Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

In Brief: On this site you will find pictures and information about some of the electronic, electrical and electrotechnical technology relics that the Frank Sharp Private museum has accumulated over the years .

Premise: There are lots of vintage electrical and electronic items that have not survived well or even completely disappeared and forgotten.

Or are not being collected nowadays in proportion to their significance or prevalence in their heyday, this is bad and the main part of the death land. The heavy, ugly sarcophagus; models with few endearing qualities, devices that have some over-riding disadvantage to ownership such as heavy weight,toxicity or inflated value when dismantled, tend to be under-represented by all but the most comprehensive collections and museums. They get relegated to the bottom of the wants list, derided as 'more trouble than they are worth', or just forgotten entirely. As a result, I started to notice gaps in the current representation of the history of electronic and electrical technology to the interested member of the public.


Following this idea around a bit, convinced me that a collection of the peculiar alone could not hope to survive on its own merits, but a museum that gave equal display space to the popular and the unpopular, would bring things to the attention of the average person that he has previously passed by or been shielded from. It's a matter of culture. From this, the Obsolete Technology Tellye Web Museum concept developed and all my other things too. It's an open platform for all electrical Electronic TV technology to have its few, but NOT last, moments of fame in a working, hand-on environment. We'll never own Colossus or Faraday's first transformer, but I can show things that you can't see at the Science Museum, and let you play with things that the Smithsonian can't allow people to touch, because my remit is different.

There was a society once that was the polar opposite of our disposable, junk society. A whole nation was built on the idea of placing quality before quantity in all things. The goal was not “more and newer,” but “better and higher" .This attitude was reflected not only in the manufacturing of material goods, but also in the realms of art and architecture, as well as in the social fabric of everyday life. The goal was for each new cohort of children to stand on a higher level than the preceding cohort: they were to be healthier, stronger, more intelligent, and more vibrant in every way.

The society that prioritized human, social and material quality is a Winner. Truly, it is the high point of all Western civilization. Consequently, its defeat meant the defeat of civilization itself.

Today, the West is headed for the abyss. For the ultimate fate of our disposable society is for that society itself to be disposed of. And this will happen sooner, rather than later.

OLD, but ORIGINAL, Well made, Funny, Not remotely controlled............. and not Made in CHINA.

How to use the site:

- If you landed here via any Search Engine, you will get what you searched for and you can search more using the search this blog feature provided by Google. You can visit more posts scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year,
or you can click on the main photo-page to start from the main page. Doing so it starts from the most recent post to the older post simple clicking on the Older Post button on the bottom of each page after reading , post after post.

You can even visit all posts, time to time, when reaching the bottom end of each page and click on the Older Post button.

- If you arrived here at the main page via bookmark you can visit all the site scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year pointing were you want , or more simple You can even visit all blog posts, from newer to older, clicking at the end of each bottom page on the Older Post button.
So you can see all the blog/site content surfing all pages in it.

- The search this blog feature provided by Google is a real search engine. If you're pointing particular things it will search IT for you; or you can place a brand name in the search query at your choice and visit all results page by page. It's useful since the content of the site is very large.

Note that if you don't find what you searched for, try it after a period of time; the site is a never ending job !

Every CRT Television saved let revive knowledge, thoughts, moments of the past life which will never return again.........

Many contemporary "televisions" (more correctly named as displays) would not have this level of staying power, many would ware out or require major services within just five years or less and of course, there is that perennial bug bear of planned obsolescence where components are deliberately designed to fail and, or manufactured with limited edition specificities..... and without considering........picture......sound........quality........

..............The bitterness of poor quality is remembered long after the sweetness of todays funny gadgets low price has faded from memory........ . . . . . .....
Don't forget the past, the end of the world is upon us! Pretty soon it will all turn to dust!

Have big FUN ! !
-----------------------

©2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 Frank Sharp - You do not have permission to copy photos and words from this blog, and any content may be never used it for auctions or commercial purposes, however feel free to post anything you see here with a courtesy link back, btw a link to the original post here , is mandatory.
All sets and apparates appearing here are property of
Engineer Frank Sharp. NOTHING HERE IS FOR SALE !

Saturday, May 25, 2013

TELEFUNKEN SR285 (ICC8) CHASSIS THOMSON ICC8 INTERNAL VIEW.




 
 















Majority of fault were caused by dry joint which may cause conseguent other faults not specifically related to the culprit point.

Picture produced on the screen were very good and very bright for long times, but as said before they have a discrete high rate of fault (BUT NEVER LIKE ACTUAL CRAP LCD).


Right side

- LINE DEFLECTION TRAFO + EHT + N/S CORRECTION UNIT + SUPPLY + FRAME + E/W

Left side

- STEREO SOUND UNIT + TUNER + IF UNIT
uCONTROLLER

Center

- TA8659CN + TELETEXT UNIT + SCART SOCKET UNIT




TELEFUNKEN SR285 (ICC8)  CHASSIS THOMSON ICC8  VIDEO CRT DRIVE CONTROL CDI2000 TOSHIBA TA8751AN:







































TOSHIBA TA8751AN

TOSHIBA BIPOLAR LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT SILICON MONOLITHIC

TA8751AN

AUTOMATIC KINE BIAS (AKB)
RGB INTERFACE+

TA8751AN possesses functions that optimize the CRT
drive conditions in televisions, and is an IC that
automates the previously complex cutoff adjustment and
drive adjustment non-adjustment. .
It has an RGB TEXT input pin, so TV signal and TEXT ignal can be switched between rapidly.

AKB (AUTOMATIC KINE BIAS) Circuits take the previously complex adjustment of CRT drive
circuits and automates by absorbing the 3-color dispersion of the CRT. It is therefore
necessary to design the CRT drive circuit in an AKB centered state to allow efficient
absorption of the CRT's dispersion.

The primary color input on the TV side takes the form of DC coupling, so please set input
levels so that the contrast control and brightness control in previous stages are under the
following conditions in the center.

The TV's primary colors are DC coupled, so brightness
control from previous stages can be utilized.
hen the power is off and the CRT is
not warmed up, as a beam current
does not flow to cutoff and drive
detection interval, voltage is not
obtainable from the sense pin.
Accordingly, for operation so that
current flows to the CRT for both cut
adjustment and drive adjustment, the
CRT starts from a white screen the
instant it warms up.

In order to prevent this, the soft start
circuit returns the output DC voltage
and operates so that if pin 17 exceeds
a fixed value, cutoff adjustment is
fixed on the black side.
Vertical blanking input

Input pin for the vertical blanking
pulse that determines the timing of
the reference pulse for the cutoff
adjustment and drive adjustment.
The first 2H interval after the leading
edge of the vertical blanking is the
cutoff reference level, while the next
2H interval is the drive reference
level.

H timing is created by the horizontal
blanking of pin 14.


B sense
G sense
R sense

Detection pin for the CRT beam
current.

The current that flows to the CRT
cathode as a result of the reference
pulse inserted for cutoff adjustment
and drive adjustment is converted to a
voltage and detected by detection
resistance. White balance can be
changed by varying detection
resistance.

The internal comparator operates in
tune with the timing of the reference
pulse.


