Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

In Brief: On this site you will find pictures and information about some of the electronic, electrical and electrotechnical Obsolete technology relics that the Frank Sharp Private museum has accumulated over the years .
Premise: There are lots of vintage electrical and electronic items that have not survived well or even completely disappeared and forgotten.

Or are not being collected nowadays in proportion to their significance or prevalence in their heyday, this is bad and the main part of the death land. The heavy, ugly sarcophagus; models with few endearing qualities, devices that have some over-riding disadvantage to ownership such as heavy weight,toxicity or inflated value when dismantled, tend to be under-represented by all but the most comprehensive collections and museums. They get relegated to the bottom of the wants list, derided as 'more trouble than they are worth', or just forgotten entirely. As a result, I started to notice gaps in the current representation of the history of electronic and electrical technology to the interested member of the public.

Following this idea around a bit, convinced me that a collection of the peculiar alone could not hope to survive on its own merits, but a museum that gave equal display space to the popular and the unpopular, would bring things to the attention of the average person that he has previously passed by or been shielded from. It's a matter of culture. From this, the Obsolete Technology Tellye Web Museum concept developed and all my other things too. It's an open platform for all electrical Electronic TV technology to have its few, but NOT last, moments of fame in a working, hand-on environment. We'll never own Colossus or Faraday's first transformer, but I can show things that you can't see at the Science Museum, and let you play with things that the Smithsonian can't allow people to touch, because my remit is different.

There was a society once that was the polar opposite of our disposable, junk society. A whole nation was built on the idea of placing quality before quantity in all things. The goal was not “more and newer,” but “better and higher" .This attitude was reflected not only in the manufacturing of material goods, but also in the realms of art and architecture, as well as in the social fabric of everyday life. The goal was for each new cohort of children to stand on a higher level than the preceding cohort: they were to be healthier, stronger, more intelligent, and more vibrant in every way.

The society that prioritized human, social and material quality is a Winner. Truly, it is the high point of all Western civilization. Consequently, its defeat meant the defeat of civilization itself.

Today, the West is headed for the abyss. For the ultimate fate of our disposable society is for that society itself to be disposed of. And this will happen sooner, rather than later.

OLD, but ORIGINAL, Well made, Funny, Not remotely controlled............. and not Made in CHINA.

How to use the site:
- If you landed here via any Search Engine, you will get what you searched for and you can search more using the search this blog feature provided by Google. You can visit more posts scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year,
or you can click on the main photo-page to start from the main page. Doing so it starts from the most recent post to the older post simple clicking on the Older Post button on the bottom of each page after reading , post after post.

You can even visit all posts, time to time, when reaching the bottom end of each page and click on the Older Post button.

- If you arrived here at the main page via bookmark you can visit all the site scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year pointing were you want , or more simple You can even visit all blog posts, from newer to older, clicking at the end of each bottom page on the Older Post button.
So you can see all the blog/site content surfing all pages in it.

- The search this blog feature provided by Google is a real search engine. If you're pointing particular things it will search IT for you; or you can place a brand name in the search query at your choice and visit all results page by page. It's useful since the content of the site is very large.

Note that if you don't find what you searched for, try it after a period of time; the site is a never ending job !

Every CRT Television saved let revive knowledge, thoughts, moments of the past life which will never return again.........

Many contemporary "televisions" (more correctly named as displays) would not have this level of staying power, many would ware out or require major services within just five years or less and of course, there is that perennial bug bear of planned obsolescence where components are deliberately designed to fail and, or manufactured with limited edition specificities..... and without considering........picture......sound........quality........
..............The bitterness of poor quality is remembered long after the sweetness of todays funny gadgets low price has faded from memory........ . . . . . .....
Don't forget the past, the end of the world is upon us! Pretty soon it will all turn to dust!

Have big FUN ! !
©2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 Frank Sharp - You do not have permission to copy photos and words from this blog, and any content may be never used it for auctions or commercial purposes, however feel free to post anything you see here with a courtesy link back, btw a link to the original post here , is mandatory.
All sets and apparates appearing here are property of Engineer Frank Sharp. NOTHING HERE IS FOR SALE !
All posts are presented here for informative, historical and educative purposes as applicable within Fair Use.

Thursday, October 21, 2021



  The MAGNADYNE MOD. CR93 is a 19 inches B/W television  and a fumè front heavy dark glass.

Backside VHF and UHF 300 ohm antenna inputs and usual controls for frame /  line amplitude and frequency.

  • Tuning is with 2 programs selection with VHF and UHF channels selectors and manual tone controls and classic brightness / contrast / volume.

These sets were cheap and branded even with other names:ETERPHON KENNEDY RAYMOND VISIOLA and DAMAITER.

  • the set is almost completely tubes based.

  •   Was first model series with a UHF tuner  transistorized.

The tellye here in collection is a ELCIT branded .MAGNADYNE.

In Brief ...........   SEIMART / ELCIT and its conglomerate was even proprietary of brands like:




Founded in 1922 in Torino ELCIT was a Radio fabrication industry which in the 1953 joined Visiola to produce television sets and other domestic appliances such washing machines and fridge.

ELCIT Was even proprietary of the MAGNADYNE brand which WAS a radio and Television well known brand.

In the 1960 the society was joined and aquired by SEIMART because of a market contraction which landed to GEPI a new society which re - founded ELCIT.

The conglomerate of ELCIT AND SEIMART which was a joint developed by GEPI a government special system invented to "save" industry with "some" difficulties (!!!) was unified.


The following sub brands were even from the group but were specialized in other fields like
preparing materials, developing parts and other jobs like domestic appliances and even CRT TUBE manufacutring.

NEOHM was a resistor fabricant and was part of the group

Basically the industry group was completely autonomous exept for semiconductors which were coming from other well known brands and manufacturers.


NEOHM was a resistor fabricant and was part of the group
conglomerate and components factory.




ELCIT died in 1998 by typically Italian Industry Destroy culture and all workers and employee landed.......... on the street !!!!!!!!!!!!!

The Magnadyne Radio, known simply as Magnadyne, was an Italian manufacturer of consumer electronics, electronic components and household appliances in Turin, controlled by the financial holding INFIN S.a.s., active from 1928 to 1955, among the largest in its field at the national level. Ceased to exist as a company, it became a simple commercial brand, which after the bankruptcy of INFIN in 1972, passed under other properties.

The company Magnadyne Radio was founded in 1928 in Turin on the initiative of Mr. Mario Pesce with Mr. Paolo Dequarti as a silent partner, from the change of name of Accumulatori Ohm, owned by the same Pesce. The object of the new company was the construction of radios, electric accumulators and refrigerators.
Its registered office was located in Via Sant'Ambrogio 8, in the Turin district of Pozzo Strada, in the building owned by Pesce, and next to it, at number 10, stood the shed where its activities were carried out, owned by Candido Viberti.
At the time of its establishment, the number of workers employed was of 20 units.

The development of the company was rapid and its products exceeded in sales on the Italian market, larger companies such as CGE, FIMI-Phonola, Philips and Radiomarelli.

In 1931, Magnadyne took part for the first time in an exhibition, the III National Exhibition of Radio in Milan, where was presented the four-valve radio M10.

Three years later, in 1934, at the VI edition of the same exhibition, Magnadyne took part in the exhibition of radio receivers of popular type, organized by the Ente Radio Rurale and the National Research Council, sponsored by the Ministry of Communications, and presented three, four and five valves radio receivers, and four and five valves radiophonographs.
 The number of employees employed by the Turin company reached 300 units in 1936, and grew further the following year, in 1937, when Dequarti took over the S.A. ing. Clemente Diena & C., a company producing telegraphic equipment that employed 61 people and was located in Via Avellino 6, in the San Donato area, whose name was changed to Magnadyne S.A..

The equipment was entirely produced by the Turin company, both in their internal electronic part - except for the thermionic valves supplied by third parties - and in the external part, i.e. the ebony casing.
 The production criteria were modern, based on the industrial production of large-scale series.
 Magnadyne, on the eve of World War II employed over 1,000 workers, and to the production of radio receivers and electronic components were added those of car radios and refrigerators.
 The first car radio model produced by Magnadyne, four valves, in 1937 won a competition organized by RACI.
 At the end of the conflict, production, albeit to a limited extent, could be resumed, with the production of components for radio receivers. In 1948, faced with a revival of sales in the radio equipment sector, a new factory was opened in Turin, Via Avellino 6, entirely dedicated to the production of electronic components, where the company's registered office was also transferred.
Four years later, in 1952, the company also started the internal production of thermionic valves.

  • In 1955, Magnadyne Radio ceased to exist as a company, and consequently brand and activities were merged into the holding INFIN S.a.s. di Dequarti & C., established two years earlier in Freiburg.
  •  This company, which became known as INFIN-magnadyne, its activities were diversified with the production of televisions, cathode ray tubes and washing machines, and since 1961, of transistors.
  •  The equipment produced by INFIN-Magnadyne were also marketed under other brands, such as Belvis, Damaiter, Eterphon, Nova, Radioson, Raymond and Visiola.
  • In 1964, the INFIN-Magnadyne Group had about 5,000 employees - half of which were employed in the plant in Sant'Antonino and the rest in the three factories in Turin and in the commercial offices scattered throughout the Italian territory - and starting from that year, it showed the first signs of crisis, mainly due to the increase in production costs, the decline in exports and the decline in installment sales of equipment.
  •  The crisis of the Piedmontese company worsened afterwards: the industrial activities were downsized, as well as the number of employees, reduced to 3,300 in 1970, and it also found itself facing other problems, such as a liquidity crisis, debts for 2 billion lire, suspension of credits, and blocking of material supplies by subcontracting companies.
  • In January 1971, Dequarti was solicited by Edoardo Calleri, president of the Piedmont Region, and Carlo Donat-Cattin, minister of labor, to request admission to the receivership procedure for his company (whose factories were occupied by workers), but the interested party, concerned that such a solution could lead to bankruptcy, did not provide any response in this regard, and the following month, in February, the same Piedmontese governor promoted the establishment of SEIMART, in order to take over the management of activities and absorb the workers of INFIN-Magnadyne.

