Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

In Brief: On this site you will find pictures and information about some of the electronic, electrical and electrotechnical Obsolete technology relics that the Frank Sharp Private museum has accumulated over the years .
Premise: There are lots of vintage electrical and electronic items that have not survived well or even completely disappeared and forgotten.

Or are not being collected nowadays in proportion to their significance or prevalence in their heyday, this is bad and the main part of the death land. The heavy, ugly sarcophagus; models with few endearing qualities, devices that have some over-riding disadvantage to ownership such as heavy weight,toxicity or inflated value when dismantled, tend to be under-represented by all but the most comprehensive collections and museums. They get relegated to the bottom of the wants list, derided as 'more trouble than they are worth', or just forgotten entirely. As a result, I started to notice gaps in the current representation of the history of electronic and electrical technology to the interested member of the public.

Following this idea around a bit, convinced me that a collection of the peculiar alone could not hope to survive on its own merits, but a museum that gave equal display space to the popular and the unpopular, would bring things to the attention of the average person that he has previously passed by or been shielded from. It's a matter of culture. From this, the Obsolete Technology Tellye Web Museum concept developed and all my other things too. It's an open platform for all electrical Electronic TV technology to have its few, but NOT last, moments of fame in a working, hand-on environment. We'll never own Colossus or Faraday's first transformer, but I can show things that you can't see at the Science Museum, and let you play with things that the Smithsonian can't allow people to touch, because my remit is different.

There was a society once that was the polar opposite of our disposable, junk society. A whole nation was built on the idea of placing quality before quantity in all things. The goal was not “more and newer,” but “better and higher" .This attitude was reflected not only in the manufacturing of material goods, but also in the realms of art and architecture, as well as in the social fabric of everyday life. The goal was for each new cohort of children to stand on a higher level than the preceding cohort: they were to be healthier, stronger, more intelligent, and more vibrant in every way.

The society that prioritized human, social and material quality is a Winner. Truly, it is the high point of all Western civilization. Consequently, its defeat meant the defeat of civilization itself.

Today, the West is headed for the abyss. For the ultimate fate of our disposable society is for that society itself to be disposed of. And this will happen sooner, rather than later.

OLD, but ORIGINAL, Well made, Funny, Not remotely controlled............. and not Made in CHINA.

How to use the site:
- If you landed here via any Search Engine, you will get what you searched for and you can search more using the search this blog feature provided by Google. You can visit more posts scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year,
or you can click on the main photo-page to start from the main page. Doing so it starts from the most recent post to the older post simple clicking on the Older Post button on the bottom of each page after reading , post after post.

You can even visit all posts, time to time, when reaching the bottom end of each page and click on the Older Post button.

- If you arrived here at the main page via bookmark you can visit all the site scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year pointing were you want , or more simple You can even visit all blog posts, from newer to older, clicking at the end of each bottom page on the Older Post button.
So you can see all the blog/site content surfing all pages in it.

- The search this blog feature provided by Google is a real search engine. If you're pointing particular things it will search IT for you; or you can place a brand name in the search query at your choice and visit all results page by page. It's useful since the content of the site is very large.

Note that if you don't find what you searched for, try it after a period of time; the site is a never ending job !

Every CRT Television saved let revive knowledge, thoughts, moments of the past life which will never return again.........

Many contemporary "televisions" (more correctly named as displays) would not have this level of staying power, many would ware out or require major services within just five years or less and of course, there is that perennial bug bear of planned obsolescence where components are deliberately designed to fail and, or manufactured with limited edition specificities..... and without considering........picture......sound........quality........
..............The bitterness of poor quality is remembered long after the sweetness of todays funny gadgets low price has faded from memory........ . . . . . .....
Don't forget the past, the end of the world is upon us! Pretty soon it will all turn to dust!

Have big FUN ! !
©2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 Frank Sharp - You do not have permission to copy photos and words from this blog, and any content may be never used it for auctions or commercial purposes, however feel free to post anything you see here with a courtesy link back, btw a link to the original post here , is mandatory.
All sets and apparates appearing here are property of Engineer Frank Sharp. NOTHING HERE IS FOR SALE !
All posts are presented here for informative, historical and educative purposes as applicable within Fair Use.

Wednesday, September 13, 2023



The TELEFUNKEN (THOMSON) MA110C is a 14 inches color PORTABLE television with 50 programs and OSD display and teletext.

  • The set is first Telefunken from THOMSON Group featuring the TX807 Chassis allowing a compact TV chassis featuring a highly integrated circuit with all functions realized with few chips.

The TX807 was capable of driving from 14 to 27 inches color televisions with few modifications and possibly  stereo sound too.
The TX807 have had further improvements up a version (TX807C) characterized by the featuring of a UOC chip and digital stereo sound.

  • The set is first featuring in a SMALL color screen format the PHILIPS  TDA8842 I2C-bus controlled PAL/NTSC/SECAM TV processor, here in PAL version. which are intended to be applied in PAL, NTSC, PAL/NTSC and multi-standard television receivers.The TDA884x combines all IF, sync, video and audio functions for a colour television. In combination with a power and deflection board, a micro-processor module and a picture tube, it can operate as a complete TV receiver.
  • The TDA884x is the key component to build a cost-effective, I 2C-bus controlled multi-standard TV receiver.

The TDA8844 implements PAL/SECAM/NTSC decoding, multi-standard mono sound, YUV interface plus geometry control for 16:9 and 4:3 110 o picture tubes in one single-chip device.

  • The TDA8840/41/42/46/47 are sub-sets of the TDA8844 for 90 o tubes, single standard or LCD applications.

The TDA8845 has a second IF part to make a Quasi-Split-Sound with Single Reference (QSS-SR) receiver.

  • The set with the TX807 Chassis is featuring first the FROSIN (Free Oscillating Safe Intelligent) auto-oscillating switching power supply. In standby, power consumption is less than 2W. TURNING ON  switching frequency is of the order of 70kHz for a power consumption of 45W
  • The set features  "Chunghwa"  "Minineck" CRT Tube (Toshiba Technology) with  screen and blackmatrix.,with  bright dazzling superb pictures , In a conventional shadow-mask-type CRT, graphic images are reproduced by red, green, and blue electron beams emitted from means for producing them which pass through a hole of a shadow mask, converge into a point, and collide with red, green, and blue phosphors formed on a phosphor screen of an inner surface of a panel.
  • The phosphor screen comprises red, green, and blue phosphors which have a pattern and black matrix which is formed on the same surface and between the phosphors. Generally, the black matrix is a photo-absorptive layer produced by using photoresisting effect of a photoresist.
  • The black matrix for a color CRT is produced by packing illuminescent absorptive materials between phosphors. The black matrix prevents the contrast of the CRT from decreasing, which is caused by luminescence of aluminium layer occurring when the electrons scattered around the inner panel of the CRT and the hole of a shadow mask collide with the phosphor screen. The black matrix also prevents the chromaticity from decreasing, which is caused by luminescence of dots and stripes of the phosphors when the neighboring dots and stripes are radiated by the electron beams.
  • Front SIDE RCA sockets  for AV are present and a headphone jack too.
  • Backside a SCART Connector is also present.

The Teletext is a television-based communication technique in which a given horizontal video line is utilized for broadcasting textual and graphical information encoded in a digital binary representation. Such horizontal video line signal that contains teletext data is referred to herein as a Data-line. It is assumed herein, for explanation purposes, that teletext is sent by the broadcaster only during the vertical blanking interval (VBI), when no other picture information is sent. The organization of the binary information in the broadcast signal is determined by the standard employed by the broadcaster. By way of an example only, references are made herein to a teletext based on a standard referred to by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) as CEEFAX.

Each Data-line carries data synchronizing and address information and the codes for a Row of 40 characters. The synchronizing information includes a clock run-in sequence followed by an 8-bit framing code sequence. Each Data-line contains a 3 bit code referred to as the Magazine number. A teletext Page includes 24 Rows of 40 characters, including a special top Row called the Page-Header. Each ROW is contained in a corresponding Data-line. A user selected Page is intended to be displayed in place of, or added to a corresponding television picture frame. A Magazine is defined to include Pages having Data-lines containing a corresponding Magazine number. The transmission of a selected Page begins with, and includes its Page Header and ends with and excludes the next Page Header of the selected Magazine number. All intermediate Data lines carrying the selected Magazine number relate to the selected Page.


  The television receiver has an full alphanumeric menu / display which appears on the picture tube screen, to give the user data on the tuned channel number, colour settings and other operating data. The digital processor which generates the characters for display also controls the channel setting, etc., under the control of a digital remote control unit . The processor has an associated memory circuit for permanente tuning back up. The control of the capacitance diode tuner is achieved by the processor altering the dividing factor of a feedback loop to a phase/frequency comparator . The other input to the comparator is a divided frequency from a quartz oscillator.

A SCART Connector (which stands for Syndicat des Constructeurs d'Appareils Radiorécepteurs et Téléviseurs) is a standard for connecting audio-visual equipment together. The official standard for SCART is CENELEC document number EN 50049-1. SCART is also known as Péritel (especially in France) and Euroconnector but the name SCART will be used exclusively herein. The standard defines a 21-pin connector (herein after a SCART connector) for carrying analog television signals. Various pieces of equipment may be connected by cables having a plug fitting the SCART connectors. Television apparatuses commonly include one or more SCART connectors.

Although a SCART connector is bidirectional, the present invention is concerned with the use of a SCART connector as an input connector for receiving signals into a television apparatus. A SCART connector can receive input television signals either in an RGB format in which the red, green and blue signals are received on Pins 15, 11 and 7, respectively, or alternatively in an S-Video format in which the luminance (Y) and chroma (C) signals are received on Pins 20 and 15. As a result of the common usage of Pin 15 in accordance with the SCART standard, a SCART connector cannot receive input television signals in an RGB format and in an S-Video format at the same time.

Consequently many commercially available television apparatuses include a separate SCART connectors each dedicated to receive input television signals in one of an RGB format and an S-Video format. This limits the functionality of the SCART connectors. In practical terms, the number of SCART connectors which can be provided on a television apparatus is limited by cost and space considerations. However, different users wish the input a wide range of different combinations of formats of television signals, depending on the equipment they personally own and use. However, the provision of SCART connectors dedicated to input television signals in one of an RGB format and an S-Video format limits the overall connectivity of the television apparatus. Furthermore, for many users the different RGB format and S-Video format are confusing. Some users may not understand or may mistake the format of a television signal being supplied on a given cable from a given piece of equipment. This can result in the supply of input television signals of an inappropriate format for the SCART connector concerned.

This kind of connector is todays obsoleted !

Thomson-CSF History

  In 1879 Elihu Thomson and Edwin Houston formed the Thomson-Houston Electric Company in the United States.
On April 15, 1892 Thomson-Houston and the Edison General Electric Company merged to form General Electric (GE). Also in 1892 the company formed a French subsidiary, Thomson Houston International.
In 1893 Compagnie Française Thomson-Houston (CFTH) was set up as a partner to GE. It is from this company that the modern Thomson companies would evolve.
In 1966 CFTH merged with Hotchkiss-Brandt to form Thomson-Houston-Hotchkiss-Brandt (soon renamed Thomson-Brandt). In 1968 the electronics business of Thomson-Brandt merged with Compagnie Générale de Télégraphie Sans Fil (CSF) to form Thomson-CSF. Thomson Brandt maintained a significant shareholding in this company (approximately 40%).
In 1982 both Thomson-Brandt and Thomson-CSF were nationalized by François Mitterrand. Thomson-Brandt was renamed Thomson SA (Société Anonyme) and merged with Thomson-CSF.
From 1983 to 1987 a major reorganisation of Thomson-CSF was undertaken, with divestitures to refocus the group on its core activities (electronics and defence). Thomson-CSF Téléphone and the medical division were sold to Alcatel and GE respectively. The semiconductor businesses of Thomson CSF was merged with Finmeccanica. Thomson acquired General Electric’s RCA and GE consumer electronics business in 1987.
In 1988 Thomson Consumer Electronics was formed, renamed Thomson Multimedia in 1995. The French government split the consumer electronics and defence businesses prior to privatisation in 1999, those companies being Thomson Multimedia (today Technicolor SA) and Thomson-CSF (today Thales Group).

