Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

In Brief: On this site you will find pictures and information about some of the electronic, electrical and electrotechnical Obsolete technology relics that the Frank Sharp Private museum has accumulated over the years .
Premise: There are lots of vintage electrical and electronic items that have not survived well or even completely disappeared and forgotten.

Or are not being collected nowadays in proportion to their significance or prevalence in their heyday, this is bad and the main part of the death land. The heavy, ugly sarcophagus; models with few endearing qualities, devices that have some over-riding disadvantage to ownership such as heavy weight,toxicity or inflated value when dismantled, tend to be under-represented by all but the most comprehensive collections and museums. They get relegated to the bottom of the wants list, derided as 'more trouble than they are worth', or just forgotten entirely. As a result, I started to notice gaps in the current representation of the history of electronic and electrical technology to the interested member of the public.

Following this idea around a bit, convinced me that a collection of the peculiar alone could not hope to survive on its own merits, but a museum that gave equal display space to the popular and the unpopular, would bring things to the attention of the average person that he has previously passed by or been shielded from. It's a matter of culture. From this, the Obsolete Technology Tellye Web Museum concept developed and all my other things too. It's an open platform for all electrical Electronic TV technology to have its few, but NOT last, moments of fame in a working, hand-on environment. We'll never own Colossus or Faraday's first transformer, but I can show things that you can't see at the Science Museum, and let you play with things that the Smithsonian can't allow people to touch, because my remit is different.

There was a society once that was the polar opposite of our disposable, junk society. A whole nation was built on the idea of placing quality before quantity in all things. The goal was not “more and newer,” but “better and higher" .This attitude was reflected not only in the manufacturing of material goods, but also in the realms of art and architecture, as well as in the social fabric of everyday life. The goal was for each new cohort of children to stand on a higher level than the preceding cohort: they were to be healthier, stronger, more intelligent, and more vibrant in every way.

The society that prioritized human, social and material quality is a Winner. Truly, it is the high point of all Western civilization. Consequently, its defeat meant the defeat of civilization itself.

Today, the West is headed for the abyss. For the ultimate fate of our disposable society is for that society itself to be disposed of. And this will happen sooner, rather than later.

OLD, but ORIGINAL, Well made, Funny, Not remotely controlled............. and not Made in CHINA.

How to use the site:
- If you landed here via any Search Engine, you will get what you searched for and you can search more using the search this blog feature provided by Google. You can visit more posts scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year,
or you can click on the main photo-page to start from the main page. Doing so it starts from the most recent post to the older post simple clicking on the Older Post button on the bottom of each page after reading , post after post.

You can even visit all posts, time to time, when reaching the bottom end of each page and click on the Older Post button.

- If you arrived here at the main page via bookmark you can visit all the site scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year pointing were you want , or more simple You can even visit all blog posts, from newer to older, clicking at the end of each bottom page on the Older Post button.
So you can see all the blog/site content surfing all pages in it.

- The search this blog feature provided by Google is a real search engine. If you're pointing particular things it will search IT for you; or you can place a brand name in the search query at your choice and visit all results page by page. It's useful since the content of the site is very large.

Note that if you don't find what you searched for, try it after a period of time; the site is a never ending job !

Every CRT Television saved let revive knowledge, thoughts, moments of the past life which will never return again.........

Many contemporary "televisions" (more correctly named as displays) would not have this level of staying power, many would ware out or require major services within just five years or less and of course, there is that perennial bug bear of planned obsolescence where components are deliberately designed to fail and, or manufactured with limited edition specificities..... and without considering........picture......sound........quality........
..............The bitterness of poor quality is remembered long after the sweetness of todays funny gadgets low price has faded from memory........ . . . . . .....
Don't forget the past, the end of the world is upon us! Pretty soon it will all turn to dust!

Have big FUN ! !
©2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 Frank Sharp - You do not have permission to copy photos and words from this blog, and any content may be never used it for auctions or commercial purposes, however feel free to post anything you see here with a courtesy link back, btw a link to the original post here , is mandatory.
All sets and apparates appearing here are property of Engineer Frank Sharp. NOTHING HERE IS FOR SALE !
All posts are presented here for informative, historical and educative purposes as applicable within Fair Use.