 Shortly afterwards, in March, Dequarti asked for and obtained the admission of INFIN to receivership by the Court of Turin, which appointed Piero Piccatti as judicial commissioner.

 SEIMART rented the four factories of INFIN-Magnadyne in Turin and Sant'Antonino di Susa, took charge of the 2,000 workers who worked there, and at the expiration of the contract, in April 1972, began negotiations with the property to purchase the factories and machinery.

 After three months, in July, the negotiations between Dequarti and SEIMART failed due to the failure to reach agreement on the sale price, for which SEIMART was willing to pay 700 million lire compared to the 3 billion requested by Dequarti.
 The failure to reach an agreement between the parties provoked new unrest from the workers (at risk of dismissal by SEIMART), who occupied the factories, and this situation led the prefect of Turin, Dr. Giuseppe Salerno, to issue a decree ordering the requisition of the INFIN-Magnadyne plants and the resumption of production activities.

In November 1972, the sixth bankruptcy section of the Court of Turin declared INFIN bankrupt, following the judges' rejection of Dequarti's request for a composition with creditors.
 At the origin of the decision was the serious financial instability found during the administration of Dr. Picatti, who summoned the creditors to file for bankruptcy.

 The debt accumulated by INFIN amounted to 11 billion lire.
 Following the bankruptcy of the Dequarti Group, the tangible and intangible assets owned by the subsidiary companies were auctioned off: in November 1975, SEIMART, through its subsidiary Beta-Geri S.p.A., acquired at auction "without auction" the plant in Sant'Antonino di Susa, with its machinery, its 900 employees and the Magnadyne and Kennedy trademarks, for 750 million lire

 One month later, in December, SEIMART together with Magneti Marelli, established a new company, SEIMART Elettronica S.p.A., with registered office in Turin, where the production activities of the two companies were merged, with the brands Magnadyne, Kennedy, LESA, Radiomarelli and West.

SEIMART Elettronica, which shortly afterwards assumed the company name ELCIT Elettronica Civile S.r.l., was the fourth largest Italian manufacturer of consumer electronics and in 1978 produced 26,000 televisions and had a market share of 2.3%.

 The electronics industry in Italy, in the period between the end of the seventies and the beginning of the eighties, was in a serious crisis due to technological delays and aggressive competition from foreign producers, and therefore in 1982 the Ministry of Industry established REL, a financial company created with the aim of rehabilitating companies in the sector: ELCIT, which in that year had achieved a turnover of 33 billion lire and had 630 employees in the Valsusino factory, was excluded from the intervention of REL, since it was controlled by GEPI and was in fact in public hands.
 In addition to television sets under the Magnadyne and Radiomarelli brands, ELCIT also produced computer monitors for Olivetti and other computer companies.

For much of the 1980s, the business performed reasonably well, despite the technological constraints.

  • The modest levels of profitability recorded by ELCIT led GEPI to initiate liquidation proceedings in May 1990 for the company and its employees, who were reduced to just 287 units.
  •  The following month, in June, the liquidation procedure was suspended by GEPI, following the mediation of the mayor of Sant'Antonino Val di Susa, and the employees were granted a redundancy fund.
  •  In May 1991, ELCIT was privatized and sold to Sandretto, a well-known Piedmontese manufacturer of injection molding machines, but at the same time 115 employees were made redundant in accordance with agreements made between GEPI and the buyer.
  • The new owners made large investments to relaunch and diversify production, but nevertheless found it too difficult to compete in the market, now characterized by aggressive competition from Asian and Turkish products. Thus, in 1997, 83% of the staff were laid off.
  •  In 1998, in the absence of measures to continue the natural course of the activities, the company closed down definitively, laying off the 100 employees who remained in the plant of Sant'Antonino di Susa, which was dismantled in parallel with the disappearance of the Magnadyne brand from the market.


A good point  on good  old  B/W Televisions.....................

The Sixties was a time of great change for TV. At the start of the decade there were just monochrome sets with valves, designed for 405 -line transmissions at VHF. By the end there was 625 -line colour at UHF, with transistorised chassis that used the odd IC.

The following decade was one of growth. The "space race" had begun in 1957, when the USSR launched Sputnik 1 and terrified the Americans. Thereafter the USA began to spend countless billions of dollars on space missions. This got underway in earnest in the Sixties, with the announcement that America would be going all out to get a man on the moon by the end of the decade. There followed the Mercury series of earth - orbit missions, then the Apollo launches. Success was achieved in 1969. Most of these missions were televised, and in those days anything to do with space was hot stuff. It was inevitable that everyone wanted to have a television set. At the time an average receiver would be a monochrome one with a 14in. tube - there was no colour until 1967. It would cost about 75 guineas. 
TV sets were often priced in guineas (21 shillings) as it made the price look a bit easier on the pocket. Anyway 75 guineas, equivalent to about £78.75 in 2000's currency, was a lot of money then.  For those who couldn't, rental was a good option. The Sixties was a period of tremendous growth for rental TV. 
Much else was rented at that time, even radios, also washing machines, spin driers, refrigerators and, later on, audio tape recorders (no VCRs then). 
For most people these things were too expensive for cash purchase. 
There were no credit cards then. And when it came to a TV set, the question of reli- ability had to be taken into account: renting took care of repair costs. 

TV reliability.........The TV sets of the period were notoriously unreliable. They still used valves, which meant that a large amount of heat was generated. The dropper resistor contributed to this: it was used mainly as a series device to reduce the mains voltage to the level required to power the valve heaters. These were generally connected in series, so the heater volt- ages of all the valves were added together and the total was subtracted from the mains voltage. The difference was the voltage across the heater section of the dropper resistor, whose value was determined by simple application of Ohm's Law. 
As valves are voltage -operated devices, there was no need to stabilise the current. So the power supply circuits in TV sets were very simple. They often consisted of nothing more than a dropper resistor, a half or biphase rectifier and a couple of smoothing capacitors. If a TV set had a transformer and a full wave rectifier in addition to the other components, it was sophisticated!
 As the valve heaters were connected in series they were like Christmas -tree lights: should one fail they all went out and the TV set ceased to function. Another common problem with valves is the cathode -to -heater short. When this fault occurs in a valve, some of the heaters in the chain would go out and some would stay on. Those that stayed on would glow like search- lights, often becoming damaged as a result. Dropper failure could cause loss of HT (dead set with the heaters glowing), or no heater supply with HT present. When the HT rectifier valve went low emission, there was low EHT, a small picture and poor performance all round. CRTs would go soft or low emission, the result being a faint picture, or cathode -to -heater short-circuit, the result this time being uncontrollable brightness. On average a TV set would have twelve to fourteen valves, any one of which could go low -emission or fail in some other way. All valves have a finite life, so each one would probably have to be replaced at one time or another. The amount of heat generated in an average TV set would dry out the capacitors, which then failed. So you can see why people rented! 

The CRT could cause various problems. Because of its cost, it was the gen- eral practice to place its heater at the earthy end of the chain. In this position it was less likely to be overloaded by a heater chain fault. But during the winter months, when the mains voltage dropped a bit, it would be starved of power. This would eventually lead to 'cathode poi- soning' with loss of emission. The 'cure' for this was to fit a booster transformer designed to overrun the heater by 10, 20 or 30 per cent. It would work fine for a while, until the CRT completely expired. At about this time CRT reactivators came into being - and a weird and wonderful collection of devices they turned out to be. Regunned tubes also started to appear. You couldn't do this with the `hard -glass' triode tubes made by Emitron. These were fitted in a number of older sets. Yes, they were still around, at least during the early Sixties.

Developments................... A great deal of development occurred during the Sixties. Many TV sets and radios made in the early Sixties were still hard -wired: the introduction of the printed circuit board changed the construction of electronic equipment forever. The first one was in a Pam transistor radio. PCBs were ideal for use in transistor radios, because of the small size of the components used and the fact that such radios ran almost cold. 
They were not so good for use with valve circuitry, as the heat from the valves caused all sorts of problems. Print cracks could develop if a board became warped. If it became carbonised there could be serious leakage and tracking problems. In addition it was more difficult to remove components from a PCB. Many technicians at that time didn't like PCBs. As the Sixties progressed, transistors took over more and more in TV sets. They first appeared in a rather random fashion, for example in the sync separator stages in some Pye models. Then the IF strip became transistorised. Early transistors were based on the use of germanium, which was far from ideal. 

The change to silicon produced devices that were more robust and had a better signal-to-noise ratio. 
Car radios became fully transistorised, and 'solid-state' circuitry ceased to be based on earlier valve arrangements. Many hi-fi amplifiers had been transistorised from the late Fifties, and all tape recorders were now solid-state. 
Both reel-to-reel and compact -cassette recorders were available at this time. Initially, audio cassette recorders had a maximum upper frequency response of only about 9kHz. 
To increase it meant either a smaller head gap or a faster speed. Philips, which developed the compact audio cassette and holds the patents for the design (which we still use in 2000!) wouldn't allow an increase in speed. Good reel-to-reel recorders had a fre- quency response that extended to 20kHz when the tape speed was 15in./sec. 
This is true hi-fi. In time the frequency response of compact -cassette recorders did improve, because of the use of better head materials with a smaller gap. 
This led to the demise of the reel-to-reel audio recorder as a domestic product We began to benefit from spin-offs of the space race between the USA and the USSR. 
The need to squeeze as much technology as possible into the early computers in the Mercury space capsules used by the USA lead to the first inte- grated circuits. 
This technology soon found its way into consumer equipment. Often these devices were hybrid encap- sulations rather than true chips, but they did improve reliability and saved space. The few chips around in those days were analogue devices.  To start with most UHF tuners used valves such as the PC86 and PC88. They were all manually tuned. Some had slow-motion drives and others had push -buttons. They didn't have a lot of gain, so it was important to have an adequate aerial and use low -loss cable..............................

