signals which have a dangerously high average level, but do not have any peak white signal content of a level where the system would take corrective action.


Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide a color television receiver having black level stabilization with a new and improved automatic contrast control circuit which effectively overcomes the aforenoted disadvantages and deficiencies of prior circuits.

A further object of the invention is to provide an improved automatic contrast control circuit which develops control signals effectively varying the gain of a luminance amplifier stage to maintain an optimum contrast, while preventing the generation of excessive beam currents in the cathode-ray tube.

A more particular object of the invention is to provide an improved automatic contrast control circuit for continuously monitoring the average (DC) level of the luminance signal information and providing a control signal representative thereof to vary the gain of a luminance amplifier stage while remaining sensitive to the amplitude levels of brightness components exceeding a threshold level and modifying the control signal in accordance therewith.

Another object of the invention is to provide an improved automatic contrast control circuit which increases the gain of a luminance amplifier stage during reception of undermodulated luminance signals.

A further object of the present invention is to provide an automatic contrast control circuit of the foregoing type for deriving a variable DC control potential from applied luminance signals which, upon application to the luminance channel, adjusts the gain of a luminance amplifier stage in accordance with the varying luminance signal requirements.

Still another object of the invention is to provide a luminance processing channel including automatic contrast control circuitry which may be fabricated as a monolithic integrated circuit to provide an output luminance signal having stabilized black level and optimum contrast without producing excessive beam currents.


In accordance with the present invention, an improved automatic contrast control circuit is provided for varying the gain of an amplifier stage in the luminance processing channel of a color television receiver whenever the average DC level of the input luminance information varies from a desired level, or whenever the peak amplitudes of the AC brightness components of the luminance information exceed a predetermined threshhold level. In a preferred embodiment, the automatic contrast control circuit includes a gain-controlled luminance amplifier stage in a luminance processing channel for translating instantaneous luminance signals derived from received broadcast transmissions to an image reproducer. The amplified luminance signals found at the output of the amplifier stage have a stabilized black level. There are also provided detector means coupled to the amplifier output for developing control signals that are representative of the average DC level of the instantaneous luminance signals. The control signals are then applied to the gain-controlled amplifier stage to vary its gain inversely with changes in the average luminance level. Finally, peak limiter means are coupled between the amplifier output and the detector means to modify the control signals whenever the instantaneous luminance signals exceed a threshhold level. The modified control signals are similarly utilized to effect inverse gain variations in the gain-controlled amplifier stage regardless of the average level of the luminance signals.

Brief Description
This integrated circuit incorporates the following
features :
- a synchro and two video inputs
- a fixed video output
- a switchable video output
- normal Y, R-Y, B-Y TV mode inputs
- double set of R, G, B inputs
- brightness, contrast and saturation controls as
wellon aR,G, B picture ason a normalTVpicture
- digital control inputs by means of serial bus
- peak beam current limitation
- average beam current limitation
- automaticdrive and cut-off controls
Block Diagram Description
A 3 lines bus (clock, data, enable) delivered by the
microcontroller of the TV-set enters the videoprocessor
integrated circuit (pins 13-14-15). A control
system acts in such a way that only a 9-bit word is
taken intoaccount by the videoprocessor.Six of the
bits carry the data, the remaining three carry the
address of the subsystem.

A demultiplexer directs the data towards latches
which drive the appropriate control. More detailed
information about serial bus operation is given in
the following chapter.
Video Switch
The video switch has three inputs :
- an internal video input (pin 39),
- an external video input (pin 37),
- a synchro input (pin 41),
and two outputs :
- an internal video output (pin 40),
- a switchable video output (pin 42)
The 1Vpp composite video signal applied to the
internal video input is multiplied by two and then
appears as a 2Vpp low impedance composite
video signal at the output. This signal is used to
deliver a 1Vpp/75W composite video signal to the
peri-TV plug.
The switchable video output canbe any of the three
inputs.When the Int/Ext one active bit word is high
(address number 5), the internal video input is
selected. If not, either a regeneratedsynchro pulse
or the external video signal is directed towards this
output depending on the level of the Sync/Async
one active bit word (address number 4). As this
output is to be connected to the synchro integrated
circuit, RGB information derived from an external
source via the Peri-TV plug canbedisplayed on the
screen, the synchronization of the TV-set being
then made with an external video signal.
When RGB information is derived from a source
integrated in the TV-set, a teletext decoder for
example, the synchronization can be made either
on the internal video input (in case of synchronous
data) or on the synchro input (in case of asynchronous
R, G, B Inputs
There are two sets of R, G, B inputs : one is to be
connected to the peri-TV plug (Ext R, G, B), the
second one to receive the information derived from
the TV-set itself (Int R, G, B).
In order to have a saturation control on a picture
coming from the R, G, B inputs too, it is necessary
to getR-Y, B-Y and Y signals from R, G, B information
: this is performed on the first matrix that
receives the three 0.9Vp (100% white) R, G, B
signals and delivers the corresponding Y, R-Y, B-Y
signals. These ones are multiplied by 1.4 in order
to make the R-Y and B-Y signals compatible with
the R-Y and B-Y TV mode inputs. The desired R,
G, B inputs are selected by means of 3 switches
controlled by the two fast blanking signal inputs. A
high level on FB external pin selects the external
RGB sources. The three selected inputs are
clamped in order to give the required DC level at
the output of this firstmatrix. Thethree not selected
inputs are clamped on a fixed DC level.
Y, R-Y, B-Y Inputs
The 2Vpp composite video signal appearing at the
switchable output of the video switch (pin 42) is
driven through the subcarrier trap and the luminance
delay line with a 6 dB attenuation to the Y
input (1Vpp ; pin 12). In order to make this 1Vpp
(synchro to white) Y signal compatible with the
1Vpp (black to white) Y signal delivered by the first
matrix, it is necessary to multiply it by a coefficient
of 1.4.

