Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

In Brief: On this site you will find pictures and information about some of the electronic, electrical and electrotechnical Obsolete technology relics that the Frank Sharp Private museum has accumulated over the years .
Premise: There are lots of vintage electrical and electronic items that have not survived well or even completely disappeared and forgotten.

Or are not being collected nowadays in proportion to their significance or prevalence in their heyday, this is bad and the main part of the death land. The heavy, ugly sarcophagus; models with few endearing qualities, devices that have some over-riding disadvantage to ownership such as heavy weight,toxicity or inflated value when dismantled, tend to be under-represented by all but the most comprehensive collections and museums. They get relegated to the bottom of the wants list, derided as 'more trouble than they are worth', or just forgotten entirely. As a result, I started to notice gaps in the current representation of the history of electronic and electrical technology to the interested member of the public.

Following this idea around a bit, convinced me that a collection of the peculiar alone could not hope to survive on its own merits, but a museum that gave equal display space to the popular and the unpopular, would bring things to the attention of the average person that he has previously passed by or been shielded from. It's a matter of culture. From this, the Obsolete Technology Tellye Web Museum concept developed and all my other things too. It's an open platform for all electrical Electronic TV technology to have its few, but NOT last, moments of fame in a working, hand-on environment. We'll never own Colossus or Faraday's first transformer, but I can show things that you can't see at the Science Museum, and let you play with things that the Smithsonian can't allow people to touch, because my remit is different.

There was a society once that was the polar opposite of our disposable, junk society. A whole nation was built on the idea of placing quality before quantity in all things. The goal was not “more and newer,” but “better and higher" .This attitude was reflected not only in the manufacturing of material goods, but also in the realms of art and architecture, as well as in the social fabric of everyday life. The goal was for each new cohort of children to stand on a higher level than the preceding cohort: they were to be healthier, stronger, more intelligent, and more vibrant in every way.

The society that prioritized human, social and material quality is a Winner. Truly, it is the high point of all Western civilization. Consequently, its defeat meant the defeat of civilization itself.

Today, the West is headed for the abyss. For the ultimate fate of our disposable society is for that society itself to be disposed of. And this will happen sooner, rather than later.

OLD, but ORIGINAL, Well made, Funny, Not remotely controlled............. and not Made in CHINA.

How to use the site:
- If you landed here via any Search Engine, you will get what you searched for and you can search more using the search this blog feature provided by Google. You can visit more posts scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year,
or you can click on the main photo-page to start from the main page. Doing so it starts from the most recent post to the older post simple clicking on the Older Post button on the bottom of each page after reading , post after post.

You can even visit all posts, time to time, when reaching the bottom end of each page and click on the Older Post button.

- If you arrived here at the main page via bookmark you can visit all the site scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year pointing were you want , or more simple You can even visit all blog posts, from newer to older, clicking at the end of each bottom page on the Older Post button.
So you can see all the blog/site content surfing all pages in it.

- The search this blog feature provided by Google is a real search engine. If you're pointing particular things it will search IT for you; or you can place a brand name in the search query at your choice and visit all results page by page. It's useful since the content of the site is very large.

Note that if you don't find what you searched for, try it after a period of time; the site is a never ending job !

Every CRT Television saved let revive knowledge, thoughts, moments of the past life which will never return again.........

Many contemporary "televisions" (more correctly named as displays) would not have this level of staying power, many would ware out or require major services within just five years or less and of course, there is that perennial bug bear of planned obsolescence where components are deliberately designed to fail and, or manufactured with limited edition specificities..... and without considering........picture......sound........quality........
..............The bitterness of poor quality is remembered long after the sweetness of todays funny gadgets low price has faded from memory........ . . . . . .....
Don't forget the past, the end of the world is upon us! Pretty soon it will all turn to dust!

Have big FUN ! !
©2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 Frank Sharp - You do not have permission to copy photos and words from this blog, and any content may be never used it for auctions or commercial purposes, however feel free to post anything you see here with a courtesy link back, btw a link to the original post here , is mandatory.
All sets and apparates appearing here are property of Engineer Frank Sharp. NOTHING HERE IS FOR SALE !
All posts are presented here for informative, historical and educative purposes as applicable within Fair Use.

Wednesday, January 24, 2024




The SABA T7280 VT SUPERPLANAR   was offering a rich  features needed by such class of TV in 1987.

  SABA TV First time with following features:

  • A 29 (30) inches PLANAR type screen with black matrix and superb bright picture.
A cathode-ray tube includes a rectangular faceplate which has an exterior surface having curvature along both the minor and major axes. The exterior surface of the faceplate includes a rectangular contour near its periphery which substantially lies in a plane which is perpendicular to the central longitudinal axis of the tube. 
 In the prior art, the aesthetic quality of television tubes is gradually tending towards increasingly flat screens. One type of currently used "plane" front panel is called a "planar" front panel and is described in particular, in the U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,786,840 and 4,839,556. Tubes such as this work properly but require corrections to obtain good image geometry; these corrections cannot be obtained by the deflector alone.

Furthermore, the planeity of the screen has repercussions on the geometry of the mask and induces problems of thermomechanical behavior which take the form of doming and blister flaws.

A first object of the present invention is a method for the fabrication, for high-definition television, of a "wide" screen trichromatic tube  capable of having the standard ratio 4/3, the screen of which is as flat as possible and requires the fewest possible geometrical corrections, a method that enables the making of a very wide range of tubes of very diverse dimensions and planeities, with the fabrication being done in the simplest possible way without using any cylindrical element in the illumination light box of the front panel.

 There are two basic faceplate panel contours utilized commercially for rectangular CRT's of screen sizes greater than about a 9-inch (22.9 cm) diagonal: spherical, and cylindrical. Although flat contours are possible, the added thickness and weight of the faceplate panel required to maintain the same envelope strength are undesirable. Furthermore, if a flat faceplate CRT is a shadow mask color picture tube, the additional weight and complexity of an appropriate shadow mask also are undesirable.

The present invention provides a novel curved faceplate panel contour that is neither spherical nor cylindrical, but that can create an illusion to a viewer of being flat.