Further Notes & references : 

S. Sacco - La Magnadyne di Sant'Antonio. La nascita, lo splendore, il declino e le lotte per la difesa dell'occupazione - Graffio, Torino, 2008, ISBN 88-95057-06-6

^ "L'azienda elettronica che produce televisori in crisi per mancanza di commesse Scatta la cassa integrazione alla Elcit Sant'Antonino: interessa 83 dipendenti su cento", Articolo del quotidiano La Stampa del 3 aprile 1997[collegamento interrotto] ^ Dal sito ^ Dal sito

Annuario industriale della provincia di Torino 1936-XIV, Editrice U. S. I. L. A., p. 86.

U. Alunni, La radio in soffitta, Lulù.com, 2014, pp. 311-315.

Le visite del Federale ai lavoratori, in La Stampa, 22 novembre 1940, p. 2.
^ La III Mostra Nazionale della Radio, in L'Antenna, n. 19, Radioamatori Italiani, 15 ottobre 1931, p. 3.
^ Magnadyne M10, su URL consultato il 19 aprile 2021.
^ E. Montù, Ciò che è stato realizzato in un anno di fecondo lavoro, in La Stampa, 22 settembre 1934, p. 6.
^ Annuario industriale della provincia di Torino 1936-XIV, Editrice USILA, p. 95.
^ Catalogo Raci 1938 (PDF), su URL consultato il 20 aprile 2021.
^ Fra gli espositori della IX Mostra della Radio di Milano, in L'Antenna, n. 18, 30 settembre 1937, pp. 595-597.

Notiziario industriale, in L'Antenna, n. 19, Radioamatori Italiani, 15 ottobre 1940, pp. 330-331.

Magnadyne. Stabilimento per la produzione delle valvole, in Notizie e informazioni del gruppo Piemonte/Valle d'Aosta, n. 13, AIRE, gennaio-febbraio 2011, pp. 8-11.

Magnadyne Radio, su URL consultato il 20 aprile 2021.
^ Alla Magnadyne 2000 licenziamenti?, in Stampa Sera, 9 marzo 1964, p. 2.
^ I 4500 dipendenti Magnadyne tornano alle 42 ore settimanali, in La Stampa, 1º settembre 1964, p. 2.
^ E' un momento difficile per Magnadyne e Tobler, in La Stampa, 5 dicembre 1970, p. 5.
^ I 3300 della Magnadyne oggi riprendono il lavoro, in La Stampa, 22 dicembre 1970, p. 5.
^ La Magnadyne deve chiedere l'amministrazione controllata, in La Stampa, 24 gennaio 1971, p. 5.
^ Costituita la società per la "Magnadyne,,, in La Stampa, 23 febbraio 1971, p. 5.

Dichiarata fallita la società proprietaria della Magnadyne, in Stampa Sera, 24 novembre 1972, p. 5.

Alla Magnadyne 2000 in ansia perché non si trova un accordo, in La Stampa, 18 luglio 1972, p. 4.
^ Magnadyne: una schiarita sospesi i licenziamenti, in La Stampa, 17 luglio 1972, p. 5.
^ Il prefetto fa riprendere il lavoro alla Magnadyne, in La Stampa, 22 luglio 1972, p. 4.
^ L'Infin, società proprietaria della Magnadyne dichiarata fallita con passivo di undici miliardi, in La Stampa, 25 novembre 1972, p. 4.
^ La ex Magnadyne passa al gruppo Seimart, in Stampa Sera, 28 novembre 1975, p. 4.
^ Pignoramenti Imi sulla Magnadyne, in Stampa Sera, 25 febbraio 1976, p. 6.
^ È nata la Seimart Elettronica, in La Stampa, 25 dicembre 1975, p. 14.
^ Che cosa rappresenta la nuova Società, in La Stampa, 25 dicembre 1975, p. 14.
^ Anagrafe Operatori - Regione Piemonte, su URL consultato il 20 aprile 2021.
^ V. Ravizza, Tv-color: la guerra dei prezzi intacca i bilanci delle imprese, in La Stampa, 30 ottobre 1979, p. 9.

V. Ravizza, E la Elcit si chiede: «Perché noi fuori?», in La Stampa, 19 maggio 1983, p. 14.
^ Elcit chiude e licenzia 287 addetti, in La Stampa-Sezione provincia di Torino, 26 maggio 1990, p. 37.
^ Elcit non licenzia Erber in vendita?, in La Stampa-Sezione provincia di Torino, 9 giugno 1990, p. 43.
^ La Elcit di Sant'Antonino è passata ai Sandretto, in La Stampa-Sezione provincia di Torino, 4 maggio 1991, p. 40.
^ F. Morello, Scatta la cassa integrazione alla Elcit Sant'Antonino, in La Stampa-Sezione provincia di Torino, 3 aprile 1997, p. 37.
^ F. Morello, Sant'Antonino, chiude la Elcit, in La Stampa-Sezione provincia di Torino, 9 gennaio 1998, p. 40.
^ Redazione, Twenty acquisisce il marchio Sèleco, in, 22 dicembre 2016. URL consultato il 21 aprile 2021.
^ B. Andolfatto, TORNANO LE TELEVISIONI MAGNADYNE MA ARRIVANO DALLA CINA E DALL’EUROPA DELL'EST, in La Valsusa, 17 marzo 2017. URL consultato il 21 aprile 2021.
^ Redazione, I ped Magnadyne sugli scaffali dei punti vendita, in, 2 dicembre 2016. URL consultato il 21 aprile 2021.
^ E. Sesta, TWENTY SPA CAMBIA IN SÈLECO SPA, in, 11 maggio 2017. URL consultato il 9 aprile 2021.
^ R. Broch, SÈLECO AL CAPOLINEA, in, 27 maggio 2019. URL consultato il 9 aprile 2021 (archiviato dall'url originale il 25 settembre 2020).
^ A. Bacci, Sèleco, scoperto il bluff: addio rilancio Il tribunale ha dichiarato il fallimento, in Messaggero Veneto - Sezione di Pordenone, 17 maggio 2019, p. 21. URL consultato il 9 aprile 2021.
^ M. Lucchese, MAGNADYNE NUOVO “RETRO” SPONSOR DELL’UDINESE, in Sport Economy, 8 luglio 2016. URL consultato il 21 aprile 2021.
^ Magnadyne tifa S.P.A.L., in Distribuzione Moderna, 24 maggio 2017. URL consultato il 21 aprile 2021.

MAGNADYNE MOD. CR93 CHASSIS 1-7001 1537 / 1-7001 1476 INTERNAL VIEW.


The chassis is divided by 2 boards.

  •  signal board  left side 
  •  deflections board + EHT right side.
  •  Tuning is obtained with rotatable drum selectors for VHF with a PHILIPS Tuner type:312210850082.
  • The UHF TUNER  is transistorized type.


Tuning is obtained with rotatable drum selectors for VHF and variable rotatable capacitor for UHF.
A rotatable drum containing twelve pre-defined channel-specific filters determines the received channel, where the inductors of the input matching, the channel filter and the LO tank circuit are changed. The tuner is divided into two chambers for maximum isolation between the sensitive RF input and the mixer-oscillator-IF section with its much larger signals. Also on the drum there are eventually two separate sub-modules.
It's completely based on tubes technology.
With this concept, which essentially turned the tuner module into a kind of Lego building block construction, many different tuners became possible. Depending upon the country of destination and its associated standard and IF settings, the required filter modules would be selected. Service workshops and tv fabricants could later even add or exchange modules when new channels were introduced, since every inductor module had its individual factory code and could be ordered separately. As a consequence more versions of the tuner were produced, covering at least standards B, B-for-Italy, C. E, F and M.

The principle of the drum tuner. On an axis two times 12 regularly spaced channel-specific filter modules are mounted. In front are twelve channel filter modules for both the channel filter and LO tank circuit tuning. Seven contacts are available, and one module is shown removed. The second row contains 12 modules with five contacts for the input filter circuit. In the tuner module the front section (for mixer-ocillator and channel filter) is separated by a metal shield from the rear RF input and pre-amp section. [Philips Service "Documentatie voor de kanalenkiezers met spoelenwals", 1954]

Examples of the filter modules as used in the drum tuner. Left the 5-contact input filter, right the 7-contact BPF and LO tank filters. In both modules the coils are co-axial for (maximum) mutual coupling.


A continuously adjustable UHF tuner has a multi-compartmented housing each of which has a tunable frequency selector. These selectors are essentially identical to one another in respect of dimension and configuration. Each is made up of a multi-turn inductor which, in conjunction with the compartment walls, constitutes an approximately quarter-wave transmission line at the high frequency end of the tuning band and also of an adjustable capacitor for tuning the selector over a band equal in width to the UHF band. The capacitor has both stationary and movable electrodes. The former is an extension of an end turn of the inductor and the latter has a main body portion and another portion which is located at one end of the main body portion and is adjustable transversely relative thereto. The movable electrode has a first extreme position which is one of minimum capacitance and in which the aforesaid other portion of the movable electrode is the predominant tuning adjustment and is used to establish the high frequency end of the tuning range. The other extreme or maximum capacitance position of the movable electrode determines the low frequency end of the tuning range and a control shaft permits displacement of the movable electrode between these two extreme positions to tune the selector over its range.

1. A variable capacitor comprising two cooperating capacitor plates mounted for movement with respect to each other between a first position wherein the capacitance of the capacitor is at a minimum and a second position wherein the capacitance of the capacitor is at a maximum, one of said capacitor plates having a main part and an auxiliary part, only said auxiliary part of said one capacitor plate being opposite the other of said capacitor plates when the capacitor is in said first position thereof, said auxiliary part of said one capacitor plate being adjustable toward and away from said other capacitor plate, thereby to allow the minimum capacitance of the capacitor to be adjusted, said auxiliary part of said one capacitor plate being not opposite said other capacitor plate when the capacitor is in its second position, said capacitor further comprising means for preventing an abrupt change in the capacitance characteristic of the capacitor at the point where said auxiliary part of said one capacitor plate ceases to be opposite said other capacitor plate.

2. A capacitor in accordance with claim 1 in which said other capacitor plate is configured to constitute said means.

3. A capacitor as defined in claim 1 wherein said one capacitor plate is provided with means forming calibrating electrodes and wherein said auxiliary part has a size and configuration different from that of said calibrating electrodes.

4. A capacitor as defined in claim 1, said capacitor being a rotary capacitor and said one capacitor plate being a rotatably mounted capacitor plate.