Thomson-CSF was a major electronics and defence contractor. In December 2000 it was renamed Thales Group.

...........1996............there are no stranger foreigners than the first ones you come across, the French. This is borne out by the 1996 Thomson situation. Thomson, was a vast company by any reckoning, is a strange beast. It's state controlled, which means that the government owns most but not quite all of it. and consists of two distinct arms, the defence group Thomson-CFS which is quite profitable, and the consumer electronics group Thomson Multimedia which loses a packet. The government wanted  rid of it, but won't sell the bits separately. It doesn't want to be left with the problem of what to do with Thomson Multimedia. You might think that no one would be interested in helping the French government. But in fact there are two contenders to take over Thomson, the telecommunications and power group Alcatel Alsthom and the defence and media group Lagardere. They have been engaging in quite a battle over the ownership, and as we go to press the French government is due to decide whose bid to accept. Whoever wins will end up with the profitable defence company  and the problem of Thomson Multimedia (TMM).

Lagardere has stated that it would sell TMM to Daewoo of Korea. Alcatel Alsthom has not been quite so specific, but has announced that it would take immediate action to reduce TMM's losses and seek an "Asian partner" that "specialises in consumer electronics". The partner would be expected to take over management of TMM, but Alcatel would like to remain a "minority partner" - it sees prospects in the move to digital TV technology that will occur during the next decade. All this gives one a strange feeling of déjà vu. At the time when Thomson took over Ferguson, in June 1987, it was noticed  that Thomson is "now on the government's privatisation list". It's taken almost a decade to happen.

 It's also said that "Thomson may be big, but has not been all that successful in the past in the consumer electronics field". Right on! What has happened to Ferguson in the UK illustrates the dismal Thomson effect. From being the local brand leader, with over ten per cent of the market, Ferguson has ended up being an also ran. It's only fair however to mention that Ferguson was making substantial losses when Thorn EMI was glad to get £90m for it from Thomson. Thomson has been able to survive in the consumer electronics field because it is part of a larger organisation, with those defence profits. It has nevertheless over the years attempted to play a a major role in the international consumer electronics field, keeping up with Philips and the Japanese corporations. From its French origins, it first expanded by picking up various German companies such as NordMende an SABA. It added Telefunken, a venerable name if ever there was one in this industry, in the early eighties, then took what was to be a big move into the UK market when it bought Ferguson. 

It  used six brand names in Europe. The largest step however occurred when TMM became a major force in the North American market by taking over General Electric's consumer electronics interests. This also gave it the RCA operation. The idea behind all this seems to have been to achieve success simply by getting bigger. There was always government finance to back the policy, which in the event has not been a success. The TMM debacle is a sad one, since Thomson's research and engineering has had many successes.
 It has not stinted on R and D work, with laboratories in Los Angeles, Indianapolis, Strasbourg, Hanover, Villingen, Tokyo and Singapore. Much work has been done on HD -TV, digital signal processing and other developments that have kept it in the forefront of the technology. Now, it seems, TMM is likely to be swallowed up by one of the Oriental corporate giants. 
If there are any lessons to be drawn, they would seem to be that expansion by itself is no guarantee of success, that to spread ones activities and their control across the globe makes management extremely difficult, and that costs are very hard to control in such a context. Alcatel Alsthom's plans to reduce TMM's losses bear this out. It would close down TMM's US factories, transferring production to the company's modern facilities in Mexico, where wages are much lower.

 It would rationalise the large collection of brands, possibly adopting RCA as the main one worldwide. And there is a suggestion that the company should be run from the USA, since this is its largest market. But all this would be just initial steps towards ceding majority control. Venerable brand names such as Telefunken, GE and RCA would pass to oriental ownership. This will happen whoever wins, Alcatel Alsthom or Lagardere, which would leave just Philips to carry on Europe's traditions in the consumer electronics field............. but we all know how it ended.................

Thomson-CSF independence

Following the privatisation of the Thomson Group Thomson-CSF explored the possibility of merging with Marconi Electronic Systems, however British Aerospace was successful in that aim, forming BAE Systems.
In 2000 Thomson-CSF went through a series of transactions, including with Marconi plc. The major acquisition at this time was the £1.3 billion purchase of the British defence electronics firm, Racal. This made Thomson-CSF the second largest participant in the UK defence industry after BAE. Racal was renamed Thomson-CSF Racal plc.
On December 6, 2000 the group was renamed Thales.


"History". Thales Group. Retrieved 15 March 2020.

Godsmark, Chris and John Lichfield. "Airbus set for privatisation as France abandons objection." The Independent, 28 August 1997.

"Déclaration de M. Lionel Jospin, Premier ministre, sur le regroupement d'Aérospatiale-Matra et de Dasa et sur son importance pour la construction européenne dans les domaines de l'aéronautique civile et militaire, Strasbourg le 14 octobre 1999.", 14 October 1999.

"Thomson-CSF changes name to Thales". Retrieved 4 December 2018.

"Thomson-CSF to become Thales". 6 December 2000. Retrieved 4 December 2018.

Further reading

Jean-Pierre, Thierry (16 October 2003). Taïwan Connection : Scandales et meurtres au cœur de la République [Taiwan Connection – Scandals and Murders at the Heart of the Republic] (in French). Robert Laffont. ISBN 978-2221100820.
L'entreprise partagée ? Une pratique différente des relations sociales : l'expérience Thomson-CSF, Robert Thomas (pseudonym for a team-work with Pierre Beretti and Jean-Pierre Thiollet), Paris, Maxima-Laurent du Mesnil Ed., 1999



(WAS) is a German radio and television apparatus company, founded in 1903, in Berlin, as a joint venture of two large companies, Siemens & Halske (S & H) and the Allgemeine Elektricitäts-Gesellschaft (General Electricity Company).

The name "Telefunken" appears in:

* the product brand name "Telefunken";
* AEG subsidiary as Telefunken GmbH in 1955;
* AEG subsidiary as Telefunken AG in 1963;
* company merged as AEG-Telefunken (1967–1985);
* the company "Telefunken USA" (2001). Now Telefunken Elektroakustik (2009)
* the company "Telefunken semiconductor GmbH & Co KG" Heilbronn Germany (2009).
* the company "Telefunken Lighting technologies S,L" (2009)

The company Telefunken USA[1] was incorporated in early 2001 to provide restoration services and build reproductions of vintage Telefunken microphones.

Around the turn of the 20th century, two groups of German researchers worked on the development of techniques for wireless communication. The one group at AEG, led by Adolf Slaby and Georg Graf von Arco, developed systems for the German navy; the other one, under Karl Ferdinand Braun, at Siemens, for the German army.

When a dispute concerning patents arose between the two companies, Kaiser Wilhelm II decided that the two companies were to be joined, creating on 27 May 1903 the company Gesellschaft für drahtlose Telegraphie System Telefunken ("The Company for Wireless Telegraphy Ltd."), and the disputed patents and techniques were invested in it. This was then renamed on 17 April 1923 as Telefunken, The Company for Wireless Telegraphy. Telefunken was the company's telegraph address. The first technical director of Telefunken was George Graf von Arco.

Starting in 1923, Telefunken built broadcast transmitters and radio sets.

In 1928, Telefunken made history by designing the V-41 amplifier for the German Radio Network. This was the very first two stage, "Hi-Fi" amplifier which began a chapter in recording history. Over time, Telefunken perfected their designs and in 1950 the V-72 amplifier was born. The TAB (a manufacturing subcontractor to Telefunken) V-72 soon became popular with other radio stations and recording facilities and would eventually come to help define the sound of most European recordings. The V-72S was the only type of amplifier found in the legendary REDD-37 console used by the Beatles at Abbey Road Studios on every recording prior to Rubber Soul. Today the V-72 is still the most sought after example of Telefunken's design and over 50 years later continues to be the benchmark by which all other tube based microphone preamplifiers are measured. In 1932, record players were added to the product line.

In 1941 Siemens transferred its Telefunken shares to AEG as part of the agreements known as the "Telefunken settlement", and AEG thus became the sole owner and continued to lead Telefunken as a subsidiary (starting in 1955 as "Telefunken GmbH" and from 1963 as "Telefunken AG").

During the Second World War Telefunken was a supplier of vacuum tubes, transmitters and radio relay systems, and developed radar facilities and directional finders, aiding extensively to the German air defense against British-American Aerial Bombing. During the war, manufacturing plants were shifted to and developed in West Germany or relocated. Thus, Telefunken, under AEG, turned into the smaller subsidiary, with the three divisions realigning and data processing technology, elements as well as broadcast, television and phono. Telefunken had substantial successes in these markets during the time of self-sufficiency and also later in the AEG company. Telefunken was also the originator of the FM radio broadcast system. Telefunken, through the subsidiary company Teldec (a joint venture with Decca Records), was for many decades one of the largest German record companies, until Teldec was sold to WEA in 1988.

In 1959, Telefunken established a modern semiconductor works in Heilbronn, where in April 1960 production began. The works was expanded several times, and in 1970 a new 6-storey building was built at the northern edge of the area. At the beginning of the 1970s it housed approximately 2,500 employees.

In 1967, Telefunken was merged with AEG, which was then renamed to AEG-Telefunken. During this era, Walter Bruch developed the PAL color television for the company, in use by most countries outside the Americas today (i.e. United Kingdom - PAL-I), and by Brazil (PAL-M) and Argentina (PAL-N) in South America.

The mainframe computer TR 4 was developed at Telefunken in Backnang, and the TR 440 model was developed at Telefunken in Konstanz. They were in use at many German university computing centres from the 1970s to around 1985. The development and manufacture of large computers was separated in 1974 to the Konstanz Computer Company (CGK). The production of mini- and process computers was integrated into the automatic control engineering division of AEG. When AEG was bought by Daimler in 1985, "Telefunken" was dropped from the company name.

In 2005, Telefunken Sender Systeme Berlin changed its name to Transradio SenderSysteme Berlin AG. The name "Transradio" dates back to 1918, when Transradio was founded as a subsidiary of Telefunken. A year later, in 1919, Transradio made history by introducing duplex transmission. Transradio has specialized in research, development and design of modern AM, VHF/FM and DRM broadcasting systems.