The four brightness, contrastand saturationcontrol
functions are direct digitally controlled without using
digital-to-analog converters.
The contrast control of the Y channel is obtained
by means of a digital potentiometer which is an
attenuator including several switchable cells directly
controlled by a 5 active bit word (address
number 1). The brightness control is also made by
a digital potentiometer (5 active bit word, address
number 0). Since a + 3dB contrast capability is
required, the Y signal value could be up to 0.7Vpp
nominal. For both functions, the control characteristics
are quasi-linear.
In each R-Y and B-Y channel, a six-cell digital
attenuator is directly controlled by a 6 active bit
word (address number 6 and 7). The tracking
needed to keep the saturation constant when
changing the contrast has to be done externally by
the microcontroller. Furthermore, colour can be
disabledby blankingR-Y andB-Ysignals using one
active bit word (address number 2) to drive the
one-chip colour ON/OFF switch.
Second Matrix, Clamp, Peak Clipping, Blanking
The second matrix receives the Y, R-Y and B-Y
signals and delivers the corresponding R, G, B
signals. As it is required to have the capability of +
6dB saturation, an internal gain of 2 is applied on
both R-Y and B-Y signals.
A low clipping level is included in order to ensure a
correct blanking during the line and frame retraces.
Ahigh clipping level ensures thepeakbeamcurrent
limitation. These limitations are correct only if the
DC bias of the three R, G, B signals are precise
enough. Therefore a clamp has been added in
each channel in order to compensate for the inaccuracy
of the matrix.
Sandcastle Detector And Counter
The three level supersandcastle is used in the
circuit to deliver the burst pulse (CLP), the horizontal
pulse (HP), and the composite vertical and
horizontal blanking pulse (BLI). This last one is
regenerated in the counter which delivers a new
composite pulse (BL) in which the vertical part lasts
23 lines when the vertical part of the supersandcastle
lasts more than 11 lines.
The TEA5040S cannot work properly if this minimum
duration of 11 lines is not ensured.
The counterdelivers different pulses neededcircuit
and especially the line pulses 17 to 23 used in the
automatic drive and cut-off control system.
Automatic Drive And Cut-off Control System
Cut-off and drive adjustments are no longer required
with this integrated circuit as it has a sample
and hold feedback loop incorporating the final
stages of the TV-set. This system works in a sequentialmode.
For this purpose, special pulses are
inserted in G, R and B channels. During the lines
17, 18 and 19, a ”drive pulse” is inserted respectively
in the green, red and blue channels. The line
20 is blanked on the three channels. During the
lines 21, 22 and 23, a ”quasi cut-off pulse” is
inserted respectively in the green, red and blue
The resulting signal is then applied to the input of
a voltage controlled amplifier. In the final stages of
the TV-set, the current flowing in each green, red
and blue cathode is measured and sent to the
videoprocessorby a current source.
The three currents are added together in a resistor
matrix which can be programmed to set the ratio
between the three currents in order to get the
appropriate colour temperature. The output of the
matrix forms a high impedance voltage source
which is connectedto the integratedcircuit (pin 34).
Same measurement range between drive and cutoff
is achieved by internally grounding an external
low impedance resistor during lines 17, 18 and 19.
This is due to the fact that the drive currents are
about one hundred times higher than the cut-off
and leakage currents.
Each voltage appearing sequentially on the wire
pin 34 is then a function of specific cathode current
- When a current due to a drive pulse occurs, the
voltage appearing on the pin 34 is compared
within the IC with an internal reference, and the
result of the comparison charges or discharges
an external appropriate drive capacitor which
stores the value during the frame. This voltage is
applied to a voltage controlled amplifier and the
system works in such a waythat the pulse current
drive derived from the cathode is kept constant.
- During the line 20, the three guns of the picture
tube are blanked. The leakagecurrent flowing out
of the final stages is transformed into a voltage which is stored by an external leakage capacitor
to be used later as a reference for the cut-off
current measurement.
- When a current due to a cut-off pulse occurs, the
voltage appearing on the pin 34 is compared
within the ICto the voltagepresenton the leakage
memory. Anappropriate externalcapacitor is then
charged or discharged in such a way that the
difference between each measured current and
the leakage current is kept constant, and thus the
quasi cut-off current is kept constant.
AverageBeam Current Limitation
The total current of the three guns is integrated by
means of an internal resistor and an external capacitor
(pin 36) and thencompared with a programmable
voltage reference(pin 38). When 70% of the
maximum permitted beam current is reached, the
drive gain begins to be reduced ; to do so, the
amplitude of the inserted pulse is increased.
In order to keep enough contrast, the maximum
drive reduction is limited to 6dB. If it is not sufficient,
the brightness is suppressed.
This is a bi-directional 3-wire (ENABLE, CLOCK,
DATA) serial bus. The DATA line transmission is
bi-directional whereas ENABLE and CLOCK lines
are only microprocessor controlled. The ENABLE
and CLOCK lines are only driven by the microcomputer.