TDA8178S TV VERTICALDEFLECTION BOOSTER:

DESCRIPTION
Designedfor monitors and high performanceTVs,
the TDA8178Svertical deflection booster delivers
flyback voltages up to 90V.
The TDA8178S operates with supplies up to 42V
and provides up to 2App output current to drive to
yoke.
The TDA8178Sis offeredinHEPTAWATTpackage.

.FLYBACK GENERATOR
.THERMAL PROTECTION
.REFERENCE VOLTAGE.


 TDA4950 TV EAST/WEST CORRECTION CIRCUIT:

 DESCRIPTION
The TDA4950 is a monolithic integrated circuit in a
8 pin minidip plastic package designed for use in
the east-west pin-cushion correction by driving a
diode modulator in TV and monitor applications.

 .SQUARE GENERATOR FOR PARABOLIC
CURRENT
.EXTERNAL KEYSTONE ADJUSTMENT (sym-
metry of the parabola)
.INPUT FOR DYNAMIC FIELD CORRECTION
(beam current change)
.STATIC PICTURE WIDTH ADJUSTMENT
.PULSE-WIDTH MODULATOR
.FINAL STAGE D-CLASS WITH ENERGY RE-
DELIVERY
.PARASITIC
PARABOLA
SUPPRESSION,
DURING FLYBACK TIME OF THE VERTICAL
SAWTOOTH.

TEA5101A - RGB HIGH VOLTAGE AMPLIFIER BASIC OPERATION AND APPLICATIONS:

GENERAL
The control of state-of-the-art color cathode ray
tubes requires high performance video amplifiers
which must satisfy both tube and video processor
characteristics.
When considering tube characteristics (see Fig-
ures 13 and 14),we note that a 130V cutoff voltage
is necessary to ensure a 5mA peak current.How-
ever 150V is a more appropriate value if the satu-
ration effect of the amplifier is to be taken into
account. As the dispersion range of the three guns
is ± 12%, the cutoff voltage should be adjustable
from 130V to 170V. The G2 voltage, from 700 to
1500V allows overall adjustment of the cutoff volt-
age for similar tube types.
A 200V supply voltage of the video amplifier is
necessary to achieve a correct blanking operation.
In addition, the video amplifier should have an
output saturation voltage drop lower than 15V, as
a drive voltage of 130V (resp. 115V) is necessary
to obtain a beam current of 4 mA for a gun which
has a cutoff point of 170V (resp. 130V).
Note : For all the calculations discussed above, the
G1 voltage is assumed to be 0V.
The video processor characteristics must also be
considered. As it generally delivers an output volt-
age of 2 to 3V, the video amplifier must provide a
closed loop DC gain of approximately 40.
The video amplifier dynamic performances must
also meet the requirements of good definition even
with RGB input signals (teletext,home computer...),
e.g. 1mm resolution on a 54cm CRT width scanned
in 52µs. Consequently, a slew rate better than
2000V/µs, i.e. rise and fall times lower than 50ns,
is needed. In addition, transition times must be the
same for the three channels so as to avoid coloured
transitions when displaying white characters. The
bandwidth of a video amplifier satisfying all these
requirements must be at least 7MHz for high level
signals and 10MHz for small signals.
One major feature of a video amplifier is its capa-
bility to monitor the beam current of the tube. This
function is necessary with modern video proces-
sors:
- for automatic adjustment of cutoff and also, where
required,video gain in order to improve the long
term performances by compensation for aging
effects through the life of the CRT. This adjust-
ment can be done either sequentially (gun after
gun) or in a parallel mode.
- for limiting the average beam current
A video amplifier must also be flashover protected
and provide high crosstalk performances. Cros-
stalk effects are mainly caused by parasitic capaci-
tors and thus increase with the signal frequency. A
crosstalk level of -20dB at 5MHz is generally ac-
ceptable.

Table 1 summarizes the main features of a high
performance video amplifier.
Table 1 :
Main Features of a High Performance
Video Amplifier
Maximum Supply Voltage
220V
Output voltage swing "Average"
100V
Output voltage swing "Peak"
130V
Low level saturation (refered to VG1)
15V
Closed loop gain
40
Transition time
50ns
Large signal bandwidth
7MHz
Small signal bandwidth
10MHz
Beam current monitoring
Flash over protection
Crosstalk at 5MHz
-20dB
The SGS-THOMSON Microelectronics TEA5101A
is a high performance and large bandwidth 3 chan-
nel video amplifier which fulfills all the criteria dis-
cussed above. Designed in a 250V DMOS bipolar
technology, it operates with a 200V power supply
and can deliver 100V peak-to-peak output signals
with rise and fall times equal to 50ns.
The 5101A features a large signal bandwidth of
8MHz, which can be extended to 10MHz for small
signals (50 Vpp).
Each channel incorporates a PMOS transistor to
monitor the beam current. The circuit provides
internal protection against electrostatic discharges
and high voltage CRT discharges.
The best utilization of the TEA 5101A high perform-
ance features such as dynamic characteristics,
crosstalk,or flashover protection requires opti-
mized application implementation. This aspect will
be discussed in the fourth part of this document.

I.1 - Input Stage
The differential input stage consists of the transistor
T1 and T2 and the resistors R4,R5 and R6.
This stage is biased by a voltage source T3,R1,R2
and R3.
VB(T1) = (1 + R2
R3) x VB(T3) ≅ 3.8V
Each amplifier is biased by a separate voltage
source in order to reduce internal crosstalk. The
load of the input stage is composed of the transistor
T4 (cascode configuration) and the resistor R7. The
cascode configuration has been chosen so as to
reduce the Miller input capacitance. The voltage
gain of the input stage is fixed by R7 and the emitter
degeneration resistors R5,R6,and the T1,T2 internal
emitter resistances. The voltage gain is approxi-
mately 50dB.
Using a bipolar transistor T4 and a polysilicon re-
sistor R7 gives rise to a very low parasitic capaci-
tance at the output of this stage (about 1.5pF).
Hence the rise and fall times are about 50ns for a
100V peak-to-peak signal (between 50V and
150V).
I.2 - Output Stage
The output stage is a quasi-complementary class
B push-pull stage. This design ensures a symetrical
load of the first stage for both rising and falling
signals. The positive output stage is made of the
DMOS transistor T5,and the negative output stage
is made of the transistors PMOS T6 and DMOS T7.
The compound configuration T6-T7 is equivalent to
a single PMOS. A single PMOS transistor capable
of sinking the total current would have been too
large.
By virtue of the symetrical drive properties of the
output stage the rise and fall times are equal (50ns
for 100V DC output voltage).