In August 2006, it acquired the Turkish company Profilo Telra, one of the largest European manufacturers of TV-devices, with Telefunken GmbH granting a license for the Telefunken trademark rights and producing televisions under that name. In 2000, Toni Roger Fishman acquired The Diamond Shaped Logo & The Telefunken Brand Name for use in North America. The company "Telefunken USA" [2] was incorporated in early 2001 to provide restoration services and build reproductions of vintage Telefunken microphones. In 2003, Telefunken USA won a TEC Award for Studio Microphone Technology for their exact reproduction of the original Ela M 250 / 251 Microphone system. Telefunken USA has since received several TEC Awards nominations for the following microphone systems: the Telefunken USA M12 or C12 (originally developed by AKG), the R-F-T M16 MkII, and the AK47. The Historic Telefunken Ela M251 microphone system entered the MIX foundation's Hall of fame in 2006. In 2008, Telefunken USA won a second TEC Award for its new Ela M 260 microphone.

As a result of a conference held in Frankfurt in May 2009, Telefunken USA has been renamed Telefunken Elektroakustik ("Electrical Acoustics") Division of Telefunken and awarded the exclusive rights to manufacture a wide variety of professional audio products and vacuum tubes bearing the Telefunken Trade Mark, in over 27 countries worldwide. Telefunken Elektroakustik now uses the Telefunken trademark for Professional Audio Equipment & Component Based Electronics, such as Capacitors, Transformers, Vacuum Tubes in North America, South America, Europe, Asia and Australia.

" It is ironic that in the years since the introduction of PAL, Telefunken – the company that invented PAL – disappeared from the market after they were bought in the 1980s by the French company Thomson – a former SECAM protagonist.
There is further irony in the fact that even as the majority of European and Asian TV viewers benefit on a daily basis from their PAL standard TV pictures, the worldwide transition from analog to digital TV spells the end of this color standard as well as many other TV transmission standards.
What we have known as PAL, SECAM, or NTSC is now increasingly known as simply digital RGB or Y, Cr, and Cb color component signals encoded in a DVB (Digital Video Broadcasting) signal or one of its many variants such as DVB-T, DVT-S, DVB-C, DVB-H, or similar ones like your ATSC.
In the future, all this may in turn disappear into an abstract IP (Internet Protocol) packet, which would make traditional distribution channels obsolete. For example, major areas in Germany, and all of Austria may terminate their analog transmissions, replacing them with DVB-T or DVB-S only.
We will find out whether the 55th anniversary of PAL in 2018 will generate much of a resonance, if all analog TV transmissions – whether terrestrial, satellite, or cable – have been brought to an end. "
1903 – 1922

At the beginning of the last century, two rival research groups were working in the field of
wireless telegraphy. The Slaby-Arco group was represented by the radio-telegraphy department
of AEG, founded in 1899. The other as the Braun-Siemens group, represented by a company
called Gesellschaft für drahtlose Telegraphie, System Prof. Braun und Siemens & Halske
GmbH. Under the advice of Emporer Wilhelm II, the two groups merged to form the
Gesellschaft für drahtlose Telegraphie mbH company on May 27, 1903. And the rest is history.

The very first Telefunken customers were the German Army and the Imperial Navy.
Telefunken was proud to deliver the first two transmitters for the new coastal radio station, Norddeich
Radio, in November 1905. In October 1906, the expansion of a much larger Nauen station was
completed with a range of 300 km and HF output of 10 kW. Welcome to the power of


Dr. Georg Graf Von Arco was the first Technical Director and Managing Director of the
Gesellschaft für drahtlose Telegraphie mbH in 1903. He was also the holder of more than one
hundred patents. Among other inventions, he initiated the high-frequency mechanical
transmitter and the wavemeter. Necessity is the mother of invention. Or in this case, German

1923 – 1936

On April 17, 1904, the company changed its name to "Telefunken, Gesellschaft für drahtlose
Telegraphie", and on July 26, 1932 Telefunkenplatte GmbH officially began its commercial
activity with registered capital of 100,000 Reichsmarks.
The station in the Telefunken building, Tempelhofer Ufer 9 in Berlin, began broadcasting
concerts regularly two and a half months before the official start of the "Deutsche
Rundfunkverkehr". The world tour of the Graf Zeppelin airship in 1929 got off the ground by
using Telefunken transmitters, receivers and directional equipment exclusively.
Also, on October 31, 1928, during the 5th Grand German Radio Exhibition in Berlin, Telefunken
presented a television set with the Karolus-Telefunken system, a scanning process of film
images through a Mechau projector with a Nipkow disk, in public for the first time.


Dr. Hans Bredow is considered to be the "Father of Broadcasting". He was employed at
Telefunken from 1904 to 1919 as a Project Manager, and later as Managing Director.
Prof. Dr. Walter Bruch developed the very first electronic television camera, with which he
participated in the live broadcast of the Olympic Summer Games in Berlin in 1936. He also
earned international fame by inventing the PAL color television system. He joined Telefunken's
Television and Physical Research Department in 1935.
These two innovators thought out of the “TV box” and helped shape and make Telefunken what
it is today.


The German radio station in Zeesen near Königswusterhausen (8 kW shortwave transmitter) was built by Telefunken and was officially placed in service on August 28, 1929. The Mühlacker radio station (60 kW output) was handed over on December 20, 1930. Telefunken is now in, and on, the air.


In 1935, Telefunken equipped the Olympic Stadium, the Maifeld and the Dietrich-Eckhardt
Stage with electrical-acoustic equipment for the Olympics. On August 1, 1936 at the XI Olympic
Summer Games in Berlin, an electronic television camera, known as the Ikonoskop, was used
for the first time for a direct transmission. Again, another Telefunken first. And second. And third
1936- 1954


The first fully electronic television studio equipped by Telefunken for the Deutsche Reichspost
was opened with a live broadcast in August 1938. The 500 kW long wave transmitter in
Herzberg, also known as the most powerful German broadcast transmitter, was supplied by
Telefunken and began to operate on May 19, 1939.


On September 24, 1941, AEG took over the 50% of Telefunken shares owned by Siemens &
Halske AG valued at 20 million Reichsmarks. Thus, Telefunken became a 100% subsidiary of
AEG. In exchange, Siemens & Halske AG received the shares of Eisenbahn-Signalwerken,
Klangfilmgesellschaft mbH and Deutsche Betriebsgesellschaft für drahtlose Telegraphie
(DEBEG) owned by AEG. Strength in numbers, indeed.


The reconstruction after the World War II posed a particularly difficult challenge to Telefunken.
All production facilities and equipment were destroyed, disassembled or confiscated and many
valuable experts were scattered around the world. Rebuilding began in West Germany and
Berlin in 1945, and the production of tubes and transmitters was resumed the same year. But
growth was on the way.


In 1953 Telefunken already comprised six plants and five sales offices in Berlin, Ulm,
Frankfurt/Main and Hanover again.The range of products consisted of long-range
communications systems, radio and television transmitters, marine radios, commercial
receivers, directional and navigation systems, radar devices, deci and UHF directional radio
connections, mobile radio systems, portable radio systems, HF heat generators, measuring
equipment, electro-acoustical systems, music centers, record players, transmitter tubes, radio
tubes, special tubes and quartz crystals. As you can see, Telefunken was relentless and has
come a long way.


Prof. Dr. Dr. Wilhelm T. Runge (1895-1987) performed trailblazing work in radio and radar
technology and played a significant role in the development of microwave in Germany. He was
especially renowned internationally in the field of high-frequency technology. As well as for
having a few, very important titles before his name.

1955 – 1962

The name of the company was changed to Telefunken GmbH on January 4, 1955. Due to the
expanded business activities of Telefunken, AEG increased the capital of the company to DM
100 million in 1958.


The Sender Freies Berlin (SFB) station ordered the first German stereo studio in 1961. The
harbor radar system, supplied by Telefunken, was officially placed for service in Hamburg
Harbor in August 1962, while the first German transistor receiver (six transistors) was produced
in a test series in 1956. Prof. Dr. Walter Bruch filed the fundamental PAL "time decoder" patent
on December 31, 1962. It was the first German stereo studio of its kind, and Telefunken sought
to it that there was nothing else quite like it.


Telefunken GmbH became Telefunken AG on July 5, 1963. On June 23, 1966, the General
Shareholder Meeting of AEG passed a resolution to integrate Telefunken AG into Allgemeine
Elektrizitäts-Gesellschaft. Based on an operating lease agreement, the business activities of
Telefunken were transferred to AEG effective January 1, 1967, and were continued under the
combined name AEG-Telefunken. In March 1968, AEG-Telefunken developed a new mediumrange
radar system (Type SER-LL), which was able to detect targets at an altitude of 24,000
meters at a distance of 280 kilometers. Telefunken expands on land, as well as in the air.


AEG-Telefunken delivered the two-millionth tape recorder, a Magnetophon 204 TS, on August
5, 1969. The ten-millionth black-and-white television picture tube was produced in Ulm on
January 27, 1970. The numbers are astounding. As is Telefunken.AEG-Telefunken delivered the
two-millionth tape recorder, a Magnetophon 204 TS, on August 5, 1969. The ten-millionth
black-and-white television picture tube was produced in Ulm on January 27, 1970. The
numbers are astounding. As is Telefunken.


There was a worldwide economic slowdown in the wake of the oil crisis in 1974. The
competition in consumer electronics sector also became more difficult due to Japanese
suppliers. The only profitable divisions of the company at this time were telecommunications
and traffic technology. But Telefunken, as usual, was known for their resilience.

1979- 1983

The name of the overall company was changed to AEG-Telefunken Aktiengesellschaft on June
21, 1979. The "Aktiengesellschaft" [stock corporation] suffix was necessary due to a new law in
the European Community. In 1979, AEG-Telefunken supplied the complete telecommunications
and high-voltage equipment for the International Congress Center (ICC) Berlin, valued at DM 50
million. In January 1983 the company received an order for simulation systems for electronic
battle simulation for training Tornado crews of the German Luftwaffe and Navy. The total value
was at DM 37 million. The net worth: priceless.


Court composition proceedings were opened against the assets of AEG-Telefunken AG by the
District Court in Frankfurt / Main on October 31, 1982.
The District Court Frankfurt / Main confirmed the composition of AEG-Telefunken AG in
accordance with the petition filed and closed the proceedings on September 19, 1984.
Even during this difficult financial situation, AEG-Telefunken continued its business and founded
AEG-Telefunken Nachrichtentechnik GmbH (ATN), in Backnang, Germany, together with
Bosch, Mannesmann and Allianz Versicherungs-AG in 1981, as well as Telefunken electronic
GmbH (TEG) in the field of electronic components (semiconductors) together with United
Technologies Corporation (UTC), USA in 1982.
On July 1, 1992, AEG-Telefunken and Deutsche Aerospace (Dasa) founded Telefunken
Microelektronic GmbH (TEMIC), into which Telefunken Elektronic GmbH was integrated among
others. But Telefunken was determined to prevail.


Effective March 31, 1983, the French group Thomson-Brandt S.A. took over 75 percent of the
AEG-Telefunken shares in Telefunken Fernseh und Rundfunk GmbH, Hanover, Germany,
including its German and foreign subsidiaries. The remaining 25 percent were supposed to
follow on January 31, 1984. Daimler-Benz AG entered the company in autumn of 1985 and
decided in Autumn 1995 to dissolve the legal entity and transferred the remaining assets to
EHG Electroholding GmbH. Thus, the history of the company was over. But not that of its
A historical overview is offered by the company archive of AEG-Telefunken in the "Deutsches
Technikmusem Berlin", Trebbiner Str. 9, 10963 Berlin.