THOMSON CHASSIS ICC5 Switched mode power supply transformer

A switched mode power supply transformer, particularly for a television receiver, including a primary winding and a secondary winding with the primary winding and the secondary winding each being subdivided into a plurality of respective partial windings. The partial windings of the primary lie in a first group of chambers and the partial windings of the secondary lie in a second group of chambers of a chamber coil body, and the chambers of both groups are nested or interleaved with one another.

1. A switched mode power supply transformer, particularly for a television receiver, comprising in combination:
a primary winding and a secondary winding, with said primary winding being subdivided into three partial windings and said secondary winding being subdivided into two partial windings;
a chamber coil body having a plurality of chambers;
said partial windings of said primary winding being disposed only in a first group of said chambers, and said partial windings of said secondary winding being disposed only in a second group of said chambers, with each of said partial windings being disposed in a respective one of said chambers;
said chambers of said first group being interleaved with said chambers of said second group such that they alternate in sequence with said primary partial windings and said secondary partial windings being alternatingly disposed in five successive said chambers, so as to generate the major operating voltage at said secondary winding;
an additional secondary winding for generating a further operating voltage, said additional secondary winding likewise being subdivided into a plurality of partial windings; and,
said partial windings of said additional secondary winding are disposed only in respective said chambers of said second group below any of said partial windings of said secondary winding.

2. A transformer as defined in claim 1 wherein the total number of said chambers is six.

3. A transformer as defined in claim 1 wherein the width of the narrowest of said chambers is approximately 1 mm.

4. A transformer as defined in claim 1 or 2 wherein the widths of said chambers are different.

5. A transformer as defined in claim 1 or 2 wherein the total width of all of said chambers is only approximately 20 mm, whereby a flat and optimally coupled transformer is realized.

6. A transformer as defined in claim 1 wherein said additional secondary winding provides an operating voltage for a load which has a fluctuating current input.

7. A transformer as defined in claim 1 wherein said partial windings of said additional secondary winding are connected in parallel.

8. A transformer as defined in claim 1 wherein said partial windings of said primary winding are connected in series.

9. A transformer as defined in claim 1 or 8 wherein said partial windings of said secondary winding are connected in series.

10. A transformer as defined in claim 1 further comprising a plurality of auxiliary primary windings disposed in one chamber of said first group which is disposed in approximately the center of said first group and above the said partial winding of said primary winding disposed in said one chamber of said first group.

11. A transformer as defined in claim 1 wherein all of said partial winding disposed in said chambers of both said groups are wound with wire having the same diameter.

12. A switched mode power supply transformer as defined in claim 1 or 10 wherein: said coil body has six of of said chambers; said additional secondary winding is subdivided into three said partial windings; and two of said partial windings of said additional secondary winding are disposed below respective ones of said partial windings of said secondary winding and the third said partial winding of said additional secondary winding is disposed in the sixth said chamber.

13. A switched mode power supply transformer as defined in claim 10 further comprising at least one further secondary winding disposed in one of said chambers of said second group above any partial secondary winding present in said one of said chambers.

14. A switched mode power supply transformer, particularly for a television receiver, comprising in combination:
a primary winding and a secondary winding, with said primary winding and said secondary winding each being subdivided into a plurality of partial windings;
a chamber coil body having a plurality of chambers;
said partial windings of said primary winding being disposed only in a first group of said chambers, and said partial windings of said secondary winding being disposed only in a second group of said chambers with each of said partial windings being disposed in a respective one of said chambers;
said chambers of said first group being interleaved with said chambers of said second group such that said primary partial windings and said secondary partial windings are alternatingly disposed in successive said chambers, so as to generate the major operating voltage at said secondary winding;
an additional secondary winding for generating a further operating voltage, said additional secondary winding likewise being subdivided into a plurality of partial windings, and said partial windings of said additional secondary winding are disposed only in respective said chambers of said second group below any of said partial windings of said secondary winding.

15. A switched mode power supply transformer as defined in claim 1 or 14 wherein each of said partial windings of said primary winding contains the same number of turns and each of said partial windings of said secondary winding contains the same number of turns.