 I.3 - Beam Current Monitoring
This function is performed by the PMOS transistor
T8 in source follower configuration. The voltage on
the source (cathode output) follows the gate volt-
age (feedback output). The beam current is ab-
sorbed via T8 . On the drain of T8, this current will
be monitored by the videoprocessor.
I.4 - Protection Circuits
I.4.1 - MOS protection
Four zener diodes DZ(1-4) are connected between
gate and source of each MOS in order to prevent
the voltage from reaching the breakdown volt-
age.Hence the VGS voltage is internally limited to
± 15V.
I.4.2 - Protection against electrostatic dis-
charges
All the input/output pins of the TEA5101A are pro-
tected by the diodes D1-D7 which limit the overvol-
tage due to ESD.
I.4.3 - Flashover Protection
A high voltage and high current diode D5 is con-
nected between each output and the high voltage
power supply. During a flash, most of the current is
generally absorbed by the spark gap connected to
the CRT socket. The remaining current is absorbed
by the high voltage decoupling capacitor through
the diode D5. Hence the cathode voltage is
clamped to the supply voltage and the output volt-
age does not exceed this value.

 I.1 - Voltage Amplifier
II.1.1 - Bias conditions Vin = Vref
The bias point is fixed by the feedback resistor
Rf,the bias resistor Rp, and by the internal refer-
ence voltage when Vin = Vref.
If VO is the output voltage (pin 9) :
VO = (1 + Rf
Rp) x Vref (1)
In this state T1 and T2 are conducting. A current
flows in R7 and T4 soT5 is on. The T5 drain current
is fed to the amplifier input through the feedback
resistor. The current in R7 is:
I(R7) = VDD − VO − VGS(T5)
R7
≅ VDD − VO
R7
and the current in T5 and Rf is :
I(T5) = VO − Vref
Rf
≅ VO
Rf
Thus the total current absorbed by each channel of
the TEA5101A is :
VDD
R7 + VO x (1
Rf − 1
R7)
The cathode (pin 7) output voltage is:
VO + VGS(T8) = VO
The beam current is absorbed by T8 and Rm. The
voltage developed across Rm by this current is fed
to the videoprocessor in order to monitor the beam
current.
II.1.2 - Dynamic operation
The TEA5101A operates as a closed loop amplifier,
with its voltage gain fixed by the resistors Rf and
Re.
Since the open loop gain A is not infinite, the resistor
Rp and the input impedance Rin must be consid-
ered.Hence the voltage gain is
G = − Rf
Re x
1
1 + 1
A (1 +
Rf
Rp ⁄ ⁄ Re ⁄ ⁄ Rin)
(2)
II.1.2.1 - Input voltage Vin < Vref (black picture)
In this case the current flowing in R7 and T1 de-
creases whilst the collector voltage of T4 and the
output voltage both increase. In the extreme case,
I(T1) = I(R7) = 0 and VO= VDD-VGS(T5)
In order to charge the tube capacitor the voltage is
fed to the cathode output in two ways:
- through the PMOS (with a VGS difference) for the
low frequency part
- through the capacitor C for the high frequency
part (output signal leading edge)
To correctly transmit the rising edge, the value of
the capacitor C must be high compared to CL.
With the current values used (C = 1nF,CL = 10pF),
the attenuation is very small (0.99)
II.1.2.2 - Input voltage Vin > Vref (white picture)
In this case,the current in R7 and T1 increases with
an accompanying drop of T4’s collector voltage until
T1 and T4 are saturated. At this point:
VO ≅ VC(T4) ≅ VCC
During a high to low transition (i.e. black-white
picture), the beam current is absorbed in two ways:
- through the capacitor C and the compound
PMOS T6-T7 for the high frequency part (falling
edge)
- through the PMOS T8 and the resistor Rm for the
low frequency part.
II.2 - Beam Current Monitoring
II.2.1 - Stationary state
The beam current monitoring is performed by the
PMOS T8 and the resistor Rm. When measuring low
currents (leakage, quasi cutoff),the Rm value is
generally high. When measuring high currents
(drive, average or peak beam current),Rm is gen-
erally bypassed by a lower impedance.
It should be noted that the current supplied by the
three guns flows through this resistor.Hence,with
too large a value for the resistor Rm,the cathode
voltage of the tubes will become too high for the
required operating current values.This is a funda-
mental difference between the TEA5101A and dis-
crete video amps. In discrete video amps, the
current monitoring transistor is a high voltage PNP
bipolar which may saturate. In this case the beam
current can flow through the transistor base and it
is no longer monitored by the video processor. This
effect does not occur with the TEA 5101A.
II.2.2 - Transient phase : low current measure-
ments
The cut-off adjustment sequence is generally as
follows:
In a first step, the cathode is set to a high voltage
(180V) in order to blank the CRT and to measure
the leakage current. In a second step, the tube is
slighly switched on to measure a very low current
(quasi cut-off current). This operation is performed
by setting the cathode voltage to about 150V and
adjusting it until the proper current is obtained. The
maximum time available to do this operation is
generally about 52µs.
Figure 3 shows the simplified diagram of the
TEA5101A output, the voltages during the different
steps,and the stationary state the system must
reach for correct adjustment.
I.1 - Voltage Amplifier
II.1.1 - Bias conditions Vin = Vref
The bias point is fixed by the feedback resistor
Rf,the bias resistor Rp, and by the internal refer-
ence voltage when Vin = Vref.
If VO is the output voltage (pin 9) :
VO = (1 + Rf
Rp) x Vref (1)
In this state T1 and T2 are conducting. A current
flows in R7 and T4 soT5 is on. The T5 drain current
is fed to the amplifier input through the feedback
resistor. The current in R7 is:
I(R7) = VDD − VO − VGS(T5)
R7
≅ VDD − VO
R7
and the current in T5 and Rf is :
I(T5) = VO − Vref
Rf
≅ VO
Rf
Thus the total current absorbed by each channel of
the TEA5101A is :
VDD
R7 + VO x (1
Rf − 1
R7)
The cathode (pin 7) output voltage is:
VO + VGS(T8) = VO
The beam current is absorbed by T8 and Rm. The
voltage developed across Rm by this current is fed
to the videoprocessor in order to monitor the beam
current.
II.1.2 - Dynamic operation
The TEA5101A operates as a closed loop amplifier,
with its voltage gain fixed by the resistors Rf and
Re.
Since the open loop gain A is not infinite, the resistor
Rp and the input impedance Rin must be consid-
ered.Hence the voltage gain is
G = − Rf
Re x
1
1 + 1
A (1 +
Rf
Rp ⁄ ⁄ Re ⁄ ⁄ Rin)
(2)
II.1.2.1 - Input voltage Vin < Vref (black picture)
In this case the current flowing in R7 and T1 de-
creases whilst the collector voltage of T4 and the
output voltage both increase. In the extreme case,
I(T1) = I(R7) = 0 and VO= VDD-VGS(T5)
In order to charge the tube capacitor the voltage is
fed to the cathode output in two ways:
- through the PMOS (with a VGS difference) for the
low frequency part
- through the capacitor C for the high frequency
part (output signal leading edge)
To correctly transmit the rising edge, the value of
the capacitor C must be high compared to CL.
With the current values used (C = 1nF,CL = 10pF),
the attenuation is very small (0.99)
II.1.2.2 - Input voltage Vin > Vref (white picture)
In this case,the current in R7 and T1 increases with
an accompanying drop of T4’s collector voltage until
T1 and T4 are saturated. At this point:
VO ≅ VC(T4) ≅ VCC
During a high to low transition (i.e. black-white
picture), the beam current is absorbed in two ways:
- through the capacitor C and the compound
PMOS T6-T7 for the high frequency part (falling
edge)
- through the PMOS T8 and the resistor Rm for the
low frequency part.
II.2 - Beam Current Monitoring
II.2.1 - Stationary state
The beam current monitoring is performed by the
PMOS T8 and the resistor Rm. When measuring low
currents (leakage, quasi cutoff),the Rm value is
generally high. When measuring high currents
(drive, average or peak beam current),Rm is gen-
erally bypassed by a lower impedance.
It should be noted that the current supplied by the
three guns flows through this resistor.Hence,with
too large a value for the resistor Rm,the cathode
voltage of the tubes will become too high for the
required operating current values.This is a funda-
mental difference between the TEA5101A and dis-
crete video amps. In discrete video amps, the
current monitoring transistor is a high voltage PNP
bipolar which may saturate. In this case the beam
current can flow through the transistor base and it
is no longer monitored by the video processor. This
effect does not occur with the TEA 5101A.
II.2.2 - Transient phase : low current measure-
ments
The cut-off adjustment sequence is generally as
follows:
In a first step, the cathode is set to a high voltage
(180V) in order to blank the CRT and to measure
the leakage current. In a second step, the tube is
slighly switched on to measure a very low current
(quasi cut-off current). This operation is performed
by setting the cathode voltage to about 150V and
adjusting it until the proper current is obtained. The
maximum time available to do this operation is
generally about 52µs.
Figure 3 shows the simplified diagram of the
TEA5101A output, the voltages during the different
steps,and the stationary state the system must
reach for correct adjustment.