The VIDEOCOLOR PLANAR features process of manufacturing a cathode-ray tube which includes a faceplate panel with an exterior surface having thereon an anti-glare, anti-static, dark coating is described. The process is characterized by the steps of: (a) forming a substantially homogeneous initial carbon dispersion containing substantially equal parts, by weight, of carbon particles and an organic vehicle; and (b) combining a sufficient quantity of the homogeneous initial carbon dispersion with an aqueous solution of lithium polysilicate to form a final dispersion suitable for application to the faceplate of the CRT.
 For many applications it is desirable to have an effective faceplate transmission of about 40% to enhance the contrast of an image displayed on the tube and also to provide an anti-static coating on the tube. A dark, or neutral density, coating on an exterior surface of a CRT faceplate panel is a cost-effective alternative to a dark glass faceplate to achieve such a result. The incorporation of anti-glare, or glare-reducing, properties into a neutral density faceplate coating is well known in the art and is described, for example, in U.S. Pat. No. 3,898,509, issued to Brown et al. on Aug. 5, 1975.

 The VIDEOCOLOR PLANAR here featured has even an improvement for increased EHT to obtain more focussing.One aspect of the present invention is concerned with reducing the size of the crossover, and thus of the image thereof on the screen, compared with the known gun. In accordance with this aspect of the invention, the voltage applied to the first anode is higher than in a corresponding conventional gun and in particular is greater than the voltage applied to the focussing anode. As a result, a high electric field is formed between the grid and the first anode which tends to reduce the size of the crossover, aspect of the invention seeks to utilise this high voltage in controlling the beam size.
  • 50 programs with PLL synthesizer tuning with autosearch.

The system employed in the tv permits utilization of a frequency synthesizer tuning system which correctly tunes to a desired television station or channel even if the transmitted signals from that station are not precisely maintained at the proper frequencies even in combination of a fine tuning adjustable by the user.
Accordingly, it is an object of this invention to provide an improved tuning system for a television receiver.
It is an additional object of this invention to provide an improved frequency synthesizer tuning system for a television receiver.


INTRODUCTION Digital tuning systems are fast replacing the conventional mechanical systems in AM FM and television receivers The desirability of the digital approach is mainly due to the following features * Precise tuning of station frequencies
* Exact digital frequency display
* Keyboard entry of desired frequency
* Virtually unlimited station memory
* Up down scanning through the band
* Station ‘‘search’’ (stop on next active station)
* Power on to the last station
* Easy option for time-of-day clock In addition
" recent "developments in large scale integrated circuit technology and new varactor diodes for the AM band have made the cost-benefit picture for digital tuning very attractive System partitioning is extremely important in optimizing this cost-benefit picture as will be discussed.

A simplified block diagram of a typical digitally tuned receiver is shown in Figure 1 Notice this receiver could be one for AM FM marine radio or television it makes no difference The frequency synthesizer block generates the local oscillator frequency for the receiver just as a conventional mechanical tuner would However the phase-locked-loop (PLL) acts as an integral frequency multiplier of an accurate crystal controlled reference frequency while the mechanical type provides a continuously variable frequency output with no reference Some method of controlling the value of the multiplier for channel tuning must be provided The other RF IF and audio video circuitry will be the same as in the mechanical tuning method There are many different ways to partition the frequency synthesizer system to perform the digital tuning function................


  • It was the first SABA TV model series introducing the IMC (Interactive Menu control) a OSD menu system for each type of programming session:

Programming of channels / tuning

Programming of picture features

Programming of sound features.

Control of modern television receivers has become increasingly complicated in recent years, as more and more user-controllable features have been implemented by manufacturers in television receivers of ever-greater complexity. For example, in addition to the normal television receiver controls, some user-controllable features which were unheard-of just a few years ago are now commonly available to consumers, such as, COLOR TEMPERATURE, VIDEO NOISE REDUCTION, SURROUND SOUND, and SLEEP TIMER, just to name a few.

In an attempt to present an orderly array of these controllable functions, manufacturers introduced the concept of function control menus. In such well-known schemes, a menu is called up to the screen, and a particular function to be controlled, such as COLOR, is selected by the viewer for adjustment. Unfortunately, the menus soon grew too long for convenient screen display, and were expanded to include sub-menus allowing selection of related items. For example, selecting the menu item entitled VIDEO brings up yet another menu listing such related items as, BRIGHTNESS, CONTRAST, COLOR, TINT, SHARPNESS, COLOR TEMPERATURE, and VIDEO NOISE REDUCTION. While such an arrangement may seem straight-forward to a computer programmer, it may be extremely confusing, and even intimidating, to the average nontechnical user, who was quite happy to adjust the brightness of his receiver by turning a knob on the front panel, without having to wade through a mire of menus and submenus to accomplish that simple task. In many cases, complex hierarchical menus found on today's receivers must be searched from top to bottom in order to locate the desired function to be executed. It is noted that the location of commands within the hierarchy may have seemed "intuitively obvious" to the programmer, but may be confusing to the nontechnical user.

An on-screen User interface display, incorporates a means for generating a display of a plurality of hierarchically ordered menus. The menus include a current menu) and a preceding parent menu showing a selection path from the parent menu to the current menu. Also a menu selection item within the hierarchical menu display provides a User at least one of, a) a display of control information for the device, and b) control parameter data entry capability. The processing device also incorporates a means for updating the on-screen display in response to User menu item selection. The processing device may also include a means for altering the device operation in response to an updated operating parameter value. Also, the selection path may indicate menu entry and exit points separated by at least one intervening menu item.

 A control window for navigating and implementing menu selections in a multiple level hierarchical menu is provided having a first zone displaying a list of the selection levels and a second zone displaying a list of the selection options within a selection level. The second zone is refreshed with selections for another selection level in the menu hierarchy in response to a user implementation or registration of a selection option at the originally displayed selection level. Preset default settings in all selection levels permit the user to implement a "fast path" hierarchical menu selection.

Other tasks include operating Application programs, selecting audio/visual characteristics, selecting communication functions and obtaining help or User instructions from a manual, for example. A problem is presented by the need to devise a User interface for such devices that supports these complex User interactive tasks whilst providing a simple command interface suitable for the general public.


  • Full multistandard for video and sound.
 The invention relates to a multi-standard television receiver in which a picture signal, contained in a television signal and modulated on a picture carrier, is converted to a picture signal intermediate frequency, and a stereo sound signal, or two-tone signal, contained in the television signal and modulated on two sound carriers, is converted to two first sound signal intermediate frequencies.

A picture signal converted to the IF position in a television receiver generally contains picture information components which are modulated on a picture carrier, as well as sound information components which are modulated on one or two sound carriers. Dependent on the transmission standard of the television signal, the frequency spacing between the picture carrier, on the one hand and the sound carrier(s), on the other hand, is chosen to be different. Known television receivers therefore comprise, after forming a second sound-IF, a plurality of filters at different central frequencies which filter the sound signals. For a multi-standard television receiver which, for example, is suitable for processing television signals of all known television standards, seven sound signal filters of this type are required. Dependent on the transmitted television standard and the frequency spacing between the sound carriers, one or more of these several filters are used.