The present invention relates to a switched mode power supply transformer, particularly for a television receiver.
In communications transmissions devices, particularly in television receivers, it is known to effect the desired dc decoupling from the mains by means of so-called switched mode power supply transformers. Such switched mode power supply transformers are substantially smaller and lighter in weight than a mains transformer for the same power operating at 50 Hz, because they operate at a significantly higher frequency of about 20-30 kHz. Such a switched mode power supply transformer (hereinafter called SMPS transformer) generally includes a primary side with a primary winding serving as the operating winding for the switch and further additional auxiliary windings, as well as a secondary side with a secondary winding for generating the essential operating voltage and possibly further additional windings for generating further operating voltages of different magnitude and polarity. The secondary and primary are insulated from one another as prescribed by VDE and have the necessary dielectric strength so that there is no danger of contact between voltage carrying parts on the secondary. A switched mode power supply (SMPS) circuit for a tv-receiver is described in U.S. Pat. No. 3,967,182, issued June 29, 1976.
A further requirement placed on such an SMPS transformer is that the stray inductance at least of the primary winding and of the secondary winding should be as small as possible. With too high a stray inductance, a transient behavior may develop during the switching operation which would not assure optimum switch operation of the switching transistor connected to the primary winding and would endanger this transistor by taking on too much power. Moreover, an increased stray inductance undesirably increases the internal resistance of the voltage sources for the individual operating voltages.
It is known to design the windings for such transformers as layered windings. Such layered windings, however, contain feathered intermediate foil layers and, after manufacture, generally require that the coil or the complete transformer be encased in order to insure VDE safety. Use as a chamber winding in television receivers presently does not take place because of the problems to be discussed below. A chamber winding would have the particular advantage that it could be wound more easily and economically by automatic machines. when using a chamber winding for a switched mode power supply, the detailed insulation between the primary and the secondary would be realized initially by two chambers with one of these chambers being filled only with the windings of the primary and the other of these chambers being filled only with the windings of the secondary. However, with such an arrangement there would exist only slight coupling between the primary and the secondary and thus an undesirably high stray inductance. If, on the other hand, the number of chambers were selected to be substantially larger, the transformer becomes more expensive and unnecessarily large. Moreover, a larger core would be required. Consequently, in the past, no television receiver has been introduced that included an SMPS transformer.
It is the object of the present invention to provide an SMPS transformer designed in the chamber wound technique which permits economical automatic winding, i.e. can be wound with but a single type of wire, has a structure which is spatially narrow and as flat as possible, provides the required insulation between the primary and secondary windings, and has a low stray inductance. The transformer should not be encased or saturated and nevertheless should produce no interfering noise during operation. The transformer should be able to be held in a circuit board without mechanical aids merely by its connecting terminals which are soldered to the circuit board.
The above object is basically achieved according to the present invention in that the transformer for a switched mode power supply, particularly for a television receiver, comprises: a primary winding and a secondary winding with the primary and secondary windings each being subdivided into a plurality of partial windings; and a chamber coil body with a plurality of chambers; and wherein the partial windings of the primary winding are disposed in a first group of chambers of the coil body, the partial windings of the secondary winding are disposed in a second group of chambers of the coil body, and the chambers of the first and second groups are interleaved.
Due to the fact that the individual windings or partial windings of the primary are disposed only in chambers of the first group and the windings or partial windings of the secondary are disposed only in chambers of the second group, i.e. primary and secondary are distributed to separate chambers, the necessary dielectric strength between primary and secondary is assured. By dividing each of the primary and secondary windings to a respective plurality or group of chambers and, due to the interleaved or nested arrangement of the chambers of the primary and the secondary, the desired fixed coupling between primary and secondary, and thus the desired low stray inductance at the primary and secondary, are realized. It has been found that a total number of chambers in the order of magnitude of six constitutes an economically favorable solution. With a smaller number of chambers, the coupling between primary and secondary is reduced. With a larger number of chambers, however, either the individual chambers become too small or the entire transformer, and particularly the core, become too large.