I.1 - Voltage Amplifier
II.1.1 - Bias conditions Vin = Vref
The bias point is fixed by the feedback resistor
Rf,the bias resistor Rp, and by the internal refer-
ence voltage when Vin = Vref.
If VO is the output voltage (pin 9) :
VO = (1 + Rf
Rp) x Vref (1)
In this state T1 and T2 are conducting. A current
flows in R7 and T4 soT5 is on. The T5 drain current
is fed to the amplifier input through the feedback
resistor. The current in R7 is:
I(R7) = VDD − VO − VGS(T5)
R7
≅ VDD − VO
R7
and the current in T5 and Rf is :
I(T5) = VO − Vref
Rf
≅ VO
Rf
Thus the total current absorbed by each channel of
the TEA5101A is :
VDD
R7 + VO x (1
Rf − 1
R7)
The cathode (pin 7) output voltage is:
VO + VGS(T8) = VO
The beam current is absorbed by T8 and Rm. The
voltage developed across Rm by this current is fed
to the videoprocessor in order to monitor the beam
current.
II.1.2 - Dynamic operation
The TEA5101A operates as a closed loop amplifier,
with its voltage gain fixed by the resistors Rf and
Re.
Since the open loop gain A is not infinite, the resistor
Rp and the input impedance Rin must be consid-
ered.Hence the voltage gain is
G = − Rf
Re x
1
1 + 1
A (1 +
Rf
Rp ⁄ ⁄ Re ⁄ ⁄ Rin)
(2)
II.1.2.1 - Input voltage Vin < Vref (black picture)
In this case the current flowing in R7 and T1 de-
creases whilst the collector voltage of T4 and the
output voltage both increase. In the extreme case,
I(T1) = I(R7) = 0 and VO= VDD-VGS(T5)
In order to charge the tube capacitor the voltage is
fed to the cathode output in two ways:
- through the PMOS (with a VGS difference) for the
low frequency part
- through the capacitor C for the high frequency
part (output signal leading edge)
To correctly transmit the rising edge, the value of
the capacitor C must be high compared to CL.
With the current values used (C = 1nF,CL = 10pF),
the attenuation is very small (0.99)
II.1.2.2 - Input voltage Vin > Vref (white picture)
In this case,the current in R7 and T1 increases with
an accompanying drop of T4’s collector voltage until
T1 and T4 are saturated. At this point:
VO ≅ VC(T4) ≅ VCC
During a high to low transition (i.e. black-white
picture), the beam current is absorbed in two ways:
- through the capacitor C and the compound
PMOS T6-T7 for the high frequency part (falling
edge)
- through the PMOS T8 and the resistor Rm for the
low frequency part.
II.2 - Beam Current Monitoring
II.2.1 - Stationary state
The beam current monitoring is performed by the
PMOS T8 and the resistor Rm. When measuring low
currents (leakage, quasi cutoff),the Rm value is
generally high. When measuring high currents
(drive, average or peak beam current),Rm is gen-
erally bypassed by a lower impedance.
It should be noted that the current supplied by the
three guns flows through this resistor.Hence,with
too large a value for the resistor Rm,the cathode
voltage of the tubes will become too high for the
required operating current values.This is a funda-
mental difference between the TEA5101A and dis-
crete video amps. In discrete video amps, the
current monitoring transistor is a high voltage PNP
bipolar which may saturate. In this case the beam
current can flow through the transistor base and it
is no longer monitored by the video processor. This
effect does not occur with the TEA 5101A.
II.2.2 - Transient phase : low current measure-
ments
The cut-off adjustment sequence is generally as
follows:
In a first step, the cathode is set to a high voltage
(180V) in order to blank the CRT and to measure
the leakage current. In a second step, the tube is
slighly switched on to measure a very low current
(quasi cut-off current). This operation is performed
by setting the cathode voltage to about 150V and
adjusting it until the proper current is obtained. The
maximum time available to do this operation is
generally about 52µs.
Figure 3 shows the simplified diagram of the
TEA5101A output, the voltages during the different
steps,and the stationary state the system must
reach for correct adjustment.

During the blanking phase, the tube is switched off,
the PMOS is switched off and its VGS voltage is
equal to the pinch-off voltage (about 1.5V). The
voltages at the different nodes are shown in figure
3 (V(9) = 180V, V(k) = 181.5V). The falling edge of
the cutoff pulse is instantaneously transmitted by
the capacitor C. When the stationary state is
reached, the cathode voltage will be 152.5V if the
voltage on pin 9 is 150V, as the VGS voltage of the
conducting PMOS is about 2.5V.
We can see that the voltage
on C must increase by
an amount of ∆Vc = 1V. This charge is furnished by
the tube capacitor which is discharged by an
amount of ∆VCL = 29V with a time constant equal
to R x CL (10 ns). By considering the energy
balance, we can calculate the maximum charge
∆Vmax that CL can furnished to C
∆Vmax = √CL
C x ∆VCL ≅ 3V
Since this voltage is greater than ∆VC, the capacitor
C can be charged and the stationary state is
reached without any contribution being required
from the tube current,i.e. the whole tube current
can flow through the PMOS and the adjustment can
be performed correctly.
Considering higher voltage and beam current
swings, the margin is greater because:
- the voltage swing across the tube capacitor is
greater
- the tube current is higher and the picture is not
disturbed even if part of the beam current is used
to charge the capacitor C.