This invention relates in general to wave signal tuners and in particular to an improved continuous type tuner for the UHF television band.

Under present allocations there are two rather widely spaced bands in the radio frequency spectrum which are reserved for television broadcasting. The first, a relatively low frequency band, is designated the VHF band and it accommodates twelve channels; five having frequency assignments between 54 and 88 megacycles and seven between 174 and 216 megacycles. The second band is the relatively high frequency UHF band which accommodates seventy television channels at 6 megacycle intervals between 470 and 890 megacycles.

In view of the relatively few (12) channels in the VHF band, either a turret or a switch type tuner, that is, a tuner having a discrete-stop or position for each channel, is feasible. Insofar as UHF is concerned, however, a discrete-stop tuner is obviously impractical because of the number of positions (70) that would be required. While tuning strips tailored to individual UHF channels are available for use in turret type VHF tuners, the total number of UHF and VHF stations that can be accommodated is limited, of course, to the number of strips which may be accommodated on the turret.

In view of the aforementioned mechanical considerations, the prior art has invariably resorted to a continuous type tuner for receivers designed to accommodate the entire UHF band. The frequency determining circuits for such tuners, however, pose special design problems since conventional lumped constant circuit elements, which ordinarily suffice at VHF, do not function properly at UHF. This is due to the fact that the physical dimensions of such components become an appreciable fraction of the wavelength of UHF signals, and particularly is this the case in the upper reaches of the UHF band. This, in turn, dictates recourse to distributed constant elements, such as tunable transmission lines, for use in the frequency determining circuits.

A conventional tuned-line UHF tuner of the type above-mentioned comprises one or more RF preselector stages, a vacuum tube oscillator stage and a mixer circuit which develops an IF or difference frequency signal by heterodyning a selected RF signal with the oscillator signal. It is conventional practice to use substantially identical quarter-wave transmission line elements, which are tuned by rotatably supported capacitor electrodes, in each of the preselector stages while employing a tunable half-wave line in the oscillator stage. While the operating frequency of the oscillator throughout most of its range is primarily controlled by the tuning capacitor, it is also conventional prior art practice to employ separate trimmer capacitors to insure that the upper and lower limits of the UHF range can be readily tuned. Specifically, when the tuning capacitor is positioned for minimum capacitance, one trimmer capacitor is adjusted to tune the oscillator to the high frequency end of the band. On the other hand, when the tuning capacitor is positioned for maximum capacitance, a second trimmer capacitor is adjusted so as to establish the lower frequency limit of the oscillator. In like fashion, the upper tuning range of the preselector stages is determined by a separate trimmer capacitor in each stage. All of these expedients, while effective, are undesirably costly and complex, both as to component requirements and assembly and alignment procedures in production.

It is therefore a principal object of the invention to provide a new and improved multi-stage UHF television tuner.

It is also an object of the invention to provide a UHF tuner construction which requires a minimum number of component parts.

It is another object of the invention to provide a continuous UHF television tuner of a unique and economical construction.

A continuously adjustable UHF tuner constructed in accordance with the invention comprises a housing which has a plurality of compartments each of which includes a signal translating stage. A control shaft extends through each of the compartments and is rotatably supported by the end walls of the housing. The tuner also includes a corresponding plurality of tunable frequency selector circuits, one for each stage and each comprising an inductor having an electrical length which approaches one quarter of a wavelength at the high frequency end of the UHF band. Each tunable circuit further includes a capacitor having a stationary electrode constituted by an extension of the inductor and an assigned pair of spaced electrodes which are affixed to the control shaft for rotational displacement from a position overlapping and embracing the stationary electrode to a position remote therefrom. All of the displaceable electrodes have a substantially identical configuration and at least one of each of the displaceable electrode pairs has an adjustable tab for establishing, in conjunction with its assigned stationary electrode, the principal tuning capacitance for its associated frequency selector circuits at the high frequency end of the UHF band.

The features of this invention which are believed to be novel are set forth with particularity in the appended claims. The invention, together with further objects and advantages thereof, may best be understood, however, by reference to the following description taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in the several figures of which like reference numerals identify like elements, and in which:

FIG. 1 is an elevation view, in section, of a continuous type UHF television tuner embodying the invention;

FIG. 2 is a sectional view of the tuner taken along lines 2--2 of FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 is a detail view, partly in cross section, of one component of the UHF tuner shown in FIG. 1; and

FIG. 4 is a schematic diagram of the UHF tuner.

Referring now specifically to FIGS. 1 and 2, the continuously adjustable UHF tuner 10 shown therein comprises a metal housing 11 which encloses a plurality of signal translating stages. More particularly, tuner 10 includes first and second RF preselector stages 12, 13, respectively, separated by a compartment wall 14, and an oscillator stage 15 shielded from preselector 13 by a wall 16. A control shaft 17 extends through the compartments and is rotatably journaled upon bearings supported by the end walls 18, 19 of the housing. Shaft 17 is conductively connected to end walls 18, 19 and to compartment walls 14, 16 by a series of grounding leaves 20 each of which has one end soldered to a housing or compartment wall and an intermediate portion seated within an under cut portion of shaft 17, see FIG. 2.

Preselector stage 12 includes a tunable frequency selector circuit comprising an inductor 22 having an electrical length which approaches one quarter of a wave length at the high frequency end of the UHF band. One end of inductor 22 is conductively secured to the top wall 23 of housing 11 while the other end terminates in a planar extension 24 which is supported by a post 21 of insulating material, see FIG. 2. In this fashion inductor 22 constitutes the inner conductor of a coaxial transmission line while the housing and bordering walls form the outer conductor.

Extension 24 serves as the stationary electrode of a tuning capacitor which also includes a pair of spaced electrodes 26 which are soldered, staked or otherwise conductively affixed to control shaft 17 for rotational displacement in a plane parallel to stationary electrode 24 from a position overlapping and embracing the stationary electrode to a position remote therefrom. The latter position is illustrated in FIG. 2. Electrodes 26 are of identical arcuate configuration and each includes an adjustable tab 26', preferably struck or formed along one edge of the electrode itself. As will be explained more completely below, tabs 26' together with electrode 24 serve to establish the principal tuning capacitance for preselector 12 at the high frequency end of the UHF band. Additionally, each of electrodes 26 has a plurality of canted knifing slots 27 to facilitate tuning preselector 12 so that it will "track" or follow oscillator stage 15 when the latter is tuned across the UHF band.

Preselector 12 also includes an antenna input circuit comprising a pair of UHF antenna terminals 28 which are mounted on a panel 25 of insulating material atop housing 11 and are coupled to inductor 22 via a coil 29. One of terminals 28 is returned to a plane of reference potential, housing 11, through a resistor 30 which provides a leakage path for any static charge accumulating on the antenna.

The tunable frequency selector circuit for preselector 13 comprises an inductor 32 which is similar in length and configuration to inductor 22 and is coupled thereto through a window 33 in compartment wall 14. Inductor 32 also has one end grounded to top wall 23 of the housing and a free end formed into a planar extension 34 which is supported by a post 21 thus permitting inductor 32 to serve as the inner conductor of a coaxial transmission line of which compartment walls 14, 16 and housing 11 constitute the outer conductor. Extension 34 is of the same size and configuration as extension 24 and is in alignment therewith as viewed along shaft 17.

Preselector line 32 is tuned by a capacitor which includes inductor extension 34 as a stationary electrode and a pair of adjustable electrodes 36 which are conductively affixed to shaft 17 in axial alignment with electrodes 26 and displaceable over the same limits as electrodes 26. Electrodes 36 are identical in configuration to electrodes 26 even to the extent of having similar slots 27 and adjustable tabs 36' which, together with stationary electrode 34, constitute the principal tuning capacitance for preselector 13 at the high end of the UHF band.

Preselector compartment 13 further includes a mixer diode 35 having one lead connected to a tap on inductor 32 and a second lead protruding through an aperture 37 in compartment wall 16 to form a coupling loop 38 which is connected to the center lead of a feed-through capacitor 39 mounted in wall 16. An IF output coil 40 is connected between the center lead of feed-through capacitor 39 and the center terminal of an IF output jack 41. Jack 41 is coupled to a television receiver, now shown, via a coaxial cable 59.

As is apparent in FIG. 1, capacitor electrodes 26, 36 are mounted symmetrically relative to the walls of their respective compartments. This, of course, permits a measure of control over stray capacitances by equalizing the effects of the strays between the capacitor electrodes and the compartment.

On the other hand, inductors 22, 32 are not symmetrically disposed relative to their compartments in that their center sections are offset relative to their respective extensions 24,34. Although the inductors are substantially identical in length, inductor 32 constitutes, in effect, a mirror image of inductor 22 rather than being identical in configuration. In this fashion their electrode extensions 24, 34 remain centered in their respective compartments while the inductor portions assume positions which provide a desired magnitude of mutual coupling commensurate with the smallest feasible opening for window 33.

Oscillator stage 15 also includes a tunable frequency selector circuit comprising an inductor 42 having an electrical length approaching a quarter wave length at the high frequency end of the UHF band. The low impedance end of inductor 42 is coupled to wall 23 of the housing through a capacitor 43 while its opposite end is formed into a planar extension 44 which is supported by a post 21 and disposed in alignment with preselector extensions 24, 34. Inductor 42 together with housing 11 and walls 16, 19 form a third capacity-tuned co-axial transmission line. Except for the fact that its low impedance extremity is turned back to accommodate a connection to capacitor 43, see FIG. 1, inductor 42 is substantially identical in length and configuration to inductor 32. The tuning capacitor for the oscillator stage comprises inductor extension 44 as a stationary electrode and the pair of adjustable electrodes 46 which are conductively secured to shaft 17 in alignment with preselector electrodes 26, 36 for displacement in the same manner as those electrodes. While they do not have the canted knifing slots found in electrodes 26, 36, each of electrodes 46 does have a single tuning slot 47 which is located outside that area of the electrode which confronts stationary electrode 44 and is disposed normal to the straight edge of the electrode, see FIG. 3. In other respects, electrodes 46 are identical in configuration to preselector electrodes 26, 36 and, in like fashion, include adjustable tab portions 46' which cooperate with stationary electrode 44 to establish the tuning capacitance for the oscillator at the high frequency end of the UHF band.