Sunday, December 1, 2013


The ULTRAVOX (SEMAR)  P12 is a portable  12 inches (31cm) B/W television with 16 programs manual rotatable program changer and VST electronic tuning semi automatic search.

The tuning system consist in a preset tuner adapted for selecting a desired one out of a plurality of preset channels, comprising: a memory for storing digital data concerning a plurality of channels to be preset, push-buttons/rotatable knob for addressing the memory for reading the digital data of a desired channel, a digital/analog converter for converting the read digital data into an analog signal, a manually operable variable voltage generator to obtain search mode AFC assisted, a write-in/channel select mode selector to store broadcasted transmission in desired program postion by rotatable program positions knob, a switch circuit responsive to the mode selector switchable between the digital/analog converter and the variable voltage generator, a voltage controlled oscillator responsive to the output of the switch circuit, a tuner employing the voltage controlled oscillator as a local oscillator, a comparator for comparing the outputs of the digital/analog converter and the variable voltage generator,

It has a Transistorized horizontal deflection circuits  made up of a horizontal switching or output transistor, a diode, one or more capacitors and a deflection winding. The output transistor, operating as a switch, is driven by a horizontal rate square wave signal and conducts during a portion of the horizontal trace interval. A diode, connected in parallel with the transistor, conducts during the remainder of the trace interval. A retrace capacitor and the deflection yoke winding are coupled in parallel across the transistor-diode combination. Energy is transferred into and out of the deflection winding via the diode and output transistor during the trace interval and via the retrace capacitor during the retrace interval.
In some television receivers, the collector of the horizontal output transistor is coupled to the B+ power supply through the primary windings of the high voltage transformer.

Was one of the last ULTRAVOX Tv sets and last B/W of that type.


Founded in Milan in 1948 with the denomination Ultravox S.r.l of the brothers Sergio and Cino Stanghi, it was dedicated initially to the production of radiophonic apparatus.

 In 1959 the production was moved in a factory to Caronno Pertusella, in province of Varese, where some years later, there was transferred also the seat of the society, which changed in Ultravox S.p.A.

Later  it was specialised in the television sets production, sector in which the mark Ultravox became celebrated and conquered spaces in the market, with the carrying out of a special portable television set completely to transistor with tuner I expel incorporated FM, the model Hummingbird with protection from 6 thumbs of 1969, planned at the designer's Giovanni's Offredi.

In general the models Ultravox were distinguished compared to others, for the very original and futurist design, like the record player Cockchafer of 1970, created always from Offredi. Particular was the models of television sets built with incorporated record player.

In the eighties, the Lombard company, it had interested  a crisis in the market of the electronics that put it in financial difficulties, and therefore in 1982 it was admitted in the list of the societies in field REL, public society for the curing of the enterprises of the electronic sector.

The REL entered into the capital of the Ultravox acquiring 27 % it, since in 1981, the company, which was counting 105 employees, recorded losses in the budget accumulated 1970, piling up to 926 million lire. The accounts improved in the following years since the turnover passed 2,4 milliards from 1982 to 36 in 1987, year in which after years of losses it reached a profit of budget.

In 1988 together with the REL there acquired the control of Emerson of Florence, company television sets producer. They were noticed the mark of the society and the factory of Siena in resort It isolates of Arbia, when the Ultravox was constituting Siena S.p. A. The Sienese factory was reactivated and there was guided the production of television sets and videotape recorders with the marks Ultravox and Emerson.

In the nineties, the company was swept away by a new crisis, which was heavier than that one that struck it on the antecedent decade.

In 1993 it was forced the factory of Caronno Pertusella to close and subsequently it went to checked administration. To go out of this situation, in the capital of the Ultravox there intervened the Bank Mountain of the Paschi of Siena, with a financing for 8,5 milliard lires.

The Sienese factory remained active only with his 200 employees, and the Ultravox was taken from the Holding company Galaxis, German financial society that was checking the Galaxis, company decoder producer for the reception of satellite TV. Initially the Tuscan society unwound the list of Italian distributor for the Galaxis, then later on it specialised in the production of the decoder. Under the new property the company grew again be in terms of turnover in which of sales, and in 1996, Ultravox became the principal decoder supplier for the television paytv Telepiù (died).