In a multi-standard television receiver in which a picture signal contained in a television signal and modulated on a picture carrier is converted to a picture signal intermediate frequency, and a stereo sound signal or two-tone signal contained in the television signal and modulated on two sound carriers is converted to two first sound signal intermediate frequencies, it is ensured for possibly simple filtering of the sound signals, also at different frequency spacings between the picture carrier and the sound carriers, that two sound signal filters (8, 9) having a fixed, predetermined filter central frequency are provided for filtering the stereo sound signal, and that frequency shift circuitry (6) is provided which, in dependence upon the frequency spacing between the picture carrier of the television signal and its sound carriers, shifts the picture carrier contained in the picture signal converted to the IF position to such a frequency that the sound IF signals of the first sound intermediate frequencies mixed with this shifted picture carrier occur at two second sound signal intermediate frequencies which are filtered by the sound IF filters.

The SABA T7280 VT SUPERPLANAR Features a multistandard PAL/SECAM/NTSC 3.58 & 4.43 CCIR B/G/H/I/L/D/K/M. The different coding processes, e.g. NTSC, PAL and SECAM, introduced into the known colour television standards, differ in the nature of the chrominance transmission and in particular the different systems make use of different colour subcarrier frequencies and different line frequencies.

The following explanations relate to the PAL and NTSC systems, but correspondingly apply to video signals of other standards and non-standardized signals.
The colour subcarrier frequency (fsc) of a PAL system and a NTSC system is fsc(NTSC) = 3.58 MHz or fsc(PAL) = 4.43 MHz.
In addition, in PAL and NTSC systems the relationships of the colour subcarrier frequency (fsc) to the line frequency (fh) are given by fsc(NTSC) = 227.50 * fh or 4•fsc(NTSC) = 910 • fh fsc(PAL) = 283.75 * fh or 4•fsc(PAL) = 1135 • fh so that the phase of the colour subcarrier in the case of NTSC is changed by 180°/line and in PAL by 270°/line.

The invention relates to a  multistandard decoder for video signals and to a method for decoding video signals. Colour video signals, so-called composite video, blanking and sync signals (CVBS) (chroma-video-blanking-sync) signal is a signal comprising both the chrominance and the luminance component of the video signal. Therefore, the CVBS video signal may be PAL video signal, a SECAM video signal, or an NTSC video signal. are essentially composed of a brightness signal or luminance component (Y), two colour difference signals or chrominance components (U, V or I, Q), vertical and horizontal sync signals (VS, HS) and a blanking signal (BL).

In order to decode a video signal and restore a color image, a color TV set has to identify the color TV standard used at the emission. Conventional color TV sets are equipped with a system for automatically identifying the norm or standard of the color TV set used for the emission. The invention more particularly relates to an automatic method for identifying a color TV standard in a multistandard TV set.

At the time, the most commonly used color TV standards were PAL, NTSC and SECAM standards. For these three standards, each line of the composite video signal comprises a synchronization pulse, a burst of a few oscillations of the chrominance sub-carrier signal, then the signal itself corresponding to the image, comprising superimposed luminance and chrominance information, the latter information being carried by the luminance signal.

The characteristics of the chrominance sub-carrier in the various PAL, NTSC and SECAM standards are defined in the published documents concerning these standards and will not be described in detail here. However, the main characteristics of these various standards will be briefly reminded because these indications are useful for a better understanding of the invention.

In the PAL standard, the frequency of the chrominance sub-carrier is equal for all the lines, but the phase of one of the modulation vectors varies + or -90° from one line to another. The frequency of the chrominance sub-carrier is standardized at 4.43 Mhz. In this system, the burst signal is also shifted by + or -90° from one line to the next.

In the NTSC standard, the chrominance sub-carrier is equal for all the lines.

In the SECAM standard, one uses two chrominance sub-carrier frequencies which alternate from one line to another, at 4.25 Mhz and 4.40 Mhz, respectively. These two chrominance sub-carriers are frequency modulated.

The multistandard color TV sets must have distinct internal systems designed to decode the luminance and chrominance signals for each standard used.

Therefore, these TV sets have to previously identify the received standard.

Systems for automatically identifying the standard used already exist. Generally, for such an automatic standard identification, the systems known use the bursts of the chrominance sub-carrier signal that are present at the beginning of each line. In fact, these bursts are standardized and calibrated samples of the chrominance sub-carrier transmitted on the video signal and comprise all the characteristic information concerning the transmitted color standard. The information contained in these bursts represents the frequency, the phase of one of the modulation vectors and the frequency or phase variation of one line with repect to the next one.


  • Stereo HIFI sound with high power output. (4 Speakers  internal system) and external connectorrs too.
  •  First implementation of The TDA8421 as a monolithic bipolar integrated stereo sound circuit with a loudspeaker channel (CH1) and a headphonechannel (CH2), digital controlled via the I2C bus, for application in hi-fi audio and television sound.
  • Color transient improvement.
 TheSABA T7280 VT SUPERPLANAR    has CTI Picture Improvements circuitry with CTI (color transient Improvement describes the color transient improvement (CTI) involving the detection and sharpening the edges in chrominance.) CTI Picture Improvements circuitry in which colour signal, e.g. the line-sequential colour difference signals (R-Y,B-Y), is processed by an edge steepening circuit e.g. a colour transient improver and/or a two-line delay line in which the colour signals from two lines are added. The delay line may be part of a drop-out compensation circuit in which the colour signal of line n is replaced by the signal present for line n-2. A CCD-line may be used as the two-line delay line, and an amplitude limiter included. ADVANTAGE - Increased picture sharpness and improved signal-to-noise ratio.The present invention relates to a circuit for enhancing chrominance transitions in real-time video reception.

In the past analog commercial TV transmission standards, the limited bandwidth of the transmitted chrominance (or chrominance difference) signals causes the received images to have perceptibly blurred colour transition edges. This is especially evident if the received image contains geometrical patterns, e.g. test-colour bars, and results in the loss of detail detectable in complex multicoloured fine patterns.

In order to improve the quality of the received images, it is necessary to provide the receiver end with circuits capable of restoring, as far as possible, the frequency components in the chrominance signals which have been filtered away by the requirements of the reduced transmission bandwidth: in this way, the temporal duration of the chrominance transition edges, and thus the spatial extent of the chrominance transitions on the TV screen, can be reduced, and the edge definition improved. Circuits of this type are called "Color Transient Improvement" ("CTI") or Chrominance Transition Enhancement circuits.

