Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

In Brief: On this site you will find pictures and information about some of the electronic, electrical and electrotechnical technology relics that the Frank Sharp Private museum has accumulated over the years .

Premise: There are lots of vintage electrical and electronic items that have not survived well or even completely disappeared and forgotten.

Or are not being collected nowadays in proportion to their significance or prevalence in their heyday, this is bad and the main part of the death land. The heavy, ugly sarcophagus; models with few endearing qualities, devices that have some over-riding disadvantage to ownership such as heavy weight,toxicity or inflated value when dismantled, tend to be under-represented by all but the most comprehensive collections and museums. They get relegated to the bottom of the wants list, derided as 'more trouble than they are worth', or just forgotten entirely. As a result, I started to notice gaps in the current representation of the history of electronic and electrical technology to the interested member of the public.


Following this idea around a bit, convinced me that a collection of the peculiar alone could not hope to survive on its own merits, but a museum that gave equal display space to the popular and the unpopular, would bring things to the attention of the average person that he has previously passed by or been shielded from. It's a matter of culture. From this, the Obsolete Technology Tellye Web Museum concept developed and all my other things too. It's an open platform for all electrical Electronic TV technology to have its few, but NOT last, moments of fame in a working, hand-on environment. We'll never own Colossus or Faraday's first transformer, but I can show things that you can't see at the Science Museum, and let you play with things that the Smithsonian can't allow people to touch, because my remit is different.

There was a society once that was the polar opposite of our disposable, junk society. A whole nation was built on the idea of placing quality before quantity in all things. The goal was not “more and newer,” but “better and higher" .This attitude was reflected not only in the manufacturing of material goods, but also in the realms of art and architecture, as well as in the social fabric of everyday life. The goal was for each new cohort of children to stand on a higher level than the preceding cohort: they were to be healthier, stronger, more intelligent, and more vibrant in every way.

The society that prioritized human, social and material quality is a Winner. Truly, it is the high point of all Western civilization. Consequently, its defeat meant the defeat of civilization itself.

Today, the West is headed for the abyss. For the ultimate fate of our disposable society is for that society itself to be disposed of. And this will happen sooner, rather than later.

OLD, but ORIGINAL, Well made, Funny, Not remotely controlled............. and not Made in CHINA.

How to use the site:

- If you landed here via any Search Engine, you will get what you searched for and you can search more using the search this blog feature provided by Google. You can visit more posts scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year,
or you can click on the main photo-page to start from the main page. Doing so it starts from the most recent post to the older post simple clicking on the Older Post button on the bottom of each page after reading , post after post.

You can even visit all posts, time to time, when reaching the bottom end of each page and click on the Older Post button.

- If you arrived here at the main page via bookmark you can visit all the site scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year pointing were you want , or more simple You can even visit all blog posts, from newer to older, clicking at the end of each bottom page on the Older Post button.
So you can see all the blog/site content surfing all pages in it.

- The search this blog feature provided by Google is a real search engine. If you're pointing particular things it will search IT for you; or you can place a brand name in the search query at your choice and visit all results page by page. It's useful since the content of the site is very large.

Note that if you don't find what you searched for, try it after a period of time; the site is a never ending job !

Every CRT Television saved let revive knowledge, thoughts, moments of the past life which will never return again.........

Many contemporary "televisions" (more correctly named as displays) would not have this level of staying power, many would ware out or require major services within just five years or less and of course, there is that perennial bug bear of planned obsolescence where components are deliberately designed to fail and, or manufactured with limited edition specificities..... and without considering........picture......sound........quality........

..............The bitterness of poor quality is remembered long after the sweetness of todays funny gadgets low price has faded from memory........ . . . . . .....
Don't forget the past, the end of the world is upon us! Pretty soon it will all turn to dust!

Have big FUN ! !
-----------------------

©2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 Frank Sharp - You do not have permission to copy photos and words from this blog, and any content may be never used it for auctions or commercial purposes, however feel free to post anything you see here with a courtesy link back, btw a link to the original post here , is mandatory.
All sets and apparates appearing here are property of
Engineer Frank Sharp. NOTHING HERE IS FOR SALE !

Wednesday, June 13, 2012

LOEWE CT5067U (C5000) YEAR 1978.














































The LOEWE CT5067U is a 26 inches color television with 12 programs, ultrasonic remote, and contrast automatic feature.On the front panel there is a ambient light sensor which drives, in opportune, way the contrast tracking of the picture as a fucntion of the light in the room were the tellye is running; more particularly to a control system for maintaining proper balance between room lighting conditions and the level of picture tube excitation in a color television receiver. More especially the present invention functions to increase contrast, intensity and chroma signal strength when the room lighting level increases to diminish these parameters when the level of room lighting decreases.

Conventional television receivers, of course, have manually operable controls by means of which a viewer may set the level of contrast, intensity, and chroma signal strength to what he feels to be an optimum level for given room lighting conditions. Under changed room lighting conditions, the viewer will obtain the optimum viewing situation by changing these manual controls to a new preferred level.