In 1998 the Sienese company changed social reason in Galaxis Produzione S.p. A., and it was producing television sets, videotape recorders and decoder for pay TV with the marks Ultravox and Galaxis.

In 2000 the Ultravox-Galaxis is forced to the closing for bankruptcy.



Power supply is realized with mains transformer and Linear transistorized power supply stabilizer, A DC power supply apparatus includes a rectifier circuit which rectifies an input commercial AC voltage. The rectifier output voltage is smoothed in a smoothing capacitor. Voltage stabilization is provided in the stabilizing circuits by the use of Zener diode circuits to provide biasing to control the collector-emitter paths of respective transistors.A linear regulator circuit according to an embodiment of the present invention has an input node receiving an unregulated voltage and an output node providing a regulated voltage. The linear regulator circuit includes a voltage regulator, a bias circuit, and a current control device.

In one embodiment, the current control device is implemented as an NPN bipolar junction transistor (BJT) having a collector electrode forming the input node of the linear regulator circuit, an emitter electrode coupled to the input of the voltage regulator, and a base electrode coupled to the second terminal of the bias circuit. A first capacitor may be coupled between the input and reference terminals of the voltage regulator and a second capacitor may be coupled between the output and reference terminals of the voltage regulator. The voltage regulator may be implemented as known to those skilled in the art, such as an LDO or non-LDO 3-terminal regulator or the like.
The bias circuit may include a bias device and a current source. The bias device has a first terminal coupled to the output terminal of the voltage regulator and a second terminal coupled to the control electrode of the current control device. The current source has an input coupled to the first current electrode of the current control device and an output coupled to the second terminal of the bias device. A capacitor may be coupled between the first and second terminals of the bias device.
In the bias device and current source embodiment, the bias device may be implemented as a Zener diode, one or more diodes coupled in series, at least one light emitting diode, or any other bias device which develops sufficient voltage while receiving current from the current source. The current source may be implemented with a PNP BJT having its collector electrode coupled to the second terminal of the bias device, at least one first resistor having a first end coupled to the emitter electrode of the PNP BJT and a second end, a Zener diode and a second resistor. The Zener diode has an anode coupled to the base electrode of the PNP BJT and a cathode coupled to the second end of the first resistor. The second resistor has a first end coupled to the anode of the Zener diode and a second end coupled to the reference terminal of the voltage regulator. A second Zener diode may be included having an anode coupled to the cathode of the first Zener diode and a cathode coupled to the first current electrode of the current control device.
A circuit is disclosed for improving operation of a linear regulator, having an input terminal, an output terminal, and a reference terminal. The circuit includes an input node, a transistor, a bias circuit, and first and second capacitors. The transistor has a first current electrode coupled to the input node, a second current electrode for coupling to the input terminal of the linear regulator, and a control electrode. The bias circuit has a first terminal for coupling to the output terminal of the linear regulator and a second terminal coupled to the control electrode of the transistor. The first capacitor is for coupling between the input and reference terminals of the linear regulator, and the second capacitor is for coupling between the output and reference terminals of the linear regulator. The bias circuit develops a voltage sufficient to drive the control terminal of the transistor and to operate the linear regulator. The bias circuit may be a battery, a bias device and a current source, a floating power supply, a charge pump, or any combination thereof. The transistor may be implemented as a BJT or FET or any other suitable current controlled device.