1984 – 2004

Currently, the Telefunken brand and name rights lie with Telefunken Licenses GmbH,
Frankfurt/Main, Germany. This company is one hundred percent subsidiary of EHG
Elektroholding GmbH, Frankfurt/Main.
EHG, on the other hand, is the legal successor of AEG Aktiengesellschaft. The licensor is
Licentia Patent-Verwaltungs GmbH, Frankfurt/Main, Germany. A differentiation is made
between brand licensing agreements, name use agreements and combined agreements. And
third-party use always requires the written approval of the licensor.
In 2003, Telefunken can look back at one-hundred years of brand history. In the past,
Telefunken was associated with significant technical developments and enjoyed the reputation
of a successful German company.
The Telefunken brand is registered in the official trademark registries of 118 countries. It
continues to be used under a variety of licensing agreements.
These are the topics that can be found in the commemorative volume "Telefunken After 100
Years - The Legacy of a Global German Brand."
Whether discovered on this website or in book, these topics should not only focus attention on
the past, but also simultaneously highlight the beginning of a strong Telefunken brand. Simply
put, it’s not just about where we’ve been. But also where we’re going.

2004 – 2009

Since December 2007, the trademark-right TELEFUNKEN rests with TELEFUNKEN Holding
AG, Frankfurt. Currently, TELEFUNKEN is the owner of more than 20,000 patents and active in over 130 countries around the globe.
Today, TELEFUNKEN stands for innovation and progress in the ever-changing world of
information and communications technology and is strictly focused on consumer quality – from
design concept to execution. And because of its strong heritage and long-standing tradition,
Telefunken has a high brand-awareness and a clear positioning in the field of premium

Some References:

  • M. Friedewald: Telefunken und der deutsche Schiffsfunk 1903–1914. In: Zeitschrift für Unternehmensgeschichte 46. Nr. 1, 2001, S. 27–57
  • M. Fuchs: Georg von Arco (1869–1940) – Ingenieur, Pazifist, Technischer Direktor von Telefunken. Eine Erfinderbiographie. Verlag für Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften und der Technik, Berlin & München: Diepholz 2003
  • L. U. Scholl: Marconi versus Telefunken: Drahtlose Telegraphie und ihre Bedeutung für die Schiffahrt. In: G. Bayerl, W. Weber (ed.): Sozialgeschichte der Technik. Ulrich Troitzsche zum 60. Geburtstag. Waxmann, Münster 1997 (Cottbuser Studien zur Geschichte von Technik, Arbeit und Umwelt, 7)
  • Telefunken Sendertechnik GmbH: 90 Jahre Telefunken. Berlin 1993
  • Erdmann Thiele (ed.): Telefunken nach 100 Jahren – Das Erbe einer deutschen Weltmarke. Nicolaische Verlagsbuchhandlung, Berlin 2003, ISBN 3-87584-961-2


Schreibweise mit c siehe: - AEG-Teilschuldverschreibung von 1962

Marke „Telefunken“ in der Registerauskunft des Deutschen Patent- und Markenamtes (DPMA)

E. Thiele (Hrsg.): Telefunken nach 100 Jahren: Das Erbe einer deutschen Weltmarke. Nicolai, Berlin 2003, S. 19

Kurt Kracheel: Flugführungssysteme (Die Deutsche Luftfahrt, Band 20). Bernard&Graefe Verlag, Bonn 1993, ISBN 3-7637-6105-5, S. 119.

Operette 50W UKW. In: Abgerufen am 28. Januar 2016.

Autosuper IA 50. In: Abgerufen am 28. Januar 2016.

Farbfernseh-Tischempfänger PALcolor 708T. In: Abgerufen am 28. Januar 2016.

Mini Partner 101. In: Abgerufen am 28. Januar 2016.

Olympia-Partner. In: Abgerufen am 28. Januar 2016.

Magnetophon 3000 hifi. In: Abgerufen am 28. Januar 2016.

Fernseh-Tischempfänger FE8T. In: Abgerufen am 28. Januar 2016.

Israelischer Konzern Elbit Systems eröffnet Büro in Berlin. In: bundeswehr-journal. 13. April 2018, abgerufen am 18. Januar 2019.

Telefunken Semiconductors Heilbronn: Die Lichter sind für immer aus,, 27. Februar 2015

LDL Berlin: Geschäftshaus Mehringdamm 32 & 34

LDL Berlin: AEG-Glühlampenfabrik

LDL Berlin: AEG-Telefunken-Gerätewerk

Telefunkenwerk Celle.

Ludwig Leisentritt: Die historische Entwicklung von Zeil am Main,

Further reading

  • Jean-Pierre, Thierry (16 October 2003). Taïwan Connection : Scandales et meurtres au cœur de la République [Taiwan Connection – Scandals and Murders at the Heart of the Republic] (in French). Robert Laffont. ISBN 978-2221100820.
  • L'entreprise partagée ? Une pratique différente des relations sociales : l'expérience Thomson-CSF, Robert Thomas (pseudonym for a team-work with Pierre Beretti and Jean-Pierre Thiollet), Paris, Maxima-Laurent du Mesnil Ed., 1999.




It is a FROSIN (Free Oscillating Safe Intelligent) auto-oscillating switching power supply. The ac supply voltage is in the range 180 to 265V. When operating, switching frequency is of the order of 70kHz for a power consumption of 45W. In standby, power consumption is less than 2W. TURNING ON OF TP20 SWITCHING POWER SUPPLY The ac supply voltage, which is rectified and filtered by DP01 and CP08, is applied to the switching transistor TP20 via the 9-5 coil of LP03. Simultaneously, the capacitor CP24 is charged by RP05, RPO6 and RP07. When the voltage on the terminals of CP24 reaches about 9V (threshold of the zener diode DP23), the transistor TP25 becomes conducting and turns on the switching transistor TP20. The zener diode DP21 limits the TP20 grid/supply voltage. TURNING OFF OF TP20 SWITCHING POWER SUPPLY The voltage on the terminals of RP20, when high enough, turns on TP22 ther TP23. Consequently, the TP20 grid current is diverted to ground via TP23, RP28 and RP20. TP20 is turned off. Inverting polarity on
the terminals of LPO3 results ir the following: l
 TP25 turned off.
 Charging of CP24 via 2 of LPO3 and DP25.
 Recuperation of energy in the secondary coils.
 Activation of regulation.
 Charging of CP40 via DP40 (soft start circuit).
 TP22/23 maintained turned on via DP37/38 and RP37 (FROSIN circuit). SOFT START The negative voltage, rectified and filtered by DP40/CP40, delays the instant at which TP22/23 turns on and consequently the instant at which TP20 is turned off a the t start, this negative voltage is zero. TP22 is controlled by RP20. Later, the negative voltage appears and increases, delaying control of TP22/23. The conducting time of TP20 therefore becomes longer and longer.

FROSIN CIRCUIT During the energy restitution phase, the transistors TP22/23, maintained turned or h by network 2 of LPO3, DP37/38 and RP37, ensure that TP20 is turned off. At the ? end of demagnetisation, the voltage sent to the collector of TP20 falls and CPO! 3 charging starts an oscillation cycle with the primary coil of LP03. Consequently, the ? collector voltage of TP20 continues to fall when it reaches 3OOV. The new TP20 saturation command occurs when TP20 has a collector voltage a close to 0, an effect obtained by the delay resulting from the negative voltage ? applied to 2 of LP03. This limits power losses due to TP20 switching, and the efficiency of this power supply is thus increased to 81% in operation (38% in stand by).

This delay results from the discharge time of TP22/23 (related to FROSIN circuit DP37/38, RP37 by control of saturation current) and the charge time of CP23 via 3 RP25 when Pin 2 of LPO3 becomes negative.

In standby, because the energy required by the secondary coils is low, the saturation time for TP20 tends to a value below 1 l.~, a value too low to affect power supply efficiency in this mode. A minimum conduction time circuit (Ton min) has there fore been added to TP20 using the components CP38/RP38. In steady state, the regulation photo-transistor IP01 cannot alone perform saturation of TP22/23 and consequently the turning off of TP20.
The assistance of the following is required:
 The positive voltage produced on the terminals of RP20 in the storage phase. . The positive voltage supplied by the FROSIN circuit (DP37/38, RP37) in the restitution phase. In standby mode, due to the effect of the Ton min circuit, the energy stored I becomes greater than the small requirements of the secondary coils Consequently, the secondary voltages increase during energy restitution phases The conduction of IP01 is then such that it is alone sufficient to maintain TP22/23 I saturated over several LPO3/CPO9 oscillation cycles. The Ton min results from the negative impulse obtained from the voltage induced I n 2 of LPO3 (negative when TP20 is conducting) and the charging of CP38 viaI RP38. This impulse maintains TP22 turned off for a minimum time.f-

In standby, the management microcontroller (IROl) re-starts the power supply 351 QJS approximately every 1 lms (BURST signal which turns off the transistor TP 52). Due to this signal, the regulation becomes operative and the voltages UI ant3 UB increase. This voltage increase is necessary when the television
is switching  on (VCC greater than 6.6V at 12 of IVOl). The ON command (20 of IROl arrives during these impulses. The transistor TP52 is locked on (V base = 0, V emit ter = 5.5V).
The voltages UA and UB are regulated. UA informs the anode of the IPOl photo-transducer diode. UB informs the error amplifier IP50 (pin 3). The resulting error voltage is applied tc the IPOl photo-transducer cathode. It should be noted that an increase of UE results in a reduction in the voltage on the photo-transducer cathode. The conductivity of the photo-transducer transistor is proportional to the current passing through the photo-transducer diode. The voltage on the terminals of CP24, via RP30, DP30 and the photo-transducer transistor is applied to the base of TP21. The components RP54/56/58 and DP30 set the regulation range. When the energy recuperated from LPO3 is low, the voltage on the terminals o CP24 is insufficient to make DP30 conducting. Consequently, the conductivity o TP20 increases and recuperated energy is increased.

The zener diode DP27 limits the grid voltage of the TP20 switching supply. The zener diode DP21 limits the grid-supply voltage of the TP20 switching supply The zener diode DP40 limits the conducting time of the TP20 switching supply in the event of overcharging or regulation malfunction (the soft start voltage will become less and less negative). The transistor TP52 acts as an over voltage protection. When UA (P) is too high TP52 is turned off via the zener diode DP57. Therefore, more current passes through IPOl and consequently TP20 is less conducting. The resistor RP90 protects against overvoltages on UA.

The voltage VP (12V) recuperated from the line transformer is used. When this vol
tage appears (television ON), the transistor TP71 saturates during the charge time
of CP71 (5 to 10 seconds). It causes the contacts of relay SPOl to be closed thu:
activating the demagnetisation loop.

Mains frequency synchronous burst mode power supply

 1. A synchronous burst mode power supply comprising:

a power converter for transforming an AC mains from a relatively low frequency to a higher frequency; and

a gate circuit responsive to said AC mains supply for enabling said power converter to initiate a burst of output pulses at said higher frequency each time a momentary amplitude of said AC mains supply occurs within a predetermined range.

2. The power supply according to claim 1, further comprising means for regulating a transformed output) from said converter circuit to a standby voltage, said means being coupled back to said gate circuit for controlling operation of said power converter circuit in response to load changes to said power supply.

3. The power supply according to claim 1, wherein said power converter comprises a self-oscillating circuit and said gate circuit enables operating of said self-oscillating circuit only during two periods of each cycle of said supply from said AC mains when said supply has a single voltage polarity.

4. The power supply according to claim 1, wherein said gate circuit comprises a threshold detector circuit for generating voltage pulses when detecting portions of positive waveforms of said mains voltage within said predetermined range.