LOEWE CT5067U  (C5000)  Was featuring first time the CRT TUBE PHILIPS 20AX.The PHILIPS 20AX system was introduced in Europe as the first self converging picture tube/deflection coil, combination for 110° degree deflection and screen sizes up to 26". The system is based on the automatic convergence principle discovered by Haantjes and Lubben of Philips Research Laboratory more than 20 years ago. It makes use of an in-line gun array in conjunction with a specially designed saddle type deflection coil. Residual small tolerance errors are compensated by a simple dynamic four-pole system. The tube is 2 cm shorter than conventional 110° Degree tubes and has a standard 36.5 mm neck in order to obtain good color selection. A slotted mask is used in combination with a stripe-structure screen. Picture sharpness is ensured by an astigmatic electron gun.
The new tube, to be known as the 20AX, has been developed by PHILIPS in conjunction with the parent Philips / Mullard organisation and will be produced by several Philips subsidiary companies on the Continent as well as by PHILIPS in the UK. PHILIPS envisage quantity production of the tube by 1976, mainly for export at first, with large-scale production for UK set - makers starting in 1977. The tube has been developed as "probably the final phase in the design of the 110° shadowmask tube". Its main features are the use of three guns mounted horizontally in line, the use of a shadow - mask with slots instead of circular holes, and a screen with the phosphors deposited in vertical stripes instead of as a pattern of dot triads. It seems therefore that the days of the present delta gun shadowmask tube are now numbered, though considerable production will have to continue for many years to provide replacement tubes for the millions of colour sets already in use. So far as the viewer is concerned however it is important to appreciate the time scale involved (see above) and the reasons for the development of the new tube. There is nothing wrong with the type of shadow - mask tube we have known since the beginning of colour TV: it is able to provide superb pictures. But in its 110° form it does require rather a lot of scan/convergence correction circuitry. If this can be reduced by means of an alternative approach
as with the 20AX tube  considerable benefits in set production and servicing will be obtained. This has been the aim behind the development of the new tube, and the demonstration tube we have seen operating with its associated deflection yoke and circuitry gave a picture every bit as good as we have come to expect from the present "conventional" approach to colour tube design. There are now four colour tubes with in -line guns, the Sony Trinitron (the first to come along), the RCA /Mazda PIL tube, the Toshiba RIS tube and now the PHILIPS 20AX. It is interesting to compare them. The Trinitron is a 90° narrow neck (29mm) tube. It differs from the others in using an aperture grill (slits from top to bottom) instead of a mask behind the screen to shadow the beams and a tube face which is substantially flat in the vertical plane. On the domestic market it is used exclusively in Sony sets and certainly represented a break through in simplifying the convergence circuitry and setting up adjustments required. The Toshiba RIS (rectangular flare, in-line guns, slotted shadowmask) tube has now turned up in the UK in the recently introduced 18in. Sharp Model C1831H. Its most distinctive feature is the rectangu- lar instead of conical tube flare and the rectangular semi -toroidal scanning yoke which is used with this. It is a 110° thick neck (36mm) tube. The convergence arrangements are fairly simple. The most interesting comparisons however are between the PI tube and the 20AX. The first is a 90° tube of the narrow neck variety and features a toroidal yoke which is cemented to the tube- thus if either is faulty the entire tube/yoke assembly must be replaced. The great advantage is that no dynamic convergence adjustments or circuitry are required. It is at present limited to sizes up to 20in. and the designers say that it is not intended as a successor to the standard shadowmask tube above this size. Its depth compares with 110° tubes because of the simplified gun structure used. The PHILIPS 20AX tube differs from it in several respects. First it is basically a 110° tube which can be produced in a whole range of sizes production of 18, 22 and 26in. versions is proposed so that set  makers can use it with a single chassis for models of various sizes. Secondly it uses saddlewound deflection coils which are separate from though accurately aligned with the tube. And thirdly it is a thick neck tube. Unlike the PI tube in which all the gun electrodes except the cathodes are common to all guns the electrodes of each gun in the 20AX are separately available at the base. This means that in addition to RGB drive to the cathodes the grids are available for blanking and beam limiting and the first anodes for background control setting in the normal manner. In fact PHILIPS emphasised that the new tube is entirely compatible with existing colour set techniques  though the whole convergence system is greatly simplified. The basic idea behind these in line gun, slotted mask tubes is that by mounting the guns horizontally in line the convergence errors are confined to the horizontal plane and by applying an astigmatic deflection field these errors are cancelled. This means that a fair amount of cunning in the design of the deflection yoke is required. A saddlewound yoke is more efficient than a toroidal yoke since the deflection fields are totally enclosed.

 In comparison to current 110° PHILIPS tubes the 20AX requires much the same horizontal deflection power but about twice the vertical deflection power (which can be obtained without trouble from modern semiconductor devices). The use of a separate yoke with a tube of this type means that some dynamic convergence controls are still necessary, in order to match the assemblies. PHILIPS refer to these as "tolerance adjustments" rather than "dynamic convergence controls". About seven are required at present though further work is being done on this and by the time sets with the new tube appear we can expect some reduction. A single pincushion transductor is required instead of the two needed with 110° shadowmask tubes of the present variety. In comparison the PIL  tube requires no dynamic convergence adjustments, only some simple tube neck magnets for static setting up. It is a little less efficient however because of the type of yoke employed. Whatever else happens there is no doubt that the vast majority of colour tubes fitted to TVC sets come 1977 will be of the in line gun, slotted mask, vertical phosphor stripe variety. Two further points made by PHILIPS at their demonstration : first, this type of tube requires less degaussing so that there are worthwhile savings in the amount of copper required for the degaussing coils: secondly their new tube, and in fact all PHILIPS monochrome tubes and shortly their colour tubes as well, will incorporate "instant on" guns which come into operation about  five seconds after the set is switched on instead of the 30 seconds or more taken by present tubes. This instant on feature is based on a new heater/cathode assembly in which the use of mica insulators has been avoided. 
Meanwhile we understand that in addition to RCA and, in the UK, Mazda, ITT and Videocolor SA are to produce PIL tubes. Whilst congratulations all round was appropriate on the successful development of these  tubes it does seem a pity that was about to enter for the first time an era of non compatible colour c.r.t.s.

The LOEWE CT5067U  (C5000)   has a  sensor keyboard for local commands, includes a plurality of tuning positions each defined by an adjustable potentiometer, a neon bulb indicator, a UHF/VHF switch and a two pole momentary contact touch switch. A common tuning capacitor has a tuning voltage developed thereacross for controlling the tuning of a varactor diode tuner. A source of reference potential is coupled across the tuning potentiometers and closure of any touch switch results in the tuning capacitor being charged from the voltage reference source through the selected one of the tuning potentiometers. The neon bulbs yield a visual indication of the selected tuning position. Circuitry for automatically placing control of the tuner to a preselected one of the tuning positions upon turn on of the receiver is also included.