Power Supply: The examples chosen are taken from manufacturers' circuit diagrams and are usually simplified to emphasise the fundamental nature of the circuit. For each example the particular transistor properties that are exploited to achieve the desired performance are made clear. As a rough and ready classification the circuits are arranged in order of frequency: this part is devoted to circuits used at zero frequency, field frequency and audio frequencies. Series Regulator Circuit Portable television receivers are designed to operate from batteries (usually 12V car batteries) and from the a.c. mains. The receiver usually has an 11V supply line, and circuitry is required to ensure that the supply line is at this voltage whether the power source is a battery or the mains. The supply line also needs to have good regulation, i.e. a low output resistance, to ensure that the voltage remains constant in spite of variations in the mean current taken by some of the stages in the receiver. Fig. 1 shows a typical circuit of the power -supply arrangements. The mains transformer and bridge rectifier are designed to deliver about 16V. The battery can be assumed to give just over 12V. Both feed the regulator circuit Trl, Tr2, Tr3, which gives an 11V output and can be regarded as a three -stage direct -coupled amplifier. The first stage Tr 1 is required to give an output current proportional to the difference between two voltages, one being a constant voltage derived from the voltage reference diode D I (which is biased via R3 from the stabilised supply). The second voltage is obtained from a preset potential divider connected across the output of the unit, and is therefore a sample of the output voltage. In effect therefore Tr 1 compares the output voltage of the unit with a fixed voltage and gives an output current proportional to the difference between them. Clearly a field-effect transistor could do this, but the low input resistance of a bipolar transistor is no disadvantage and it can give a current output many times that of a field-effect transistor and is generally preferred therefore. The output current of the first stage is amplified by the two subsequent stages and then becomes the output current of the unit. Clearly therefore Tr2 and Tr3 should be current amplifiers and they normally take the form of emitter followers or common emitter stages (which have the same current gain). By adjusting the preset control we can alter the fraction of the output voltage' applied to the first stage and can thus set the output voltage of the unit at any desired value within a certain range. By making assumptions about the current gain of the transistors we can calculate the degree of regulation obtainable. For example, suppose the gain of Tr2 and Tr3 in cascade is 1,000, and that the current output demanded from the unit changes by 0.1A (for example due to the disconnection of part of the load). The corresponding change in Tr l's collector current is 0.1mA and, if the standing collector current of Tr 1 is 1mA, then its mutual conductance is approximately 4OmA/V and the base voltage must change by 2.5mV to bring about the required change in collector current. If the preset potential divider feeds one half of the output voltage to Tr l's base, then the change in output voltage must be 5mV. Thus an 0.1A change in output current brings about only 5mV change in output voltage: this represents an output resistance of only 0.0552.


The basic essentials of a transistor line output stage are shown in Fig. 1(a). They comprise: a line output transformer which provides the d.c. feed to the line output transistor and serves mainly to generate the high -voltage pulse from which the e.h.t. is derived, and also in practice other supplies for various sections of the receiver; the line output transistor and its parallel efficiency diode which form a bidirectional switch; a tuning capacitor which resonates with the line output transformer primary winding and the scan coils to determine the flyback time; and the scan coils, with a series capacitor which provides a d.c. block and also serves to provide slight integration of the deflection current to compensate for the scan distortion that would otherwise be present due to the use of flat screen, wide deflection angle c.r.t.s. This basic circuit is widely used in small -screen portable receivers with little elaboration - some use a pnp output transistor however, with its collector connected to chassis.

Circuit Variations:
Variations to the basic circuit commonly found include: transposition of the scan coils and the correction capacitor; connection of the line output transformer primary winding and its e.h.t. overwinding in series; connection of the deflection components to a tap on the transformer to obtain correct matching of the components and conditions in the stage; use of a boost diode which operates in identical manner to the arrangement used in valve line output stages, thereby increasing the effective supply to the stage; omission of the efficiency diode where the stage is operated from an h.t. line, the collector -base junction of the line output transistor then providing the efficiency diode action without, in doing so, producing scan distortion; addition of inductors to provide linearity and width adjustment; use of a pair of series -connected line output transistors in some large -screen colour chassis; and in colour sets the addition of line convergence circuitry which is normally connected in series between the line scan coils and chassis. These variations on the basic circuit do not alter the basic mode of operation however.

The most important fact to appreciate about the circuit is that when the transistor and diode are cut off during the flyback period - when the beam is being rapidly returned from the right-hand side of the screen to the left-hand side the tuning capacitor together with the scan coils and the primary winding of the line output transformer form a parallel resonant circuit: the equivalent circuit is shown in Fig. 1(b). The line output transformer primary winding and the tuning capacitor as drawn in Fig. 1(a) may look like a series tuned circuit, but from the signal point of view the end of the transformer primary winding connected to the power supply is earthy, giving the equivalent arrangement shown in Fig. 1(b).