FIG. 1 is a circuit diagram for a preferred embodiment of a switched mode power supply transformer according to the invention.
FIG. 2 is a schematic partial sectional view showing the distribution of the individual windings of FIG. 1 to different chambers according to the invention.
FIG. 1 shows a transformer intended for a switched mode power supply for a television receiver with a power output between 40 and 150 watts. The transformer includes a primary side P and a secondary side S which, while maintaining the required dielectric strength of, for example, 10,000 V, are galvanically decoupled or separated from one another. The primary side P includes a primary winding 1 which, as the operating winding, will lie in the collector circuit of a switching transistor switched at about 20-30 kHz. The primary winding 1 is divided into three partial windings 1a, 1b and 1c which are connected in series. When utilized in a television receiver, the beginning of partial winding 1a and the end of partial winding 1c are connected into the collector circuit of the switching transistor, while the taps between the partial windings 1a-1b and 1b-1c are not utilized, but rather form supporting points for the connection of the terminals of the partial windings. The primary side P also includes an additional winding 3 which feeds the feedback path with which the primary winding 1a-1c is designed as a self-resonant circuit. Moreover, the primary side P includes an additional winding 4 for regulating the moment of current flow in the switching transistor in the sense of stabilizing the amplitude of the output voltages on the secondary side S.
The secondary side S initially includes the secondary winding 2 from which is obtained, via a rectifier circuit (not shown), the main operating voltage U1. The secondary winding 2 is divided into two series connected partial windings 2a and 2b. Additionally, the secondary winding S includes a winding 5 for generating an operating voltage for the video amplifier and a further winding 6 for generating the operating voltage for the vertical deflection stage of a television receiver. Moreover, an additional secondary winding 7 is provided from which, after rectification, the operating voltage or the audio output stage of the receiver is obtained. Winding 7 comprises three partial windings 7a, 7b, 7c which are connected in parallel. The audio output stage of a television receiver has a greatly fluctuating current input between 50 mA and 1000 mA so that the load of the secondary side S varies considerably. This variation in load may effect an undesirable change in the operating voltage U1 which also influences the horizontal deflection amplitude. This undesirable dependency can be reduced in that the coupling between winding 7 and winding 4 is dimensioned greater, for regulating purposes, than the coupling between winding 2 and winding 4. This solution is described in greater detail in Federal Republic of Germany Offenlegungsschrift (laid open application) DE-OS No. 2,749,847 of May 10, 1979. This increased coupling between windings 7 and 4 is realized in the present case by the three parallel connected windings 7a, 7b, 7c. Finally, the secondary S includes a further winding 8 which serves to generate, after rectification, a negative operating voltage of -30 V.
FIG. 2 shows one half of the chamber coil body 9 for the individual windings of FIG. 1, with the body 9 including a total of six chambers 10. The size and particularly the widths of the individual chambers 10 can vary with respect to one another and the widths may all be different. Preferably, the width of the narrowest chamber 10 is about 1 mm and the total width of all six chambers is only approximately 20 mm so as to realize a flat and optimally coupled transformer.
As shown, one third of the primary winding 1, in the form of respective partial windings 1a, 1b and 1c, is distributed to each of the first, third and fifth chambers 10 of the coil body 9. The additional primary windings 3 and 4 are disposed in the third chamber 10 above the partial winding 1b. One half of the secondary winding 2, in the form of respective partial windings 2a, 2b, is distributed to each of the second and fourth chambers 10 of the coil body 9. The three partial windings 7a, 7b and 7c of the additional secondary winding 7 for the audio output stage are distributed to the second, fourth and sixth chambers 10, respectively, with the partial windings 7a-7c being disposed closest to the longitudinal axis of the coil body 9 and thus below any partial secondary winding 2a, 2b or other secondary winding which may be located in the same chamber. That is, the partial windings 7a and 7b are disposed below the partial windings 2a and 2b, respectively, in the respective second and fourth chambers 10, and below the additional secondary windings 5 and 8 in the sixth chamber 10. Further winding 6 is disposed above partial secondary winding 2b.
As can be seen in FIG. 2, the chambers 10 contain alternatingly only windings or partial windings of the primary side P or of the secondary side S. The illustrated nesting or interleaving of the windings, i.e. the alternating arrangement of windings of the primary side P and of the secondary side S in successive chambers 10, assures the desired close coupling between the primary side P and the secondary side S. The arrangement of the windings 3, 4 in approximately the center of the coil body 9 above partial winding 1b assures the desired close coupling between the windings 3, 4 with the other windings.
In an embodiment of the transformer shown in FIGS. 1 and 2 which was successfully tested in practice, the individual windings were all wound with the same diameter wire and contained the following numbers of turns:
Winding No. Number of Turns