- Horizontal Beam Deflection  and high voltage generating circuits realized with Thyristors circuits.
The massive demand for colour television receivers in Europe/Germany in the 70's  brought about an influx of sets from the continent. Many of these use the thin -neck (29mm) type of 110° shadowmask tube and the Philips 20AX CRT Tube, plus the already Delta Gun CRT . 
Scanning of these tubes is accomplished by means of a toroidally wound deflection yoke (conventional 90° and thick -neck 110° tubes operate with saddle -wound deflection coils). The inductance of a toroidal yoke is very much less than that of a saddle -wound yoke, thus higher scan currents are required. The deflection current necessary for the line scan is about 12A peak -to -peak. This could be provided by a transistor line output stage but a current step-up transformer, which is bulky and both difficult and costly to manufacture, would be required. 
An entirely different approach, pioneered by RCA in America and developed by them and by ITT (SEL) in Germany, is the thyristor line output stage. In this system the scanning current is provided via two thyristors and two switching diodes which due to their characteristics can supply the deflection yoke without a step-up transformer (a small transformer is still required to obtain the input voltage pulse for the e.h.t. tripler). The purpose of this article is to explain the basic operation of such circuits. The thyristor line output circuit offers high reliability since all switching occurs at zero current level. C.R.T. flashovers, which can produce high current surges (up to 60A), have no detrimental effects on the switching diodes or thyristors since the forward voltage drop across these devices is small and the duration of the current pulses short. If a surge limiting resistor is pro- vided in the tube's final anode circuit the peak voltages produced by flashovers seldom exceed the normal repetitive circuit voltages by more than 50-100V. This is well within the device ratings.  It's a very good system to use where the line scan coils require large peak currents with only a moderate flyback voltage  an intrinsic characteristic of toroidally wound deflection coils. The basic thyristor line output stage arrangement used in all these chassis is shown in Fig. 1
it was originally devised by RCA. Many sets fitted with 110°, narrow -neck delta -gun tubes used a thyristor line output stage - for example those in the Grundig and Saba ranges and the Finlux Peacock , Indesit, Siemens, Salora, Metz, Nordmende, Blaupunkt, ITT, Seleco, REX, Mivar, Emerson, Brionvega, Loewe, Galaxi, Stern, Zanussi, Wega, Philco. The circuit continued to find favour in earlier chassis designed for use with in -line gun tubes, examples being found in the Grundig and Korting ranges - also,  Indesit, Siemens, Salora, Metz, Nordmende, Blaupunkt, ITT, Seleco, REX, Mivar, Emerson, Brionvega, Loewe, Galaxi, Stern, Zanussi, Wega, Philco the Rediffusion Mk. III chassis. Deflection currents of up to 13A peak -to -peak are commonly encountered with 110° tubes, with a flyback voltage of only some 600V peak  to peak. The total energy requirement is of the order of 6mJ, which is 50 per cent higher than modern 110° tubes of the 30AX and S4 variety with their saddle -wound line scan coils.   The only problem with this type of circuit is the large amount of energy that shuttles back and forth at line frequency. This places a heavy stress on certain components. Circuit losses produce quite high temperatures, which are concentrated at certain points, in particular the commutating combi coil. This leads to deterioration of the soldered joints around the coil, a common cause of failure. This can have a cumulative effect, a high resistance joint increasing the local heating until the joint becomes well and truly dry -a classic symptom with some Grundig / Emerson sets. The wound components themselves can be a source of trouble, due to losses - particularly the combi coil and the regulating transductor. Later chassis are less prone to this sort of thing, partly because of the use of later generation, higher efficiency yokes but mainly due to more generous and better design of the wound components. The ideal dielectric for use in the tuning capacitors is polypropylene (either metalised or film). It's a truly won- derful dielectric - very stable, with very small losses, and capable of operation at high frequencies and elevated temperatures. It's also nowadays reasonably inexpensive. Unfortunately many earlier chassis of this type used polyester capacitors, and it's no surprise that they were inclined to give up. When replacing the tuning capacitors in a thyristor line output stage it's essential to use polypropylene types -a good range of axial components with values ranging from 0.001µF to 047µF is available from RS Components, enabling even non-standard values to be made up from an appropriate combination. Using polypropylene capacitors in place of polyester ones will not only ensure capacitor reliability but will also lower the stress on other components by reducing the circuit losses (and hence power consumption).
       Numerous circuit designs for completely transistorized television receivers either have been incorporated in commercially available receivers or have been described in detail in various technical publications. One of the most troublesome areas in such transistor receivers, from the point of View of reliability and economy, lies in the horizontal deflection circuits.
       As an attempt to avoid the voltage and current limitations of transistor deflection circuits, a number of circuits have been proposed utilizing the silicon controlled rectifier (SCR), a semiconductor device capable of handling substantially higher currents and voltages than transistors.
       The circuit utilizes two bi-directionally conductive switching means which serve respectively as trace and commutating switches. Particularly, each of the switching means comprises the parallel combination of a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) and a diode. The commutating switch is triggered on shortly before the desired beginning of retrace and, in conjunction with a resonant commutating circuit having an inductor and two capacitors, serves to turn off the trace switch to initiate retrace. The commutating circuit is also arranged to turn oft the commutating SCR before the end of retrace. 