TELEFUNKEN SR285 (ICC8)  CHASSIS THOMSON ICC8  ST6395B1/XZJ ICC8-B33.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION
The ST639xmicrocontrollers aremembers of the 8-
bit HCMOS ST638x family, a series of devices specially
orientedto TVapplications.DifferentROMsize
and peripheral configurations are available to give
the maximum application and cost flexibility. All
ST639xmembers are based on a building block approach:
a common core is surroundedbya combination
of on-chip peripherals (macrocells) available
from a standard library. These peripherals are designed
with the same Core technology providing full
compatibility and short design time. Many of these
macrocells are specially dedicated to TV applications.
Themacrocells of the ST639x family are: two
Timer peripherals each including an 8-bit counter
with a 7-bit software programmable prescaler
(Timer), a digital hardware activated watchdog
function(DHWD), a 14-bit voltage synthesis tuning
peripheral, a Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI), up
to six 6-bit PWMD/A converters, an AFC A/D converter
with 0.5V resolution, an on-screen display
(OSD) with 15 characters per line and 128 characters
(in two banks each of 64 characters). In addition
the following memory resources are available:
program ROM (up to 20K), data RAM (256 bytes),
EEPROM(up to 384 bytes). Refer to pin configurations
figures and to ST639x device summary (Table
1) for the definition of ST639x family members
and a summary of differences among the different
types.

4.5 to 6V supply operating range
8MHz Maximum Clock Frequency
User Program ROM: Up to 20140 bytes
Reserved TestROM:Up to 340 bytes
Data ROM: User selectable size
Data RAM: 256 bytes
Data EEPROM: Up to 384 bytes
42-Pin Shrink Dual in Line Plastic Package
Up to 23 software programmable general purpose
Inputs/Outputs, including 2 direct LED
driving Outputs
Two Timers each including an 8-bit counter with
a 7-bit programmable prescaler
Digital Watchdog Function
Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) supporting
S-BUS/ I2C BUS and standard serial protocols
SPI for external frequency synthesis tuning
Up to Six 6-Bit PWMD/A Converters
AFC A/D converter with 0.5V resolution
Five interrupt vectors (IRIN/NMI, Timer 1 & 2,
VSYNC,PWR INT.)
On-chip clock oscillator
5 Lines by 15 Characters On-Screen Display
Generator with 128 Characters
All ROM types are supported by pin-to-pin
EPROMand OTP versions.
The development tool of the ST639x microcontrollers
consists of the ST638x-EMUemulation
and development system to be connected via a
standard RS232 serial line to an MS-DOS Personal
Computer.


TELEFUNKEN SR285 (ICC8)  CHASSIS THOMSON ICC8  STEREO VIF SOUND UNIT AM-FM 8015 00   1004 1140





SIEMENS TDA6612
PHILIPS TDA9821




SIEMENS TDA6612-2
TV-Stereo-Sound

Features
The TDA 6612-2 represents a complete TV-stereo system
controlled by the I2C Bus according to German TV-Stereo
standard.
- All functions inclusive matrix adjustment are I2C Bus
controlled
- Inputs for AM sound or NICAM
- SCART-interface
- Independent headphones
- Universal clock generation circuit build-in
- Clipping detector build-in
- Volume control
- High signal-to-noise ratio
- Extremely low total harmonic distortions
- High security for the detection of the identification
signals because of the digital interference suppression
and the very narrow bandwidth.
 The IC is divided into three functional blocks
1 Stereo Sound Processing with High Performance (exceeds DIN 45500; suitable for
NICAM and CD)
a) Matrix for G-standard with crosstalk compensation controlled via the I2C Bus
b) Additional single channel AF input (for e.g. AF signal according to L-standard)
c) Stereo SCART interface according to FTZ-official specification
d) Stereo loudspeaker signal section with Ch1/Ch2 switch, bass/treble control,
quasi stereo/stereo base width expansion and separate loudspeaker volume
control for left and right (balance)
e) Separate stereo head phone signal section with Ch1/Ch2 switch and volume
control
2 TV-Sound Identification Signal Decoder Consisting of:
a) Active pilot signal filter
b) Phase independent rectifier with very narrow bandwidth for evaluation of the
identification signal
c) Digital integrator to reduce interferences by noise
d) Multiplexer for cyclical switch over between "stereo" or "dual" evaluation
e) Reference signal generation with externally synchronized PLL
• synchronization with external H-sync pulse or 62.5-kHz clock
• build-in crystal oscillator and external 4-MHz crystal
• external 4-MHz (or 1-MHz) clock signal
3 Control Section for:
a) I2C Bus interface with listen/talk function
b) Control of the complete AF-sound signal detector
c) Read access to the clipping detector
d) Control of the identification signal decoder
e) Reading of the status of the identification signal decoder
f) Test modes.

 Circuit Description
Signal Section
The audio signal processing in the matrix and the switch-over for multi channel TV-sound signals
according to the two carrier system used in Germany takes place in the matrix and switching sec-
tions. Crosstalk compensation is carried out in the sound 1 input stage. The crosstalk compensation
range has an adjustment range of ± 3 dB with a step width of 0.2 dB. In addition to the two inputs
for the demodulated sound carrier a two channel SCART-input and an additional mono input (e.g.
for demodulated L-standard sound) are provided. The two AF (pin 1 and pin 2) inputs can be by-
passed internally in such a way that decoded stereo sound of other audio systems (NICAM) can be
processed. The switching section includes also the SCART-output with the possibility to select the
sound 1 or 2 during the "dual" mode. The Ch1/Ch2-switches for the loudspeaker and headphone
outputs are independently switchable.
In the signal path for the volume control unit output there is the Ch1/Ch2-switch followed by two dif-
ferent volume control units. The first has a control range from 0 to – 15 dB with a step width of 1.25
dB. In conjunction with the main volume control after bass and treble control a high immunity against
overdriving the output stage is reached. The first volume control is used as a "pre-stage" of the main
volume control in conjuntion with the clipping detector. This section is followed by a switchable quasi
stereo stage which provides a stereophonic audio effect with mono signals due to a 180˚ phase shift
at medium frequencies (about 1 kHz) in one channel. The following bass control has a control range
of +15/–12 dB with a step width of 3 dB. The cut-off frequency for each channel is set with an ex-
ternal capacitor. The implemented switchable circuit for stereo base width expansion provides a
three dimensional aural reception. This is realized with a 50% frequency dependent crosstalk with
opposite phase of the signal between both channels. The circuit operates with the same cut-off fre-
quency as the bass control, but the function is widely independent. The treble control has a step
width of 3 dB with an control range of +/–12 dB. The cut-off frequency of the treble control is derived
from one capacitor for each channel. The loudspeaker signal path is terminated with the loudspea-
ker control, independently adjustable for left and right. With 57 steps of 1.25 dB the adjustment ran-
ge is 70 dB, where step 57 activates the "MUTE" function. Functions such as "balance" or "loud-
ness" are realized by software and adjustment of the appropriate tone and volume controls. In the
volume control unit there is a clipping detector. The status of the clipping detector can be evaluated
via the I2C Bus. Therefore it is possible to implement an automatic volume control using the clipping
detector and software implemented into the controller.
After every evaluation the clipping bit is reset. Therefore after a read access to the clipping bit a new
evaluation of the clipping detector status is possible.
The signal path for the headphones contains a volume control after the Ch1/Ch2-switch with a com-
mon adjustment for left and right. Thirty two steps of 2 dB give an adjustment range of 62 dB (31 x
2 dB = 62 dB, the 32nd step is MUTE).
Identification Signal Decoder
The input of the identification signal decoder consists of an op-amp for the pilot signal with its side
bands. An external LC-circuit is used. The signal is then passed to a phase independent active
band-pass filter with a very narrow bandwidth (adjustable externally). This filter detects whether the
lower side band of the pilot carrier, which is modulated with the identification signal, is present.
THE center frequency of the filter is switched between "dual" and "stereo" by a multiplexer. The
multiplexing frequency is adjustable by software. If a side band is detected, the multiplexer stops.
The interferences on the first "detected" criterion are suppressed by a digital integrator with a
following comparator and can be read out via I2C Bus (talk mode) as the "stereo" or "dual" mode.
The control of the corresponding signal can be either directly internally or through the µC. All the
necessary clock signal are derived from a fast setting PLL which is synchronized by a reference
frequency. This reference frequency must be sufficiently close to the horizontal frequency, but a
rigid phase coupling is not required. Therefore, alternatively the use of a crystal controlled 62.5-
kHz frequency commonly found in PLL-tuning systems is possible. A further alternative for the clock
signal generation is a build-in crystal oscillator with an external 4-MHz crystal or the use an external
1- or 4-MHz clock frequency.
Control Section
All functions are controlled via an I2C Bus interface with "listen" / "talk" functions. The data bytes
currently used are stored in a block of latches.
The telegram structure is formed in the following manner:
start condition - chip address - any number of bytes - stop condition
The following conditions apply to the data bytes:
Before the actual data byte (with the adjustment information), always an I2C Bus sub-address byte
has to be transmitted. The I2C Bus interface however is interpreting this sub-address byte as a data
byte.