1a 22

1b 22

1c 22

2a 30

2b 30

3 3

4 10

5 25

6 1

7a 11

7b 11

7c 11

8 16

The diameter of the wire of the windings 1-8 may be about 0.40 or 0.45 mm. Also, each winding may exist of two parallel shunted wires each of 0.3 mm diameter. The width of the six chambers 10--seen from the left to the right in FIG. 2--may be 0.95/1.95/1.75/1.95/0.95/2.75 mm and the thickness of the walls forming the chambers 0.65 mm.
It will be understood that the above description of the present invention is susceptible to various modifications, changes and adaptations, and the same are intended to be comprehended within the meaning and range of equivalents of the appended claims. 


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icc5 1 sec eht then stby try s/c pin5 micro pro to earth .
icc5 3 lines of scan at top of pic only il14 tea2029.
icc5 3 trips then off dl55(ba157)+cl58(47uf100v)+rv82(10r).
icc5 330nf s-correction cap, check j134 22v .
icc5 3trips/dead tda2030 .
icc5 3trips/dead ,test pin 4/11 to earth if < 700r loptx.
icc5 3trips/dead dl55 ba157,cl58 47uf100v rv82 (10r, on crt base pcb) .
icc5 3trips/dead l25, zpd10 zener diode.
icc5 3trips/dead tl17 bc548b in trip cct.
icc5 3trips/dead, cp24 47uf,100v from choptr base tp24.
icc5 bent sides ew coil,tda4950,dl41(byw76),dl46(by228),rl44(66+120r).
icc5 bent sides tda4950 ew ig01 dl42(ba157) 18k across it.
icc5 blank bright raster. 10r on crt base.
icc5 blank raster dots hot smell dl21/dl22.
icc5 blank raster no snd tda2541
icc5 blank raster no snd, osd & scart ok,tda2451-2.
icc5 blank raster,line across top, dl21(esm740g).
icc5 child lock “press red green blue then hold yellow 10 secs” .
icc5 cl44(0.44uf250v).
icc5 cl48(12n4f)+tda4950+tl17.
icc5 clicking on nicam add 47k between pins 13 & 16 ic1580 nicam pcb
icc5 cold hiss ds03(bb809).
icc5 cold top lines/foldover cl52 from pin 3 loptx.
icc5 cold tripping il14(tea2029c),
icc5 color cast/bright text tv41(1k).
icc5 dead lg11,cl44(300nf).
icc5 dead rp23+1n4148 dl28.
icc5 dead “88” showing, rp42 1r2 in psu,
icc5 dead 1a6t+cap next to 1r4w resistors in mains filter unit.
icc5 dead 330nf400v lg11 tda4950+fusible jl34(22r) .
icc5 dead bu508at.
icc5 dead choptr(tp24) dp37 tl31 rl10(115k).
icc5 dead cl44 300nf250v .
icc5 dead cl48 12.4nf +tda4950 + bc548b tl17.
icc5 dead cl48.choptr(bu508a),cp23.
icc5 dead coil,lg11, tda4950 tda4950 rl44, cl48 10.5nf cl44 300nf.
icc5 dead cp02(10nf250v) blue disc.
icc5 dead cp37(1000uf) 8v line.
icc5 dead dl55(ba157).
icc5 dead eht surge cp26(470uf16v) loc241
icc5 dead fp05 rp01 rp02 rp01 on scan coils.
icc5 dead front digits ok,line scan coil plug
icc5 dead fuse blown check degauss ptc.
icc5 dead fuse cp02 10nf blue disc cap.
icc5 dead led flash once cp26(470uf25v).
icc5 dead led flash, rr30 pins.
icc5 dead led flicks once,lg11+tda4950+cl44+rl46(1k)+rl44(56r+120r)+j134(22r).
icc5 dead lg11 cl44(33pf) rl44 ig01(tda4950) add 22r in place of ji34.
icc5 dead lg11 coil+rl44(56+120r)+tda4950+cl48(10n5)+cl44(300nf).
icc5 dead lo start volts at il14 ,dp45(zpd9v1).
icc5 dead loptr 2000a3 cl48
icc5 dead loptr cause loptx try discon pins 6/8/9/10 to prove.
icc5 dead loptr cause scan coils leak to field /ew raster coil.
icc5 dead loptr s2000af bend the corners of the heatsink away from choptx.
icc5 dead loptr+cl48 11nf(51k7) loptx rl10
icc5 dead loptr,cl42(360nf250v)
icc5 dead loptr= ew trans=lg11 ig01 rl44 120r+56r.
icc5 dead loptx, choptr bu508a, field thy, jungle chip, fucus/a1 unit
icc5 dead pulse of power at switch off cl44(330nf250v).
icc5 dead rl23 1r
icc5 dead rp23 w/wound,no line drive dl29(1n4148)
icc5 dead s2000a3+4*by255+pins+mains plug.
icc5 dead stby programme up button on tv front for 6 seconds.
icc5 dead stby ir73(mda2062).
icc5 dead stby lg11 ig01 tda4950 cl44 rl46 rrl44 j134 22r
icc5 dead stby tp45=4v(should be 11.5v) stby tx lp03 .
icc5 dead switching stby/on qr27.
icc5 dead throbbing lo ht 50v, 220uf385v mains cap.
icc5 dead tl17 bc548 il14
icc5 dead tl17(bc548)
icc5 dead tp15(bc548b).
icc5 dead tp45 11.5vn, the stby transformer lp03
icc5 dead tp45(bc649).
icc5 dead trip is41(tda2030)
icc5 dead tripping dl18(zpd36),tl31(bu508a),rp43.
icc5 dead/dark blank raster, cp37 4700uf25v
icc5 degauss posistor+1r0+1.6at.
icc5 disable trip by shorting tl17 collector to emitter.
icc5 eht stays up 10 secs/no digits.
icc5 eht stby, ic904(sl486)try reset use remote or hold ch up.”