The set is build with a Modular chassis design because as modern television receivers become more complex the problem of repairing the receiver becomes more difficult. As the number of components used in the television receiver increases the susceptibility to breakdown increases and it becomes more difficult to replace defective components as they are more closely spaced. The problem has become even more complicated with the increasing number of color television receivers in use. A color television receiver has a larger number of circuits of a higher degree of complexity than the black and white receiver and further a more highly trained serviceman is required to properly service the color television receiver.
Fortunately for the service problem to date, most failures occur in the vacuum tubes used in the television receivers. A faulty or inoperative vacuum tube is relatively easy to find and replace. However, where the television receiver malfunction is caused by the failure of other components, such as resistors, capacitors or inductors, it is harder to isolate the defective component and a higher degree of skill on the part of the serviceman is required.
Even with the great majority of the color television receiver malfunctions being of the "easy to find and repair" type proper servicing of color sets has been difficult to obtain due to the shortage of trained serviceman.
At the present time advances in the state of the semiconductor art have led to the increasing use of transistors in color television receivers. The receiver described in this application has only two tubes, the picture tube and the high voltage rectifier tube, all the other active components in the receiver being semiconductors.
One important characteristic of a semiconductor device is its extreme reliability in comparison with the vacuum tube. The number of transistor and integrated circuit failures in the television receiver will be very low in comparison with the failures of other components, the reverse of what is true in present day color television receivers. Thus most failures in future television receivers will be of the hard to service type and will require more highly qualified servicemen.
The primary symptoms of a television receiver malfunction are shown on the picture tube of the television receiver while the components causing the malfunction are located within the cabinet. Also many adjustments to the receiver require the serviceman to observe the screen. Thus the serviceman must use unsatisfactory mirror arrangements to remove the electronic chassis from the cabinet, usually a very difficult task. Further many components are "buried" in a maze of circuitry and other components so that they are difficult to remove and replace without damage to other components in the receiver.
Repairing a modern color television receiver often requires that the receiver be removed from the home and carried to a repair shop where it may remain for many weeks. This is an expensive undertaking since most receivers are bulky and heavy enough to require at least two persons to carry them. Further, two trips must be made to the home, one to pick up the receiver and one to deliver it. For these reasons, the cost of maintaining the color television receiver in operating condition often exceeds the initial cost of the receiver and is an important factor in determining whether a receiver will be purchased.
Therefore, the object of this invention is to provide a transistorized color television receiver in which the main electronic chassis is easily accessible for maintenance and adjustment. Another object of this invention is to provide a transistorized color television receiver in which the electronic circuits are divided into a plurality of modules with the modules easily removable for service and maintenance. The main electronic chassis is slidably mounted within the cabinet so that it may be withdrawn, in the same manner as a drawer, to expose the electronic circuitry therein for maintenance and adjustment from the rear closure panel after easy removal. Another aspect is the capability to be serviced at eventually the home of the owner.
All transistor color VHF/UHF TV receiver powered from AC net 220V/50Hz.Woodencabinet.

The Loewe brand values have been shaped consistently over a long period of time. It all began in Berlin in 1923, with the brothers Dr. Siegmund and David Ludwig Loewe. Since then, one principle has always been adhered to: setting new standards with innovation for the senses.

Loewe established an impressive level of quality as early as 1931, with the first public television transmission worldwide. Loewe has been producing quality made in Germany at its location in Kronach since 1948. In the last 20 years, in addition to the Art 1 from 1985 becoming a design classic, Loewe has received numerous national and international awards.

In 2005, Loewe became the leading premium flat screen television provider. It made its breakthrough with the Loewe Individual: the first flat screen television with individualised housing versions, set-up options and inset colours. In 2008, with the Loewe Connect, Loewe heralded a new, digital television age where non-system end devices could be connected to a flat screen television set. One year later, Loewe combined uncompromising ultraslim design with leading state-of-the-art technology in the Reference range. In 2010, Loewe ultimately introduced the Mediacenter, which provides perfect entertainment networking throughout the home. Another step towards the future.

Loewe AG (pronounced [ˈløːvə]) is the parent company of the German Loewe group. The Loewe group develops, manufactures and sells a wide variety of electronic, electrical and mechanical products and systems, and specialises in the field of consumer and communication technology. The company was founded in Berlin in 1923 by brothers Siegmund and David L. Loewe. The company has its headquarters and sole production facilities in Kronach, Franconia. Today, the range has expanded to include televisions, Blu-ray players, DVD recorders, hard disk recorders, multiroom systems, speakers and racks. The trend is shifting from individual products to complete home entertainment systems. Loewe AG is also represented internationally by sales partners and subsidiaries. These include subsidiaries in the Benelux countries, France, Italy, Austria and the UK. There are exclusive Loewe Galeries acting as flagship stores in many cities around the world, including Madrid, London, Paris, Amsterdam, Rome, Copenhagen, Vienna, Moscow and Hong Kong.


LOEWE Company history
It all began in 1923 in Berlin, when Dr Siegmund Loewe and his brother David Ludwig Loewe established a radio manufacturing company called Radiofrequenz GmbH. Their work with the young physicist Manfred von Ardenne in 1926 led to the development of the triple tube, which was first used in the Loewe OE333 radio receiver. This tube prompted Loewe’s multi-tube production and is today lauded as the world’s first integrated circuit.

Television development began at Loewe in 1929. The company worked together with British television pioneer John Logie Baird. In 1931, Manfred von Ardenne presented the world’s first fully electronic television to the public on the Loewe stand at the 8th Berlin Radio Show.

When Hitler came to power in Germany, Siegmund Loewe had to emigrate to the USA in 1938, where he developed friendship with yet another forced emigrant, Albert Einstein.

In 1949, Siegmund Loewe regained possession of company property and took over as chairman of the supervisory board. In the 1950s, Loewe began producing the Optaphon, the first cassette tape recorder, and manufacturing televisions in Kronach. 1961 saw the first European video recorder, the Optacord 500, enter mass production.

In 1962, the family company tradition ended with the death of Siegmund Loewe. Subsidiaries of the Philips group took over the majority of shares. Under this management, which continued until 1985, the company increasingly specialised in the development and production of televisions.

In 1963, the first portable television, Loewe Optaport, was launched. It had a 25cm screen and built-in FM radio. The first Loewe colour televisions were launched along with the introduction of colour television in Germany. Loewe revolutionised television production in 1979 with a fully integrated chassis (everything on a single board). The first European stereo television followed in 1981.

In 1985, management made Loewe a privately owned company again after Philips sold its shares. In the same year, Loewe created the Art 1, a new generation of TVs with a focus on design.

The CS1 represented another international first in 1995 as the world’s first fully recyclable television. At this time, the course was also set for systematic further development as a multimedia specialist.