As previously noted each of preselector stages 12, 13 and oscillator 15 also employ substantially identical inductors 22, 32 and 42, respectively. Therefore, insofar as the major components are concerned, the three stages are identical. It is appreciated, of course, that oscillator stage 15 must operate at a frequency which is displaced 40 megacycles from and preferably above, the operating frequency of the preselector stages. The oscillator stage maintains this frequency separation by virtue of capacitor 43 which is disposed in series relation with tuning capacitor 46, 46' thereby reducing the total capacitance of the oscillator stage and permitting tuning to a higher frequency.

The low impedance end of inductor 42 is directly connected to the output electrode or collector 49 of a grounded-base NPN transistor oscillator 50. By employing a low impedance oscillating device such as a transistor, a quarter-wave line or inductor is feasible. Collector 49 is connected to a source of unidirectional potential B+ via a decoupling choke 51, a feed-through capacitor 52 which is mounted in the top wall of housing 11, and a voltage dropping resistor 58. The emitter electrode 53 of transistor 50 is returned to reference potential housing 11, through a current-limiting bias resistor 54 which also serves to isolate the emitter from RF energy. The base or control electrode 55 is connected to B+ potential through a feed-through capacitor 56, a resistor 57 and resistor 58.

It is recognized, of course, that a PNP transistor can be substituted for transistor 50 simply by reversing the return connections of choke coil 51 and bias resistor 54. More particularly, such a substitution would merely entail returning collector choke 51 to reference potential and then connecting emitter resistor 54 through feed-through capacitor 52 to B+.

Located within the oscillator compartment is a range or limit control comprising a post 60 anchored to compartment wall 16 and a stop 61 which is affixed to shaft 17 and includes a pair of abutments 62, 63 which cooperate with post 60 to confine the rotation of shaft 17 to an angular displacement of approximately 200°, the travel required by capacitor electrodes 26, 36, 46 to tune their associated inductors across the UHF band.

UHF tuner 10 is actuated by a viewer control knob which is coupled to shaft 17 through a conventional gear reduction and vernier mechanism, now shown. Initially, however, tuner 10 must be set-up or phased by a test procedure which establishes the correct tuning range for each of the several stages. An acceptable procedure entails energizing transistor 50 and then rotating shaft 17 counterclockwise, as viewed in FIG. 2, until abutment 62 of the limit control encounters post 60. Transistor 50 functions as a conventional grounded-base oscillator and develops an output signal across frequency determining circuit 42, 44, 46. RF oscillator energy is coupled from this circuit to mixer diode 35 through loop 38. With shaft 17 so positioned, oscillator inductor 42 is tuned, principally by adjusting the proximity of electrode tabs 46' to electrode 44, to a frequency near the high end of the UHF band.

The frequency range of the oscillator is then adjusted by coupling the output of a sweeping generator to antenna terminals 28. In addition to an UHF signal varying in frequency above and below UHF channel 83, the output of the sweeping generator also includes a marker pulse which identifies the video carrier for channel 83. This sweeping signal is coupled to inductor 22 of preselector 12 through coil 29 and from there to inductor 32 of preselector 13 through coupling window 33. A portion of this signal is also injected into mixer diode 35 by virtue of the tap on inductor 32. To the output of diode 35 is externally added a pair of markers which are separated by 41/2 megacycles and represent video and sound IF carriers. This composite signal is then externally detected and applied to the terminals of an oscilloscope. The displayed pattern shows the channel 83 marker, as well as the sound and video IF carriers, and also gives an indication of the pass band of preselector stages 12 and 13. The frequency of oscillator 15 is adjusted for the high end of the UHF band by positioning electrode tabs 46' relative to electrode 44 until the channel 83 marker on the scope pattern is properly disposed in relation to the sound and video IF markers. The pass bands of preselectors 12, 13 are then adjusted by positioning their respective electrode tabs 26', 36' relative to electrodes 24, 34 until a desired pass band is displayed on the scope.

The oscillator is next adjusted for the low end of the band by rotating tuning shaft 17 until stop abutment 63 engages post 60. The previously described procedure is then repeated using a sweep signal centered about UHF channel 14. The oscillator frequency is now adjusted by inserting a tuning wand in slots 47 of electrodes 46 and positioning those electrodes relative to electrode 44 until the scope pattern reveals proper oscillator frequency at the low end of the band.

Tracking of the oscillator across the UHF band by the preselector stages is then checked by returning tuning shaft 17 to the channel 83 position. Tracking is accomplished by successively positioning control shaft 17 to tune in a series of stations in the UHF band. More particularly, shaft 17 is rotated clockwise, as viewed in FIG. 2, to a position corresponding to UHF channel 75, for example, at which station a sweep signal having a frequency centered about that channel is coupled to antenna terminals 28. Preselector stages 12, 13 are then "tracked" to the oscillator by inserting a tuning wand alternately in the slots 27 of capacitor electrodes 26, 36 and bending the section of the electrode adjacent the slot, i.e., "knifing" the rotor elements, until a pattern of desired band pass is displayed on the oscilloscope. Control shaft 17 is then rotated to another position where the above procedure is repeated a second time. The knifing procedure is repeated for as many channels as is required to achieve proper tracking of the preselector circuits.

As shown prior art trimmer type capacitors are eliminated by resort to the disclosed electrode-tab arrangement in the frequency determining circuits of the several stages. Moreover, a substantial economy is achieved by forming electrodes 26, 36 and 46 from the same tool. This procedure also eliminates any tuning discrepancies attributable to differences in electrode size or configuration. Moreover, by forming these electrodes from the same tool any change in electrode size or configuration due to tool wear will not affect one stage any differently than any other since all the electrodes will retain an identical shape and configuration.

In another aspect, section 12, for example, of the UHF tuner of the present invention comprises a variable capacitor including cooperating rotor and stator capacitor plates 26 and 24 respectively, the rotor plates 26 being mounted for rotary movement with respect to stator plate 24 between a first position wherein the capacitance of the capacitor is at a minimum and a second position wherein the capacitance of the capacitor is at a maximum. Each of the rotor plates 26 has a main part and an auxiliary part 26', and only the auxiliary part of the rotor plate 26 is opposite the stator plate 24 when the capacitor is in its minimum capacity position. Auxiliary parts 26' of rotor plate 26 is adjustable toward and away from the stator plate 24, thereby to allow the minimum capacitance of the capacitor to be adjusted. Auxiliary part 26' of rotor plate 26 is not opposite stator plate 24 when the capacitor is in its maximum capacity position. The variable capacitor further comprises means for preventing an abrupt change in the capacitance characteristic of the capacitor at the point where auxiliary part 26' of rotor plate 26 ceases to be opposite stator plate 24, such means constituting the bottom tapered edge of stator plate 24 which is non-parallel or forms an angle with the edge of auxiliary part 26' of rotor plate 26 as the rotor is turned clockwise to the point that auxiliary part 26' departs from confronting relationship with stator plate 24. It will be observed that rotor plates 26 are provided with means in the form of slots 27 to form calibrating electrodes, and that auxiliary part 26' has a size and configuration different from that of any of the individual calibrating electrodes.

By the same token resort to a low impedance device for the oscillator stage, transistor 50, permits use of substantially identical tuned quarter-wave lines, inductors 22, 32, 42, in each frequency selector circuit. The savings which accrue as a result of employing substantially identical components in each of the three stages of the tuner contribute not only to economy in component cost but also a reduction in labor cost because of the resultant simplicity in manufacturing the tuner.

While a particular embodiment of the present invention has been shown and described, it is apparent that changes and modifications may be made therein without departing from the invention in its broader aspects. The aim of the appended claims, therefore, is to cover all such changes and modifications as fall within the true spirit and scope of the invention. 
  • Inventors:REYNOLDS WAYNE H 
  • Assignee:ZENITH RADIO CORP. 

MAGNADYNE MOD. CR93 CHASSIS 1-7001 1537 / 1-7001 1476 CRT TUBE NEOVIDEO 19BV3/S.


Thursday, September 30, 2021


 The TELEFUNKEN (THOMSON) PALCOLOR SP212 STEREO   is a 21 inches (51cm) square screen blackmatrix monitor TV, with stereo sound with side placed speakers.

It has 40 programs storage space for 100 channels PLL synthesized tuning system.

  • The set has a scart connector backside, and teletext feature, which unit was added later by the owner in 1993.
  • Also backside 2 more connectors for exterrnal  speakers are present.
  • A stereo headphone jack is under the front lid accessible.
  • The tv was usable as a monitor for text services like videotel and other console devices  via the scart connector  as it is a compact unit TV with squarescreen or as normal traditional  Tellye with stereo sound.
  • The set features first time the compact THOMSON IKC2 chassis.
  • Was first series of TV featuring the one chip MULTIFUNCTION TOSHIBA  TA8659CN  IC, for Videosignal+Synch+Matrix, deflections..........
  • The TOSHIBA  TA8659CN multi-function processor includes a multistandard chroma decoder, as well as an automatic color standard recognition which detects the respective color decoder for PAL, Secam, NTSC 4.43 MHz (videorecorder NTSC 3.58 MHz (transmitter), activates the respective color decoder. activated.
  • The drive signals for the horizontal output stage are processed in the TOSHIBA TA8659CN multi function processor  in a PLL circuit. A VCO (Voltage Controlled Oscillator) oscillating at 503 kHz. voltage controlled oscillator) supplies via a divider line-frequency pulses. 

  The television receiver has an full alphanumeric menu / display which appears on the picture tube screen, to give the user data on the tuned channel number, colour settings and other operating data. The digital processor which generates the characters for display also controls the channel setting, etc., under the control of a digital remote control unit . The processor has an associated memory circuit for permanente tuning back up. The control of the capacitance diode tuner is achieved by the processor altering the dividing factor of a feedback loop to a phase/frequency comparator . The other input to the comparator is a divided frequency from a quartz oscillator.