The Flyback Period:
Since the operation of the circuit depends mainly upon what happens during the line flyback period, the simplest point at which to break into the scanning cycle is at the end of the forward scan, i.e. with the beam deflected to the right-hand side of the screen, see Fig. 2. At this point the line output transistor is suddenly switched off by the squarewave drive applied to its base. Prior to this action a linearly increasing current has been flowing in the line output transformer primary winding and the scan coils, and as a result magnetic fields have been built up around these components. When the transistor is switched off these fields collapse, maintaining a flow of current which rapidly decays to zero and returns the beam to the centre of the screen. This flow of current charges the tuning capacitor, and the voltage at A rises to a high positive value - of the order of 1- 2k V in large -screen sets, 200V in the case of mains/battery portable sets. The energy in the circuit is now stored in the tuning capacitor which next discharges, reversing the flow of current in the circuit with the result that the beam is rapidly deflected to the left-hand side of the screen - see Fig. 3. When the tuning capacitor has discharged, the voltage at A has fallen to zero and the circuit energy is once more stored in the form of magnetic fields around the inductive components. One half -cycle of oscillation has occurred, and the flyback is complete.

Energy Recovery:
First Part of Forward Scan The circuit then tries to continue the cycle of oscillation, i.e. the magnetic fields again collapse, maintaining a current flow which this time would charge the tuning capacitor negatively (upper plate). When the voltage at A reaches about -0.6V however the efficiency diode becomes forward biased and switches on. This damps the circuit, preventing further oscillation, but the magnetic fields continue to collapse and in doing so produce a linearly decaying current flow which provides the first part of the forward scan, the beam returning towards the centre of the screen - see Fig. 4. The diode shorts out the tuning capacitor but the scan correction capacitor charges during this period, its right-hand plate becoming positive with respect to its left-hand plate, i.e. point A. Completion of Forward Scan When the current falls to zero, the diode will switch off. Shortly before this state of affairs is reached however the transistor is switched on. In practice this is usually about a third of the way through the scan. The squarewave applied to its base drives it rapidly to saturation, clamping the voltage at point A at a small positive value - the collector emitter saturation voltage of the transistor. Current now flows via the transistor and the primary winding of the line output transformer, the scan correction capacitor discharges, and the resultant flow of current in the line scan coils drives the beam to the right-hand side of the screen see Fig. 5.

The transistor is then cut off again, to give the flyback, and the cycle of events recurs. The efficiency of the circuit is high since there is negligible resistance present. Energy is fed into the circuit in the form of the magnetic fields that build up when the output transistor is switched on. This action connects the line output transformer primary winding across the supply, and as a result a linearly increasing current flows through it. Since the width is
dependent on the supply voltage, this must be stabilised.

Harmonic Tuning:
There is another oscillatory action in the circuit during the flyback period. The considerable leakage inductance between the primary and the e.h.t. windings of the line output transformer, and the appreciable self -capacitance present, form a tuned circuit which is shocked into oscillation by the flyback pulse. Unless this oscillation is controlled, it will continue into and modulate the scan. The technique used to overcome this effect is to tune the leakage inductance and the associated capacitance to an odd harmonic of the line flyback oscillation frequency. By doing this the oscillatory actions present at the beginning of the scan cancel. Either third or fifth harmonic tuning is used. Third harmonic tuning also has the effect of increasing the amplitude of the e.h.t. pulse, and is generally used where a half -wave e.h.t. rectifier is employed. Fifth harmonic tuning results in a flat-topped e.h.t. pulse, giving improved e.h.t. regulation, and is generally used where an e.h.t. tripler is employed to produce the e.h.t. The tuning is mainly built into the line output transformer, though an external variable inductance is commonly found in colour chassis so that the tuning can be adjusted. With a following post I will go into the subject of modern TV line timebases in greater detail with other models and technology shown here at  Obsolete Technology Tellye !