1998 marked two more milestones in the company history: the launch of the Xelos @ media, the first television with internet access, and that of the Spheros, the first Loewe flat-screen television. In the following year, Loewe AG became a publicly listed company.

With the Individual, the first flat-screen TV with individual housing options, set-up solutions and inset colours, Loewe took a decisive step and became a premium flat-screen TV manufacturer.

Loewe Connect, the world's first smart TV with fully integrated network capability for wireless access to picture, music and video files on a computer or external hard drive followed in 2008.

LED technology was adopted at Loewe in 2010 in the new Individual. In the following year, Loewe introduced 3D picture display to its Individual range.


LOEWE HISTORY IN GERMAN:
Loewe war und ist immer ein besonderer Betrieb - und bis ins 21. Jahrhundert aktiv und in privatem Besitz. Nicht nur «das erste IC», die Röhre 3NF ist da zu erwähnen, sondern auch die Mitentwicklung des elektronischen Fernsehens in Deutschland.

1923: Radiofrequenz-GmbH und Loewe-Audion GmbH, Berlin-Friedenau;
1926: Aktiengesellschaft D.S. Loewe, Berlin-Steglitz;
1930: Radio-Aktien-Gesellschaft Dr. S. Loewe;
1933 (nach): Löwe-Radio AG;
1942: Opta-Radio AG;
1949: Loewe-Opta AG;
1965: Loewe Opta GmbH, Kronach.
Radios: 1923 bis 1926, Loewe 1927 bis 1978. TV-Fabrikation danach.


Nach Studium der Physik und Elektrotechnik promoviert Siegmund Loewe (Berlin 6.11.1885-28.5.1962 USA) unter Max Wien mit magna cum laude zum Dr. phil. Er tritt bei der Firma Telefunken ein und wechselt 1915 zur Firma Huth, wo er die Leitung der Laboratorien und der Patentabteilung übernimmt. 1918 mietet Loewe in Berlin SW61 eine 7-Zimmer-Wohnung und erstellt mit einer kleinen Entwicklungsgruppe einen Telefonie-Röhrensender, dessen Sendungen in dem nicht weit entfernten Haus des Scherl-Verlages von Otto Kappelmayer zu empfangen sind. Um seine Kenntnisse zu erweitern, begibt sich Loewe in die USA. Einen ausführlichen Bericht von und über Loewe finden Sie in [1-99], woraus Sie erkennen können, dass Loewe das treibende Element für den Rundfunk in Deutschland war. Wie er gegen den Monopolanspruch von Telefunken/Lorenz/Huth (Funkkartell «Rundfunk GmbH») kämpfte und weitere Details finden Sie in [6-121].

Nach seiner Rückkehr aus den USA wird das Versuchslabor von Loewe zum Kristallisationspunkt der jungen Funktechnik. Im Dezember 1921 erhält Loewe Besuch von Lee de Forest, und sie verbessern gemeinsam Röhren. 1921 entstehen auch zwei grundlegende Patente für den Konus-Lautsprecher. Loewe eröffnet ein zweites Laboratorium und gründet 1923 die Loewe-Audion-GmbH für die Herstellung von Radioröhren sowie die Radiosender GmbH.

Im Dezember 1921 lernt der Realschüler Manfred von Ardenne den Radiopionier Loewe in einem Elektrikergeschäft kennen und ist darauf häufiger Gast in den Laboratorien von Loewe. Ein Autor schreibt, dass Loewe zum «Ziehvater» des jungen von Ardenne wird und er in der Familie aufgenommen ist, doch von Ardenne beschreibt dies in seinem Buch «Eine glückliche Jugend im Zeichen der Technik» (DDR) nicht.

Die wahrscheinlich 1923 gegründete Loewe Radio GmbH führt der jüngste Loewe-Bruder Bernhard. Das D bei D.S. Loewe steht für den älteren Bruder, David (Teilhaber).

Radiofrequenz GmbH und Loewe-Audion GmbH (1923-27):
Am 22.1.23 erwirbt Dr. Siegmund Loewe die seit 1918/19 bestehende Mechanische Werkstatt Grüttner & Lütgert in Berlin-Friedenau und gründet die Radiofrequenz GmbH. Die ersten Geräte sind für den Export bestimmt. Davon sind mir die Typen EA51, EA52 und EA54 bekannt. EA steht für «Empfangs-Apparat».

Im Jahr darauf stellt der Betrieb die Ziffer 9 vor die laufende Nummer. Der Sprung von EA958 auf EA980 deutet auf andere Artikel hin (z.B. Trichterlautsprecher und kombinierte Geräte etc.). Nachher ist keine Nummernsystematik mehr zu erkennen, ausser den Buchstabenkombinationen wie OE (Orts-Empfänger), FE (Fern-Empfänger), KV (KW-Vorsetzer), RO (Rückkopplungs-Ortsempfänger) etc.
1927 gibt Loewe den Namen Radiofrequenz auf und verwendet seinen eigenen Namen. Die drei Geräte OE333, 2H3N und NVG gibt es unter beiden Namen, da sie Loewe 1927/28 ohne neue Modelle weiter produziert. Mehr als eine Million dieser Geräte lassen sich zum Stückpreis von 39.50 RM verkaufen, und die Tagesproduktion erreicht zeitweise 2000 Einheiten.

Im Oktober 1923 gründet Loewe eine weitere Gesellschaft zur Herstellung von Rundfunkröhren mit dem Namen Loewe-Audion GmbH, ebenfalls an der Niedstrasse 5 in Berlin-Friedenau gelegen. Zuerst entstehen dort Wolfram-, dann Thoriumröhren als «Sparröhren». Im September 1924 meldet Loewe die grundlegenden Patente zur Dreifachröhre mit integrierten Bauteilen an, die 1926 als 3NF mit dem «Loewe Ortsempfänger OE333» einen legendären Ruf erreicht.