A SCART Connector (which stands for Syndicat des Constructeurs d'Appareils Radiorécepteurs et Téléviseurs) is a standard for connecting audio-visual equipment together. The official standard for SCART is CENELEC document number EN 50049-1. SCART is also known as Péritel (especially in France) and Euroconnector but the name SCART will be used exclusively herein. The standard defines a 21-pin connector (herein after a SCART connector) for carrying analog television signals. Various pieces of equipment may be connected by cables having a plug fitting the SCART connectors. Television apparatuses commonly include one or more SCART connectors.

Although a SCART connector is bidirectional, the present invention is concerned with the use of a SCART connector as an input connector for receiving signals into a television apparatus. A SCART connector can receive input television signals either in an RGB format in which the red, green and blue signals are received on Pins 15, 11 and 7, respectively, or alternatively in an S-Video format in which the luminance (Y) and chroma (C) signals are received on Pins 20 and 15. As a result of the common usage of Pin 15 in accordance with the SCART standard, a SCART connector cannot receive input television signals in an RGB format and in an S-Video format at the same time.

Consequently many commercially available television apparatuses include a separate SCART connectors each dedicated to receive input television signals in one of an RGB format and an S-Video format. This limits the functionality of the SCART connectors. In practical terms, the number of SCART connectors which can be provided on a television apparatus is limited by cost and space considerations. However, different users wish the input a wide range of different combinations of formats of television signals, depending on the equipment they personally own and use. However, the provision of SCART connectors dedicated to input television signals in one of an RGB format and an S-Video format limits the overall connectivity of the television apparatus. Furthermore, for many users the different RGB format and S-Video format are confusing. Some users may not understand or may mistake the format of a television signal being supplied on a given cable from a given piece of equipment. This can result in the supply of input television signals of an inappropriate format for the SCART connector concerned.

This kind of connector is todays obsoleted ! 

The Teletext is a television-based communication technique in which a given horizontal video line is utilized for broadcasting textual and graphical information encoded in a digital binary representation. Such horizontal video line signal that contains teletext data is referred to herein as a Data-line. It is assumed herein, for explanation purposes, that teletext is sent by the broadcaster only during the vertical blanking interval (VBI), when no other picture information is sent. The organization of the binary information in the broadcast signal is determined by the standard employed by the broadcaster. By way of an example only, references are made herein to a teletext based on a standard referred to by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) as CEEFAX.

Each Data-line carries data synchronizing and address information and the codes for a Row of 40 characters. The synchronizing information includes a clock run-in sequence followed by an 8-bit framing code sequence. Each Data-line contains a 3 bit code referred to as the Magazine number. A teletext Page includes 24 Rows of 40 characters, including a special top Row called the Page-Header. Each ROW is contained in a corresponding Data-line. A user selected Page is intended to be displayed in place of, or added to a corresponding television picture frame. A Magazine is defined to include Pages having Data-lines containing a corresponding Magazine number. The transmission of a selected Page begins with, and includes its Page Header and ends with and excludes the next Page Header of the selected Magazine number. All intermediate Data lines carrying the selected Magazine number relate to the selected Page.

In 1879 Elihu Thomson and Edwin Houston formed the Thomson-Houston Electric Company in the United States.

On April 15, 1892 Thomson-Houston and the Edison General Electric Company merged to form General Electric (GE). Also in 1892 the company formed a French subsidiary, Thomson Houston International.
In 1893 Compagnie Française Thomson-Houston (CFTH) was set up as a partner to GE. It is from this company that the modern Thomson companies would evolve.
In 1966 CFTH merged with Hotchkiss-Brandt to form Thomson-Houston-Hotchkiss-Brandt (soon renamed Thomson-Brandt). In 1968 the electronics business of Thomson-Brandt merged with Compagnie Générale de Télégraphie Sans Fil (CSF) to form Thomson-CSF. Thomson Brandt maintained a significant shareholding in this company (approximately 40%).
In 1982 both Thomson-Brandt and Thomson-CSF were nationalized by François Mitterrand. Thomson-Brandt was renamed Thomson SA (Société Anonyme) and merged with Thomson-CSF.
From 1983 to 1987 a major reorganisation of Thomson-CSF was undertaken, with divestitures to refocus the group on its core activities (electronics and defence). Thomson-CSF Téléphone and the medical division were sold to Alcatel and GE respectively. The semiconductor businesses of Thomson CSF was merged with Finmeccanica. Thomson acquired General Electric’s RCA and GE consumer electronics business in 1987.
In 1988 Thomson Consumer Electronics was formed, renamed Thomson Multimedia in 1995. The French government split the consumer electronics and defence businesses prior to privatisation in 1999, those companies being Thomson Multimedia (today Technicolor SA) and Thomson-CSF (today Thales Group).

Thomson-CSF was a major electronics and defence contractor. In December 2000 it was renamed Thales Group.

...........1996............there are no stranger foreigners than the first ones you come across, the French. This is borne out by the 1996 Thomson situation. Thomson, was a vast company by any reckoning, is a strange beast. It's state controlled, which means that the government owns most but not quite all of it. and consists of two distinct arms, the defence group Thomson-CFS which is quite profitable, and the consumer electronics group Thomson Multimedia which loses a packet. The government wanted  rid of it, but won't sell the bits separately. It doesn't want to be left with the problem of what to do with Thomson Multimedia. You might think that no one would be interested in helping the French government. But in fact there are two contenders to take over Thomson, the telecommunications and power group Alcatel Alsthom and the defence and media group Lagardere. They have been engaging in quite a battle over the ownership, and as we go to press the French government is due to decide whose bid to accept. Whoever wins will end up with the profitable defence company  and the problem of Thomson Multimedia (TMM).

Lagardere has stated that it would sell TMM to Daewoo of Korea. Alcatel Alsthom has not been quite so specific, but has announced that it would take immediate action to reduce TMM's losses and seek an "Asian partner" that "specialises in consumer electronics". The partner would be expected to take over management of TMM, but Alcatel would like to remain a "minority partner" - it sees prospects in the move to digital TV technology that will occur during the next decade. All this gives one a strange feeling of déjà vu. At the time when Thomson took over Ferguson, in June 1987, it was noticed  that Thomson is "now on the government's privatisation list". It's taken almost a decade to happen.

 It's also said that "Thomson may be big, but has not been all that successful in the past in the consumer electronics field". Right on! What has happened to Ferguson in the UK illustrates the dismal Thomson effect. From being the local brand leader, with over ten per cent of the market, Ferguson has ended up being an also ran. It's only fair however to mention that Ferguson was making substantial losses when Thorn EMI was glad to get £90m for it from Thomson. Thomson has been able to survive in the consumer electronics field because it is part of a larger organisation, with those defence profits. It has nevertheless over the years attempted to play a a major role in the international consumer electronics field, keeping up with Philips and the Japanese corporations. From its French origins, it first expanded by picking up various German companies such as NordMende an SABA. It added Telefunken, a venerable name if ever there was one in this industry, in the early eighties, then took what was to be a big move into the UK market when it bought Ferguson. 

It  used six brand names in Europe. The largest step however occurred when TMM became a major force in the North American market by taking over General Electric's consumer electronics interests. This also gave it the RCA operation. The idea behind all this seems to have been to achieve success simply by getting bigger. There was always government finance to back the policy, which in the event has not been a success. The TMM debacle is a sad one, since Thomson's research and engineering has had many successes.
 It has not stinted on R and D work, with laboratories in Los Angeles, Indianapolis, Strasbourg, Hanover, Villingen, Tokyo and Singapore. Much work has been done on HD -TV, digital signal processing and other developments that have kept it in the forefront of the technology. Now, it seems, TMM is likely to be swallowed up by one of the Oriental corporate giants. 
If there are any lessons to be drawn, they would seem to be that expansion by itself is no guarantee of success, that to spread ones activities and their control across the globe makes management extremely difficult, and that costs are very hard to control in such a context. Alcatel Alsthom's plans to reduce TMM's losses bear this out. It would close down TMM's US factories, transferring production to the company's modern facilities in Mexico, where wages are much lower.

 It would rationalise the large collection of brands, possibly adopting RCA as the main one worldwide. And there is a suggestion that the company should be run from the USA, since this is its largest market. But all this would be just initial steps towards ceding majority control. Venerable brand names such as Telefunken, GE and RCA would pass to oriental ownership. This will happen whoever wins, Alcatel Alsthom or Lagardere, which would leave just Philips to carry on Europe's traditions in the consumer electronics field............. but we all know how it ended.................

Thomson-CSF independence

Following the privatisation of the Thomson Group Thomson-CSF explored the possibility of merging with Marconi Electronic Systems, however British Aerospace was successful in that aim, forming BAE Systems.
In 2000 Thomson-CSF went through a series of transactions, including with Marconi plc. The major acquisition at this time was the £1.3 billion purchase of the British defence electronics firm, Racal. This made Thomson-CSF the second largest participant in the UK defence industry after BAE. Racal was renamed Thomson-CSF Racal plc.
On December 6, 2000 the group was renamed Thales.


Telefunken (WAS) is a German radio and television apparatus company, founded in 1903, in Berlin, as a joint venture of two large companies, Siemens & Halske (S & H) and the Allgemeine Elektricitäts-Gesellschaft (General Electricity Company).

The name "Telefunken" appears in:

* the product brand name "Telefunken";
* AEG subsidiary as Telefunken GmbH in 1955;
* AEG subsidiary as Telefunken AG in 1963;
* company merged as AEG-Telefunken (1967–1985);
* the company "Telefunken USA" (2001). Now Telefunken Elektroakustik (2009)
* the company "Telefunken semiconductor GmbH & Co KG" Heilbronn Germany (2009).
* the company "Telefunken Lighting technologies S,L" (2009)

The company Telefunken USA[1] was incorporated in early 2001 to provide restoration services and build reproductions of vintage Telefunken microphones.

Around the turn of the 20th century, two groups of German researchers worked on the development of techniques for wireless communication. The one group at AEG, led by Adolf Slaby and Georg Graf von Arco, developed systems for the German navy; the other one, under Karl Ferdinand Braun, at Siemens, for the German army.