An important constraint on chrominance transition enhancement circuits is the need to ensure that the center of the chrominance transition is unaffected by the enhancement process, so that the center of the chrominance transition after the enhancement process is still aligned with the center of the associated transition in the luminance signal. Also, it is necessary to leave gradual transitions in time unaltered; preserve, and possibly enhance, fine patterns; prevent the introduction in the image of additional distortions; and ensure that the existing noise components are not accentuated.

The picture resolution in contemporary television transmission systems is limited by the prescribed transmission bandwidth. The color difference signals are transmitted with a bandwidth which amounts to only approximately one fifth of the bandwidth of the luminance signal. The color resolution in the television picture is correspondingly low. This is more specifically noticeable at contours. The color transitions are even approximately five times longer than the associated luminance transitions corresponding to the smaller transmission bandwidth of the color difference signals.

  • Video teletext with preferred pages off line storage programming feature.
 A television receiver which is suitable for displaying teletext pages comprises a control system including a microcomputer. The microcomputer is coupled to a volatile memory which comprises a plurality of page number registers. A page number can be temporarily stored in each of these registers. With the aid of a keyboard the user makes known which page numbers he wants to have stored in the different registers and the stored page numbers represent a first series of pages. One single read key (RCL) is provided for the display of such a page. Each time this key is depressed once, a different page belonging to the first series appears on the picture screen. The sequence in which the pages appear is the same as the sequence in which the user has keyed-in the relevant page numbers. This sequence can be interrupted by the occurrence of a preselected operating instruction in response to which a number of teletext pages not associated with said first series can be displayed on the picture screen. Thereafter, the display of the teletext pages of the first series can be continued.

The Teletext is a television-based communication technique in which a given horizontal video line is utilized for broadcasting textual and graphical information encoded in a digital binary representation. Such horizontal video line signal that contains teletext data is referred to herein as a Data-line. It is assumed herein, for explanation purposes, that teletext is sent by the broadcaster only during the vertical blanking interval (VBI), when no other picture information is sent. The organization of the binary information in the broadcast signal is determined by the standard employed by the broadcaster. By way of an example only, references are made herein to a teletext based on a standard referred to by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) as CEEFAX.

Each Data-line carries data synchronizing and address information and the codes for a Row of 40 characters. The synchronizing information includes a clock run-in sequence followed by an 8-bit framing code sequence. Each Data-line contains a 3 bit code referred to as the Magazine number. A teletext Page includes 24 Rows of 40 characters, including a special top Row called the Page-Header. Each ROW is contained in a corresponding Data-line. A user selected Page is intended to be displayed in place of, or added to a corresponding television picture frame. A Magazine is defined to include Pages having Data-lines containing a corresponding Magazine number. The transmission of a selected Page begins with, and includes its Page Header and ends with and excludes the next Page Header of the selected Magazine number. All intermediate Data lines carrying the selected Magazine number relate to the selected Page. 

  • 1 AV SCART SOCKETS fully selectable , even RGB.  
 A SCART Connector (which stands for Syndicat des Constructeurs d'Appareils Radiorécepteurs et Téléviseurs) is a standard for connecting audio-visual equipment together. The official standard for SCART is CENELEC document number EN 50049-1. SCART is also known as Péritel (especially in France) and Euroconnector but the name SCART will be used exclusively herein. The standard defines a 21-pin connector (herein after a SCART connector) for carrying analog television signals. Various pieces of equipment may be connected by cables having a plug fitting the SCART connectors. Television apparatuses commonly include one or more SCART connectors.
Although a SCART connector is bidirectional, the present invention is concerned with the use of a SCART connector as an input connector for receiving signals into a television apparatus. A SCART connector can receive input television signals either in an RGB format in which the red, green and blue signals are received on Pins 15, 11 and 7, respectively, or alternatively in an S-Video format in which the luminance (Y) and chroma (C) signals are received on Pins 20 and 15. As a result of the common usage of Pin 15 in accordance with the SCART standard, a SCART connector cannot receive input television signals in an RGB format and in an S-Video format at the same time.
Consequently many commercially available television apparatuses include a separate SCART connectors each dedicated to receive input television signals in one of an RGB format and an S-Video format. This limits the functionality of the SCART connectors. In practical terms, the number of SCART connectors which can be provided on a television apparatus is limited by cost and space considerations. However, different users wish the input a wide range of different combinations of formats of television signals, depending on the equipment they personally own and use. However, the provision of SCART connectors dedicated to input television signals in one of an RGB format and an S-Video format limits the overall connectivity of the television apparatus. Furthermore, for many users the different RGB format and S-Video format are confusing. Some users may not understand or may mistake the format of a television signal being supplied on a given cable from a given piece of equipment. This can result in the supply of input television signals of an inappropriate format for the SCART connector concerned.
This kind of connector is todays obsoleted !
  • Headphone jack under a  lid accessible


  • SABA T7280 VT SUPERPLANAR  Features the  THOMSON ICC5 chassis with many enhancements.
The THOMSON  ICC5 got a bad press but they were an advanced design and unusual for the time for a European chassis in that they didn't make widespread use of Philips techniques or components.B&O sets have used it like the MX3000, MX4500 and MX5000. B&O had also used the previous ICC3 in the MX2000 and the M20, so they weren't much of a culture shock - the removal of the big mains transformer that the ICC3 had was clearly the key design goal.I found the chassis to be reasonably reliable after reworking and well laid out in general maybe a bit too compact, there were a few quirks without a doubt , the E-W stage once sorted with modified coil etc. wasn't so unreliable after all. The PCB layout was one of the most complex design almost like a computer board. It was only when they aged you started to get some real weird faults. The ICC7/8 were a lot more conventional circuitry wise, and posed few real problems. The ICC9 and IDC2 were not very reliable at all, possibly the least reliable of the lot, the IKC2 was a close second! Personally i disliked the IKC2.This models series are the last featuring the THOMSON CHASSIS ICC5, replaced with THOMSON ICC7, ICC8 SERIES.