5. The power supply according to claim 4, wherein said threshold detector comprises a transistor biased at its base terminal by a first voltage division of said positive waveforms to pass said voltage pulses from a second voltage division of said positive waveforms.

6. The power supply circuit of claim 5, wherein said first voltage division comprises a resistor pair divider coupled to a base terminal B of said transistor, and said second voltage division comprises a resistor pair coupled to said positive waveforms and an emitter terminal of said transistor.

7. The power supply circuit of claim 4, wherein said power converter circuit comprises a free running oscillator circuit for converting said voltage pulses from said gate circuit at a first frequency to current pulses at a second frequency greater than said first frequency.

8. The power supply circuit of claim 7, wherein said free running oscillator circuit comprises a transistor biased at its base terminal B by said voltage pulses that are rectified by a first diode and then charge a first capacitor for enabling said second transistor to conduct said current pulses, said current pulses being derived from said positive waveforms ripple attenuated by a second capacitor coupled to an emitter terminal of said second transistor, said positive waveforms energizing a primary winding of a transformer to develop in a flyback manner a secondary winding voltage across a secondary winding of said transformer.

9. The power supply circuit of claim 7, further comprising a voltage regulating circuit coupled to a secondary winding of a transformer having a primary winding coupled to said free running oscillator circuit, said secondary winding developing a secondary voltage from said current pulses conducted through a primary winding of said transformer.

10. The power supply circuit of claim 9, wherein said voltage regulating circuit comprises an integrated voltage regulator coupled to a diode and a first capacitor arrangement for rectifying and filtering said current pulses from said secondary winding to provide a secondary voltage stabilized by said integrated voltage regulator, said secondary voltage being filtered by a second capacitor to provide a standby voltage.

11. The power supply circuit of claim 7, further comprising a voltage regulating circuit coupled to a secondary winding of a transformer having a primary winding through which said current pulses controllably conduct to develop a secondary winding voltage that is coupled back to and adjust on-time operation of said threshold detector circuit.

12. A synchronous burst mode standby power supply comprising:

a self-oscillating power converter for receiving an AC mains supply;

a transformer primary winding coupled to said power converter and receiving pulses therefrom for generating a supply of power at a secondary winding of said transformer; and

a gate circuit coupled to said AC mains supply and said power converter, wherein said gate circuit enable operation of said self-oscillating power converter while a momentary amplitude of said AC mains supply cycles through a predetermined range.

13. The power supply circuit of claim 12, wherein said gate circuit comprises a threshold detector for generating voltage pulses when detecting positive waveforms of said mains voltage below a threshold.

14. The power supply circuit of claim 13, wherein said threshold detector comprises a transistor biased at its base terminal by a first voltage division of said positive waveforms to pass said voltage pulses from a second voltage division and filtering of said positive waveforms.

15. The power supply circuit of claim 14, wherein said first voltage division comprises a first resistor pair divider coupled to a base terminal B of said transistor, and said second voltage division comprises a second resistor pair coupled between said positive waveforms and an emitter terminal of said transistor.

16. The power supply circuit of claim 2, wherein said self-oscillating power converter circuit converts said voltage pulses at a first frequency to current pulses at a second frequency greater than said first frequency.

17. The power supply circuit of claim 16, further comprising a voltage regulating circuit coupled to a secondary winding of a transformer having a primary winding through which said current pulses controllably conduct to develop a secondary winding voltage that is coupled back to said threshold detector for influencing on-time operation of said self-oscillating power converter.

18. The power supply circuit of claim 17, wherein said voltage regulating circuit

comprises an integrated voltage regulator, coupled to a diode D6 and capacitor arrangement, for receiving said secondary winding voltage and providing a voltage input for said integrated voltage regulator, and an opto-coupler coupled to said integrated voltage regulator for conducting current derived from said secondary winding voltage back to said threshold detector when said voltage input is above a reference voltage.

19. The power supply circuit of claim 18, wherein said reference voltage is developed across a resistor and zener diode arrangement coupled between the voltage input and said opto-coupler.

20. A method for providing synchronous burst mode power comprising the steps of:

receiving an AC mains supply at a relatively low frequency;

detecting when a momentary amplitude of said AC mains supply occurs within a predetermined range, and

initiating a burst of output pulses at a higher frequency than said relatively low frequency responsive to said detecting step.

21. The method according to claim 20, further comprising the step of terminating further initiation of said burst of output pulses responsive to said detecting.

22. The method according to claim 20, wherein said detecting step comprises when said AC mains occurs below a first threshold and above a second threshold.

23. The method according to claim 20, further comprising the step of regulating said output pulses to a standby voltage output.

24. The method according to claim 20, further comprising the step of controlling timing of said initiating by a voltage derived from said output pulses.

25. The method according to claim 21, further comprising the step of controlling timing of said initiating and terminating by a voltage derived from said output pulses.



This invention relates generally to the field of power supplies, and, in particular, to standby mode power supplies for television receivers.

The power consumed by electronic equipment in the standby mode is becoming an increasingly visible public policy issue. For example, an article in the Sep. 19, 1997, issue of Europe Energy reports that the European Commission regards reducing the energy consumed by electronic equipment in the standby mode of operation as a priority. The article further states that the Commission has concentrated its initial efforts at reducing the standby power consumption of televisions and VCRs, and that it has elicited voluntary commitments from manufacturers of such products to progressively reduce average standby power consumption.

Modern televisions can have a standby power consumption of about 5 to 10 Watts caused by the degaussing circuit and switched mode power supply running in standby mode. Televisions that have an additional standby power supply and disconnect the degaussing circuit can reduce the power consumption to 1 Watt.

In a conventional power supply arrangement for a video display apparatus, a primary winding of a standby transformer is coupled to the AC mains. A transformed voltage across a secondary winding of the standby transformer is full-wave rectified and is regulated by some form of linear regulation to provide power for the video display apparatus in a standby mode of operation. This standby power supply consumes power as long as the video display apparatus is connected to the AC mains, and thus also consumes power during the run mode of operation. During standby mode, power losses are incurred partly due to switching losses. U.S. Pat. No. 6,043,994 proposes a power supply for reducing standby power consumption attributable to a start-up resistor of the switched mode power supply controller integrated circuit IC.

It is therefore desirable to provide a simple and cost-effective method for reducing the standby power consumption attributable to the switching losses.


The present invention is directed to a standby power supply circuit that reduces the standby consumption attributable to switching losses from coupling full AC mains to power conversion circuitry. A synchronous burst mode power supply includes a power converter for transforming an AC mains from a relatively low frequency to a higher frequency; and a gate circuit responsive to the AC mains supply for enabling the power converter to initiate a burst of output pulses at the higher frequency each time the AC mains supply occurs within a predetermined range. A method for providing synchronous burst mode power includes the steps of receiving an AC mains supply at a relatively low frequency, detecting when the AC mains supply occurs within a predetermined range, and initiating a burst of output pulses at a higher frequency than the relatively low frequency in response to the detecting step.

The above, and other features, aspects, and advantages of the present invention will become apparent from the following description read in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which like reference numerals designate the same elements.


FIG. 1 shows a block diagram and waveforms that illustrate the present invention.

FIGS. 2 and 3 show schematic diagrams of standby power supplies that embody the present invention.

FIG. 4 is a graph of the range of input power verses output power.

Similar reference characters refer to similar elements in each of the drawings. Resistors values shown are in units of measure indicated as ohms, kilo-ohms (k), or Mega-ohms (M), and capacitor values are in units of measure indicated as microfarads (u) or picofarads (p).


The present invention reduces power losses associated with circuit switching in a standby switched mode power supply SMPS. The inventive standby SMPS is connected directly to a rippled but rectified mains voltage, which is then gated to the SMPS during periods of low levels of the rectified mains voltage. Gating of the rectified mains voltage to the standby SMPS, which responds by generating burst pulses, is synchronous with a predetermined range in the rectified mains voltage.

The invention is illustrated with a block diagram 10 and waveforms 11-3 in FIG. 1. A mains voltage Vmains is rectified by a diode D1 to provide rippled and positive half wave voltages V1 to a threshold detector 1. Voltage pulses V2 are output by the threshold detector 1 when the rise and fall of the positive half wave voltages V1 are below a threshold level (horizontal line 16 in graph 11 of FIG. 1). The voltage pulses V2 at the relatively low frequency of the mains voltage Vmains, for example 50 or 60 Hz, are converted by the free running oscillator 23 to sawtooth current pulses ITr at a higher frequency. In a sense, the detector acts as a gate with respect to passing part of the positive half-waves to the oscillator circuit 23. It is noted that the Ac mains voltage alone initiates and terminates the burst pulses V2, independent of any external switching control. In the exemplary embodiment of FIG. 1, nine sawtooth pulses ITr are generated for every voltage pulse V2 output by the detector 1. This number is related to the free running frequency of the oscillator, for example 25 kHz. Peaks of the sawtooth current pulses decrease in a linear sloping manner, as shown, because the positive half-wave pulse V1 imposed on the transformer Tr1 decreases from its peak to zero. Voltage imposed on a transformer follows the relationship (voltage/inductance) multiplied by time. In the present circuit the time factor is constant but the mains sine wave voltage increases from zero to a peak value and then decreases from its peak value to zero. The decrease from peak value to zero causes the linear decaying peaks in the sawtooth current pulses ITr. Conversely, during the rising edge of the mains voltage sine wave the peaks of the sawtooth current pulses ITr rise linearly.

The sawtooth current pulses ITr are transformed into a secondary winding voltage VTR1, which is then diode D7 rectified into an unregulated voltage V3. The unregulated voltage V3 is smoothed and regulated by a voltage regulator 3 to an output voltage Vout of 5V DC.

An exemplary circuit in FIG. 2 includes a circuit arrangement 20 for controllably coupling the voltage main

s Vmains over to a connection point for a run mode power supply (not shown). The voltage mains Vmains is switched across an opto-relay, Triac T2, responding to a run control signal through current limiting resistor R13 from a known type of microcontroller (not shown). Alternative relay switches in lieu of triac driver T2 can be employed. The voltage Vmains is also coupled across a triac T1 triggered when the mains voltage is passed by the triac driver T2 and dropped across a voltage divider made up by resistors R11 and R12. The voltage mains Vmains passed by triac T1 is coupled across a degaussing circuit 21, full wave rectified by a diode bridge arrangement D11-D14 and filtered by capacitor C11 for a run mode power supply.

The circuit embodiment of FIG. 2 further includes exemplary circuit embodiments for the threshold detector 1, free running oscillator 2 and voltage stabilizer 3.

Positive half wave voltages V1 from the voltage mains Vmains rectified by diode D1 are voltage divided between resistors R4 and R5, voltage limited by zener diode D3, and ripple attenuated by capacitor C1 to provide +12V to the emitter terminal E of transistor Q1. Transistor Q1 is biased by voltage developed at its base terminal B from the rectifier arrangement of voltage divider resistors R1 and R3 and filtering capacitor C2. An optional adjustable resistor R2 allows for fine adjustment of the base terminal B voltage. Transistor Q1 is protected by diode D2 against a possible reverse biasing due to the +12V developed at the emitter terminal E of transistor Q. When the input voltage to the base terminal B of transistor Q1 is below a certain threshold, determined by the emitter E voltage of transistor Q1 and the voltage divider R4, R5 and D3, transistor Q1 turns on and provides the free running oscillator circuit 23 with a bias voltage. It is noted that resistor R5 adapts the on-time of the oscillator circuit 23 to different mains voltages.

