Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

In Brief: On this site you will find pictures and information about some of the electronic, electrical and electrotechnical Obsolete technology relics that the Frank Sharp Private museum has accumulated over the years .
Premise: There are lots of vintage electrical and electronic items that have not survived well or even completely disappeared and forgotten.

Or are not being collected nowadays in proportion to their significance or prevalence in their heyday, this is bad and the main part of the death land. The heavy, ugly sarcophagus; models with few endearing qualities, devices that have some over-riding disadvantage to ownership such as heavy weight,toxicity or inflated value when dismantled, tend to be under-represented by all but the most comprehensive collections and museums. They get relegated to the bottom of the wants list, derided as 'more trouble than they are worth', or just forgotten entirely. As a result, I started to notice gaps in the current representation of the history of electronic and electrical technology to the interested member of the public.

Following this idea around a bit, convinced me that a collection of the peculiar alone could not hope to survive on its own merits, but a museum that gave equal display space to the popular and the unpopular, would bring things to the attention of the average person that he has previously passed by or been shielded from. It's a matter of culture. From this, the Obsolete Technology Tellye Web Museum concept developed and all my other things too. It's an open platform for all electrical Electronic TV technology to have its few, but NOT last, moments of fame in a working, hand-on environment. We'll never own Colossus or Faraday's first transformer, but I can show things that you can't see at the Science Museum, and let you play with things that the Smithsonian can't allow people to touch, because my remit is different.

There was a society once that was the polar opposite of our disposable, junk society. A whole nation was built on the idea of placing quality before quantity in all things. The goal was not “more and newer,” but “better and higher" .This attitude was reflected not only in the manufacturing of material goods, but also in the realms of art and architecture, as well as in the social fabric of everyday life. The goal was for each new cohort of children to stand on a higher level than the preceding cohort: they were to be healthier, stronger, more intelligent, and more vibrant in every way.

The society that prioritized human, social and material quality is a Winner. Truly, it is the high point of all Western civilization. Consequently, its defeat meant the defeat of civilization itself.

Today, the West is headed for the abyss. For the ultimate fate of our disposable society is for that society itself to be disposed of. And this will happen sooner, rather than later.

OLD, but ORIGINAL, Well made, Funny, Not remotely controlled............. and not Made in CHINA.

How to use the site:
- If you landed here via any Search Engine, you will get what you searched for and you can search more using the search this blog feature provided by Google. You can visit more posts scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year,
or you can click on the main photo-page to start from the main page. Doing so it starts from the most recent post to the older post simple clicking on the Older Post button on the bottom of each page after reading , post after post.

You can even visit all posts, time to time, when reaching the bottom end of each page and click on the Older Post button.

- If you arrived here at the main page via bookmark you can visit all the site scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year pointing were you want , or more simple You can even visit all blog posts, from newer to older, clicking at the end of each bottom page on the Older Post button.
So you can see all the blog/site content surfing all pages in it.

- The search this blog feature provided by Google is a real search engine. If you're pointing particular things it will search IT for you; or you can place a brand name in the search query at your choice and visit all results page by page. It's useful since the content of the site is very large.

Note that if you don't find what you searched for, try it after a period of time; the site is a never ending job !

Every CRT Television saved let revive knowledge, thoughts, moments of the past life which will never return again.........

Many contemporary "televisions" (more correctly named as displays) would not have this level of staying power, many would ware out or require major services within just five years or less and of course, there is that perennial bug bear of planned obsolescence where components are deliberately designed to fail and, or manufactured with limited edition specificities..... and without considering........picture......sound........quality........
..............The bitterness of poor quality is remembered long after the sweetness of todays funny gadgets low price has faded from memory........ . . . . . .....
Don't forget the past, the end of the world is upon us! Pretty soon it will all turn to dust!

Have big FUN ! !
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©2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 Frank Sharp - You do not have permission to copy photos and words from this blog, and any content may be never used it for auctions or commercial purposes, however feel free to post anything you see here with a courtesy link back, btw a link to the original post here , is mandatory.
All sets and apparates appearing here are property of Engineer Frank Sharp. NOTHING HERE IS FOR SALE !
All posts are presented here for informative, historical and educative purposes as applicable within Fair Use.


Sunday, December 1, 2013

ULTRAVOX (SEMAR) P12 YEAR 1985.




The ULTRAVOX (SEMAR)  P12 is a portable  12 inches (31cm) B/W television with 16 programs manual rotatable program changer and VST electronic tuning semi automatic search.

The tuning system consist in a preset tuner adapted for selecting a desired one out of a plurality of preset channels, comprising: a memory for storing digital data concerning a plurality of channels to be preset, push-buttons/rotatable knob for addressing the memory for reading the digital data of a desired channel, a digital/analog converter for converting the read digital data into an analog signal, a manually operable variable voltage generator to obtain search mode AFC assisted, a write-in/channel select mode selector to store broadcasted transmission in desired program postion by rotatable program positions knob, a switch circuit responsive to the mode selector switchable between the digital/analog converter and the variable voltage generator, a voltage controlled oscillator responsive to the output of the switch circuit, a tuner employing the voltage controlled oscillator as a local oscillator, a comparator for comparing the outputs of the digital/analog converter and the variable voltage generator,

It has a Transistorized horizontal deflection circuits  made up of a horizontal switching or output transistor, a diode, one or more capacitors and a deflection winding. The output transistor, operating as a switch, is driven by a horizontal rate square wave signal and conducts during a portion of the horizontal trace interval. A diode, connected in parallel with the transistor, conducts during the remainder of the trace interval. A retrace capacitor and the deflection yoke winding are coupled in parallel across the transistor-diode combination. Energy is transferred into and out of the deflection winding via the diode and output transistor during the trace interval and via the retrace capacitor during the retrace interval.
In some television receivers, the collector of the horizontal output transistor is coupled to the B+ power supply through the primary windings of the high voltage transformer.

Was one of the last ULTRAVOX Tv sets and last B/W of that type.


ULTRAVOX S.r.l. RADIO TELEVISIONE — Milano, 

Founded in Milan in 1948 with the denomination Ultravox S.r.l of the brothers Sergio and Cino Stanghi, it was dedicated initially to the production of radiophonic apparatus.

 In 1959 the production was moved in a factory to Caronno Pertusella, in province of Varese, where some years later, there was transferred also the seat of the society, which changed in Ultravox S.p.A.

Later  it was specialised in the television sets production, sector in which the mark Ultravox became celebrated and conquered spaces in the market, with the carrying out of a special portable television set completely to transistor with tuner I expel incorporated FM, the model Hummingbird with protection from 6 thumbs of 1969, planned at the designer's Giovanni's Offredi.

In general the models Ultravox were distinguished compared to others, for the very original and futurist design, like the record player Cockchafer of 1970, created always from Offredi. Particular was the models of television sets built with incorporated record player.