The set is build with a semi  Modular chassis design because as modern television receivers become more complex the problem of repairing the receiver becomes more difficult. As the number of components used in the television receiver increases the susceptibility to breakdown increases and it becomes more difficult to replace defective components as they are more closely spaced. The problem has become even more complicated with the increasing number of color television receivers in use. A color television receiver has a larger number of circuits of a higher degree of complexity than the black and white receiver and further a more highly trained serviceman is required to properly service the color television receiver.
Fortunately for the service problem to date, most failures occur in the vacuum tubes used in the television receivers. A faulty or inoperative vacuum tube is relatively easy to find and replace. However, where the television receiver malfunction is caused by the failure of other components, such as resistors, capacitors or inductors, it is harder to isolate the defective component and a higher degree of skill on the part of the serviceman is required.
Even with the great majority of the color television receiver malfunctions being of the "easy to find and repair" type proper servicing of color sets has been difficult to obtain due to the shortage of trained serviceman.
At the present time advances in the state of the semiconductor art have led to the increasing use of transistors in color television receivers. The receiver described in this application has only two tubes, the picture tube and the high voltage rectifier tube, all the other active components in the receiver being semiconductors.
One important characteristic of a semiconductor device is its extreme reliability in comparison with the vacuum tube. The number of transistor and integrated circuit failures in the television receiver will be very low in comparison with the failures of other components, the reverse of what is true in present day color television receivers. Thus most failures in future television receivers will be of the hard to service type and will require more highly qualified servicemen.
The primary symptoms of a television receiver malfunction are shown on the picture tube of the television receiver while the components causing the malfunction are located within the cabinet. Also many adjustments to the receiver require the serviceman to observe the screen. Thus the serviceman must use unsatisfactory mirror arrangements to remove the electronic chassis from the cabinet, usually a very difficult task. Further many components are "buried" in a maze of circuitry and other components so that they are difficult to remove and replace without damage to other components in the receiver.
Repairing a modern color television receiver often requires that the receiver be removed from the home and carried to a repair shop where it may remain for many weeks. This is an expensive undertaking since most receivers are bulky and heavy enough to require at least two persons to carry them. Further, two trips must be made to the home, one to pick up the receiver and one to deliver it. For these reasons, the cost of maintaining the color television receiver in operating condition often exceeds the initial cost of the receiver and is an important factor in determining whether a receiver will be purchased.
Therefore, the object of this invention is to provide a transistorized color television receiver in which the main electronic chassis is easily accessible for maintenance and adjustment. Another object of this invention is to provide a transistorized color television receiver in which the electronic circuits are divided into a plurality of modules with the modules easily removable for service and maintenance. The main electronic chassis is slidably mounted within the cabinet so that it may be withdrawn, in the same manner as a drawer, to expose the electronic circuitry therein for maintenance and adjustment from the rear closure panel after easy removal. Another aspect is the capability to be serviced at eventually the home of the owner.


(To see the Internal Chassis Just click on Older Post Button on bottom page, that's simple !)

The Schwarzwälder Apparate-Bau-Anstalt (SABA) was a German manufacturer for electronic equipment founded in 1923 at Triberg im Schwarzwald (Black Forest), present-day Baden-Württemberg.

The former clock maker began producing component parts for broadcast receivers until it acquired a manufacturing license for complete radio sets in 1927. SABA quickly expanded, moved to a larger factory building at Villingen in 1932 and over the years became a long-time rival of the leading Telefunken company. After World War II the firm entered into the production of tape recorders, television sets and even established a record label, the later MPS Records company.

When faced with increasing competitive pressure, the shareholders sold the majority of the company to the GTE Corporation in order to generate synergy effects with GTE's Sylvania brand. Nevertheless in 1980 the remaining tv set production was finally purchased by Thomson SA.

HISTORY OF  Schwarzwälder Apparate-Bau-Anstalt (SABA) IN GERMAN:

Von Wolfgang Menzel gibt es seit 1995 das Buch «SABA, die Produktion von 1924-1949» [506]. Es enthält mehr als 100 Gerätefotos und Details zu den Selbstbaugeräten. Die Firmengeschichte ist durch Hermann Brunner-Schwer eindrücklich im Buch «SABA, Bilanz einer Aufgabe» [481] festgehalten. Er ist einer der beiden Söhne der einzigen Tochter von Familie Hermann Schwer. Peter Zudeick hat wegen vorzeitigem Tod des Unternehmers vor allem das wirtschaftliche Umfeld dieser Geschichte beleuchtet. Das Buch ist jedem an der Radiogeschichte Deutschlands interessierten Leser zu empfehlen. Es liest sich wie ein Wirtschaftskrimi.

Zudem hat 1973 Sissi Hörzinger an der Universität Regensburg eine Diplomarbeit über die Produktpolitik von SABA geschrieben [497]. Allerdings verschweigen beide Werke Millionenverluste mit Fehlplanungen in den USA und die Diplomarbeit beschreibt weitere Fehlinvestitionen nur am Rande.

Die ersten Schritte des Familienunternehmens SABA gehen auf die Gründung einer Uhrenfabrik in Triberg durch Joseph Benedikt Schwer für sog. «Jockele-Uhren» im Jahre 1835 zurück.

1864 tritt der Sohn, August Schwer als gelernter Uhrmacher ein und 1865 nennen sie den Betrieb August Schwer Söhne Metallwaren-Fabrik. In den 80er Jahren des 19. Jahrhunderts erweitert Sohn August die Produktion mit verwandten Artikeln wie Briefwaagen und kleineren Metallfabrikaten.

Hermann Schwer (gel. Uhrmacher), der Enkel des Firmengründers, leitet den Betrieb von 20 Mitarbeitern ab 1905 im Alter von 27 Jahren. Er gliedert eine Herstellung von Rasierapparaten, Türklingeln und Fahrradglocken an.

Auf einer Reise nach Zürich im Frühjahr 1923 erhält Hermann Schwer den entscheidenden Impuls: Er hört im Studio von Telefunken über ein Detektorgerät eine vom Sender des Pariser Eiffelturms ausgestrahlte Musiksendung. Darauf beginnt er mit der Herstellung von Einzelteilen wie Stiel- [186] und Doppelkopfhörern, später auch von NF-Trafos (NT1, 2 und 3), Drehkondensatoren, Spulen und Widerständen etc. für den Verkauf an Radiobastler.

Für die Produkte wirbt die Firma mit den vier ersten Anfangsbuchstaben des Firmennamens: SABA. Das Werk beschäftigt 1923 ca. 200 Mitarbeiter.

Ab 1926 bietet SABA fertige Selbstbausätze mit Aufbau nach Browing-Drake aus den USA. 1927 erhält die Firma die Bauerlaubnis und bietet nun auch fertige Radios an - mit dabei auch ein KW-Audion. Eine Werbung von 1927 in Japan bezeugt, dass SABA frühzeitig an weltweiten Export dachte.