PHILIPS TDA2549 I.F. amplifier and demodulator for multistandard TV receivers:

The TDA2549 is a complete i.f. circuit with a.f.c., a.g.c., demodulation and video preamplification facilities for
multistandard television receivers. It is capable of handling positively and negatively modulated video signals in both
colour and black/white receivers.
• Gain-controlled wide-band amplifier providing complete i.f. gain
• Synchronous demodulator for positive and negative modulation
• Video preamplifier with noise protection for negative modulation
• Auxiliary video input and output (75 Ω)
• Video switch to select between auxiliary video input signal and demodulated video signal
• A.F.C. circuit with on/off switch and inverter switch
• A.G.C. circuit for positive modulation (mean level) and negative modulation (noise gate)
• A.G.C. output for controlling MOSFET tuners.


The TDA3190 is a monolithicintegratedcircuit in a
16-lead dual in-line plastic package.It performsall
the functionsneededfor the TV soundchannel :
The TDA3190 can give an output power of 4.2 W
(d = 10 %) into a 16 Ω load at VS = 24 V, or 1.5 W
(d = 10 %) into an 8 Ω load at VS = 12 V. This
performance,togetherwiththe FM-IF sectionchar-
acteristicsof high sensitivity, highAM rejection and
low distortion, enables the device to be used in
almost every type of televisionreceivers.
The device has no irradiation problems, hence no
externalscreening is needed.
The TDA3190 is a pin to pin replacement of
The electrical characteristics of the TDA3190 re-
mainalmost constantover the frequencyrange4.5
to 6 MHz, therefore it can be used in all television
standards (FM mod.). The TDA3190 has a high
inputimpedance,soitcanwork withaceramicfilter
or with a tuned circuit that provide the necessary
input selectivity.
The value of the resistors connected to pin 9,
determinethe AC gain of the audio frequencyam-
plifier. This enablesthe desiredgainto be selected
in relation to the frequency deviation at which the
output stage of the AF amplifier, must enter into
CapacitorC8, connectedbetween pins10 and11,
determinesthe uppercutofffrequencyof the audio
bandwidth.Toincreasethebandwidththe valuesof
C8 and C7 must be reduced, keeping the ratio
C7/C8 as shown in the table of fig. 16.
The capacitor connected between pin 16 and
ground, togetherwith the internal resistor of 10 KΩ
forms the de-emphasis network. The Boucherot
cell eliminates the high frequency oscillations
ing theloudspeaker.

ULTRAVOX (SEMAR)  P12  CHASSIS 2T/1 Preset tuner:

 A preset tuner adapted for selecting a desired one out of a plurality of preset channels, comprising: a memory for storing digital data concerning a plurality of channels to be preset, push-buttons/rotatable knob for addressing the memory for reading the digital data of a desired channel, a digital/analog converter for converting the read digital data into an analog signal, a manually operable variable voltage generator to obtain search mode AFC assisted, a write-in/channel select mode selector, a switch circuit responsive to the mode selector switchable between the digital/analog converter and the variable voltage generator, a voltage controlled oscillator responsive to the output of the switch circuit, a tuner employing the voltage controlled oscillator as a local oscillator, a comparator for comparing the outputs of the digital/analog converter and the variable voltage generator, a counter to be reset responsive to the push-button search mode AFC  and to be enabled responsive to the write-in mode output of the mode selector to make a counting operation as a function of the output of the comparator, the output of the counter being loaded as the digital data concerning a channel in the memory, as addressed, a reference oscillator, a frequency comparator for comparing the output of the reference oscillator and the intermediate frequency output of the tuner, a filter for filtering the frequency comparator output to provide a correction control signal to the digital/analog converter, the digital/analog converter being adapted to be corrected for deviation of the intermediate frequency of the tuner as a function of the correction control signal.

 A typical conventional preset tuner such as employed in tv receivers and the like comprises a mechanical preset scheme. For example, such a preset tuner employing variable inductance devices as a tuning element is adapted to preset a plurality of channels by varying the inductance value of the variable inductance devices in association with the manual operation of a tuning knob. Another example of such a tuner using a variable capacitance device such as a variable capacitance diode as a tuning element employs variable resistors adjustable in association with the manual operation of a tuning knob for the purpose of a presetting operation.