Example: The headphone volume is to be increased in a number of steps.
Within a telegram (i.e. without a new start condition) any different sub-addresses can be accessed.
The changeover between "listen" and "talk" access to the IC however must always occur using the
following sequence: stop condition - start condition - chip address. Before each read access always
a start condition and chip address (talk) must be transmitted. The data to be read out are then
loaded into the I2C Bus interface and can be transferred to the µC.
Right
Wrong
Start condition
Chip address 84 (Hex)
Sub-addr. vol. HP 03 (Hex)
Vol. step 8 08 (Hex)
Sub-addr. vol. HP 03 (Hex)
Vol. step 9 09 (Hex)
Sub-addr. vol. HP 03 (Hex)
Vol. step 10 0A (Hex)
Stop condition
Start condition
Chip address 84 (Hex)
Sub-addr. vol. HP 03 (Hex)
Vol. step 8 08 (Hex)
Vol. step 9 09 (Hex)
Vol. step 10 0A (Hex)
Stop condition.

PHILIPS TDA9812 Multistandard VIF-PLL and FM-PLL/AM demodulator:

GENERAL DESCRIPTION
The TDA9812/T is an integrated circuit for multistandard
vision IF signal processing and AM and FM sound
demodulation in TV and VTR sets.

FEATURES
• 5 V positive supply voltage
• Gain controlled wide band VIF-amplifier (AC-coupled)
• True synchronous demodulation with active carrier
regeneration (very linear demodulation, good
intermodulation figures, reduced harmonics, excellent
pulse response)
• Gated phase detector for L/L accent standard
• VCO frequency switchable between L and L accent
(alignment external) picture carrier frequency
• Separate video amplifier for sound trap buffering with
high video bandwidth
• VIF AGC detector for gain control, operating as peak
sync detector for B/G (optional external AGC) and peak
white detector for L; signal controlled reaction time for L
• Tuner AGC with adjustable Take Over Point (TOP)
• AFC detector without extra reference circuit
• AC-coupled limiter amplifier for sound intercarrier signal
• Alignment-free FM-PLL demodulator with high linearity,
switchable de-emphasis for FM
• AM-SIF AGC detector for gain controlled SIF amplifier
• AM demodulator without extra reference circuit
• Stabilizer circuit for ripple rejection and to achieve
constant output signals.

FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION
Vision IF amplifier
The vision IF amplifier consists of three AC-coupled
differential amplifier stages. Each differential stage
comprises a feedback network controlled by emitter
degeneration.
Tuner and VIF AGC
The AGC capacitor voltage is transferred to an internal IF
control signal, and is fed to the tuner AGC to generate the
tuner AGC output current (open-collector output). The
tuner AGC take-over point can be adjusted. This allows the
tuner and the SWIF filter to be matched to achieve the
optimum IF input level.
The AGC detector charges/discharges the AGC capacitor
to the required voltage for setting of VIF and tuner gain in
order to keep the video signal at a constant level.
Therefore for negative video modulation the sync level and
for positive video modulation the peak white level of the
video signal is detected. In order to reduce the reaction
time for positive modulation, where a very large time
constant is needed, an additional level detector increases
the discharging current of the AGC capacitor (fast mode)
in the event of a decreasing VIF amplitude step. The
additional level information is given by the black-level
detector voltage.
Frequency-Phase detector (FPLL)
The VIF-amplifier output signal is fed into a frequency
detector and into a phase detector via a limiting amplifier.
During acquisition the frequency detector produces a DC
current proportional to the frequency difference between
the input and the VCO signal. After frequency lock-in the
phase detector produces a DC current proportional to the
phase difference between the VCO and the input signal.
The DC current of either frequency detector or phase
detector is converted into a DC voltage via the loop filter,
which controls the VCO frequency. In the event of positive
modulated signals the phase detector is gated by
composite sync in order to avoid signal distortion for
overmodulated VIF signals.
VCO, travelling wave divider and AFC
The VCO operates with a resonance circuit (with L and C
in parallel) at double the PC frequency. The VCO is
controlled by two integrated variable capacitors. The
control voltage required to tune the VCO from its free-
running frequency to actually double the PC frequency is
generated by the Frequency-Phase detector and fed via
the loop filter to the first variable capacitor (FPLL). This
control voltage is amplified and additionally converted into
a current which represents the AFC output signal. The
VCO centre frequency can be decreased (required for
L/L accent standard) by activating an additional internal
capacitor. This is achieved by using the L/L accent switch.
In this event the second variable capacitor can be
controlled by a variable resistor at the L/L accent switch for
setting the VCO centre frequency to the required
L/L accent value. At centre frequency the AFC output
current is equal to zero.
The oscillator signal is divided-by-two with a Travelling
Wave Divider (TWD) which generates two differential
output signals with a 90 degree phase difference
independent of the frequency.
Video demodulator and amplifier
The video demodulator is realized by a multiplier which is
designed for low distortion and large bandwidth. The vision
IF input signal is multiplied with the ‘in phase’ signal of the
travelling wave divider output. In the demodulator stage
the video signal polarity can be switched in accordance
with the TV standard.
The demodulator output signal is fed via an integrated
low-pass filter for attenuation of the carrier harmonics to
the video amplifier. The video amplifier is realized by an
operational amplifier with internal feedback and high
bandwidth. A low-pass filter is integrated to achieve an
attenuation of the carrier harmonics for B/G and
L standard. The standard dependent level shift in this
stage delivers the same sync level for positive and
negative modulation. The video output signal is 1 V (p-p)
for nominal vision IF modulation.