In the eighties, the Lombard company, it had interested  a crisis in the market of the electronics that put it in financial difficulties, and therefore in 1982 it was admitted in the list of the societies in field REL, public society for the curing of the enterprises of the electronic sector.

The REL entered into the capital of the Ultravox acquiring 27 % it, since in 1981, the company, which was counting 105 employees, recorded losses in the budget accumulated 1970, piling up to 926 million lire. The accounts improved in the following years since the turnover passed 2,4 milliards from 1982 to 36 in 1987, year in which after years of losses it reached a profit of budget.

In 1988 together with the REL there acquired the control of Emerson of Florence, company television sets producer. They were noticed the mark of the society and the factory of Siena in resort It isolates of Arbia, when the Ultravox was constituting Siena S.p. A. The Sienese factory was reactivated and there was guided the production of television sets and videotape recorders with the marks Ultravox and Emerson.

In the nineties, the company was swept away by a new crisis, which was heavier than that one that struck it on the antecedent decade.

In 1993 it was forced the factory of Caronno Pertusella to close and subsequently it went to checked administration. To go out of this situation, in the capital of the Ultravox there intervened the Bank Mountain of the Paschi of Siena, with a financing for 8,5 milliard lires.

The Sienese factory remained active only with his 200 employees, and the Ultravox was taken from the Holding company Galaxis, German financial society that was checking the Galaxis, company decoder producer for the reception of satellite TV. Initially the Tuscan society unwound the list of Italian distributor for the Galaxis, then later on it specialised in the production of the decoder. Under the new property the company grew again be in terms of turnover in which of sales, and in 1996, Ultravox became the principal decoder supplier for the television paytv Telepiù (died).

In 1998 the Sienese company changed social reason in Galaxis Produzione S.p. A., and it was producing television sets, videotape recorders and decoder for pay TV with the marks Ultravox and Galaxis.

In 2000 the Ultravox-Galaxis is forced to the closing for bankruptcy.

RIP ITALY !

ULTRAVOX (SEMAR) P12 CHASSIS 2T/1 INTERNAL VIEW.









Power supply is realized with mains transformer and Linear transistorized power supply stabilizer, A DC power supply apparatus includes a rectifier circuit which rectifies an input commercial AC voltage. The rectifier output voltage is smoothed in a smoothing capacitor. Voltage stabilization is provided in the stabilizing circuits by the use of Zener diode circuits to provide biasing to control the collector-emitter paths of respective transistors.A linear regulator circuit according to an embodiment of the present invention has an input node receiving an unregulated voltage and an output node providing a regulated voltage. The linear regulator circuit includes a voltage regulator, a bias circuit, and a current control device.

In one embodiment, the current control device is implemented as an NPN bipolar junction transistor (BJT) having a collector electrode forming the input node of the linear regulator circuit, an emitter electrode coupled to the input of the voltage regulator, and a base electrode coupled to the second terminal of the bias circuit. A first capacitor may be coupled between the input and reference terminals of the voltage regulator and a second capacitor may be coupled between the output and reference terminals of the voltage regulator. The voltage regulator may be implemented as known to those skilled in the art, such as an LDO or non-LDO 3-terminal regulator or the like.
The bias circuit may include a bias device and a current source. The bias device has a first terminal coupled to the output terminal of the voltage regulator and a second terminal coupled to the control electrode of the current control device. The current source has an input coupled to the first current electrode of the current control device and an output coupled to the second terminal of the bias device. A capacitor may be coupled between the first and second terminals of the bias device.
In the bias device and current source embodiment, the bias device may be implemented as a Zener diode, one or more diodes coupled in series, at least one light emitting diode, or any other bias device which develops sufficient voltage while receiving current from the current source. The current source may be implemented with a PNP BJT having its collector electrode coupled to the second terminal of the bias device, at least one first resistor having a first end coupled to the emitter electrode of the PNP BJT and a second end, a Zener diode and a second resistor. The Zener diode has an anode coupled to the base electrode of the PNP BJT and a cathode coupled to the second end of the first resistor. The second resistor has a first end coupled to the anode of the Zener diode and a second end coupled to the reference terminal of the voltage regulator. A second Zener diode may be included having an anode coupled to the cathode of the first Zener diode and a cathode coupled to the first current electrode of the current control device.
A circuit is disclosed for improving operation of a linear regulator, having an input terminal, an output terminal, and a reference terminal. The circuit includes an input node, a transistor, a bias circuit, and first and second capacitors. The transistor has a first current electrode coupled to the input node, a second current electrode for coupling to the input terminal of the linear regulator, and a control electrode. The bias circuit has a first terminal for coupling to the output terminal of the linear regulator and a second terminal coupled to the control electrode of the transistor. The first capacitor is for coupling between the input and reference terminals of the linear regulator, and the second capacitor is for coupling between the output and reference terminals of the linear regulator. The bias circuit develops a voltage sufficient to drive the control terminal of the transistor and to operate the linear regulator. The bias circuit may be a battery, a bias device and a current source, a floating power supply, a charge pump, or any combination thereof. The transistor may be implemented as a BJT or FET or any other suitable current controlled device.



Power Supply: The examples chosen are taken from manufacturers' circuit diagrams and are usually simplified to emphasise the fundamental nature of the circuit. For each example the particular transistor properties that are exploited to achieve the desired performance are made clear. As a rough and ready classification the circuits are arranged in order of frequency: this part is devoted to circuits used at zero frequency, field frequency and audio frequencies. Series Regulator Circuit Portable television receivers are designed to operate from batteries (usually 12V car batteries) and from the a.c. mains. The receiver usually has an 11V supply line, and circuitry is required to ensure that the supply line is at this voltage whether the power source is a battery or the mains. The supply line also needs to have good regulation, i.e. a low output resistance, to ensure that the voltage remains constant in spite of variations in the mean current taken by some of the stages in the receiver. Fig. 1 shows a typical circuit of the power -supply arrangements. The mains transformer and bridge rectifier are designed to deliver about 16V. The battery can be assumed to give just over 12V. Both feed the regulator circuit Trl, Tr2, Tr3, which gives an 11V output and can be regarded as a three -stage direct -coupled amplifier. The first stage Tr 1 is required to give an output current proportional to the difference between two voltages, one being a constant voltage derived from the voltage reference diode D I (which is biased via R3 from the stabilised supply). The second voltage is obtained from a preset potential divider connected across the output of the unit, and is therefore a sample of the output voltage. In effect therefore Tr 1 compares the output voltage of the unit with a fixed voltage and gives an output current proportional to the difference between them. Clearly a field-effect transistor could do this, but the low input resistance of a bipolar transistor is no disadvantage and it can give a current output many times that of a field-effect transistor and is generally preferred therefore. The output current of the first stage is amplified by the two subsequent stages and then becomes the output current of the unit. Clearly therefore Tr2 and Tr3 should be current amplifiers and they normally take the form of emitter followers or common emitter stages (which have the same current gain). By adjusting the preset control we can alter the fraction of the output voltage' applied to the first stage and can thus set the output voltage of the unit at any desired value within a certain range. By making assumptions about the current gain of the transistors we can calculate the degree of regulation obtainable. For example, suppose the gain of Tr2 and Tr3 in cascade is 1,000, and that the current output demanded from the unit changes by 0.1A (for example due to the disconnection of part of the load). The corresponding change in Tr l's collector current is 0.1mA and, if the standing collector current of Tr 1 is 1mA, then its mutual conductance is approximately 4OmA/V and the base voltage must change by 2.5mV to bring about the required change in collector current. If the preset potential divider feeds one half of the output voltage to Tr l's base, then the change in output voltage must be 5mV. Thus an 0.1A change in output current brings about only 5mV change in output voltage: this represents an output resistance of only 0.0552.