Loewe, Löwe, Opta, Loewe-Opta
Die Schrift «Loewe-Story» aus dem Hause Loewe-Opta zeigt die Abbildung eines «Detektor-Empfängers» mit zwei Steckspulen, der angeblich zur Eröffnung des Rundfunks bereitstand. Es ist aber ein umfunktionierter Sperrkreis für den Empfänger 2H3N, Baujahr 1927, was auch aus dem Firmenschild mit «Berlin-Steglitz» hervorgeht.

1926 entsteht die Aktiengesellschaft D.S. Loewe, Berlin-Steglitz. Als zweites Gerät unter der neuen Marke Loewe bzw. Loewe Radio gilt der auf der Funkausstellung im September 1926 gezeigte Fernempfänger 2H3N zu RM 150. Auch Lautsprecherboxen mit Loewe-Konus-Lautsprecher und Stoffbezug im «Südsee-look» sind nun erhältlich. Wegen der steigenden Anzahl Rundfunksender treten Trennschärfeprobleme auf, so dass die Dreifachröhre für den Einbezug einer Rückkopplung einen siebten Anschluss erhält. Diese «3NF7» baut Loewe ab 1928 in alle OE333, 2H3N und in das dritte Gerät, den RO433 ein. Die elektrische Schallplatten-Abtastdose LR150 erregt Aufsehen; Gewicht 260 g! Die Dose verlangt einen Abspielwinkel von 55 Grad. Die 3NF gibt es nun auch mit Oxydkathode als 3NFB mit einem Verbrauch von 0,13 statt 0,34 A Heizstrom - zudem beträgt die Verstärkung etwa das Doppelte. Weitere Details zu Firmengründungen von Loewe siehe [638967]. Es sind dies z.B. die Eudarit-Pressgut GmbH für Bakelitgehäuse etc. und die Ortophon-Apparatebau GmbH für den Lautsprecherbau.

1929 bringen die Loewe-Firmen den «Vollnetzanschluss-Empfänger R533» heraus, der mit einer nochmals verbesserten Dreifachröhre, der 3NFW mit indirekter Heizung, ausgestattet ist. 1929 entsteht Loewe's Berliner-Radio-Handels-Aktiengesellschaft. Die Baird Television Company Ltd., London, bietet Loewe die Auswertung und Entwicklung ihrer Schutzrechte und Entwicklungsarbeiten auf dem Fernsehgebiet in Deutschland an. Da dieses Angebot die finanziellen Möglichkeiten von Loewe übersteigt, regt Dr. Loewe eine Beteiligung von Zeiss Ikon, Dresden, und Robert Bosch, Stuttgart, an. Es kommt Mitte 1929 zur Gründung der Fernseh-AG in Berlin, die 1939 im Firmenverband Robert Bosch aufgeht.

1930 fasst Loewe verschiedene seiner Firmen unter dem Namen Radio-Aktien-Gesellschaft Dr. S. Loewe zusammen und mit dem EB100W (1931 EB100G) beginnt die Reihe der Empfänger mit integriertem Lautsprecher.

Im Auftrag der Loewe-Firmen bringt von Ardenne aus seinem eigenen Labor 1930 erste brauchbare Vorschläge zur Helligkeitssteuerung, um auf einem Bildschirm ein gut modulierbares Bildraster zu schreiben. Meine gasgefüllte Braun'sche Röhre aus dem Labor von Ardenne zeugt für die Forschung um 1926.

Auch auf der Senderseite entwickelt Loewe elektronische Medien auf der Grundlage des «Flying-spot-Abtasters», um Filme elektronisch übertragen zu können. Am 25.4.31 veranstalten Dr. S. Loewe und M. von Ardenne in den Lichterfelder-Laboratorien eine Vorführung vor der Fachpresse. Bald darauf kann Loewe die Qualität der mechanischen Systeme erreichen und übertreffen. Siehe [1-127f]. 1932 geht von Ardenne eigene Wege. 1933, ein Jahr vor den Mitbewerbern, erkennt Dr. Loewe die Notwendigkeit von Allstrom-Apparaten und bringt den 1-Kreis-Empfänger «Edda» auf den Markt. (Ganz so richtig ist das nicht: zumindest Emud kommt 1931 mit «Allstrom», EE). Zu der Zeit halten sich Wohnungen mit Gleich- bzw. Wechselstrom etwa die Waage und eine Familie, die umzieht, kann den transformatorlosen Apparat weiterverwenden. Der Apparat führt die Allstrom-Dreifachröhre WD33. Das Allstromkonzept führt Loewe auch für Mehrkreis- und Superhet-Empfänger mit den Röhren WG34, WG35 und WG36 fort.

Auf dem in England bestellten Sattelschlepper mit einer Fernseh-Sendereinrichtung steht anlässlich der Premiere vom Juli 1934 in London gross der Namenszug Radio A.G. D.S. Loewe. Das Regime in Deutschland lässt die Firma jedoch bald in Löwe-Radio AG umtaufen und 1942 in Opta-Radio AG. Loewe wandert 1936 in die USA aus und gründet dort die Loewe Radio Inc. Er hat 1938 aus dem Vorstand in Deutschland auszuscheiden.

1941-44 fertigen die Opta-Betriebe ausschliesslich Rüstungsgüter; Opta-Radios sind dann Fremdtypen [638966-19]. Man gliedert Grassman in den Opta-Betrieb ein. Es entstehen Auslagerungsbetriebe, z.B. in Oberlungwitz in Sachsen. In Berlin-Weissensee entsteht während des Krieges ein Betrieb für Röhrenbau [DRM94].

Noch im März 1945 verlagert das Unternehmen eine wichtige Kriegsfertigung nach Küps bei Kronach. Dies ist die Keimzelle der neuen Firma, denn 1948 kann S. Loewe seine Wiedergutmachungsansprüche durchsetzen und erhält das Sagen beim demontierten Hauptwerk in Berlin und der Auslagerungsstätte in Küps bei Kronach. In Küps fabriziert Loewe ab 1946. Gemäss «Loewe-Story» gibt es vor November 1947 den «Kronach», wahrscheinlich 547W, in einer Auflage von zwei Geräten pro Tag. Ein getrenntes Werk in Düsseldorf-Heerdt offeriert als Firma Opta-Spezial GmbH von 1950 bis 1954 Opta-Spezial-Radios [6-124]. Konsul Bruno Pieper wirkt als Generaldirektor.