1929 verpflichtet SABA «einen hochbegabten Dipl.-Ing.» [481-21] aus der Schweiz, Eugen Leuthold. Er entwickelt unter der Typenbezeichnung (S)35 einen Apparat, der auf der Leipziger Frühjahrsmesse 1931 wegen seines überaus grossen Erfolges den Beinamen «Sieger» erhält. Bis Ende Jahr verkauft die Firma mehr als 100'000 dieser Geräte mit für Deutschland neuartigem Schaltungskonzept eines rückgekoppelten Anodengleichrichters mit Kathodengegenkopplung. SABA verwendet ein dynamisches Lautsprechersystem nach den Patenten von Rice-Kellog, USA [1-61+103].

1931 zeigt die Modellreihe S41 (31W, 44, T44) von Leuthold den ersten automatisch geregelten Schwundausgleich (AGC, aut. gain control) auf dem deutschen Markt. Ab diesem Jahr stellt SABA für jede neue Modellreihe eine Kundendienstschrift mit Reparaturanleitung bereit. Dies zieht sich bis in die Nachkriegsjahre. Allerdings sind Exportgeräte, wie z.B. 450WLK von 1938, nicht enthalten.

1932 kann SABA aus Gewinnen mit S35 und Nachfolgetypen die Investitionen für ein Hauptfabrikgebäude und diverse Nebengebäude planen und 1932/33 sowie 1934/35 realisieren. Der Umsatz beträgt nun 11,4 Mio. RM; SABA betont die «Schwarzwälder Präzision» und beschäftigt gegen 500 Mitarbeiter. Leider baut die Firma in den Jahren 1933-38/39 Drehkondensatoren aus Zinkguss. Diese sind heute unbrauchbar, wenn sie Feuchtigkeit ausgesetzt waren/sind.

SABA kommt in den entscheidenen Rundfunkjahren 1932 bis 1935 auf einen Marktanteil von rund 10% (1932 12,3%) und liegt damit knapp vor Mende an zweiter Stelle hinter Telefunken mit 12 bis 17%. 1935 entsteht eine Festschrift [498] zum 100-jährigen Jubiläum. Daraus geht hervor, dass in 13 Ländern SABA-Vertretungen bestehen.

1936 stirbt Hermann Schwer und seine Frau Johanna wird Universalerbin, jedoch mit verschiedenen Bestimmungen, u.a. dass die beiden Enkel, Hansjörg (1927) und Hermann Brunner-Schwer (1929) am 3.10.54 die Erbfolge antreten. Margarethe Brunner-Schwer, die einzige Tochter, lässt der Erblasser aus. Ihr geschiedener Mann, Fritz Brunner, war Musikdirektor. Johanna Schwer ernennt den techn. Leiter, Josef Fricker, zum Geschäftsleiter.

1936 gibt es gemäss Kundendienstschrift den bei «LSf» erwähnten 241GW nicht (sondern GWL), ebenfalls keinen 441WLK (nur WL). Der Zusatz T steht für Truhe, TS für Truhe mit Schallplatten-Laufwerk (2 Saisons). Der Zweikreiser 340WL verfügt über einen Empfindlichkeits- und Bandbreitenregler. Die Kundendienstschrift erwähnt, dass Mod. 242WL in den Ersatzteillisten vorkommt, jedoch nicht auf den Markt kam.

1938 entsteht der millionste SABA-Apparat. Die Firma verwendet nun statt Differential-Kondensatoren ein regelbares Dreifachbandfilter sowie NF-Gegenkopplung und bringt ihren letzten Geradeaus-Empfänger.

1939 erweitert SABA den Betrieb im Auftrag der Wehrmacht und 1940 beträgt die Kriegsproduktion 88%. Es entstehen Funkgeräte, UKW-Empfänger und -Sender für Panzer, Feldtelefone, Bordsprechanlagen, Suchgeräte etc.

1943 entfallen vom Gesamtumsatz von 22 Mio. RM lediglich 332'000 auf zivile Rundfunkproduktion. Johanna Schwer stirbt am 10.10.43. 1944 liegt der Umsatz mit 19 Mio. RM noch über dem Vorkriegsergebnis; Fricker ersetzt man durch Ernst Scherb. Ein wichtiges Zivilgerät bildet von 1941-44 das von Philips übernommene «Auslagerungs-Modell» 208U mit der SABA-Bezeichnung 500ZGW (aber gemäss [506] keine Eigenproduktion).

Am 19.4.45 vernichten zwei Volltreffer vor allem die kürzlich erstellten Werksbauten; dem Verwaltungsgebäude fehlt das Dach. Erst gegen Ende 1945 kann SABA einen Spielzeugkran, Tablettenröhrchen und andere Kleinigkeiten herstellen, dann bekommt die Firma ein Kontingent zur Herstellung von Fernsprechapparaten. Der im Krieg in die Schweiz zurückgekehrte Eugen Leuthold ist einverstanden, wieder zu SABA zu gehen, wenn diese die Erlaubnis zur Herstellung von Rundfunkgeräten erhält.

In [FT4601+02] sind die Vorkriegsgeräte 582WK, WKRO und S461GWK-AM erwähnt, die jedoch gemäss [481] SABA erst Ende 1947 fabrizieren kann, was auch [506] übernimmt.

Im April 1947 gründen die Eigner die SABA-Vertriebs GmbH, um während eines langwierigen Entnazifizierungsverfahrens einige frei verfügbare Mittel ansammeln zu können. Gegen Ende 1947 erhält SABA von der französischen Militärbehörde den Auftrag, ausschliesslich für Angehörige der französischen Besatzungsarmee Radios zu produzieren. Die Franzosen lassen jedoch stillschweigend zu, dass SABA Geräte für Kompensationsgeschäfte abzweigt. Die Geräte sind praktisch identisch mit der Vorkriegsserie [481-190]. 1948 gibt es neue, rundliche Formen. Zudem ist die Produktion nun von Einschränkungen frei.

1949 wandelt sich die unter der Obhut des Testamentvollstreckers stehende Einzelfirma in eine GmbH um. SABA-Geräte erleben einen reissenden Absatz; der Umsatz beträgt mehr als 21 Mio. DM und der Betrieb beschäftigt wie vor dem Krieg etwa 1000 Personen.

Wegen Verfall der Absorber-Patente von Elektrolux (Schweden) zieht SABA 1950 ein Kühlschrankprogramm auf, doch gibt es erhebliche Probleme und wenig Synergieeffekte, sondern Verluste.

SABA belegt nach Anteilen der auf den Markt gelangten Rundfunkgeräte gemäss [497] hinter Grundig (27%), Nord-Mende (12) und evtl. Loewe-Opta (11) den dritten/vierten Platz (11). Hermann Brunner-Schwer tritt in die Firma ein. Sein (späterer) Stiefvater, Ernst Scherb, lässt sich das schlechte Geschäft mit den Kühlschränken jedoch nicht ausreden. Damit gibt es viele Spannungen.