 Such preset tuners as described above as employing a variable inductance device, a variable capacitance device and the like require provision of the same number of variable inductance devices, variable resistors and the like as that of presetting channel selection switches, which makes the tuner large in size, with the result that such tuner is disadvantageous particularly in case where such tuner is employed in an indash type portable tv receiver, where the tuner is provided in a limited space.

Accordingly, a principal object of the present invention is to provide an improved preset tuner, wherein the data concerning the local oscillation frequencies corresponding to the respective preset channels is preloaded in a memory in a digital representation format.
Another object of the present invention is to provide an improved preset tuner, which is adapted for implementation by large scale integration integrated circuits.
A further object of the present invention is to provide an improved preset tuner, which is adapted for implementation in an electronic structure rather than mechanical structure.

How AFC Circuit Works in B/W Analog Television Receiver:

Push-Button tuning on u.h.f. while being very convenient often leaves a margin of mistuning, especially after some wear and tear has occurred on the mechanism. Even dial tuning can lead to errors due to the difficulty many people experience in judging the correct point. Oscillator drift due to temperature changes can also cause mistuning. Automatic frequency control (a.f.c.) will correct all these faults. The vision carrier when the set is correctly tuned on u.h.f. is at 39.5MHz as it passes down the i.f. strip. Thus if at the end of the i.f. strip a discriminator tuned circuit is incorporated centred on 39.5MHz the discriminator output will be zero at 39.5MHz and will move positively' one side of 39.5MHz and negatively the other as the tuning drifts. This response is shown in Fig. 1.

If the tuning is not correct then the discriminator output is not zero and if this output is applied to change the reverse bias on a tuning diode mounted in the oscillator section of the u.h.f. tuner it will correct most of the error. Tuning, varicap or varactor diodes-to give them a few of their names-are junction diodes normally operated with reverse bias but not sufficient to bias them into the breakdown region in which zener diodes operate. The greater the reverse bias the lower their capacitance: a typical curve, for the PHILIPS BB105 or STC BA141 tuning diode, is shown in Fig. 2. All diodes exhibit this basic type of characteristic but special diodes have to be used for u.h.f. because they must not introduce any excessive loss into the tuned circuits they control. In other words, just as a coil has to have a good Q so does a varicap diode. Normally, we don't worry about the Q of a capacitor as it is usually very good. However, a tuning diode is not a true capacitor. It has, for example, leakage current so the Q of the diode is a factor which has to be considered. The diode manufacturer however will have considered these points and if you buy a diode specified for u.h.f. use you will have no trouble. These points have been mentioned to clear up any misunderstandings and to show why any old diode won't do.

Basic AFC System
To return to our TV set, if the oscillator frequency is too high then the vision carrier frequency will also be too high and in the simple arrangement shown in Fig. 3 the discriminator will give a negative signal to decrease the bias on the tuning diode thus increasing its capacitance and in turn reducing the oscillator frequency and correcting the error. Note that in this diagram the reverse bias on the diode is applied to its cathode. It is therefore positive with respect to ground so that a negative signal from the discriminator will reduce the positive voltage on the diode thus reducing its bias and increasing its capacitance. In this arrangement the diode is biased somewhere near the mid point of its characteristic by the positive d.c. bias fed into one side of the discriminator. The discriminator thus adds to or subtracts from this d.c. bias.

AFC Loop Gain:
The amount by which the error is reduced depends on the gain of the circuit. An estimate of the gain required must first be made by guessing how much error is likely to be given by your push -buttons or hand tuning: 1MHz would be an outside figure as a tuning error of that magnitude would produce a very bad picture of low definition in one direction and badly broken up in the other. This error should be reduced to about 100kHz to be really unnoticeable, indicating a required gain of ten. In fitting a.f.c. to an existing set some measure- ments should be done as an experiment before finally deciding on the circuit gain. The first thing to do is  to add the suggested discriminator to the i.f. strip. As the circuit (Fig. 4) shows a Foster -Seeley type discriminator is used and with the coils specified and the driver circuit shown it should give ±4V for 0.5MHz input variation.