icc5 eht surge only, try disconnect pin 4 loptx, field collapse
icc5 eht/htrs ok no brill,unplug field scan coils (scr to earth)
icc5 ew (tda4950) cause lg11 flashover.
icc5 ew bowing (59p7).dg 10 6.8 zener
icc5 ew bowing tda4950
icc5 ew coil 1r+6.5r
icc5 ew coil on 110 crt,cl44 330nf,rl44,56+120r,j134 22r,tda4950.cg11 inf
icc5 ew distortion rl44(120r+56r) cl 44 0.3uf tda4950 ig010 ew coil lg11,
icc5 ew j134(22r)+tda4950 dl42(ba159)+18k, ig01
icc5 ew lg11 110deg tubes cl44 330nf; rl44 56r+120r fusible; j134 22r, ig01 tda4950 ew
icc5 ew raster ,tda4950,cg11(1nf),dg13(1n4148),dl41(byw76),lg11,rg08(22r).
icc5 ew raster ig8,rg41(10r),tg62(bc547b).
icc5 ew raster lg11 dl46+dl41+lg11+rl44+cg11+ig01+cl41+cl44+j134(72r),ig01.
icc5 excess blue iv50 .
icc5 excess brill rv82(10r) crt base.
icc5 faint pic snd ok cv90,cp37
icc5 field cl22+rl22+cl52 1000uf.
icc5 field collapse (wavy line) scan coil plug
icc5 field collapse ,line nr top, rl33(3m3),il14.
icc5 field collapse cf01, 470nf,il14,rf01(3m)/rl33, scan coil pins.
icc5 field collapse dp47, bg22,bg36,cf01, scan coil pins.
icc5 field collapse rf01(3m).
icc5 field collapse rf21(820r),rl50(1r), loptx pins.
icc5 field collapse. rf01(3m).
icc5 field top cramp,cl22 rl22,cl52 1,000uf, 23v line.
icc5 field top foldover rf(1k).
icc5 flyback lines, tv50(bf422), dl22,cl22,rl22(1k5),tv81.
icc5 front leds pulsing rp42 (1r) o/c+dp41 o/c pins.
icc5 ha11498 changed to u4647/b1-tea5040
icc5 hot hum bar/field collapse. dp47
icc5 hot snd cracks (51k5), two screen cans on nicam pcb; pin 24 of main edge.
icc5 hot snow it20(tda6316ap).
icc5 hum/hissy snd pc1253 pins cs36 qs05.
icc5 inch of pic lhs, iv02(saa5243) on t/text.
icc5 int blue pic flyback pin 11 of crt base.
icc5 int color when setting pic geometry, mod change dv11 to 100pf.
icc5 int colour,dv21(1n4148)
icc5 int field collapse. dp47
icc5 int interference/lines tda4443
icc5 int line flashes across it20(u6316).
icc5 int nicam pc1253-001.is01 ta8662 is08 adc2300 pins
icc5 int nicam ta8662+adc2300 pins.
icc5 int no color dv21(1n4148).
icc5 int no pic, tuner
icc5 int no snd,headphone socket
icc5 int no start, earth pin28 il14 for tripped test.
icc5 int pic cv57(22nf).
icc5 int sides ew, loptx pins .
icc5 int snd cr56 .
icc5 int snd headphone socket pins.
icc5 int start lines at top,1.5k rl22 4.7nf cl22.cl52 1000uf.
icc5 int stby choptr tp24
icc5 int stby,choptr tp24. pins
icc5 int ticking snd/int mute, earth spkr grill.
icc5 int trip degauss positor .
icc5 int trips ,rl48(4k7).
icc5 int trips led flashing 6 times rl18 4k7 sm.
icc5 int trips,degaussing posistor.
icc5 interference pic ,tda4443
icc5 just osd tda2451-2
icc5 just snow c109(1nf).
icc5 led flashing 6 times,rl18(4k7sm)
icc5 line collapse 2″ dl41, ll46,rl46.
icc5 lineop disconnect ,dummy load tween dp41 cathode, chassis
icc5 lines across screen, pf14(100r) field cct.
icc5 lines flashing , tuner unit,it20(u6316). pll
icc5 low blue tea5040+mod kit.
icc5 low height il14(tea2029c), ty01(bf422).
icc5 low ht(158vn), rl10(115k).
icc5 low tuning voltage ci05(1nf).
icc5 low width cl44(300nf400v)+rl44(120r+56r)
icc5 low width cl54 680nf
icc5 low width, dg10,ig01(tda4950).,dl41(byw76).
icc5 low width/ew ,0.33uf250+td4950+4r7(rf14).
icc5 lop transistor getting hot ,bend h/sink corner away from choptx.
icc5 loptr running hot cause loptx magnetic field hitting heatsink, add shield.
icc5 loptr scancoils lg11/tda4950+,,,.
icc5 loptr(s2000af)
icc5 loptx arcing dst85b172/401416, hr6260
icc5 loptx dst85b243/473197_00= hr6373
icc5 loptx+bu508a choptr (chopper transistor).
icc5 loptx=hr6373/hr6067 dst85b243 473 197_00.
icc5 mod ha11498 changed to u4647/b1-tea5040
icc5 nicam (nasty) resolder earths on nicam pcb screen
icc5 nicam clicking , earth speaker .
icc5 nicam crackles ii71(tda4445b) is09 .
icc5 nicam=nasty inconsistant companded audio muckup
icc5 no 5v cp44(22nf)leaks.
icc5 no blue rv73(47k)
icc5 no blue tea5040 iv21. mod kit wve
icc5 no channel change. ic ir01.
icc5 no channel store ir01 .
icc5 no color chv5700 as panel.
icc5 no eht,loptx.
icc5 no ew correction. j134(22r),ig01(tda4950)
icc5 no fastext ir01.
icc5 no green tv62.
icc5 no line sync ql07 from pin 18 il14.
icc5 no luma/dark screen chroma subpanel.
icc5 no nicam pc1253 qs03(16m384hz).
icc5 no nicam snd poor mono snd c176 10uf inside if can
icc5 no osd rv02(47r) tv05(mps2369a).