Ab Saison 1954/55 (Typen Freiburg und Bodensee) bringt SABA wieder Geräte mit Sendersuchlauf und automatischer Scharfabstimmung, wobei die meisten mit Fernbedienung ausrüstbar sind [638754]. 1966-70 baut die Firma den vollstransistorisierten Stereoempfänger «HiFi-Studio Freiburg Stereo» als letzten dieser Reihe. In [638754] sind die Modelle beschrieben und in einer Tabelle zusammengefasst.

1956 beginnt das «Werk 3», ein neu erstellter Betrieb in Friedrichshafen, mit der Produktion von selbst entwickelten Tonbandgeräten (sabafon). Erst 1957 gibt SABA das «Kühlschrankgeschäft» mit grossen Verlusten auf und beginnt in den frei werdenden Räumlichkeiten SABA-TV herzustellen. SABA stösst jedoch auf einen Verdrängungswettbewerb und kann die fetten Jahre der grossen Nachfrage nicht nutzen.

Erst 1960 kommt das Unternehmen mit einem Koffergerät auf den Markt. Nach dem 125jährigen Firmenjubiläum vom Oktober 1960, d.h. am 1.1.61 kann Hermann Brunner-Schwer die Geschäftsleitung übernehmen. Gemäss [497] treten die Brüder Brunner-Schwer allerdings 1955 in die Geschäftsleitung ein. Nun beginnen aber gerade die Warenhäuser billige Fernsehgeräte anzubieten, da Körting an Neckermann liefert und damit das Kartell aufbricht. Die erfolgreiche Antwort ist eine starke Bindung der Grosshändler an SABA und das Aufkaufen von SABA-Geräten aus Warenhäusern mit gleichzeitigem Lieferstopp an Händler, die sich nicht an die Abmachungen halten.

1961 kann SABA einen per Zufall entdeckten Effekt nutzen, indem sie ein speziell gerilltes Plastik verwendet, um unter dem Schlagwort «Sabavision» ein «zeilenfreies Fernsehen» anzubieten, das vorerst durch Patentschutz ohne Nachahmung bleibt. Die Belegschaft beträgt nun 4500 Personen; SABA zählt zu den wichtigsten TV-Anbietern. Trotzdem steht es schlecht; die Eigenmittel sind zu gering.

Am 18.5.62 versucht die Firma ihr Wohl mit einer engeren Bindung an 130 Grossisten und 9000 Einzelhändler (von 500 bzw. 20'000), da Ende der 50er Jahre allgemein die Preisbindung aufhört. Damit kann SABA tatsächlich den Umsatz von 118 Mio. DM auf 155 im Jahre 1965 steigern, doch sind Schwarz-Weiss-TV immer schwieriger abzusetzen, obwohl die Firma dafür hinter Nordmende als Nummer zwei gilt.

1964 kommt das Unternehmen mit «SABAmobil», einem Tonband-Radiokombi für Autos auf den Markt, doch löst die auch dann neu eingeführte Philips-Kassette das Gerät innerhalb drei Jahren ab.

Der Exportanteil von SABA beträgt Mitte der 60er Jahre etwa 15%. Die Firma versucht sich zusammen mit ADDO an einem elektronischen Tischrechner mit Druckwerk «ADDO-SABAtronic».

1967 ist der Einstieg ins Farbfernsehgeschäft für die ganze Branche problematisch, denn Neckermann bietet ein von Körting hergestelltes Gerät unter 2000 DM an. SABA bekommt technische Probleme aufgrund falsch dimensionierter Baugruppen. Zudem stocken Verhandlungen mit Telefunken betreffend direkter Beteiligung.

1967 platzt wegen einer heimlichen Intervention durch Max Grundig ein unterschriftsreifes, gutes Abkommen mit Philips. Grundig will einen 50 %-Anteil an SABA und darum Telefunken im Spiel halten!

Am 20.1.68 erzielt SABA ein Beteiligungs-Abkommen mit GTE (85 %) in den USA (mit Sylvania-Bildröhrenwerk in Belgien), das die Firmeneigner unter Verschwiegenheit aushandeln konnten. Die Qualität der TV-Geräte ist nun gut, die Umsätze steigern sich bis 1973 dank dem «Onkel aus Amerika» auf eine halbe Milliarde DM.

6000 Personen sind in den Werken Villingen, Friedrichshafen, Leutkirch, Tienen (Belgien), Kölliken und Aarau (je Schweiz) beschäftigt. 1972 belegt SABA im Bereich Rundfunk-Fernsehen-Tonband für das Inland hinter Grundig (14,7%), Telefunken (13,3%) und Philips (12,5%) zusammen mit Nordmende (je 9,3%) den vierten Platz. Japanische Unternehmen drängen mit Billiggeräten auf den deutschen Markt.

1974 ordern die Händler wegen dem bevorstehenden Fussballspektakel soviele Farb-TV-Geräte wie noch nie, doch weisen nun die Sylvania-Bildröhren eine grosse Anzahl von Ausfällen auf. SABA verliert viel Zeit mit der Beweisführung, dass es an den Bildröhren und nicht an den Geräten liegt. Dazu kommt ein persönliches Intriegenspiel und Hermann Mössner - von H. Brunner-Schwer ursprünglich an GTE empfohlen - übernimmt die Leitung von SABA. Unter seiner Regie entstehen grosse Verluste.

1980 trennt sich GTE von der Unterhaltungselektronik und verkauft diesen Teil samt SABA an den französischen Konzern Thomson-Brandt. Nachdem Thomson auch Telefunken übernimmt, lässt sie dort produzieren; SABA gibt es danach nur noch als Vertriebsgesellschaft und -Marke.

" Dank guter Qualitätsarbeit und innovativen Schaltungen sowie einem guten Marketing erreicht SABA 1932 bis 1935 hinter Telefunken den grössten Marktanteil in Deutschland. Auch in den 50er Jahren arbeitet SABA sehr erfolgreich, doch die 60er Jahre sind von finanziellen Schwierigkeiten geprägt. 1835: Ursprung in Triberg;
1865: August Schwer Söhne Metallwaren-Fabrik.
1918: Firmierung unter Schwarzwälder-Apparate-Bau-Anstalt, August Schwer & Söhne, Villingen.
1933: Schwarzwälder-Apparate-Bau-Anstalt August Schwer Söhne GmbH; Kurzform: SABA Radio Werke;
1950: Kurzform: SABA Werke.
Radios: 1927 bis 1979."