GENERAL BASIC TRANSISTOR LINE OUTPUT STAGE OPERATION:

The basic essentials of a transistor line output stage are shown in Fig. 1(a). They comprise: a line output transformer which provides the d.c. feed to the line output transistor and serves mainly to generate the high -voltage pulse from which the e.h.t. is derived, and also in practice other supplies for various sections of the receiver; the line output transistor and its parallel efficiency diode which form a bidirectional switch; a tuning capacitor which resonates with the line output transformer primary winding and the scan coils to determine the flyback time; and the scan coils, with a series capacitor which provides a d.c. block and also serves to provide slight integration of the deflection current to compensate for the scan distortion that would otherwise be present due to the use of flat screen, wide deflection angle c.r.t.s. This basic circuit is widely used in small -screen portable receivers with little elaboration - some use a pnp output transistor however, with its collector connected to chassis.

Circuit Variations:
Variations to the basic circuit commonly found include: transposition of the scan coils and the correction capacitor; connection of the line output transformer primary winding and its e.h.t. overwinding in series; connection of the deflection components to a tap on the transformer to obtain correct matching of the components and conditions in the stage; use of a boost diode which operates in identical manner to the arrangement used in valve line output stages, thereby increasing the effective supply to the stage; omission of the efficiency diode where the stage is operated from an h.t. line, the collector -base junction of the line output transistor then providing the efficiency diode action without, in doing so, producing scan distortion; addition of inductors to provide linearity and width adjustment; use of a pair of series -connected line output transistors in some large -screen colour chassis; and in colour sets the addition of line convergence circuitry which is normally connected in series between the line scan coils and chassis. These variations on the basic circuit do not alter the basic mode of operation however.

Resonance
The most important fact to appreciate about the circuit is that when the transistor and diode are cut off during the flyback period - when the beam is being rapidly returned from the right-hand side of the screen to the left-hand side the tuning capacitor together with the scan coils and the primary winding of the line output transformer form a parallel resonant circuit: the equivalent circuit is shown in Fig. 1(b). The line output transformer primary winding and the tuning capacitor as drawn in Fig. 1(a) may look like a series tuned circuit, but from the signal point of view the end of the transformer primary winding connected to the power supply is earthy, giving the equivalent arrangement shown in Fig. 1(b).

The Flyback Period:
Since the operation of the circuit depends mainly upon what happens during the line flyback period, the simplest point at which to break into the scanning cycle is at the end of the forward scan, i.e. with the beam deflected to the right-hand side of the screen, see Fig. 2. At this point the line output transistor is suddenly switched off by the squarewave drive applied to its base. Prior to this action a linearly increasing current has been flowing in the line output transformer primary winding and the scan coils, and as a result magnetic fields have been built up around these components. When the transistor is switched off these fields collapse, maintaining a flow of current which rapidly decays to zero and returns the beam to the centre of the screen. This flow of current charges the tuning capacitor, and the voltage at A rises to a high positive value - of the order of 1- 2k V in large -screen sets, 200V in the case of mains/battery portable sets. The energy in the circuit is now stored in the tuning capacitor which next discharges, reversing the flow of current in the circuit with the result that the beam is rapidly deflected to the left-hand side of the screen - see Fig. 3. When the tuning capacitor has discharged, the voltage at A has fallen to zero and the circuit energy is once more stored in the form of magnetic fields around the inductive components. One half -cycle of oscillation has occurred, and the flyback is complete.

Energy Recovery:
First Part of Forward Scan The circuit then tries to continue the cycle of oscillation, i.e. the magnetic fields again collapse, maintaining a current flow which this time would charge the tuning capacitor negatively (upper plate). When the voltage at A reaches about -0.6V however the efficiency diode becomes forward biased and switches on. This damps the circuit, preventing further oscillation, but the magnetic fields continue to collapse and in doing so produce a linearly decaying current flow which provides the first part of the forward scan, the beam returning towards the centre of the screen - see Fig. 4. The diode shorts out the tuning capacitor but the scan correction capacitor charges during this period, its right-hand plate becoming positive with respect to its left-hand plate, i.e. point A. Completion of Forward Scan When the current falls to zero, the diode will switch off. Shortly before this state of affairs is reached however the transistor is switched on. In practice this is usually about a third of the way through the scan. The squarewave applied to its base drives it rapidly to saturation, clamping the voltage at point A at a small positive value - the collector emitter saturation voltage of the transistor. Current now flows via the transistor and the primary winding of the line output transformer, the scan correction capacitor discharges, and the resultant flow of current in the line scan coils drives the beam to the right-hand side of the screen see Fig. 5.

Efficiency:
The transistor is then cut off again, to give the flyback, and the cycle of events recurs. The efficiency of the circuit is high since there is negligible resistance present. Energy is fed into the circuit in the form of the magnetic fields that build up when the output transistor is switched on. This action connects the line output transformer primary winding across the supply, and as a result a linearly increasing current flows through it. Since the width is
dependent on the supply voltage, this must be stabilised.

Harmonic Tuning:
There is another oscillatory action in the circuit during the flyback period. The considerable leakage inductance between the primary and the e.h.t. windings of the line output transformer, and the appreciable self -capacitance present, form a tuned circuit which is shocked into oscillation by the flyback pulse. Unless this oscillation is controlled, it will continue into and modulate the scan. The technique used to overcome this effect is to tune the leakage inductance and the associated capacitance to an odd harmonic of the line flyback oscillation frequency. By doing this the oscillatory actions present at the beginning of the scan cancel. Either third or fifth harmonic tuning is used. Third harmonic tuning also has the effect of increasing the amplitude of the e.h.t. pulse, and is generally used where a half -wave e.h.t. rectifier is employed. Fifth harmonic tuning results in a flat-topped e.h.t. pulse, giving improved e.h.t. regulation, and is generally used where an e.h.t. tripler is employed to produce the e.h.t. The tuning is mainly built into the line output transformer, though an external variable inductance is commonly found in colour chassis so that the tuning can be adjusted. With a following post I will go into the subject of modern TV line timebases in greater detail with other models and technology shown here at  Obsolete Technology Tellye !