icc5 no osd tv07,4v3 zener on text board
icc5 no osd/ttext, tv67(bc547c)
icc5 no osd/ttext. dv05 zener (zpd10) on text pcb.
icc5 no picture bc558b decoder
icc5 no picture dl21
icc5 no picture tv50 on decoder pcb
icc5 no pic/snd lt13 dt21(in4150).
icc5 no pic/snd. cp37(4700uf) .
icc5 no pic/snd/led digits, micropro ir01(ferg07)
icc5 no raster dl22(ba157) il14,rp42(1r).
icc5 no raster/snd cp37(4u700f)
icc5 no remote ,ir receiver remove c950(10uf) add link.
icc5 no remote ir rx (mod c950 with wire)
icc5 no remote ir73/ ir01.
icc5 no scart sound tba120t.
icc5 no sound even on scart tba120t
icc5 no sound just hiss. tda4453 in if can.
icc5 no sound rs13(4r7) tr57(bc558b) ts04 is08(adc2300).
icc5 no sound tba120t sound det chip
icc5 no sound tr57(bc558b), rs13(4r7), headphone socket.
icc5 no start.rp42 on main pcb – low volts to ic il14
icc5 no text cv05 rv43 rv44(0r22).
icc5 no text dv03(zpd4v3)/dvo5(zpd10v) .
icc5 no text/osd iv05 tv67(bc547c) dv05(zpd10)dv03(zpd4v3)
icc5 no text/osd. tv67 (bc547c)
icc5 no ttext/osd. dv05 zener (zpd10) on text pcb.dv03 zener zpd4v3
icc5 no tuning it20 (tda6316ap) no volts to tuner.
icc5 no tuning it20(tda6316ap).
icc5 no video text ok rv74 2r7
icc5 no video tv50.
icc5 no video,nicam pcb 3 connect pins, luma output (top);luma input (bottom).
icc5 no/int color dv21, r35.
icc5 ns raster rg42(1r5).
icc5 odd field coloured lines(1k5) nr thyristor
icc5 odd lines on pic , scart ok,u6316 pll chip it20
icc5 osd sync rv36(22k).
icc5 osg ir01 ir01 tr84(bc238-40).
icc5 picture flutter check cp37(4700uf).
icc5 pic ripple. tr107 l120.
icc5 poor ew,ew coil+tda4950 ,dl41(byw76), dl46(by228),rl44(66+120r)
icc5 poor focus loptx faulty
icc5 poor pic lo emission rv73 47kr 1w,
icc5 poor scart picture,add 6n8f63v across rs26.
icc5 poor sound cs05(22nf/100nf).
icc5 poor start+top lines rl22(1k5) cl22(4u7f)+cl52(1000uf).
icc5 pulsing sound = nicam unit.
icc5 pulsing. dl55 (ba157)
icc5 ragged verticals dv68 on text pcb
icc5 remote control, ir receiver sl466 ic
icc5 rhs crackling is10.
icc5 ripple on picture, tr107+l120.
icc5 rolling lines, dl22(ba157).
icc5 scart poor pic. add 6n8f63v across rs26.
icc5 set trips 3 times tl29(bc639), rl30(1r ).
icc5 slow start dp51(1n4002) 12v bridge.
icc5 smeary picture iv50(u4647b).
icc5 sound hiss, tda4453 in can.
icc5 sound popping add 47k between pins 13 & 16 of is08 on pc1253
icc5 sound stutter front of spk & mid spk mounting
icc5 sound int rhs front mounted headphone socket.
icc5 sparking from res nr coil in corner lg11
icc5 stby programme up button on tv front for 6 seconds.
icc5 stby cp46, dl52(ba157),rp46dp44(zpd5v6),mda2062).
icc5 stby eht surge ic904(sl486) .
icc5 stby loptr s2000a3 tl31,cl48 10.5nf
icc5 stby press prog up front for 6 seconds.
icc5 stby rp42
icc5 stby s2000a3 +cl48(10n5f)
icc5 stby s2000a3 loptr tl31+cl48(10n5)
icc5 telefunken 617 3trips loptx.
icc5 test discon loptx 8+10, bulb 100w pin8 to earth lites 3 times if ok.
icc5 text dropout iv28 dvt5403 ir01.
icc5 text line tearing dv68(zdp6v2).
icc5 text no osg tv07.
icc5 top 3 colored flyback lines dl21 thyristor
icc5 top cramp rf12(1k),il14.
icc5 tripped cp37 4,700uf was .
icc5 tripped rl10
icc5 tripping cl48(11nf).+loptx
icc5 tripping cp29(47nf).
icc5 tripping dl51(by397)/cg05.
icc5 tripping focus arcing.
icc5 tripping ir01(micropro).
icc5 tripping ir81(mc7805).
icc5 tripping lg11 tda 4950 +s2000af .
icc5 tripping loptr+cl48.
icc5 tripping loptx s/c pins 11/3.
icc5 tripping loptx+dp37(byw72).
icc5 trips (0u33f250v)+tda4950 .
icc5 trips (22uf250v)+rl23(1r) .
icc5 trips 3 times dead cp24 47uf100v drive coupler to tr24.
icc5 trips 3 times cp24(47uf100v) drive coupler to tr24 .
icc5 trips 3 times dead dl55 ba157 cl58 47uf100v rv82 10r .
icc5 trips 3 times dl25(zpd10).
icc5 trips 3 times dl55(ba157),cl58(47uf100v),rv82(10r)
icc5 trips cl16(3n3f) il14,dl51.
icc5 trips cp37(4700uf).
icc5 trips disable tl17 c/e. dl25 zpd10 zener 13v line monitor.
icc5 trips dl25(zpd10 zenner.
icc5 trips once stby rl44 56r hold mains sw for 3-4secs
icc5 trips quietly 0u33f 250v nr loptx, e/w coil tda4950
icc5 trips tp16(bc368).
icc5 tuning bad qt16(4mhz).
icc5 tuning no 33v voltage ,tt12 bc547
icc5 vcr flag waving ,use channels end in zero. ie 10, 20 etc.
icc5 warm no ew correction pg02 2k2
icc5 warm trips cl33(10uf25v)+cp23(2n2)
icc5 white raster check rv82.
icc5 white raster rv82.
icc5 width 1″ on lhs text ic iv02.