EXAMPLE of Circuit Description:
The driver stage Tr1 takes a small sample signal from the i.f. strip but this should be large enough to drive Tr1 into saturation. That is to say Tr1 is a limiter stage so that the signal amplitude applied to the discriminator coil L2 stays constant over the normal range of signal levels. Trl is biased at approximately 7mA which, according to the original report ("Simple a.f.c. system for 625 -line TV receivers" by P. Bissmire, PHILIPS Technical Communications, March, 1970), gives the best limiting performance. C1, R14 and R3 damp the stage to prevent oscillation. C2 decouples the power feed and should be close to the circuit. The coil former and can are the normal ones used for TV sets and so should be easily obtainable: the former diameter is 5mm. and length 40mm. and winding details are given in Fig. 5.

The invention being thus described, it will be obvious that the same may be varied in many ways. Such variations are not to be regarded as a departure from the spirit and scope of the invention, and all such modifications as would be obvious to one skilled in the art are intended to be included within the scope of the developed apparates both tubes or transistors.




31cm (12in) rectangular direct viewing television tube. A separate safety
screen is not required. Especially for use in portable receivers with push-
through presentation.

A special feature of this tube is its short warm—up time.

Deflection angle 110 deg
Final accelerator voltage max. 15 kV
Neck diameter 20 mm —u-

Light transmission 50 % E

Maximum overall length 233 mm

A legible picture appears within 5 seconds (typ. )

This data should be read in conjunction with

Vh 11  V
Ah 140 mA
Cathode warm —up time (typ. ) 5 s


Va2, a4 12 kV
VG3 (focus electrode) control range 0 to 350 V
V  A1 250 V
Vg for visual extinction of focused raster  -35 to -69 V
*Vk for visual extinction of focused raster 32 to 58 V

*For cathode modulation, all voltages are measured with respect to grid.

Metal backedFluorescent colour White
Light transmission (approx. ) 50 %.

Focusing Electrostatic

Diagonal deflection ‘angle  110 deg
Horizontal deflection angle 99 deg
Vertical deflection angle 80 deg

The deflection eons should designed so that their internal contour is in accordance
with the reference line gauge shown on page 4.

cg all 7. 0 pF
ck all 3. 0 pF
ca2 a4 m 450 to 900 pF
a2,a4 —B 150 PF

This tube has external conductive coating, M, which must be connected to chassis.
and the 'capacitance ‘of this ‘coating to the final anode is used to provide smoothing
for the eht supply.
 The electrical connection to this coating must be made within
the area specified on the tube outline drawing;


See notes under this heading in ' General Operational Recommendations - Television
Picture Tubes' .

Centring magnet field intensity 0 to 800 A/m
Maximum distance of centre of centering field from reference line 47 mm

Adjustment of the centring magnet should not be such that '3. general reduction in
brightness of the raster occurs.


The tube socket should not be rigidily mounted but should have flexible leads and be
allowed to move freely.

This ‘tube is fitted with a pin protector in "order to avoid ‘damage to ‘the glass base
due to bending of the base pins whilst handling the tube.

it is advisable to keep this pin protector on the base until it can be replaced by the
socket after the installation of the tube in any equipment.



Va2 a4 max. (at i=0 a2 a4) (see note 1) 15 kV
Vva2 a4,“ min, 8.5kv
va3 max. 500 V
-Va3 max. 50 V
Va1 max. 350 V
va1 min. 200 V
~vg(pk) max. (see note 2) 350 V
~Vg max. (see note 3) ~ 100 V

Adequate precautions should be taken to ensure that the receiver is protected
from damage which may be caused by a possible high voltage flashover within
the tube. '

Maximum pulse duration 22% of one cycle with a maximum of 1. 5ms

The d. c. value of bias must not be such as to allow the grid to become positive
with respect to the cathode, except during the period immediately after switching
the receiver on or off when it may be allowed to rise to +2. OV. It is advisable to
limit the positive excursion of the video signal to +5V(pk) max. This may be
achieved automatically by the series connection of a 10kohm resistor.

. The metal hand must be earthed by means of the tag provided.

The mounting lugs will not necessarily be in electrical contact with the metal

Weight tube alone (approx. ) 2. 8 kg