PHILIPS TDA2549 I.F. amplifier and demodulator for multistandard TV receivers:

GENERAL DESCRIPTION
The TDA2549 is a complete i.f. circuit with a.f.c., a.g.c., demodulation and video preamplification facilities for
multistandard television receivers. It is capable of handling positively and negatively modulated video signals in both
colour and black/white receivers.
Features
• Gain-controlled wide-band amplifier providing complete i.f. gain
• Synchronous demodulator for positive and negative modulation
• Video preamplifier with noise protection for negative modulation
• Auxiliary video input and output (75 Ω)
• Video switch to select between auxiliary video input signal and demodulated video signal
• A.F.C. circuit with on/off switch and inverter switch
• A.G.C. circuit for positive modulation (mean level) and negative modulation (noise gate)
• A.G.C. output for controlling MOSFET tuners.

THOMSON TDA3190 COMPLETE TV SOUND CHANNEL:

The TDA3190 is a monolithicintegratedcircuit in a
16-lead dual in-line plastic package.It performsall
the functionsneededfor the TV soundchannel :
.IF LIMITER AMPLIFIER
.ACTIVE LOW-PASSFILTER
.FM DETECTOR
.DC VOLUMECONTROL
.AF PREAMPLIFIER
.AF OUTPUT STAGE
DESCRIPTION
The TDA3190 can give an output power of 4.2 W
(d = 10 %) into a 16 Ω load at VS = 24 V, or 1.5 W
(d = 10 %) into an 8 Ω load at VS = 12 V. This
performance,togetherwiththe FM-IF sectionchar-
acteristicsof high sensitivity, highAM rejection and
low distortion, enables the device to be used in
almost every type of televisionreceivers.
The device has no irradiation problems, hence no
externalscreening is needed.
The TDA3190 is a pin to pin replacement of
TDA1190Z.
The electrical characteristics of the TDA3190 re-
mainalmost constantover the frequencyrange4.5
to 6 MHz, therefore it can be used in all television
standards (FM mod.). The TDA3190 has a high
inputimpedance,soitcanwork withaceramicfilter
or with a tuned circuit that provide the necessary
input selectivity.
The value of the resistors connected to pin 9,
determinethe AC gain of the audio frequencyam-
plifier. This enablesthe desiredgainto be selected
in relation to the frequency deviation at which the
output stage of the AF amplifier, must enter into
clipping.
CapacitorC8, connectedbetween pins10 and11,
determinesthe uppercutofffrequencyof the audio
bandwidth.Toincreasethebandwidththe valuesof
C8 and C7 must be reduced, keeping the ratio
C7/C8 as shown in the table of fig. 16.
The capacitor connected between pin 16 and
ground, togetherwith the internal resistor of 10 KΩ
forms the de-emphasis network. The Boucherot
cell eliminates the high frequency oscillations
causedbytheinductiveloadandthewiresconnect-
ing theloudspeaker.


ULTRAVOX (SEMAR)  P12  CHASSIS 2T/1 Preset tuner:

 A preset tuner adapted for selecting a desired one out of a plurality of preset channels, comprising: a memory for storing digital data concerning a plurality of channels to be preset, push-buttons/rotatable knob for addressing the memory for reading the digital data of a desired channel, a digital/analog converter for converting the read digital data into an analog signal, a manually operable variable voltage generator to obtain search mode AFC assisted, a write-in/channel select mode selector, a switch circuit responsive to the mode selector switchable between the digital/analog converter and the variable voltage generator, a voltage controlled oscillator responsive to the output of the switch circuit, a tuner employing the voltage controlled oscillator as a local oscillator, a comparator for comparing the outputs of the digital/analog converter and the variable voltage generator, a counter to be reset responsive to the push-button search mode AFC  and to be enabled responsive to the write-in mode output of the mode selector to make a counting operation as a function of the output of the comparator, the output of the counter being loaded as the digital data concerning a channel in the memory, as addressed, a reference oscillator, a frequency comparator for comparing the output of the reference oscillator and the intermediate frequency output of the tuner, a filter for filtering the frequency comparator output to provide a correction control signal to the digital/analog converter, the digital/analog converter being adapted to be corrected for deviation of the intermediate frequency of the tuner as a function of the correction control signal.

 A typical conventional preset tuner such as employed in tv receivers and the like comprises a mechanical preset scheme. For example, such a preset tuner employing variable inductance devices as a tuning element is adapted to preset a plurality of channels by varying the inductance value of the variable inductance devices in association with the manual operation of a tuning knob. Another example of such a tuner using a variable capacitance device such as a variable capacitance diode as a tuning element employs variable resistors adjustable in association with the manual operation of a tuning knob for the purpose of a presetting operation.

 Such preset tuners as described above as employing a variable inductance device, a variable capacitance device and the like require provision of the same number of variable inductance devices, variable resistors and the like as that of presetting channel selection switches, which makes the tuner large in size, with the result that such tuner is disadvantageous particularly in case where such tuner is employed in an indash type portable tv receiver, where the tuner is provided in a limited space.


Accordingly, a principal object of the present invention is to provide an improved preset tuner, wherein the data concerning the local oscillation frequencies corresponding to the respective preset channels is preloaded in a memory in a digital representation format.
Another object of the present invention is to provide an improved preset tuner, which is adapted for implementation by large scale integration integrated circuits.
A further object of the present invention is to provide an improved preset tuner, which is adapted for implementation in an electronic structure rather than mechanical structure.


How AFC Circuit Works in B/W Analog Television Receiver:

Push-Button tuning on u.h.f. while being very convenient often leaves a margin of mistuning, especially after some wear and tear has occurred on the mechanism. Even dial tuning can lead to errors due to the difficulty many people experience in judging the correct point. Oscillator drift due to temperature changes can also cause mistuning. Automatic frequency control (a.f.c.) will correct all these faults. The vision carrier when the set is correctly tuned on u.h.f. is at 39.5MHz as it passes down the i.f. strip. Thus if at the end of the i.f. strip a discriminator tuned circuit is incorporated centred on 39.5MHz the discriminator output will be zero at 39.5MHz and will move positively' one side of 39.5MHz and negatively the other as the tuning drifts. This response is shown in Fig. 1.

If the tuning is not correct then the discriminator output is not zero and if this output is applied to change the reverse bias on a tuning diode mounted in the oscillator section of the u.h.f. tuner it will correct most of the error. Tuning, varicap or varactor diodes-to give them a few of their names-are junction diodes normally operated with reverse bias but not sufficient to bias them into the breakdown region in which zener diodes operate. The greater the reverse bias the lower their capacitance: a typical curve, for the PHILIPS BB105 or STC BA141 tuning diode, is shown in Fig. 2. All diodes exhibit this basic type of characteristic but special diodes have to be used for u.h.f. because they must not introduce any excessive loss into the tuned circuits they control. In other words, just as a coil has to have a good Q so does a varicap diode. Normally, we don't worry about the Q of a capacitor as it is usually very good. However, a tuning diode is not a true capacitor. It has, for example, leakage current so the Q of the diode is a factor which has to be considered. The diode manufacturer however will have considered these points and if you buy a diode specified for u.h.f. use you will have no trouble. These points have been mentioned to clear up any misunderstandings and to show why any old diode won't do.