In the threshold detector circuit 22, +12V at the positive terminal of capacitor C1 is compared with voltage at the base terminal B of transistor Q1. A positive voltage at terminal B of transistor Q1 greater than 0 and less than about 11.3 volts biases transistor Q1 on, providing the threshold level 16 of about 11.3 volts. Above 11.3 volts at base terminal B, PNP transistor Q1 is biased off. The threshold detector or gate circuit 22 provides low voltage level switching which reduces losses otherwise present in a typical switched mode standby power supply.

The oscillator 23 in FIG. 2 is a blocking oscillator formed by transformer Tr1, resistor R6, capacitor C3, secondary winding n3 and transistor Q2. The blocking oscillator operates in a conventional manner. It is noted that diodes D4 and D5 and resistor R7 are not necessary for basic operation of the oscillator circuit, but have been included as one form of signal conditioning. The depiction of blocking oscillator circuit 23 is merely exemplary and does not proscribe the use of other oscillator circuits or topologies in the context of the present invention.

Positive feedback provided by secondary winding n3 keeps transistor Q2 conducting. Current through base terminal B of transistor Q2 keeps capacitor C3 discharging until the voltage across the capacitor C3 is 1.4V, at which point transistor Q2 stops conducting and power is transferred to the secondary side via winding n2 in a flyback manner. When there is flyback voltage at the secondary winding n3 capacitor C3 is pulled down to negative. At this point current has to be fed through resistor R6 again to charge up capacitor C3 and start conduction of another saw tooth current ITR, derived from the positive half-wave pulses V1. Capacitor C4 reduces radiation of the fast switching.

The blocking oscillator 23 runs with an almost constant frequency that is dependent on the voltage Vmains, resistor R6, capacitor C3 and the relationship between windings nl and n3. The duty cycle of the oscillation can be substantially constant so that the energy transferred to the secondary winding n2 is substantially constant. This substantially constant energy has two consequences. First, the standby power supply is inherently protected against a short circuit condition on the secondary side of the transformer Tr1. Second, parallel voltage regulation techniques can be used to regulate the voltages provided by the secondary windings n2. For example, in FIG. 2, the +5V output provided by the secondary winding n2 can be partly limited by zener diode D7 and regulated by the voltage regulator IC1. The use of voltage regulator IC1 and diode D7 is merely illustrative and does not preclude the applicability of other voltage regulation techniques in the context of the present invention.

In the embodiment of FIG. 2, the blocking oscillator 23 is advantageously used to transform the relatively low mains voltage frequency, for example 50 to 60 Hz, from which two voltage pulses V2 appear per cycle to a frequency from which nine sawtooth current pulses are generated for each voltage pulse V2. This transformation permits a decrease in the size of standby transformer Tr1, which in turn, leads to a decrease in the power consumption by the standby transformer Tr1. The secondary winding voltage VTR1, reaching 7.2V in the exemplary circuit, is initially rectified by diode D5, filtered by capacitor C5 and then regulated by the voltage regulator IC1. In case of reload, diode D7 prevents capacitor C5 and voltage regulator IC1 from too much voltage. Voltage output by the regulator IC is filtered by capacitor C6 to provide the +5V standby power.

The circuit of FIG. 3 is similar to the standby power arrangement of FIG. 2, except for the current feedback loop from an additional opto-coupler IC2 coupled to the terminal between resistor R5 and zener diode D3 of the threshold detector circuit 22. The circuit embodiment of FIG. 2 is suited for a static load or a relatively small variation in load where resistor R2 can be adjusted to optimally time the initiation and termination of burst pulses suitable for the load amount. If R2 is optimally adjusted for a certain load and the actual load is relatively small then the burst pulse frequency will be too high and the power output will be greater than needed for the load, resulting in wasted power. Dynamic load applications are appropriate for the circuit embodiment of FIG. 3, where the current feedback adjusts the initiation and termination of burst pulses V2 by the gate circuit. The current feedback loop of FIG. 3 eliminates the need for the variable resistor R2 adjustment of FIG. 2.

The opto-coupler IC2 conducts whenever secondary voltage V3 is above a reference voltage developed across D7. Conduction by the opto-coupler IC2 reduces the reference voltage for the emitter of transistor Q1 via current I1 in the feedback loop, which reduces the on time of the free running oscillator circuit 22. As a consequence, the input power is reduced when load decreases, and the voltage controlling potentiometer R2 in the circuit embodiment of FIG. 2 is unnecessary.

FIG. 4 is a graph of the range of input power versus output power demonstrating the increased efficiency provided by the invention. An ordinary power supply will ordinarily consume 1 W to output 200 mW, representing a 20% power conversion efficiency. As the graph of FIG. 4 demonstrates, for example, that with the inventive gating on of momentary low voltage mains an input mains voltage power Pinput of approximately 337 mW is converted to standby power of approximately 115 mW. This represents an increase in power conversion efficiency to approximately 30%.

The standby transformer TR1 may be constructed using an EF16, N67 core with an air gap equal to approximately 0.1 mm. The inductance of the primary winding n1 of the standby transformer Tr1 may be equal to approximately 18 mH, using approximately 160 turns, in two layers, of 0.1 mm diameter CuL wire.

Approximately one layer of 0.1 mm thickness MYLAR® brand polymeric film may be used to provide electrical isolation between the two layers of wire to reduce parasitic capacitance. The secondary winding n2 may use 23 turns of 0.315 mm diameter CuL wire, and the secondary winding n3 may use 16 turns of 0.315 mm diameter wire. Approximately 2 layers of 0.1 mm thickness MYLAR® brand polymeric film may be used to provide electrical isolation between the primary winding n1 and the secondary windings n2 and n3.

It will be apparent to those skilled in the art that, although the invention has been described in terms of specific examples, modifications and changes may be made to the disclosed embodiments without departing from the essence of the invention. For example, in the embodiment discussed portions of positive half-wave voltage levels between 0 and 12V were shown to be passed to the oscillator circuit 23. However, the inventive Ac mains initiated and termination of burst pulses could be practiced with a threshold range of 2V to 12V. However, the 0 to 12V range is preferable because the lower zero boundary makes the circuit design simpler. Also, in lieu of the preferred gating of positive half-waves from the Ac mains, full wave rectified pulses of the AC mains could be gated to the oscillator circuit 23. However, gating of full wave rectified AC mains pulses would require dissipating excess power, not needed for standby mode operation, thereby making the power supply circuit less efficient. Accordingly, reference should be made to the appended claims, rather than to the foregoing specification, as indicating the true scope of the invention.

Management of TX807 rack is ensured by a 4-bit microcontroller, Thoshiba TMP47C1637. ts clock speed is 6MHz. t is associated with an EEPROM memory, IR02, for the storage of user parameters, the service mode and backup in the event of mains power failure. t performs the following functions:
 Remote control and keyboard management.
9 Standby or switching on the television or radio.
 Standards switching.
9 Voltage or frequency synthesis.
 Volume, brightness, contrast and colour regulation.
 OSD signal generation.
 Power supply control in standby mode.
 Watchdog circuit for monitoring the time bases.


The microcontroller, IROl, is supplied with 5V (pin 42), from the voltage P and the stabilisation circuit TROl/DR02. The origin of the voltage P is:
 the voltage UA (15V during operation and 9V in standby) at start-up because VTU= 0 and then TL03 is saturated. . the voltage +VP (125V) in steady state because VTU= 86V and then TL03 i! blocked.

Its 6MHz clock is obtained from the quartz oscillator QROl (pins 31 and 32 o IROl).
The reset time constant is composed of RR46 and CR25 The components TR02 TR03 and DR02 activate this time constant when the IROl supply voltage is suffi cient. The transistors TR02 and TR03 are turned on when the voltage on the ter minals of CR01 is close to 5.8V (DR02 threshold + TR03 vbe).

In the event of mains supply failure, the voltage P drops. This turns off the transistors TR03ITR02 and causes the voltage to drop to 0 on pin 37 of IROl The micro, controller saves in the EEPROM the parameters necessary for switching the tele vision on. HOLD This input (pin 34) monitors the microcontroller supply voltage. If this voltage falls below 4.5V, the television switches to standby.

Output 20 of IROl corresponds to an open drain output. ‘when the television is switched on, it passes to a high level resulting in the sat\ ation of TR08 and TR07. A +8.5VS voltage appears on the collector of TR07 an supplies the integrated circuit IV01 (pin 37). The time base command signals mu )e output from IV01 . The voltage +VP (129.9, recuperated from a secondary coil of the line transformer lia the diode DLOl , takes over from the voltage UA. Wring the reset, the time constant CR04/RR07 and the transistor TR04 suppres he 5Vcc positive impulse present on output 20 of IR01.

depending on rack version, the keyboard comprises 4 or I3 keys. It is organized i 3 line/column matrix. The outputs (pins 9 to 12) provide, in standby, negative signals with a period c approximately 40ms. The function inputs, pins 13 and 14, are in a low level in th absence of key operation. iNhen a key is pressed, a high level (pin 9) or sweep signals (pins 10 to 12) transmitted to an input function.

REMOTE CONTROL The emitted codes arrive at 35 of IROl . They are repeated every 80ms. They are composed of 12-bit serial words. l
 4 address bits.
 1 call bit.
 7 function bits.
FRONT PANEL LED This indicator light consists of a two-colour LED (RED-GREEN). luring operation, the green LED is powered from +VP (12.5V) originating from the line transformer.
In standby, the red LED is powered from UA (9V) originating from the main power Supply. This UA voltage, switched by transistor TL03, gives the voltage P. n electronic key, programmable stop and safety modes, it cycles between 2 states l In electronic key mode, the red LED flashes (T = 1 second). l In programmable stop mode, the red LED flashes (T = 1 second). . In time base safety mode, it flashes red/green in alternation.

‘he pins 17,18 and 19 of IROl manage the tuner reception bands. The varicap vol age is composed from the signal available at 1 of IROl (VT), the variable resistor RHO1 and the low-pass filter RH01/02/04/CH03 at CH05 Automatic frequency control is performed by the integrated circuit IV01 and informs IROl via the bus IIC Output 3 of IROl allows: -The disabling of the 40.4MHz rejecter in the 1C band. -To tune the sound FI to 40.4MHz (1 C band) or 32.4MHz (other case). output 7 of IROl selects the filters Ql31 (5.5MHz) or Cl132 (6MHz) for the FM audited-carriers.

The microcontroller IROl produces the necessary signals for the display of menu! on the screen. Via pin 25, it delivers the encrustation command, FB (fast blanking). This results via the transistor TVOl, in input 26 of IV01 being informed and allows the RVB out puts of IV01 (pins 19 to 21) to be cleaned. Using pins 22 to 24, it delivers the RVB signals. These signals are amplitude adjusted, black level corrected using the burst port impulse and sent to the RVB amplifier. The transistors TV08, TV03, TV05 and TV07 perform signal alignment. A clock having a speed close to 7MHz (pins 28 and 29) sets the encrustation frame width. It is enabled in OSD mode only. The line return impulse (HFY) taken from point 7 of the line transformer LLOt arrives at pin 26 via the transistor TR05. A raster return impulse arrives on pin 27. It is obtained by integrating the sand castle (RR67/RR68/CR40), available at 41 of IVOl, and by the shaping transistor TRlO. These two signals H and V, present with and without video signal, are
required setting the position of the OSD window with respect to the television raster.
If the line return impulses are absent, there is no OSD. If the raster return impulses are absent from 27 or 38, the microcontroller IROl will no longer perform functions and consequently the screen will remain black.