Video buffer
For an easy adaption of the sound traps an operational
amplifier with internal feedback is used in the event of B/G
and L standard. This amplifier is featured with a high
bandwidth and 7 dB gain. The input impedance is adapted
for operating in combination with ceramic sound traps. The
output stage delivers a nominal 2 V (p-p) positive video
signal. Noise clipping is provided.
SIF amplifier and AGC for AM sound
The sound IF amplifier consists of two AC-coupled
differential amplifier stages. Each differential stage
comprises a controlled feedback network provided by
emitter degeneration.
The SIF AGC detector is related to the SIF input signals
(average level of AM carrier) and controls the SIF amplifier
to provide a constant SIF signal to the AM demodulator.
The SIF AGC reaction time is set to ‘slow’ for nominal
video conditions. But with a decreasing VIF amplitude step
the SIF AGC is set to ‘fast’ mode controlled by the VIF
AGC detector.
Intercarrier mixer
The intercarrier mixer is realized by a multiplier. The VIF
amplifier output signal is fed to the intercarrier mixer and
converted to intercarrier frequency by the regenerated
picture carrier (VCO). The mixer output signal is fed via a
high-pass for attenuation of the video signal components.
AM demodulator
The AM demodulator is realized by a multiplier. The
modulated SIF amplifier output signal is multiplied in
phase with the limited (AM is removed) SIF amplifier
output signal. The demodulator output signal is fed via an
integrated low-pass filter for attenuation of the carrier
harmonics to the AF amplifier.
FM detector
The FM detector consists of a limiter, an FM-PLL and an
AF amplifier. The limiter provides the amplification and
limitation of the FM sound intercarrier signal before
demodulation. The result is high sensitivity and AM
suppression. The amplifier consists of 7 stages which are
internally AC-coupled in order to minimize the DC offset
and to save pins for DC decoupling.
The FM-PLL consists of an integrated relaxation oscillator,
an integrated loop filter and a phase detector. The
oscillator is locked to the FM intercarrier signal, output
from the limiter. As a result of locking, the oscillator
frequency tracks with the modulation of the input signal
and the oscillator control voltage is superimposed by the
AF voltage. The FM-PLL operates as an FM-demodulator
The AF amplifier consists of two parts:
• The AF preamplifier for FM sound is an operational
amplifier with internal feedback, high gain and high
common mode rejection. The AF voltage from the PLL
demodulator, by principle a small output signal, is
amplified by approximately 33 dB. The low-pass
characteristic of the amplifier reduces the harmonics of
the intercarrier signal at the sound output terminal, at
which the de-emphasis network for FM sound is applied.
An additional DC control circuit is implemented to keep
the DC level constant, independent of process spread.
• The AF output amplifier (10 dB) provides the required
output level by a rail-to-rail output stage. This amplifier
makes use of an input selector for switching to AM, FM
de-emphasis or mute state, controlled by the standard
switching voltage and the mute switching voltage.
Internal voltage stabilizer and1⁄2VP-reference
The bandgap circuit internally generates a voltage of
approximately 1.25 V, independent of supply voltage and
temperature. A voltage regulator circuit, connected to this
voltage, produces a constant voltage of 3.6 V which is
used as an internal reference voltage.
For all audio output signals the constant reference voltage
cannot be used because large output signals are required.
Therefore these signals refer to half the supply voltage to
achieve a symmetrical headroom, especially for the
rail-to-rail output stage. For ripple and noise attenuation
the1⁄2VP voltage has to be filtered via a low-pass filter by
using an external capacitor together with an integrated
resistor (fg= 5 Hz). For a fast setting to 1⁄2VP an internal
start-up circuit is added.

TELEFUNKEN SR285 (ICC8)  CHASSIS THOMSON ICC8  Television startup current regulation:

 A television receiver has a switched mode power supply controller, which may be deflection synchronized, which produces pulses in a power transformer. To power the controller during startup, before the internal power supply has started, a storage capacitor on the power supply input of the controller is coupled through a current limiting resistance to a rectified voltage from the AC mains so as to charge the storage capacitor during first polarity phases of the AC mains. The current limiting resistance includes a positive temperature coefficient (PTC) element which increases its impedance as it heats, to reduce power dissipation after initial connection of the television receiver to AC mains. In addition, a diode is coupled in a current path to the storage capacitor to charge the capacitor to the same polarity as during opposite polarity phases of the AC mains. The two paths for charging the capacitor allow a relatively smaller value for the current limiting resistance, which remains coupled to the storage capacitor, and provides sufficient power to the controller without undue power dissipation over a wide range of power mains voltages.

1. A television apparatus having a degaussing coil for demagnetizing metal portions of a cathode ray tube, said degaussing coil being energized from an AC source, and coupled to a first temperature dependent impedance for controlling the current passing in said degaussing coil, said first temperature dependent impedance being thermally coupled to a second temperature dependent impedance for heating said first temperature dependent impedance, a power supply including a capacitance for energizing a load circuit, and means for charging said capacitance through said second temperature dependent impedance, said capacitor being additionally charged through a path including a rectifier, said path being independent of said first and second temperature dependent impedances.

Description:
The invention relates to the startup of a switched mode power supply in a television receiver.
In a television receiver having a switched mode power supply (SMPS), which may be deflection synchronized, the primary winding of a power transformer is energized by a pulse width modulated signal. The secondary windings of the transformer energize DC power supplies which provide power to operational loads, including the SMPS controller. In the start up interval, immediately after switching the television receiver on, it is necessary to initiate generation of power through the power transformer in order to begin operation. The SMPS controller itself may be powered from a storage capacitor which is initially charged by rectified AC mains current through a current limiting resistor. The capacitor charges initially when the television receiver is connected to the AC mains (i.e., plugged in) and remains charged for energizing the controller whenever the television receiver is either in the standby mode or run mode of operation.
 
The current limiting resistor dissipates power as long as the television receiver is coupled to the AC mains. However, for purposes other than providing power during the startup interval, this power is wasted. The current limiting resistor can have a high resistance to reduce power dissipation, but a higher resistance results in a reduced current supply for operation of the controller, and slower charging of the storage capacitor. It is necessary to reconcile the need for current to the controller in the startup interval with the need to reduce power dissipation in the current limiting resistor at all other times.
In designing a switched mode power supply, it is advantageous to provide a single circuit that is operable over a range of different mains voltages. The standard mains voltages for the US and for Europe, for example, differ substantially. A circuit which is optimal at one mains voltage may include current limiting elements which produce excessive power dissipation, inadequate current supply or other adverse effects when operated at a different mains voltage.