Basic AFC System
To return to our TV set, if the oscillator frequency is too high then the vision carrier frequency will also be too high and in the simple arrangement shown in Fig. 3 the discriminator will give a negative signal to decrease the bias on the tuning diode thus increasing its capacitance and in turn reducing the oscillator frequency and correcting the error. Note that in this diagram the reverse bias on the diode is applied to its cathode. It is therefore positive with respect to ground so that a negative signal from the discriminator will reduce the positive voltage on the diode thus reducing its bias and increasing its capacitance. In this arrangement the diode is biased somewhere near the mid point of its characteristic by the positive d.c. bias fed into one side of the discriminator. The discriminator thus adds to or subtracts from this d.c. bias.

AFC Loop Gain:
The amount by which the error is reduced depends on the gain of the circuit. An estimate of the gain required must first be made by guessing how much error is likely to be given by your push -buttons or hand tuning: 1MHz would be an outside figure as a tuning error of that magnitude would produce a very bad picture of low definition in one direction and badly broken up in the other. This error should be reduced to about 100kHz to be really unnoticeable, indicating a required gain of ten. In fitting a.f.c. to an existing set some measure- ments should be done as an experiment before finally deciding on the circuit gain. The first thing to do is  to add the suggested discriminator to the i.f. strip. As the circuit (Fig. 4) shows a Foster -Seeley type discriminator is used and with the coils specified and the driver circuit shown it should give ±4V for 0.5MHz input variation.

EXAMPLE of Circuit Description:
The driver stage Tr1 takes a small sample signal from the i.f. strip but this should be large enough to drive Tr1 into saturation. That is to say Tr1 is a limiter stage so that the signal amplitude applied to the discriminator coil L2 stays constant over the normal range of signal levels. Trl is biased at approximately 7mA which, according to the original report ("Simple a.f.c. system for 625 -line TV receivers" by P. Bissmire, PHILIPS Technical Communications, March, 1970), gives the best limiting performance. C1, R14 and R3 damp the stage to prevent oscillation. C2 decouples the power feed and should be close to the circuit. The coil former and can are the normal ones used for TV sets and so should be easily obtainable: the former diameter is 5mm. and length 40mm. and winding details are given in Fig. 5.

The invention being thus described, it will be obvious that the same may be varied in many ways. Such variations are not to be regarded as a departure from the spirit and scope of the invention, and all such modifications as would be obvious to one skilled in the art are intended to be included within the scope of the developed apparates both tubes or transistors.

ULTRAVOX (SEMAR) P12 CHASSIS 2T/1 CRT TUBE A31-510W.


TELEVISION TUBE A31-510W

QUICK REFERENCE DATA

31cm (12in) rectangular direct viewing television tube. A separate safety
screen is not required. Especially for use in portable receivers with push-
through presentation.

A special feature of this tube is its short warm—up time.

Deflection angle 110 deg
Final accelerator voltage max. 15 kV
Neck diameter 20 mm —u-

Light transmission 50 % E

Maximum overall length 233 mm

A legible picture appears within 5 seconds (typ. )

This data should be read in conjunction with
GENERAL OPERATIONAL RECOMMENDATIONS — TELEVISION PICTURE TUBES

HEATER
Vh 11  V
Ah 140 mA
Cathode warm —up time (typ. ) 5 s

OPERATING CONDITIONS

Va2, a4 12 kV
VG3 (focus electrode) control range 0 to 350 V
V  A1 250 V
Vg for visual extinction of focused raster  -35 to -69 V
*Vk for visual extinction of focused raster 32 to 58 V

*For cathode modulation, all voltages are measured with respect to grid.

SCREEN
Metal backedFluorescent colour White
Light transmission (approx. ) 50 %











Focusing Electrostatic

DEFLECTION Magnetic
Diagonal deflection ‘angle  110 deg
Horizontal deflection angle 99 deg
Vertical deflection angle 80 deg

The deflection eons should designed so that their internal contour is in accordance
with the reference line gauge shown on page 4.



CAPACITANCES:
cg all 7. 0 pF
ck all 3. 0 pF
ca2 a4 m 450 to 900 pF
a2,a4 —B 150 PF

EXTERNAL CONDUCTIVE COATING
This tube has external conductive coating, M, which must be connected to chassis.
and the 'capacitance ‘of this ‘coating to the final anode is used to provide smoothing
for the eht supply.
 The electrical connection to this coating must be made within
the area specified on the tube outline drawing;

RASTER CENTRING

See notes under this heading in ' General Operational Recommendations - Television
Picture Tubes' .

Centring magnet field intensity 0 to 800 A/m
Maximum distance of centre of centering field from reference line 47 mm

Adjustment of the centring magnet should not be such that '3. general reduction in
brightness of the raster occurs.

REFERENCE LINE GAUGE see page 4
MOUNTING POSITION Any

The tube socket should not be rigidily mounted but should have flexible leads and be
allowed to move freely.

This ‘tube is fitted with a pin protector in "order to avoid ‘damage to ‘the glass base
due to bending of the base pins whilst handling the tube.

it is advisable to keep this pin protector on the base until it can be replaced by the
socket after the installation of the tube in any equipment.

TELEVISION TUBE A31-410W

RATINGS (DESIGN MAXIMUM SYSTEM)

Va2 a4 max. (at i=0 a2 a4) (see note 1) 15 kV
Vva2 a4,“ min, 8.5kv
va3 max. 500 V
-Va3 max. 50 V
Va1 max. 350 V
va1 min. 200 V
~vg(pk) max. (see note 2) 350 V
~Vg max. (see note 3) ~ 100 V



Adequate precautions should be taken to ensure that the receiver is protected
from damage which may be caused by a possible high voltage flashover within
the tube. '

Maximum pulse duration 22% of one cycle with a maximum of 1. 5ms

The d. c. value of bias must not be such as to allow the grid to become positive
with respect to the cathode, except during the period immediately after switching
the receiver on or off when it may be allowed to rise to +2. OV. It is advisable to
limit the positive excursion of the video signal to +5V(pk) max. This may be
achieved automatically by the series connection of a 10kohm resistor.

. The metal hand must be earthed by means of the tag provided.

The mounting lugs will not necessarily be in electrical contact with the metal
band.

Weight tube alone (approx. ) 2. 8 kg




Saturday, November 30, 2013

NORDMENDE (THOMSON) CONTURA 63 (ICC9) YEAR 1993.









 The NORDMENDE (THOMSON) CONTURA 63  is a 25 inches color television with planar square screen, black matrix.