Jedenfalls: Auf der Leipziger Messe von 1947 sind wieder Loewe-Entwicklungen zu sehen. Die Firma erzeugt 1950 mit dem «Optaphon» das erste deutsche Kassetten-Tonbandgerät. 1961 ist Loewe mit dem «Optacord 500», einer für den privaten Gebrauch konzipierten Video-Anlage, führend beim Bildschirmtext und baut vor allem modernste TV-Empfänger - ein Steckenpferd von Dr. S. Loewe. Er stirbt 1962.

Bis 1978 fertigt die Firma Radios in Berlin, löst diesen Betrieb aber auf. Der Mitarbeiterbestand bei Loewe beträgt Ende der 80er Jahre ca. 1500. Die Loewe Opta GmbH, Kronach, gehört in den 90er Jahren zu 51,9 % der Management GBR (Gesellschaft leitender Mitarbeiter der GmbH) und zu 48,1 % zu Matsushita (Panasonic), wobei eine gute gegenseitige Befruchtung für das Hauptprodukt, TV, zum Tragen kommt.

Loewe in Ostdeutschland:
Opta Leipzig, ab 1950 VEB Stern-Radio Leipzig genannt, geht 1952 im VEB Fernmeldewerk Leipzig auf. Die Radioproduktion endet 1950/51.

Nach dem Krieg versuchen Loewe-Mitarbeiter des Zweigwerkes in Oberlungwitz in Sachsen, Maschinen und Vorrichtungen nach West-Berlin zu transportieren, doch die Sowjets verlangen, dass diese Güter in die Röhrenfabrik Berlin-Weissensee gelangen.

Dieser Loewe-Betrieb arbeitet mit der Röhrenfabrik in Berlin.

Loewe hat auch in anderen Ländern Produktionsstätten, so z.B. in Grossbritannien. Vor allem aber auch Handelsniederlassungen, wie Loewe Radio S.A., 3 quai de Willebroeck, Bruxelles (adress in 1932).


German technology manufacturer Loewe declares bankruptcy:

  On October 1-2013 , Loewe, a producer of entertainment and communications technology, declared bankruptcy at the Cobourg district court.

 

 The long-established company was founded in Berlin in 1923 as Radiofrequenz Gmbh by physicist and electronic technician Sigmund Loewe and his brother Ludwig David Loewe. The firm was one of the first in Germany to produce electronic tubes for televisions, loudspeakers and resistors. The well-known physicist Manfred von Ardenne participated in the development of televisions by Loewe from 1929, which led to the first-ever electronic television broadcast in 1931 at the radio exhibition in Berlin.

As they were Jewish, the Loewe brothers were forced into exile after the assumption of power by the Nazis in 1933. Ludwig emigrated to the United States in 1934, and Sigmund in 1938. The company was subsequently “Aryanised” and reorganised for war production in 1939 for the German air force. At the end of the Second World War, in March 1945, the company moved to Kronach, although the main plant in Berlin Steglitz continued in existence until 1979.

Sigmund Loewe returned to Germany in 1946, took over the leadership of the firm and developed the first cassette recorder in the 1950s as well as the first European video recorder in 1961. In 1963, Loewe produced the first portable television.

Loewe was the head of his firm until his death in 1962. The majority shareholding subsequently went to concealed subsidiaries of the Phillips group, which sold their entire stake in 1985. Since 1999, Loewe AG has been listed on the stock market.

The orientation to customers with buying power was the basis of the company’s production for decades. Loewe developed the first television with Internet access in 1998. In 2005, the firm produced its first flat-screen model.

A crisis in 2004, caused by the firm’s failure to respond quickly to the development of flat-screen technology, was overcome with a capital injection from the Japanese firm Sharp and a drastic programme of budget cuts. This was worked out between the IG Metall trade union, the works council and company management.

Of the 1,250 employees, 300 were laid off, and those who remained had to work longer without any corresponding wage increase. In addition, they had to give up half of their monthly salary or a whole monthly wage. In this way, costs were reduced by 25 percent. In 2007, the company registered a surplus of €6.5 million and the workers received a one-off premium of €3,000.

“That was of course great for the people there,” said Christopher Schmitz from the Verdi union, as Verdi agreed to wage cuts at the Karstadt department store chain three years ago. “But Loewe is a complete one-off.” The workers would never normally see any of their money again.

The crisis at Loewe, which has been ongoing for five years, is a consequence of the global economic crisis that broke out in 2008. During this period, total sales have fallen from €374 million to €250 million. The groups that Loewe had targeted for a long time, such as skilled workers and specialists, who could afford to concern themselves with quality, have been rocked by the effects of the crisis with the loss of their jobs and wage cuts, or at least the permanent threat of this possibility.

At the end of 2012, there were still close to 1,000 employees working at the Kronach facility. In April 2013, after “constructive discussions with the works council and IG Metall,” 180 jobs were cut, including 130 in production. With the further announcement of 150 redundancies in September, Loewe has laid off around 35 percent of its workforce in less than six months with the support of the trade unions and works council.

Loewe’s competitors in the high-end sector are also suffering due to the crisis. The Danish entertainment and electronics concern Bang & Olufsen reported heavy losses. The firm is the second largest European company in the industry and registered a shortfall of €9 million in the last quarter.