Pin 15: receives the slow switching from the peritel connector AVl . Pin 8: performs switching of internal/external audio sources in 1120, via the transistor TR06. Pin 6: audio MUTE, it is enabled at 5V. For 36cm televisions (pin 36 of IROl grounded by a 10K resistor), mute is enable 1 when the television is switched on or switched to standby. For the other cases mute is performed by the software in IV01 . For 51 and 55cm televisions (pin 36 of IROl at 5V by a 10K resistor), mute i enabled when the television is switched on, channel is changed, in the absence c a signal and when switched to standby. Pin 39: certain televisions incorporate an FM radio. This output allows the radio tc be switched on. Pin 2: command bursts for the main power supply are generated in standby mode

 The heart of the total system is formed by the “One Chip” TV processor PHILIPS  TDA884X.
This chapter gives a short description of this IC family. More detailed information concerning the
internal circuitry can be found in report ref. Report no: AN98002.
Common features of the family:

 Vision IF circuit with alignment-free PLL demodulator

 Alignment-free multi-standard FM sound demodulator (4.5 to 6.5 MHz)

 Audio switch

 Flexible source selection with internal and external CVBS input, Y(CVBS)/C input and selected
CVBS out, suited for comb filter use

 Integrated chroma trap (auto calibrated)

 Integrated chroma band pass (auto calibrated) with switchable centre frequency

 Integrated luminance delay line

 Asymmetrical peaking in luminance channel with defeatable coring function

 Black stretching

 Blue stretch circuit which offsets near white colours to blue

 Integrated RGB processor with “continuous cathode calibration” and white point adjustment

 Linear RGB inputs with fast blanking input

 Possibility to insert “blue mute” when no signal is present

 Dynamic skin tone (“flesh”) correction for NTSC signals

 Horizontal synchronisation with two control loops and alignment-free horizontal oscillator

 Slow start and stop of the horizontal drive pulses

 Vertical divider circuit

 Vertical driver stage optimized for DC-coupled output stages

 I 2C bus control

 Low power dissipation

The various versions of the PHILIPS TDA 884X/5X series are
I2C-bus controlled single chip TV processors which are
intended to be applied in PAL, NTSC, PAL/NTSC and
multi-standard television receivers. The N2 version is pin
and application compatible with the N1 version, however,
a new feature has been added which makes the N2 more
attractive. The IF PLL demodulator has been replaced by
an alignment-free IF PLL demodulator with internal VCO
(no tuned circuit required). The setting of the various
frequencies (33.4, 33.9, 38, 38.9, 45,75 and 58.75 MHz)
can be made via the I2C-bus.
Because of this difference the N2 version is compatible
with the N1, however, N1 devices cannot be used in an
optimised N2 application.
Functionally the IC series is split up is 3 categories, viz:
· Versions intended to be used in economy TV receivers
with all basic functions (envelope: S-DIP 56 and QFP
· Versions with additional features like E-W geometry
control, H-V zoom function and YUV interface which are
intended for TV receivers with 110° picture tubes
(envelope: S-DIP 56)
· Versions which have in addition a second RGB input
with saturation control and a second CVBS output
(envelope: QFP 64)

Vision IF amplifier
The IF-amplifier contains 3 ac-coupled control stages with
a total gain control range which is higher then 66 dB. The
sensitivity of the circuit is comparable with that of modern
The video signal is demodulated by means of an
alignment-free PLL carrier regenerator with an internal
VCO. This VCO is calibrated by means of a digital control
circuit which uses the X-tal frequency of the colour
decoder as a reference. The frequency setting for the
various standards (33.4, 33.9, 38, 38.9, 45.75 and 58.75
MHz) is realised via the I2C-bus. To get a good
performance for phase modulated carrier signals the
control speed of the PLL can be increased by means of the
FFI bit.
The AFC output is generated by the digital control circuit of
the IF-PLL demodulator and can be read via the I2C-bus.
For fast search tuning systems the window of the AFC can
be increased with a factor 3. The setting is realised with the
AFW bit. The AFC data is valid only when the horizontal
PLL is in lock (SL = 1)
Depending on the type the AGC-detector operates on
top-sync level (single standard versions) or on top sync
and top white- level (multi standard versions). The
demodulation polarity is switched via the I2C-bus. The
AGC detector time-constant capacitor is connected
externally. This mainly because of the flexibility of the
application. The time-constant of the AGC system during
positive modulation is rather long to avoid visible variations
of the signal amplitude. To improve the speed of the AGC
system a circuit has been included which detects whether
the AGC detector is activated every frame period. When
during 3 field periods no action is detected the speed of the
system is increased. For signals without peak white
information the system switches automatically to a gated
black level AGC. Because a black level clamp pulse is
required for this way of operation the circuit will only switch
to black level AGC in the internal mode.
The circuits contain a video identification circuit which is
independent of the synchronisation circuit. Therefore
search tuning is possible when the display section of the
receiver is used as a monitor. However, this ident circuit
cannot be made as sensitive as the slower sync ident
circuit (SL) and we recommend to use both ident outputs
to obtain a reliable search system. The ident output is
supplied to the tuning system via the I2C-bus.
The input of the identification circuit is connected to pin 13

(S-DIP 56 devices), the “internal” CVBS input (see Fig.6).
This has the advantage that the ident circuit can also be
made operative when a scrambled signal is received
(descrambler connected between pin 6 (IF video output)
and pin 13). A second advantage is that the ident circuit
can be used when the IF amplifier is not used (e.g. with
built-in satellite tuners).
The video ident circuit can also be used to identify the
selected CBVS or Y/C signal. The switching between the
2 modes can be realised with the VIM bit.

Video switches
The circuits have two CVBS inputs (internal and external
CVBS) and a Y/C input. When the Y/C input is not required
the Y input can be used as third CVBS input. The switch
configuration is given in Fig.6. The selection of the various
sources is made via the I2C-bus.
For the TDA 884X devices the video switch configuration
is identical to the switch of the TDA8374/75 series. So the
circuit has one CVBS output (amplitude of 2 VP-P for the
TDA 884X series) and the I2C-bus control is similar to that
of the TDA 8374/75. For the TDA 885X IC’s the video
switch circuit has a second output (amplitude of 1 VP-P)
which can be set independently of the position of the first
output. The input signal for the decoder is also available on
the CVBS1-output.
Therefore this signal can be used to drive the Teletext
decoder. If S-VHS is selected for one of the outputs the
luminance and chrominance signals are added so that a
CVBS signal is obtained again.
Sound circuit
The sound bandpass and trap filters have to be connected
externally. The filtered intercarrier signal is fed to a limiter
circuit and is demodulated by means of a PLL
demodulator. This PLL circuit tunes itself automatically to
the incoming carrier signal so that no adjustment is
The volume is controlled via the I2C-bus. The deemphasis
capacitor has to be connected externally. The
non-controlled audio signal can be obtained from this pin
(via a buffer stage).
The FM demodulator can be muted via the I2C-bus. This
function can be used to switch-off the sound during a
channel change so that high output peaks are prevented.
The TDA 8840/41/42/46 contain an Automatic Volume
Levelling (AVL) circuit which automatically stabilises the
audio output signal to a certain level which can be set by
the viewer by means of the volume control. This function
prevents big audio output fluctuations due to variations of
the modulation depth of the transmitter. The AVL function
can be activated via the I2C-bus.
Synchronisation circuit
The sync separator is preceded by a controlled amplifier
which adjusts the sync pulse amplitude to a fixed level.
These pulses are fed to the slicing stage which is operating
at 50% of the amplitude. The separated sync pulses are
fed to the first phase detector and to the coincidence
detector. This coincidence detector is used to detect
whether the line oscillator is synchronised and can also be
used for transmitter identification. This circuit can be made
less sensitive by means of the STM bit. This mode can be
used during search tuning to avoid that the tuning system
will stop at very weak input signals. The first PLL has a
very high statical steepness so that the phase of the
picture is independent of the line frequency.
The horizontal output signal is generated by means of an
oscillator which is running at twice the line frequency. Its
frequency is divided by 2 to lock the first control loop to the
incoming signal. The time-constant of the loop can be
forced by the I2C-bus (fast or slow). If required the IC can
select the time-constant depending on the noise content of
the incoming video signal.
The free-running frequency of the oscillator is determined
by a digital control circuit which is locked to the reference
signal of the colour decoder. When the IC is switched-on
the horizontal output signal is suppressed and the
oscillator is calibrated as soon as all sub-address bytes
have been sent. When the frequency of the oscillator is
correct the horizontal drive signal is switched-on. To obtain
a smooth switching-on and switching-off behaviour of the
horizontal output stage the horizontal output frequency is
doubled during switch-on and switch-off (slow start/stop).
During that time the duty cycle of the output pulse has such
a value that maximum safety is obtained for the output
To protect the horizontal output transistor the horizontal
drive is immediately switched off when a power-on-reset is
detected. The drive signal is switched-on again when the
normal switch-on procedure is followed, i.e. all
sub-address bytes must be sent and after calibration the
horizontal drive signal will be released again via the slow
start procedure. When the coincidence detector indicates
an out-of-lock situation the calibration procedure is
repeated. The circuit has a second control loop to generate
the drive pulses for the horizontal driver stage. The
horizontal output is gated with the flyback pulse so that the
horizontal output transistor cannot be switched-on during
the flyback time.
Via the I2C-bus adjustments can be made of the horizontal
and vertical geometry. The vertical sawtooth generator
drives the vertical output drive circuit which has a
differential output current. For the E-W drive a single
ended current output is available. A special feature is the
zoom function for both the horizontal and vertical
deflection and the vertical scroll function which are
available in some versions. When the horizontal scan is
reduced to display 4:3 pictures on a 16:9 picture tube an
accurate video blanking can be switched on to obtain well
defined edges on the screen.