The set features mutistandard feature, stereo hifi sound, teletext, CTI, LTI, SVHS, 2 AV SCART sockets, external loudpseakers jacks, headphone jack, osd...............

The Teletext is a television-based communication technique in which a given horizontal video line is utilized for broadcasting textual and graphical information encoded in a digital binary representation. Such horizontal video line signal that contains teletext data is referred to herein as a Data-line. It is assumed herein, for explanation purposes, that teletext is sent by the broadcaster only during the vertical blanking interval (VBI), when no other picture information is sent. The organization of the binary information in the broadcast signal is determined by the standard employed by the broadcaster. By way of an example only, references are made herein to a teletext based on a standard referred to by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) as CEEFAX.

Each Data-line carries data synchronizing and address information and the codes for a Row of 40 characters. The synchronizing information includes a clock run-in sequence followed by an 8-bit framing code sequence. Each Data-line contains a 3 bit code referred to as the Magazine number. A teletext Page includes 24 Rows of 40 characters, including a special top Row called the Page-Header. Each ROW is contained in a corresponding Data-line. A user selected Page is intended to be displayed in place of, or added to a corresponding television picture frame. A Magazine is defined to include Pages having Data-lines containing a corresponding Magazine number. The transmission of a selected Page begins with, and includes its Page Header and ends with and excludes the next Page Header of the selected Magazine number. All intermediate Data lines carrying the selected Magazine number relate to the selected Page.
A SCART Connector (which stands for Syndicat des Constructeurs d'Appareils Radiorécepteurs et Téléviseurs) is a standard for connecting audio-visual equipment together. The official standard for SCART is CENELEC document number EN 50049-1. SCART is also known as Péritel (especially in France) and Euroconnector but the name SCART will be used exclusively herein. The standard defines a 21-pin connector (herein after a SCART connector) for carrying analog television signals. Various pieces of equipment may be connected by cables having a plug fitting the SCART connectors. Television apparatuses commonly include one or more SCART connectors.
Although a SCART connector is bidirectional, the present invention is concerned with the use of a SCART connector as an input connector for receiving signals into a television apparatus. A SCART connector can receive input television signals either in an RGB format in which the red, green and blue signals are received on Pins 15, 11 and 7, respectively, or alternatively in an S-Video format in which the luminance (Y) and chroma (C) signals are received on Pins 20 and 15. As a result of the common usage of Pin 15 in accordance with the SCART standard, a SCART connector cannot receive input television signals in an RGB format and in an S-Video format at the same time.
Consequently many commercially available television apparatuses include a separate SCART connectors each dedicated to receive input television signals in one of an RGB format and an S-Video format. This limits the functionality of the SCART connectors. In practical terms, the number of SCART connectors which can be provided on a television apparatus is limited by cost and space considerations. However, different users wish the input a wide range of different combinations of formats of television signals, depending on the equipment they personally own and use. However, the provision of SCART connectors dedicated to input television signals in one of an RGB format and an S-Video format limits the overall connectivity of the television apparatus. Furthermore, for many users the different RGB format and S-Video format are confusing. Some users may not understand or may mistake the format of a television signal being supplied on a given cable from a given piece of equipment. This can result in the supply of input television signals of an inappropriate format for the SCART connector concerned.
This kind of connector is todays obsoleted !

The set was first tv set from THOMSON featuring the sophisticated chassis ICC9 wich was pretty unique and special by design and technology and  complications THOMSON STYLE.


And was first set introducing the picture signal improvement. A method of picture signal improvement in accordance with a first aspect of the invention, an input picture signal is filtered to obtain a high-frequency component and a low-frequency component, a standard deviation signal is calculated from the input picture signal, the high-frequency component is gain controlled in dependence upon the standard deviation signal to obtain a gain-controlled high-frequency component, and the gain-controlled high-frequency component and the low-frequency component are combined to obtain an output signal.
Prior means for improving the edge transitions of video signals include the addition of an enhancement or peaking signal to the original video signal. These enhancement or peaking signals are normally generated through such techniques as taking the first or second derivative of the original video signal, and adding the derivative signal, in an appropriate amount and polarity, to the original video signal. Another technique is to use a transversal filter, such as a tapped delay line; wherein, input, output and tap signals are suitably weighted, signed and combined to produce a "peaked" output signal. Still another technique is use a delay line that is unterminated on its output but terminated on its input. By subtracting the output signal from the input signal, a "peaking" signal is produced that is added in an appropriate amount and polarity to the output signal.
 In order for these methods to achieve significant improvement in the resulting signals rise and fall times of edge transitions, a relatively large amount of enhancement or "peaking" signal must be added to the original video signal. However, this also produces excessive preshoots and overshoots at the edge transitions. In a television system, the white going preshoots and overshoots can cause spot blooming on the CRT display. It is an object of the present invention to furnish apparatus for sharpening the edges, i.e. decreasing the transition times from a dark to a light level and vice versa in a received video signal in which such changes take place at varying rates, without adding preshoots or overshoots to the resultant signal.

It is a further object of the present invention to carry out this objective with a minimum of additional circuitry in a reliable fashion.

According to the present invention, the first and second derivatives of the incoming signal are generated, and the so generated derivatives are multiplied to each other to generate a control signal.

The incoming signal is also subjected to a first and second time delay. A switching circuit operative under control of the control signal normally connects the signal at the output of the first time delay to the circuit output. In response to the control signal, the circuit output is first connected to the output of the second time delay, next to the signal directly as received and finally back to the signal at the output of the first time delay.

The second time delay exceeds the first time delay and, preferably, is equal to twice the first time delay. The sharpening of the edges thus occurs because the transition is delayed until th directly received video signal has completed the transition. At this point the signal output is switched to the direct input, causing a sharp transition. After the final value of the transition has been stabilized, the signal output is switched back to the output of the first time delay where it remains until the next subsequent transition takes place.

In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the control signal is derived by multiplying the first and second derivatives of the incoming signal to each other and amplitude limiting the resulting signal.

Introduces even the CTI feature for the sharpening of colour transitions. 
In the past analog commercial TV transmission standards, the limited bandwidth of the transmitted chrominance (or chrominance difference) signals causes the received images to have perceptibly blurred colour transition edges. This is especially evident if the received image contains geometrical patterns, e.g. test-colour bars, and results in the loss of detail detectable in complex multicoloured fine patterns.

In order to improve the quality of the received images, it is necessary to provide the receiver end with circuits capable of restoring, as far as possible, the frequency components in the chrominance signals which have been filtered away by the requirements of the reduced transmission bandwidth: in this way, the temporal duration of the chrominance transition edges, and thus the spatial extent of the chrominance transitions on the TV screen, can be reduced, and the edge definition improved. Circuits of this type are called "Color Transient Improvement" ("CTI") or Chrominance Transition Enhancement circuits.