When a dispute concerning patents arose between the two companies, Kaiser Wilhelm II decided that the two companies were to be joined, creating on 27 May 1903 the company Gesellschaft für drahtlose Telegraphie System Telefunken ("The Company for Wireless Telegraphy Ltd."), and the disputed patents and techniques were invested in it. This was then renamed on 17 April 1923 as Telefunken, The Company for Wireless Telegraphy. Telefunken was the company's telegraph address. The first technical director of Telefunken was George Graf von Arco.

Starting in 1923, Telefunken built broadcast transmitters and radio sets.

In 1928, Telefunken made history by designing the V-41 amplifier for the German Radio Network. This was the very first two stage, "Hi-Fi" amplifier which began a chapter in recording history. Over time, Telefunken perfected their designs and in 1950 the V-72 amplifier was born. The TAB (a manufacturing subcontractor to Telefunken) V-72 soon became popular with other radio stations and recording facilities and would eventually come to help define the sound of most European recordings. The V-72S was the only type of amplifier found in the legendary REDD-37 console used by the Beatles at Abbey Road Studios on every recording prior to Rubber Soul. Today the V-72 is still the most sought after example of Telefunken's design and over 50 years later continues to be the benchmark by which all other tube based microphone preamplifiers are measured. In 1932, record players were added to the product line.

In 1941 Siemens transferred its Telefunken shares to AEG as part of the agreements known as the "Telefunken settlement", and AEG thus became the sole owner and continued to lead Telefunken as a subsidiary (starting in 1955 as "Telefunken GmbH" and from 1963 as "Telefunken AG").

During the Second World War Telefunken was a supplier of vacuum tubes, transmitters and radio relay systems, and developed radar facilities and directional finders, aiding extensively to the German air defense against British-American Aerial Bombing. During the war, manufacturing plants were shifted to and developed in West Germany or relocated. Thus, Telefunken, under AEG, turned into the smaller subsidiary, with the three divisions realigning and data processing technology, elements as well as broadcast, television and phono. Telefunken had substantial successes in these markets during the time of self-sufficiency and also later in the AEG company. Telefunken was also the originator of the FM radio broadcast system. Telefunken, through the subsidiary company Teldec (a joint venture with Decca Records), was for many decades one of the largest German record companies, until Teldec was sold to WEA in 1988.

In 1959, Telefunken established a modern semiconductor works in Heilbronn, where in April 1960 production began. The works was expanded several times, and in 1970 a new 6-storey building was built at the northern edge of the area. At the beginning of the 1970s it housed approximately 2,500 employees.

In 1967, Telefunken was merged with AEG, which was then renamed to AEG-Telefunken. During this era, Walter Bruch developed the PAL color television for the company, in use by most countries outside the Americas today (i.e. United Kingdom - PAL-I), and by Brazil (PAL-M) and Argentina (PAL-N) in South America.

The mainframe computer TR 4 was developed at Telefunken in Backnang, and the TR 440 model was developed at Telefunken in Konstanz. They were in use at many German university computing centres from the 1970s to around 1985. The development and manufacture of large computers was separated in 1974 to the Konstanz Computer Company (CGK). The production of mini- and process computers was integrated into the automatic control engineering division of AEG. When AEG was bought by Daimler in 1985, "Telefunken" was dropped from the company name.

In 2005, Telefunken Sender Systeme Berlin changed its name to Transradio SenderSysteme Berlin AG. The name "Transradio" dates back to 1918, when Transradio was founded as a subsidiary of Telefunken. A year later, in 1919, Transradio made history by introducing duplex transmission. Transradio has specialized in research, development and design of modern AM, VHF/FM and DRM broadcasting systems.

In August 2006, it acquired the Turkish company Profilo Telra, one of the largest European manufacturers of TV-devices, with Telefunken GmbH granting a license for the Telefunken trademark rights and producing televisions under that name. In 2000, Toni Roger Fishman acquired The Diamond Shaped Logo & The Telefunken Brand Name for use in North America. The company "Telefunken USA" [2] was incorporated in early 2001 to provide restoration services and build reproductions of vintage Telefunken microphones. In 2003, Telefunken USA won a TEC Award for Studio Microphone Technology for their exact reproduction of the original Ela M 250 / 251 Microphone system. Telefunken USA has since received several TEC Awards nominations for the following microphone systems: the Telefunken USA M12 or C12 (originally developed by AKG), the R-F-T M16 MkII, and the AK47. The Historic Telefunken Ela M251 microphone system entered the MIX foundation's Hall of fame in 2006. In 2008, Telefunken USA won a second TEC Award for its new Ela M 260 microphone.

As a result of a conference held in Frankfurt in May 2009, Telefunken USA has been renamed Telefunken Elektroakustik ("Electrical Acoustics") Division of Telefunken and awarded the exclusive rights to manufacture a wide variety of professional audio products and vacuum tubes bearing the Telefunken Trade Mark, in over 27 countries worldwide. Telefunken Elektroakustik now uses the Telefunken trademark for Professional Audio Equipment & Component Based Electronics, such as Capacitors, Transformers, Vacuum Tubes in North America, South America, Europe, Asia and Australia.

" It is ironic that in the years since the introduction of PAL, Telefunken – the company that invented PAL – disappeared from the market after they were bought in the 1980s by the French company Thomson – a former SECAM protagonist.
There is further irony in the fact that even as the majority of European and Asian TV viewers benefit on a daily basis from their PAL standard TV pictures, the worldwide transition from analog to digital TV spells the end of this color standard as well as many other TV transmission standards.
What we have known as PAL, SECAM, or NTSC is now increasingly known as simply digital RGB or Y, Cr, and Cb color component signals encoded in a DVB (Digital Video Broadcasting) signal or one of its many variants such as DVB-T, DVT-S, DVB-C, DVB-H, or similar ones like your ATSC.
In the future, all this may in turn disappear into an abstract IP (Internet Protocol) packet, which would make traditional distribution channels obsolete. For example, major areas in Germany, and all of Austria may terminate their analog transmissions, replacing them with DVB-T or DVB-S only.
We will find out whether the 55th anniversary of PAL in 2018 will generate much of a resonance, if all analog TV transmissions – whether terrestrial, satellite, or cable – have been brought to an end. "
1903 – 1922

At the beginning of the last century, two rival research groups were working in the field of
wireless telegraphy. The Slaby-Arco group was represented by the radio-telegraphy department
of AEG, founded in 1899. The other as the Braun-Siemens group, represented by a company
called Gesellschaft für drahtlose Telegraphie, System Prof. Braun und Siemens & Halske
GmbH. Under the advice of Emporer Wilhelm II, the two groups merged to form the
Gesellschaft für drahtlose Telegraphie mbH company on May 27, 1903. And the rest is history.

The very first Telefunken customers were the German Army and the Imperial Navy.
Telefunken was proud to deliver the first two transmitters for the new coastal radio station, Norddeich
Radio, in November 1905. In October 1906, the expansion of a much larger Nauen station was
completed with a range of 300 km and HF output of 10 kW. Welcome to the power of


Dr. Georg Graf Von Arco was the first Technical Director and Managing Director of the
Gesellschaft für drahtlose Telegraphie mbH in 1903. He was also the holder of more than one
hundred patents. Among other inventions, he initiated the high-frequency mechanical
transmitter and the wavemeter. Necessity is the mother of invention. Or in this case, German

1923 – 1936

On April 17, 1904, the company changed its name to "Telefunken, Gesellschaft für drahtlose
Telegraphie", and on July 26, 1932 Telefunkenplatte GmbH officially began its commercial
activity with registered capital of 100,000 Reichsmarks.
The station in the Telefunken building, Tempelhofer Ufer 9 in Berlin, began broadcasting
concerts regularly two and a half months before the official start of the "Deutsche
Rundfunkverkehr". The world tour of the Graf Zeppelin airship in 1929 got off the ground by
using Telefunken transmitters, receivers and directional equipment exclusively.
Also, on October 31, 1928, during the 5th Grand German Radio Exhibition in Berlin, Telefunken
presented a television set with the Karolus-Telefunken system, a scanning process of film
images through a Mechau projector with a Nipkow disk, in public for the first time.


Dr. Hans Bredow is considered to be the "Father of Broadcasting". He was employed at
Telefunken from 1904 to 1919 as a Project Manager, and later as Managing Director.
Prof. Dr. Walter Bruch developed the very first electronic television camera, with which he
participated in the live broadcast of the Olympic Summer Games in Berlin in 1936. He also
earned international fame by inventing the PAL color television system. He joined Telefunken's
Television and Physical Research Department in 1935.
These two innovators thought out of the “TV box” and helped shape and make Telefunken what
it is today.


The German radio station in Zeesen near Königswusterhausen (8 kW shortwave transmitter) was built by Telefunken and was officially placed in service on August 28, 1929. The Mühlacker radio station (60 kW output) was handed over on December 20, 1930. Telefunken is now in, and on, the air.


In 1935, Telefunken equipped the Olympic Stadium, the Maifeld and the Dietrich-Eckhardt
Stage with electrical-acoustic equipment for the Olympics. On August 1, 1936 at the XI Olympic
Summer Games in Berlin, an electronic television camera, known as the Ikonoskop, was used
for the first time for a direct transmission. Again, another Telefunken first. And second. And third
1936- 1954


The first fully electronic television studio equipped by Telefunken for the Deutsche Reichspost
was opened with a live broadcast in August 1938. The 500 kW long wave transmitter in
Herzberg, also known as the most powerful German broadcast transmitter, was supplied by
Telefunken and began to operate on May 19, 1939.


On September 24, 1941, AEG took over the 50% of Telefunken shares owned by Siemens &
Halske AG valued at 20 million Reichsmarks. Thus, Telefunken became a 100% subsidiary of
AEG. In exchange, Siemens & Halske AG received the shares of Eisenbahn-Signalwerken,
Klangfilmgesellschaft mbH and Deutsche Betriebsgesellschaft für drahtlose Telegraphie
(DEBEG) owned by AEG. Strength in numbers, indeed.


The reconstruction after the World War II posed a particularly difficult challenge to Telefunken.
All production facilities and equipment were destroyed, disassembled or confiscated and many
valuable experts were scattered around the world. Rebuilding began in West Germany and
Berlin in 1945, and the production of tubes and transmitters was resumed the same year. But
growth was on the way.