Overvoltage conditions (X-ray protection) can be detected
via the EHT tracking pin. When an overvoltage condition is
detected the horizontal output drive signal will be
switched-off via the slow stop procedure but it is also
possible that the drive is not switched-off and that just a
protection indication is given in the I2C-bus output byte.
The choice is made via the input bit PRD. The IC’s have a
second protection input on the j2 filter capacitor pin. When
this input is activated the drive signal is switched-off
immediately and switched-on again via the slow start
procedure. For this reason this protection input can be
used as “flash protection”.
The drive pulses for the vertical sawtooth generator are
obtained from a vertical countdown circuit. This countdown
circuit has various windows depending on the incoming
signal (50 Hz or 60 Hz and standard or non standard). The
countdown circuit can be forced in various modes by
means of the I2C-bus. During the insertion of RGB signals
the maximum vertical frequency is increased to 72 Hz so
that the circuit can also synchronise on signals with a
higher vertical frequency like VGA. To obtain short
switching times of the countdown circuit during a channel
change the divider can be forced in the search window by
means of the NCIN bit. The vertical deflection can be set
in the de-interlace mode via the I2C bus.
To avoid damage of the picture tube when the vertical
deflection fails the guard output current of the TDA
8350/51 can be supplied to the beam current limiting input.
When a failure is detected the RGB-outputs are blanked
and a bit is set (NDF) in the status byte of the I2C-bus.
When no vertical deflection output stage is connected this
guard circuit will also blank the output signals. This can be
overruled by means of the EVG bit.
Chroma and luminance processing
The circuits contain a chroma bandpass and trap circuit.
The filters are realised by means of gyrator circuits and
they are automatically calibrated by comparing the tuning
frequency with the X-tal frequency of the decoder. The
luminance delay line and the delay for the peaking circuit
are also realised by means of gyrator circuits. The centre
frequency of the chroma bandpass filter is switchable via
the I2C-bus so that the performance can be optimised for
“front-end” signals and external CVBS signals. During
SECAM reception the centre frequency of the chroma trap
is reduced to get a better suppression of the SECAM
carrier frequencies. All IC’s have a black stretcher circuit
which corrects the black level for incoming video signals
which have a deviation between the black level and the
blanking level (back porch). The timeconstant for the black
stretcher is realised internally.
The resolution of the peaking control DAC has been
increased to 6 bits. All IC’s have a defeatable coring
function in the peaking circuit. Some of these IC’s have a
YUV interface (see table on page 2) so that picture
improvement IC’s like the TDA 9170 (Contrast
improvement), TDA 9177 (Sharpness improvement) and
TDA 4556/66 (CTI) can be applied. When the CTI IC’s are
applied it is possible to increase the gain of the luminance
channel by means of the GAI bit in subaddress 03 so that
the resulting RGB output signals are not affected.
Colour decoder
Depending on the IC type the colour decoder can decode
PAL/NTSC decoder contains an alignment-free X-tal
oscillator, a killer circuit and two colour difference
demodulators. The 90° phase shift for the reference signal
is made internally.
The IC’s contain an Automatic Colour Limiting (ACL)
circuit which is switchable via the I2C-bus and which
prevents that oversaturation occurs when signals with a
high chroma-to-burst ratio are received. The ACL circuit is
designed such that it only reduces the chroma signal and
not the burst signal. This has the advantage that the colour
sensitivity is not affected by this function.
The SECAM decoder contains an auto-calibrating PLL
demodulator which has two references, viz: the 4.4 MHz
sub-carrier frequency which is obtained from the X-tal
oscillator which is used to tune the PLL to the desired
free-running frequency and the bandgap reference to
obtain the correct absolute value of the output signal. The
VCO of the PLL is calibrated during each vertical blanking
period, when the IC is in search or SECAM mode.
The frequency of the active X-tal is fed to the Fsc output
(pin 33) and can be used to tune an external comb filter
(e.g. the SAA 4961).
The base-band delay line (TDA 4665 function) is
integrated in the PAL/SECAM IC’s and in the NTSC IC
TDA 8846A. In the latter IC it improves the cross colour
performance (chroma comb filter). The demodulated
colour difference signals are internally supplied to the
delay line. The colour difference matrix switches
automatically between PAL/SECAM and NTSC, however,
it is also possible to fix the matrix in the PAL standard.
The “blue stretch” circuit is intended to shift colour near
“white” with sufficient contrast values towards more blue to
obtain a brighter impression of the picture.

Which colour standard the IC’s can decode depends on
the external X-tals. The X-tal to be connected to pin 34
must have a frequency of 3.5 MHz (NTSC-M, PAL-M or
PAL-N) and pin 35 can handle X-tals with a frequency of
4.4 and 3.5 MHz. Because the X-tal frequency is used to
tune the line oscillator the value of the X-tal frequency
must be given to the IC via the I2C-bus. It is also possible
to use the IC in the so called “Tri-norma” mode for South
America. In that case one X-tal must be connected to pin
34 and the other 2 to pin 35. The switching between the 2
latter X-tals must be done externally. This has the
consequence that the search loop of the decoder must be
controlled by the m-computer. To prevent calibration
problems of the horizontal oscillator the external switching
between the 2 X-tals should be carried out when the
oscillator is forced to pin 34. For a reliable calibration of the
horizontal oscillator it is very important that the X-tal
indication bits (XA and XB) are not corrupted. For this
reason the X-tal bits can be read in the output bytes so that
the software can check the I2C-bus transmission.

RGB output circuit and black-current stabilisation
The colour-difference signals are matrixed with the
luminance signal to obtain the RGB-signals. The TDA
884X devices have one (linear) RGB input. This RGB
signal can be controlled on contrast and brightness (like
TDA 8374/75). By means of the IE1 bit the insertion
blanking can be switched on or off. Via the IN1 bit it can be
read whether the insertion pin has a high level or not.
The TDA 885X IC’s have an additional RGB input. This
RGB signal can be controlled on contrast, saturation and
brightness. The insertion blanking of this input can be
switched-off by means of the IE2 bit. Via the IN2 bit it can
be read whether the insertion pin has a high level or not.
The output signal has an amplitude of about 2 volts
black-to-white at nominal input signals and nominal
settings of the controls. To increase the flexibility of the IC
it is possible to insert OSD and/or teletext signals directly
at the RGB outputs. This insertion mode is controlled via
the insertion input (pin 26 in the S-DIP 56- and pin 38 in the
QFP-64 envelope). This blanking action at the RGB
outputs has some delay which must be compensated
To obtain an accurate biasing of the picture tube a
“Continuous Cathode Calibration” circuit has been
developed. This function is realised by means of a 2-point
black level stabilisation circuit. By inserting 2 test levels for
each gun and comparing the resulting cathode currents
with 2 different reference currents the influence of the
picture tube parameters like the spread in cut-off voltage
can be eliminated. This 2-point stabilisation is based on
the principle that the ratio between the cathode currents is
coupled to the ratio between the drive voltages according
The feedback loop makes the ratio between the cathode
currents Ik1 and Ik2 equal to the ratio between the
reference currents (which are internally fixed) by changing
the (black) level and the amplitude of the RGB output
signals via 2 converging loops. The system operates in
such a way that the black level of the drive signal is
controlled to the cut-off point of the gun so that a very good
grey scale tracking is obtained. The accuracy of the
adjustment of the black level is just dependent on the ratio
of internal currents and these can be made very accurately
in integrated circuits. An additional advantage of the
2-point measurement is that the control system makes the
absolute value of Ik1 and Ik2 identical to the internal
reference currents. Because this adjustment is obtained
by means of an adaption of the gain of the RGB control
stage this control stabilises the gain of the complete
channel (RGB output stage and cathode characteristic).
As a result variations in the gain figures during life will be
compensated by this 2-point loop.

An important property of the 2-point stabilisation is that the
off-set as well as the gain of the RGB path is adjusted by
the feedback loop. Hence the maximum drive voltage for
the cathode is fixed by the relation between the test
pulses, the reference current and the relative gain setting
of the 3 channels. This has the consequence that the drive
level of the CRT cannot be adjusted by adapting the gain
of the RGB output stage. Because different picture tubes
may require different drive levels the typical “cathode drive
level” amplitude can be adjusted by means of an I2C-bus
setting. Dependent on the chosen cathode drive level the
typical gain of the RGB output stages can be fixed taking
into account the drive capability of the RGB outputs (pins
19 to 21). More details about the design will be given in the
application report.
The measurement of the “high” and the “low” current of the
2- point stabilisation circuit is carried out in 2 consecutive
fields. The leakage current is measured in each field. The
maximum allowable leakage current is 100 mA
When the TV receiver is switched-on the RGB output
signals are blanked and the black current loop will try to set
the right picture tube bias levels. Via the AST bit a choice
can be made between automatic start-up or a start-up via
the m-processor. In the automatic mode the RGB drive
signals are switched-on as soon as the black current loop
has been stabilised. In the other mode the BCF bit is set to
0 when the loop is stabilised. The RGB drive can than be
switched-on by setting the AST bit to 0. In the latter mode
some delay can be introduced between the setting of the
BCF bit and the switching of the AST bit so that switch-on
effects can be suppressed.
It is also possible to start-up the devices with a fixed
internal delay (as with the TDA 837X and the TDA884X/5X
N1). This mode is activated with the BCO bit.
The vertical blanking is adapted to the incoming CVBS
signal (50 Hz or 60 Hz). When the flyback time of the
vertical output stage is longer than the 60 Hz blanking time
the blanking can be increased to the same value as that of
the 50 Hz blanking. This can be set by means of the LBM
For an easy (manual) adjustment of the Vg2 control voltage
the VSD bit is available. When this bit is activated the black
current loop is switched-off, a fixed black level is inserted
at the RGB outputs and the vertical scan is switched-off so
that a horizontal line is displayed on the screen. This line
can be used as indicator for the Vg2 adjustment. Because
of the different requirements for the optimum cut-off
voltage of the picture tube the RGB output level is
adjustable when the VSD bit is activated. The control
range is 2.5 ± 0.7 V and can be controlled via the
brightness control DAC.
It is possible to insert a so called “blue back” back-ground
level when no video is available. This feature can be
activated via the BB bit in the control2 subaddress.

CTV4501 multi-standard receiver with TDA8375 one-chip TV-processor.
Report No: AN96037, April 1996, E.C.P. Arnold, J. van Nieuwenburg (PS-SLE Eindhoven).
 TDA8840/41/42/44/46/47 demonstration board PR31291, PRELIMINARY.
Report No: AN96092, E.C.P. Arnold (PS-SLE Eindhoven).
 Application information for single-chip TV processor TDA884x/885x-N2.
Report No: AN98002, January 1998, F. Bremer, T. Bruton, A. Kenc, P.C.T.J. Laro,J.F.M. Luyckx,
R.P. Vermeulen (D&A CICs Nijmegen).
 Application and product description of the TDA6107Q-N1 video output amplifier.
Report No: AN96072, february 1997, E.H. Schutte (D&A CICs Nijmegen).
 EMC guidelines for TDA88xx applications.
Report No: AN98097, December 1998, J. van Nieuwenburg, M. Coenen (PS-SLE Eindhoven).
 The GTV2000 Global TV Receiver.
Report No: AN98092, January 1999, Ralph Van Den Eijnden (PS-SLE Eindhoven).
 Sound processor in TV.VTR sets with the integrated circuits TDA9840 and TDA9860.
Report No: HAT/AN92004, April-1992, U. Buhse. (PS-SLH)
 Single chip NICAM-728 Receiver SAA7283.
Report No: AN96002, 13-Dec-1995, P.A. Stavely, PC-ALS Southampton.
 Nicam sound with SAA7284 and TDA8375A using conventional intercarrier IF architecture.
Report No:AN96046, May-1996, V. Pham, PC-ALS Southampton.
 The BTSC Stereo/ SAP/ DBX decoder and audio processor TDA9854.
Report No: AN95047, H.J. Kuehn (decoder part), U. Buhse (audio part) (PS-SLH).
 User manual for the Application Board of the TDA9875A/TDA9870A Digital TV Sound Processor.
Report No: HSIS/TR9801, May-1998, J.Matull, H. Kuehn, P. Schöning (PS-SLH).
 TV sound control software for the TDA9855.
Report No: AN94004
 TV Control System CTV271SV2.
Report No: ETV/UM 97012.0, September 1997, H. Timmerman (PS-SLE Eindhoven).
 TV Control System CTV272S.
Report No: ETV/UM 97011.3, September 1997, H. Timmerman (PS-SLE Eindhoven).
 User Manual TV Control System CTV828S.
Report No: ETV/UM 98013.1, January 1999, J.G.M. Van Velthoven (PS-SLE Eindhoven).
 TV System controller CTV832S/ CTV832R. TV control.
Report No: ETV/UM 97010.0, November 1997, R. Van Den Broeck (PS-SLE Eindhoven).