An important constraint on chrominance transition enhancement circuits is the need to ensure that the center of the chrominance transition is unaffected by the enhancement process, so that the center of the chrominance transition after the enhancement process is still aligned with the center of the associated transition in the luminance signal. Also, it is necessary to leave gradual transitions in time unaltered; preserve, and possibly enhance, fine patterns; prevent the introduction in the image of additional distortions; and ensure that the existing noise components are not accentuated.
The set has superb pictures with very precise picture contour and crisp colors thankfully to special Signal processings.

The set is last series with PLANAR CRT tube after that was abandoned definitely.

 The VIDEOCOLOR PLANAR featured has even an improvement for increased EHT to obtain more focussing.One aspect of the present invention is concerned with reducing the size of the crossover, and thus of the image thereof on the screen, compared with the known gun. In accordance with this aspect of the invention, the voltage applied to the first anode is higher than in a corresponding conventional gun and in particular is greater than the voltage applied to the focussing anode. As a result, a high electric field is formed between the grid and the first anode which tends to reduce the size of the crossover, aspect of the invention seeks to utilise this high voltage in controlling the beam size.



(To see the Internal Chassis Just click on Older Post Button on bottom page, that's simple !)




Nordmende was a manufacturer of entertainment electronics based in Bremen, Germany.
The original company, Radio H. Mende & Co, was founded in 1923 by Otto Hermann Mende (1885-1940) in Dresden. Following the destruction of the plant during the bombing raids in 1945, Martin Mende (the founder's son) created a new company in Bremen in 1947, in a former Focke-Wulf plant, under the name North German Mende Broadcast GmbH. The name was subsequently changed to Nordmende: subsequently the company became one of the prominent German manufacturers of radios, televisions, tape recorders and record players in the 1950s and 1960s.
In the 1970s, Nordmende televisions were renowned for their innovative chassis, and for the rigorous testing and quality control of their finished products. Both created high costs, however, which soon proved a competitive disadvantage when the price of colour televisions began to plunge.
In 1969, Mende's sons took over the company, and in 1977 a majority shareholding was sold to the French Thomson Brandt company and the chassis remains the original NordMende until CHASSIS F9. The following year, the family sold their remaining shares to Thomson. In the 1980s, the factories in Bremen were closed, Nordmende becoming purely a Thomson trademark (Starting from chassis F10 F11 they're all THOMSON).








In the 1990s, the name Nordmende was used with decreasing frequency, and it eventually disappeared in favour of the Thomson name. In 2005 Videocon Group acquired all cathode ray tube activities from Thomson. This led to the creation of VDC Technologies, which manufactures TV sets using the Nordmende brand under licence from Thomson.
The Nordmende brand name was relaunched in Ireland in September 2008 by the KAL Group. Although Nordmende was well known for its televisions throughout Ireland during the 1970s and 1980s, the company bought the rights to the name and launched a range of white goods including fridges, freezers, washing machines, and dishwashers, alongside a revamped range of flat-screen TVs and stereos.



     
NORDMENDE HISTORY IN GERMAN:

Die Vorkriegsgeschichte findet sich unter Mende. Nach dem Totalverlust in Dresden gründet Martin Mende (30.12.1898-1982) unter Mitwirkung von Hermann Weber am 26. August 1947 [FT5901] in Bremen-Hemelingen die Norddeutsche Mende-Rundfunk GmbH.

Die ersten Gehäuse liefert ein Tischler in Achim gegen Kompensation von fünf Gehäusen zu einem Rundfunkgerät. Der frühere Mende-Konstrukteur, Obering. Heer zeichnet wieder für die Geräte verantwortlich [FT49??].

Ab 27. Juli 1948 liefert die neue, zuerst 18 und bald 60 Personen umfassende Firma auf Grund von Währungsreform, Krediten und Zulieferverträgen die neue Radioproduktion.

Das Regime in Ostdeutschland lässt den Namen Mende nicht zu, so dass Martin Mende mit grafischen Konstruktionen im Zusammenhang mit «Nord» an seinen Vorkriegserfolg anschliesst.

Die Hallen der ehemaligen Focke-Wulf AG beim Bahnhof Seebaldsbrück dienen als Werkstätten. 1950 beschäftigt das Unternehmen 700, 1959 schon 3500 und im Zenit 6300 Personen.

1950 beginnt die Firma mit UKW-, 1953 mit Fernseh- und 1954 mit Mess- und Prüfgeräten. Gegen Ende der 50er Jahre heisst die Firma Norddeutsche Mende Rundfunk KG [RP7901].

Nachdem sich Nordmende bislang nicht mit Magnettongeräten befasst hat, bringt das Werk 1958 das erste deutsche Heim-Tonbandgerät mit drei Motoren auf den Markt. Allerdings dominieren auf diesem Sektor eindeutig andere Firmen wie AEG/Telefunken und Grundig. Von Nordmende kommen jeweils nur ein bis zwei Geräte (1960 keines) in die Kataloge. Dafür hat die Firma Erfolg mit einem anderen Neueinstieg:


1958 stellt Nordmende mit «Mambo» ihr erstes Reisegerät vor - aber nicht «das erste deutsche, serienmässig hergestellte und volltransistorisierte Koffergerät», wie man aus einer Quelle nachlesen kann. Danach wird Nordmende in Deutschland auf dem Sektor Reisegeräte besonders stark, obwohl sie keine Röhren-Koffer baute. Immerhin kosten die in «Mambo» verwendeten 8 Halbleiter dann im Einzelhandel DM 98.70, während für die vier D-Röhren der 90er-Serie - auch zum Katalogpreis - etwa DM 35.- auszugeben wären. Preis des ganzen Gerätes: DM 189.- plus zwei Flachbatterien von 4,5 V.

Bis 1969 gibt es ca. 92 Modelle der tragbaren Radios (Koffer- bzw. «Handradios», d.h. «Hand held radios»). Beispielsweise finden sich im Katalog 1961/62 [448] je 11 Tischradios und Radiomöbel sowie 8 Modelle von Reiseradios. 17 verschiedene Fernsehmodelle zeigen dagegen, wo in jener Zeit der Erfolg zu holen war.

Gemäss [FT7901] liegt Nordmende während kurzer Zeit mit der sogenannten «Tippomatik-Bedienung» sogar technisch vorne. Siehe auch Philips etc.

Auch Konzertschränke scheinen Ende der 50er bis Anfang 60er Jahre eine tragende Säule für Nordmende zu sein. Dabei verwendet die Firma immer wieder gleiche Namen wie «Cabinet», «Caruso», «Casino», «Cosima» sowie «Arabella» und «Isobella» mit wechselnden Zusatz-Nummern oder den Zusatz «Stereo», z.B. in den Jahren 1959 und 1960/61.

Im März 1967 nimmt das Werk die Produktion von Farbfernsehgeräten auf. Zum Firmenjubiläum erscheint eine Gerätereihe mit der Bezeichnung 'Goldene 20'. 1969 übernehmen die Mende-Söhne Karl und Hermann die Geschäftsführung.