In 1953 Telefunken already comprised six plants and five sales offices in Berlin, Ulm,
Frankfurt/Main and Hanover again.The range of products consisted of long-range
communications systems, radio and television transmitters, marine radios, commercial
receivers, directional and navigation systems, radar devices, deci and UHF directional radio
connections, mobile radio systems, portable radio systems, HF heat generators, measuring
equipment, electro-acoustical systems, music centers, record players, transmitter tubes, radio
tubes, special tubes and quartz crystals. As you can see, Telefunken was relentless and has
come a long way.


Prof. Dr. Dr. Wilhelm T. Runge (1895-1987) performed trailblazing work in radio and radar
technology and played a significant role in the development of microwave in Germany. He was
especially renowned internationally in the field of high-frequency technology. As well as for
having a few, very important titles before his name.

1955 – 1962

The name of the company was changed to Telefunken GmbH on January 4, 1955. Due to the
expanded business activities of Telefunken, AEG increased the capital of the company to DM
100 million in 1958.


The Sender Freies Berlin (SFB) station ordered the first German stereo studio in 1961. The
harbor radar system, supplied by Telefunken, was officially placed for service in Hamburg
Harbor in August 1962, while the first German transistor receiver (six transistors) was produced
in a test series in 1956. Prof. Dr. Walter Bruch filed the fundamental PAL "time decoder" patent
on December 31, 1962. It was the first German stereo studio of its kind, and Telefunken sought
to it that there was nothing else quite like it.


Telefunken GmbH became Telefunken AG on July 5, 1963. On June 23, 1966, the General
Shareholder Meeting of AEG passed a resolution to integrate Telefunken AG into Allgemeine
Elektrizitäts-Gesellschaft. Based on an operating lease agreement, the business activities of
Telefunken were transferred to AEG effective January 1, 1967, and were continued under the
combined name AEG-Telefunken. In March 1968, AEG-Telefunken developed a new mediumrange
radar system (Type SER-LL), which was able to detect targets at an altitude of 24,000
meters at a distance of 280 kilometers. Telefunken expands on land, as well as in the air.


AEG-Telefunken delivered the two-millionth tape recorder, a Magnetophon 204 TS, on August
5, 1969. The ten-millionth black-and-white television picture tube was produced in Ulm on
January 27, 1970. The numbers are astounding. As is Telefunken.AEG-Telefunken delivered the
two-millionth tape recorder, a Magnetophon 204 TS, on August 5, 1969. The ten-millionth
black-and-white television picture tube was produced in Ulm on January 27, 1970. The
numbers are astounding. As is Telefunken.


There was a worldwide economic slowdown in the wake of the oil crisis in 1974. The
competition in consumer electronics sector also became more difficult due to Japanese
suppliers. The only profitable divisions of the company at this time were telecommunications
and traffic technology. But Telefunken, as usual, was known for their resilience.

1979- 1983

The name of the overall company was changed to AEG-Telefunken Aktiengesellschaft on June
21, 1979. The "Aktiengesellschaft" [stock corporation] suffix was necessary due to a new law in
the European Community. In 1979, AEG-Telefunken supplied the complete telecommunications
and high-voltage equipment for the International Congress Center (ICC) Berlin, valued at DM 50
million. In January 1983 the company received an order for simulation systems for electronic
battle simulation for training Tornado crews of the German Luftwaffe and Navy. The total value
was at DM 37 million. The net worth: priceless.


Court composition proceedings were opened against the assets of AEG-Telefunken AG by the
District Court in Frankfurt / Main on October 31, 1982.
The District Court Frankfurt / Main confirmed the composition of AEG-Telefunken AG in
accordance with the petition filed and closed the proceedings on September 19, 1984.
Even during this difficult financial situation, AEG-Telefunken continued its business and founded
AEG-Telefunken Nachrichtentechnik GmbH (ATN), in Backnang, Germany, together with
Bosch, Mannesmann and Allianz Versicherungs-AG in 1981, as well as Telefunken electronic
GmbH (TEG) in the field of electronic components (semiconductors) together with United
Technologies Corporation (UTC), USA in 1982.
On July 1, 1992, AEG-Telefunken and Deutsche Aerospace (Dasa) founded Telefunken
Microelektronic GmbH (TEMIC), into which Telefunken Elektronic GmbH was integrated among
others. But Telefunken was determined to prevail.


Effective March 31, 1983, the French group Thomson-Brandt S.A. took over 75 percent of the
AEG-Telefunken shares in Telefunken Fernseh und Rundfunk GmbH, Hanover, Germany,
including its German and foreign subsidiaries. The remaining 25 percent were supposed to
follow on January 31, 1984. Daimler-Benz AG entered the company in autumn of 1985 and
decided in Autumn 1995 to dissolve the legal entity and transferred the remaining assets to
EHG Electroholding GmbH. Thus, the history of the company was over. But not that of its
A historical overview is offered by the company archive of AEG-Telefunken in the "Deutsches
Technikmusem Berlin", Trebbiner Str. 9, 10963 Berlin.

1984 – 2004

Currently, the Telefunken brand and name rights lie with Telefunken Licenses GmbH,
Frankfurt/Main, Germany. This company is one hundred percent subsidiary of EHG
Elektroholding GmbH, Frankfurt/Main.
EHG, on the other hand, is the legal successor of AEG Aktiengesellschaft. The licensor is
Licentia Patent-Verwaltungs GmbH, Frankfurt/Main, Germany. A differentiation is made
between brand licensing agreements, name use agreements and combined agreements. And
third-party use always requires the written approval of the licensor.
In 2003, Telefunken can look back at one-hundred years of brand history. In the past,
Telefunken was associated with significant technical developments and enjoyed the reputation
of a successful German company.
The Telefunken brand is registered in the official trademark registries of 118 countries. It
continues to be used under a variety of licensing agreements.
These are the topics that can be found in the commemorative volume "Telefunken After 100
Years - The Legacy of a Global German Brand."
Whether discovered on this website or in book, these topics should not only focus attention on
the past, but also simultaneously highlight the beginning of a strong Telefunken brand. Simply
put, it’s not just about where we’ve been. But also where we’re going.

2004 – 2009

Since December 2007, the trademark-right TELEFUNKEN rests with TELEFUNKEN Holding
AG, Frankfurt. Currently, TELEFUNKEN is the owner of more than 20,000 patents and active in over 130 countries around the globe.
Today, TELEFUNKEN stands for innovation and progress in the ever-changing world of
information and communications technology and is strictly focused on consumer quality – from
design concept to execution. And because of its strong heritage and long-standing tradition,
Telefunken has a high brand-awareness and a clear positioning in the field of premium

Some References:

  • M. Friedewald: Telefunken und der deutsche Schiffsfunk 1903–1914. In: Zeitschrift für Unternehmensgeschichte 46. Nr. 1, 2001, S. 27–57
  • M. Fuchs: Georg von Arco (1869–1940) – Ingenieur, Pazifist, Technischer Direktor von Telefunken. Eine Erfinderbiographie. Verlag für Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften und der Technik, Berlin & München: Diepholz 2003
  • L. U. Scholl: Marconi versus Telefunken: Drahtlose Telegraphie und ihre Bedeutung für die Schiffahrt. In: G. Bayerl, W. Weber (ed.): Sozialgeschichte der Technik. Ulrich Troitzsche zum 60. Geburtstag. Waxmann, Münster 1997 (Cottbuser Studien zur Geschichte von Technik, Arbeit und Umwelt, 7)
  • Telefunken Sendertechnik GmbH: 90 Jahre Telefunken. Berlin 1993
  • Erdmann Thiele (ed.): Telefunken nach 100 Jahren – Das Erbe einer deutschen Weltmarke. Nicolaische Verlagsbuchhandlung, Berlin 2003, ISBN 3-87584-961-2


Schreibweise mit c siehe: - AEG-Teilschuldverschreibung von 1962

Marke „Telefunken“ in der Registerauskunft des Deutschen Patent- und Markenamtes (DPMA)

E. Thiele (Hrsg.): Telefunken nach 100 Jahren: Das Erbe einer deutschen Weltmarke. Nicolai, Berlin 2003, S. 19

Kurt Kracheel: Flugführungssysteme (Die Deutsche Luftfahrt, Band 20). Bernard&Graefe Verlag, Bonn 1993, ISBN 3-7637-6105-5, S. 119.

Operette 50W UKW. In: Abgerufen am 28. Januar 2016.

Autosuper IA 50. In: Abgerufen am 28. Januar 2016.

Farbfernseh-Tischempfänger PALcolor 708T. In: Abgerufen am 28. Januar 2016.

Mini Partner 101. In: Abgerufen am 28. Januar 2016.

Olympia-Partner. In: Abgerufen am 28. Januar 2016.

Magnetophon 3000 hifi. In: Abgerufen am 28. Januar 2016.

Fernseh-Tischempfänger FE8T. In: Abgerufen am 28. Januar 2016.

Israelischer Konzern Elbit Systems eröffnet Büro in Berlin. In: bundeswehr-journal. 13. April 2018, abgerufen am 18. Januar 2019.

Telefunken Semiconductors Heilbronn: Die Lichter sind für immer aus,, 27. Februar 2015

LDL Berlin: Geschäftshaus Mehringdamm 32 & 34

LDL Berlin: AEG-Glühlampenfabrik

LDL Berlin: AEG-Telefunken-Gerätewerk

Telefunkenwerk Celle.

Ludwig Leisentritt: Die historische Entwicklung von Zeil am Main,

Further reading

  • Jean-Pierre, Thierry (16 October 2003). Taïwan Connection : Scandales et meurtres au cœur de la République [Taiwan Connection – Scandals and Murders at the Heart of the Republic] (in French). Robert Laffont. ISBN 978-2221100820.
  • L'entreprise partagée ? Une pratique différente des relations sociales : l'expérience Thomson-CSF, Robert Thomas (pseudonym for a team-work with Pierre Beretti and Jean-Pierre Thiollet), Paris, Maxima-Laurent du Mesnil Ed., 1999.