On October 1, Loewe, a producer of entertainment and communications technology, declared bankruptcy at the Cobourg district court.
Two weeks previously, the company, which is based in Kronach, announced that it would make 150 of its 800 workers redundant as part of a restructuring process to take “measures to adjust the cost base.” The ailing company was seeking new investors by laying off the workers. The measure was “an essential precondition for the intervention of an investor and the maintenance of the whole company,” said Matthias Harsch, the chief executive of the board of Loewe AG.
Earlier this year, in July, Loewe applied for bankruptcy protection, which involved the establishment of a restructuring plan that was supervised by an administrator appointed by a court. The company was thereby granted three months’ protection from its creditors, and it introduced restructuring measures. The expiration of the period of bankruptcy protection has now led to actual bankruptcy proceedings.
In the middle of the Bavarian election campaign in August, state president Horst Seehofer of the Christian Social Union (CSU) pledged state guarantees for the company if an investor could be found.
Then in September, Loewe announced a partnership agreement with Hisense, a Chinese producer of televisions and kitchen appliances. The company is the fourth largest producer of televisions globally, has its headquarters in Kingdao in eastern China, and was considered a possible investor. According to Spiegel Online, both companies had recently begun joint distributions in Austria, which was viewed as a test market.
However, Hisense had not committed to any financial assistance, as the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung ( FAZ ) reported. FAZ went on to explain that there was also “a group of British financiers who want to give Loewe a new strategic direction.” If the company does not find an investor by the end of October, it will be dismantled.
Loewe reported losses in August of close to €15 million (US$20 million), after three loss-making years in a row. The company’s liquidity fell from €27 million to just €8 million, while its capital shrank from €48 million to €25 million. The bankruptcy announcement at the beginning of October caused Loewe’s stock to drop immediately by 50 percent.
Loewe specialised for decades in expensive televisions and high-end entertainment equipment. It has now changed its sales strategy and wants to open up to “the mass market” of cheap televisions and loudspeakers, because “the specialised trade only accounts for 25 percent” of the market, as Harsch told Der Spiegel in an interview.
In order to sell goods cheaply in major stores, production was to be outsourced to Asia. A facility would continue in Kronach for the manufacturing of “high-end appliances.” However, in future, it will not be production in Germany that is important, but rather the label “engineered and designed in Germany.” “We are not a producer of appliances any more, and that’s what I’m trying to persuade the firm,” Harsch said in the same interview.

21/03/2014: Münchener Investor übernimmt Loewe:

KronachNach langem Bangen hat der traditionsreiche Fernsehgerätehersteller Loewe einen Investor gefunden und hofft nun auf eine bessere Zukunft. Das Münchner Finanzunternehmen Stargate Capital übernimmt das oberfränkische Traditionsunternehmen, hieß es in einer am Freitagabend veröffentlichten Mitteilung. „Wir sind sehr froh, dass es nach den Turbulenzen der letzten Wochen gelungen ist, einen starken Partner für Loewe zu finden“, erklärte Vorstandschef Matthias Harsch. „Loewe kann nun endlich neu durchstarten.“

Ein notarieller Kaufvertrag über den gesamten Geschäftsbetrieb sei bereits von beiden Seiten unterzeichnet worden, hieß es. Der neue Eigentümer führe den Geschäftsbetrieb am Standort Kronach einschließlich der Produktion fort. Zudem übernimmt Stargate Capital auch die internationalen Tochtergesellschaften. Von den aktuell rund 525 Mitarbeitern dürfen jedoch nur 430 bleiben. Von der Börse will sich Loewe verabschieden.

Durch die Übernahme von Stargate Capital blieben mehr Arbeitsplätze erhalten, als es bei den Erwerberkonzepten aller anderen Kaufinteressenten vorgesehen war, betonte Loewe-Finanzvorstand Rolf Rickmeyer. Die 95 Mitarbeiter, die nach dem Einstieg des Investors nicht übernommen werden sollen, stammen vor allem aus der Produktion und sollen bis Ende September weiterbeschäftigt werden. Von Oktober an sollen sie dann in eine Transfergesellschaft wechseln können. „Dass nicht alle Arbeitsplätze gerettet werden können, bedauere ich umso mehr, als es nicht zuletzt das Verdienst der Mitarbeiter ist, dass Loewe diese schwere Zeit überstehen konnte“, sagte Rickmeyer.

Seit einem Jahr war Loewe inständig auf der Suche nach einem Retter. Im Frühjahr 2013 schockte der Hersteller von Premium-TVs mit der Nachricht, dass die Hälfte des Grundkapitals bald aufgezehrt sei. Im Herbst folgte der Antrag auf Insolvenz in Eigenverwaltung. Mitte Januar dieses Jahres schien es so, als sei mit dem Investor Panthera bereits ein Retter gefunden. Doch vor einem Monat trat die private Investorengruppe völlig überraschend vom Kaufvertrag zurück.

Nach dieser erneuten Hiobsbotschaft für die bei Loewe verbliebenen Mitarbeiter trat Stargate Capital auf den Plan. Das Finanzunternehmen aus München ist auf Investments in mittelständische Unternehmen spezialisiert. „Mit Stargate Capital haben wir vor allem einen Investor gefunden, der eine langfristige Strategie verfolgt mit dem Ziel, Loewe wieder zu alter Stärke zurückzuführen“, erklärte Vorstandschef Harsch.

Über den genauen Kaufpreis schwiegen beide Seiten. Er liege „im oberen einstelligen Millionenbereich“, hieß es lediglich. In den kommenden Jahren seien Investitionen im mittleren zweistelligen Millionenbereich geplant.

No comments:

Post a Comment

The most important thing to remember about the Comment Rules is this:
The determination of whether any comment is in compliance is at the sole discretion of this blog’s owner.

Comments on this blog may be blocked or deleted at any time.
Fair people are getting fair reply. Spam and useless crap and filthy comments / scrapers / observations goes all directly to My Private HELL without even appearing in public !!!

The fact that a comment is permitted in no way constitutes an endorsement of any view expressed, fact alleged, or link provided in that comment by the administrator of this site.
This means that there may be a delay between the submission and the eventual appearance of your comment.

Requiring blog comments to obey well-defined rules does not infringe on the free speech of commenters.

Resisting the tide of post-modernity may be difficult, but I will attempt it anyway.

Your choice.........Live or DIE.
That indeed is where your liberty lies.