  • Thomson-CSF was a major electronics and defence contractor. In December 2000 it was renamed Thales Group.

    ...........1996............there are no stranger foreigners than the first ones you come across, the French. This is borne out by the 1996 Thomson situation. Thomson, was a vast company by any reckoning, is a strange beast. It's state controlled, which means that the government owns most but not quite all of it. and consists of two distinct arms, the defence group Thomson-CFS which is quite profitable, and the consumer electronics group Thomson Multimedia which loses a packet. The government wanted  rid of it, but won't sell the bits separately. It doesn't want to be left with the problem of what to do with Thomson Multimedia. You might think that no one would be interested in helping the French government. But in fact there are two contenders to take over Thomson, the telecommunications and power group Alcatel Alsthom and the defence and media group Lagardere. They have been engaging in quite a battle over the ownership, and as we go to press the French government is due to decide whose bid to accept. Whoever wins will end up with the profitable defence company  and the problem of Thomson Multimedia (TMM).

    Lagardere has stated that it would sell TMM to Daewoo of Korea. Alcatel Alsthom has not been quite so specific, but has announced that it would take immediate action to reduce TMM's losses and seek an "Asian partner" that "specialises in consumer electronics". The partner would be expected to take over management of TMM, but Alcatel would like to remain a "minority partner" - it sees prospects in the move to digital TV technology that will occur during the next decade. All this gives one a strange feeling of déjà vu. At the time when Thomson took over Ferguson, in June 1987, it was noticed  that Thomson is "now on the government's privatisation list". It's taken almost a decade to happen.

     It's also said that "Thomson may be big, but has not been all that successful in the past in the consumer electronics field". Right on! What has happened to Ferguson in the UK illustrates the dismal Thomson effect. From being the local brand leader, with over ten per cent of the market, Ferguson has ended up being an also ran. It's only fair however to mention that Ferguson was making substantial losses when Thorn EMI was glad to get £90m for it from Thomson. Thomson has been able to survive in the consumer electronics field because it is part of a larger organisation, with those defence profits. It has nevertheless over the years attempted to play a a major role in the international consumer electronics field, keeping up with Philips and the Japanese corporations. From its French origins, it first expanded by picking up various German companies such as NordMende an SABA. It added Telefunken, a venerable name if ever there was one in this industry, in the early eighties, then took what was to be a big move into the UK market when it bought Ferguson. 

    It  used six brand names in Europe. The largest step however occurred when TMM became a major force in the North American market by taking over General Electric's consumer electronics interests. This also gave it the RCA operation. The idea behind all this seems to have been to achieve success simply by getting bigger. There was always government finance to back the policy, which in the event has not been a success. The TMM debacle is a sad one, since Thomson's research and engineering has had many successes.
     It has not stinted on R and D work, with laboratories in Los Angeles, Indianapolis, Strasbourg, Hanover, Villingen, Tokyo and Singapore. Much work has been done on HD -TV, digital signal processing and other developments that have kept it in the forefront of the technology. Now, it seems, TMM is likely to be swallowed up by one of the Oriental corporate giants. 
    If there are any lessons to be drawn, they would seem to be that expansion by itself is no guarantee of success, that to spread ones activities and their control across the globe makes management extremely difficult, and that costs are very hard to control in such a context. Alcatel Alsthom's plans to reduce TMM's losses bear this out. It would close down TMM's US factories, transferring production to the company's modern facilities in Mexico, where wages are much lower.

     It would rationalise the large collection of brands, possibly adopting RCA as the main one worldwide. And there is a suggestion that the company should be run from the USA, since this is its largest market. But all this would be just initial steps towards ceding majority control. Venerable brand names such as Telefunken, GE and RCA would pass to oriental ownership. This will happen whoever wins, Alcatel Alsthom or Lagardere, which would leave just Philips to carry on Europe's traditions in the consumer electronics field............. but we all know how it ended.................

    Thomson-CSF independence

    Following the privatisation of the Thomson Group Thomson-CSF explored the possibility of merging with Marconi Electronic Systems, however British Aerospace was successful in that aim, forming BAE Systems.
    In 2000 Thomson-CSF went through a series of transactions, including with Marconi plc. The major acquisition at this time was the £1.3 billion purchase of the British defence electronics firm, Racal. This made Thomson-CSF the second largest participant in the UK defence industry after BAE. Racal was renamed Thomson-CSF Racal plc.
    On December 6, 2000 the group was renamed Thales.



  • Global Market Survey Electronics Components. Vol. 57. Washington: US Dept of Commerce. October 1974. p. 50. Retrieved 7 April 2020.

  • Middleton, Kirsty; Rodger, Barry; MacCulloch, Angus; Galloway, Jonathan (27 August 2009). Cases and Materials on UK and EC Competition Law. ISBN 978-0-19-929039-0.

  • Rye, Howard (2002). Kernfeld, Barry (ed.). The New Grove Dictionary of Jazz. Vol. 3 (2nd ed.). New York: Grove's Dictionaries Inc. p. 172. ISBN 1-56159-284-6.

    External links

    • Further reading

    • Jean-Pierre, Thierry (16 October 2003). Taïwan Connection : Scandales et meurtres au cœur de la République [Taiwan Connection – Scandals and Murders at the Heart of the Republic] (in French). Robert Laffont. ISBN 978-2221100820.
    • L'entreprise partagée ? Une pratique différente des relations sociales : l'expérience Thomson-CSF, Robert Thomas (pseudonym for a team-work with Pierre Beretti and Jean-Pierre Thiollet), Paris, Maxima-Laurent du Mesnil Ed., 1999
    Tote Marke NORDMENDE – Verblasster Stolz. Artikel im Manager-Magazin
    «Annual Report 2010». STMicroelectronics. Consultado el 17 de noviembre de 2011.
    Castelletto en ST

    «SGS-Thomson Microelectronics Becomes STMicroelectronics | EE Times». EETimes. Consultado el 6 de julio de 2017.

    Peter Robin Morris (1990). A History of the World Semiconductor Industry. The Institution of Engineering and Technology. ISBN 9780863412271.

    Okada, Yoshitaka (2006). Struggles for Survival. Institutional and Organizational Changes in Japan's High-Tech Industries. Springer. ISBN 9784431288749.

    Franco Malerba (1985). The Semiconductor Business: The Economics of Rapid Growth and Decline (Economics of Technological Change). Madison, University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 9780299104603.

     «China puts hopes in Loongson CPU». | The source for Linux information (en inglés).