1977 führt der verschärfte Wettbewerb zum Verkauf der Mehrheit an den französischen Konzern Thomson-Brandt; die Familie Mende zieht sich anschliessend ganz aus dem Unternehmen zurück. Martin Mende stirbt 1982.


In 1879 Elihu Thomson and Edwin Houston formed the Thomson-Houston Electric Company in the United States.

On April 15, 1892 Thomson-Houston and the Edison General Electric Company merged to form General Electric (GE). Also in 1892 the company formed a French subsidiary, Thomson Houston International.
In 1893 Compagnie Française Thomson-Houston (CFTH) was set up as a partner to GE. It is from this company that the modern Thomson companies would evolve.
In 1966 CFTH merged with Hotchkiss-Brandt to form Thomson-Houston-Hotchkiss-Brandt (soon renamed Thomson-Brandt). In 1968 the electronics business of Thomson-Brandt merged with Compagnie Générale de Télégraphie Sans Fil (CSF) to form Thomson-CSF. Thomson Brandt maintained a significant shareholding in this company (approximately 40%).
In 1982 both Thomson-Brandt and Thomson-CSF were nationalized by François Mitterrand. Thomson-Brandt was renamed Thomson SA (Société Anonyme) and merged with Thomson-CSF.
From 1983 to 1987 a major reorganisation of Thomson-CSF was undertaken, with divestitures to refocus the group on its core activities (electronics and defence). Thomson-CSF Téléphone and the medical division were sold to Alcatel and GE respectively. The semiconductor businesses of Thomson CSF was merged with Finmeccanica. Thomson acquired General Electric’s RCA and GE consumer electronics business in 1987.
In 1988 Thomson Consumer Electronics was formed, renamed Thomson Multimedia in 1995. The French government split the consumer electronics and defence businesses prior to privatisation in 1999, those companies being Thomson Multimedia (today Technicolor SA) and Thomson-CSF (today Thales Group).



Thomson-CSF was a major electronics and defence contractor. In December 2000 it was renamed Thales Group.


...........1996............there are no stranger foreigners than the first ones you come across, the French. This is borne out by the 1996 Thomson situation. Thomson, was a vast company by any reckoning, is a strange beast. It's state controlled, which means that the government owns most but not quite all of it. and consists of two distinct arms, the defence group Thomson-CFS which is quite profitable, and the consumer electronics group Thomson Multimedia which loses a packet. The government wanted  rid of it, but won't sell the bits separately. It doesn't want to be left with the problem of what to do with Thomson Multimedia. You might think that no one would be interested in helping the French government. But in fact there are two contenders to take over Thomson, the telecommunications and power group Alcatel Alsthom and the defence and media group Lagardere. They have been engaging in quite a battle over the ownership, and as we go to press the French government is due to decide whose bid to accept. Whoever wins will end up with the profitable defence company  and the problem of Thomson Multimedia (TMM).

Lagardere has stated that it would sell TMM to Daewoo of Korea. Alcatel Alsthom has not been quite so specific, but has announced that it would take immediate action to reduce TMM's losses and seek an "Asian partner" that "specialises in consumer electronics". The partner would be expected to take over management of TMM, but Alcatel would like to remain a "minority partner" - it sees prospects in the move to digital TV technology that will occur during the next decade. All this gives one a strange feeling of déjà vu. At the time when Thomson took over Ferguson, in June 1987, it was noticed  that Thomson is "now on the government's privatisation list". It's taken almost a decade to happen.

 It's also said that "Thomson may be big, but has not been all that successful in the past in the consumer electronics field". Right on! What has happened to Ferguson in the UK illustrates the dismal Thomson effect. From being the local brand leader, with over ten per cent of the market, Ferguson has ended up being an also ran. It's only fair however to mention that Ferguson was making substantial losses when Thorn EMI was glad to get £90m for it from Thomson. Thomson has been able to survive in the consumer electronics field because it is part of a larger organisation, with those defence profits. It has nevertheless over the years attempted to play a a major role in the international consumer electronics field, keeping up with Philips and the Japanese corporations. From its French origins, it first expanded by picking up various German companies such as NordMende an SABA. It added Telefunken, a venerable name if ever there was one in this industry, in the early eighties, then took what was to be a big move into the UK market when it bought Ferguson. 

It  used six brand names in Europe. The largest step however occurred when TMM became a major force in the North American market by taking over General Electric's consumer electronics interests. This also gave it the RCA operation. The idea behind all this seems to have been to achieve success simply by getting bigger. There was always government finance to back the policy, which in the event has not been a success. The TMM debacle is a sad one, since Thomson's research and engineering has had many successes.
 It has not stinted on R and D work, with laboratories in Los Angeles, Indianapolis, Strasbourg, Hanover, Villingen, Tokyo and Singapore. Much work has been done on HD -TV, digital signal processing and other developments that have kept it in the forefront of the technology. Now, it seems, TMM is likely to be swallowed up by one of the Oriental corporate giants. 
If there are any lessons to be drawn, they would seem to be that expansion by itself is no guarantee of success, that to spread ones activities and their control across the globe makes management extremely difficult, and that costs are very hard to control in such a context. Alcatel Alsthom's plans to reduce TMM's losses bear this out. It would close down TMM's US factories, transferring production to the company's modern facilities in Mexico, where wages are much lower.

 It would rationalise the large collection of brands, possibly adopting RCA as the main one worldwide. And there is a suggestion that the company should be run from the USA, since this is its largest market. But all this would be just initial steps towards ceding majority control. Venerable brand names such as Telefunken, GE and RCA would pass to oriental ownership. This will happen whoever wins, Alcatel Alsthom or Lagardere, which would leave just Philips to carry on Europe's traditions in the consumer electronics field............. but we all know how it ended.................

Thomson-CSF independence

Following the privatisation of the Thomson Group Thomson-CSF explored the possibility of merging with Marconi Electronic Systems, however British Aerospace was successful in that aim, forming BAE Systems.
In 2000 Thomson-CSF went through a series of transactions, including with Marconi plc. The major acquisition at this time was the £1.3 billion purchase of the British defence electronics firm, Racal. This made Thomson-CSF the second largest participant in the UK defence industry after BAE. Racal was renamed Thomson-CSF Racal plc.
On December 6, 2000 the group was renamed Thales.

------------------------------------------------------


Further reading

  • Jean-Pierre, Thierry (16 October 2003). Taïwan Connection : Scandales et meurtres au cœur de la République [Taiwan Connection – Scandals and Murders at the Heart of the Republic] (in French). Robert Laffont. ISBN 978-2221100820.
  • L'entreprise partagée ? Une pratique différente des relations sociales : l'expérience Thomson-CSF, Robert Thomas (pseudonym for a team-work with Pierre Beretti and Jean-Pierre Thiollet), Paris, Maxima-Laurent du Mesnil Ed., 1999