Apart from circuitry associated with startup of operational power, television receivers are typically provided with degaussing coils which demagnetize ferromagnetic parts of the picture tube to improve color purity. The degaussing coils may be coupled to the AC mains through one or more variable impedance elements that progressively reduce the current applied to the degaussing coils over a degaussing interval following the connection of the television to the AC mains. The current limiting elements can be positive or negative temperature coefficient resistors, also known as thermistors. In one technique, a first temperature dependent resistor having a positive coefficient is coupled to the AC mains in series with the degaussing coil. A second temperature dependent resistor having a positive coefficient is coupled across the AC mains, the two temperature dependent resistors being thermally coupled to each other such that each heats the other. As the resistances of the elements change with heating, current through the degaussing coil falls off to a minimum level which does not substantially affect color purity.
In an inventive arrangement, temperature dependent elements may be used in connection with the charging of a storage capacitor for the supply voltage of a switched mode power supply controller, as a means to limit power dissipation. In carrying out an inventive feature, operation of a television receiver during startup is optimized by coupling the degaussing circuitry with the current limiting means for charging the storage capacitor that provides power to the switched mode power supply controller. A circuit for degaussing and current limited startup supply, optimized over a wide range of power mains voltages may thus be achieved.
In accordance with an aspect of the invention, a television apparatus has a degaussing coil for demagnetizing metal portions of a cathode ray tube. The degaussing coil is energized from an AC source, and coupled to a first temperature dependent impedance for controlling the current passing in the degaussing coil. The first temperature dependent impedance is thermally coupled to a second temperature dependent impedance for heating the first temperature dependent impedance. A power supply includes a capacitance for energizing a load circuit. The capacitance is charged through the second temperature dependent impedance.
In accordance with another aspect of the invention, a television apparatus having a power supply includes a capacitance for energizing a load circuit and a source for charging the capacitance. A start-up circuit comprises a source of AC current. A first polarity of the AC current is passed to charge the capacitance, and an opposite polarity of the AC current is passed through a temperature sensitive impedance via a path independent of the path of the first polarity of the AC current, to charge the capacitor in the same direction as said first polarity of said AC current.

FIG. 1 is a schematic circuit diagram of part of a television receiver incorporating a startup current supply according to the invention;
FIG. 2 is a graph of voltage vs. time in the circuit shown in FIG. 1 at the junction of current limiting resistor R2 and diode D7 with respect to ground; and
FIG. 3 is a graph of voltage vs. time at the same point as in FIG. 2, but at a higher mains voltage.
In a television receiver as shown in FIG. 1, power for the operational loads is derived from a power transformer X1 when driven by a switched mode power supply controller 60 and a power output transistor Q1. In some applications, the power transformer may be a horizontal output transformer. The various operational loads are coupled to secondary windings of transformer X1, one operational load RL being shown as coupled to a secondary winding 34. A diode D5 and a filter capacitor C3 are coupled to the secondary winding 34 for supply of regulated DC voltage to load RL. Additional secondary windings typically are provided for power supply at different voltage levels, as required for operating the loads. Only two windings, 34 and 36, are shown in order to simplify the drawing.
The supply voltage Vin to transformer X1 is derived from a full wave bridge rectifier formed by diodes D1 through D4, coupled to the AC mains 22 through plug 23, surge suppressor chokes L1, L2, and bypass capacitor C1. The full wave rectified output, at the cathodes of diodes D2 and D4 of the bridge rectifier, is coupled to the primary winding 32 of power transformer X1 through current limiting resistor R1 and filter capacitor C2. Supply voltage Vin is available whenever AC mains 22 is connected to the television receiver, but power to the loads RL is provided only after switched mode controller 60 becomes energized.
Secondary winding 36 of transformer X1 energizes the switched mode power supply controller 60 after initial startup, via diode D6. However, this voltage is available only during switching of transistor Q1. Since the supply of power to the controller is arranged functionally in a loop where output pulses of the controller are required before power can be provided through secondary winding 34, at startup, an alternate source of power to controller 60 is required.
The television receiver includes a degaussing circuit 21 which is energized for a brief interval following connection of AC mains 22 to the television receiver, for demagnetizing the ferromagnetic elements of a picture tube 40. The degaussing circuit includes a degaussing coil L3 coupled to AC mains 22 and variable resistance elements V1, V2, operable to reduce current to the degaussing coil over time such that AC current supplied to coil L3 starts at a high amplitude and then falls off to a minimum. The current limiting elements V1, V2 are positive temperature coefficient (PTC) resistors or thermistors, and are mounted in thermal contact with one another, as shown by broken line 50, such that the heat generated by each contributes to increasing the resistance of both.
One of the current limiting elements, V2, is coupled in series with the degaussing coil, the series branch being coupled across AC mains 22. When the television receiver is first connected to mains 22, the resistance of element V2 is low, and increases with heating due to dissipation of power with current flow through degaussing coil L3. The other variable resistance element, V1, is coupled in series with diode D7, the series branch being in parallel with AC mains 22, and adds to the current passing through element V1, and therefore adds to the heating of element V2. Diode D7 blocks current through element V1 during each alternate phase of the voltage supplied by AC mains 22.
In carrying out an aspect of the invention, the cathode of diode D7 is coupled to a current limiting resistor R2 at a terminal 17 to provide startup current to SMPS controller 60. Diode D7, in cooperation with diode D3 of the mains bridge, forms a half wave rectifier of the AC mains voltage, that in conjunction with resistor R2 provides a first path for low level DC current to charge filter capacitor C5. Diode D7 and D3 conduct during the positive phase of the AC mains voltage, i.e. when terminal 15 is positive relative to terminal 16.
During the alternate negative phase of the AC mains voltage, when terminal 15 is negative relative to terminal 16, diode D1, of the mains bridge, provides half wave rectification of the AC mains voltage to resistor R2 via PTC resistor V1. Diodes D1 and PTC resistor V1 form a second current path which provides a low level DC current to charge filter capacitor C5.
By means of the two alternating conducting current paths, capacitor C5 charges to a level that provides adequate operating voltage to SMPS controller 60, to begin free running power supply operation.
Rectifying diode D6, coupled to secondary winding 36 of transformer X1, blocks discharge of capacitor C5 through winding 36 when SMPS controller 60 is not energizing transformer X1, and provides the main charging path for capacitor C5 when the SMPS controller is energizing the transformer.
The circuit shown is advantageous because it operates over a wide range of mains voltages and is effective at both high mains voltage and at low mains voltage for providing adequate current to charge storage capacitor C5, while reducing unnecessary power dissipation in current limiting resistor R2. This aspect of the invention may be appreciated by comparing the curves of FIGS. 2 and 3, which show the voltages over time at the cathode of diode D7 at a lower mains voltage, e.g., about 90 V RMS (FIG. 2) and at a higher mains voltage, e.g., about 270 V RMS (FIG. 3). The curves represent the steady state operation of the circuit, after PTC resistors V1, V2 have reached their maximum temperature and resistance values.
In both FIGS. 2 and 3, the voltage at the cathode of diode D7 is higher in the positive phase 84, 94 of power on AC mains 22 than in the negative phase 82, 92. This occurs because in the positive phase, diode D7 is forward biased and the voltage applied to resistor R2 at terminal 17 is equal to the mains voltage. In the negative phase, PTC resistor V1 is coupled between the mains and terminal 17 and absorbs some of the mains voltage before it is applied to resistor R2.
At the relatively lower mains voltage in FIG. 2, the PTC resistors are heated to a relatively lower temperature than at the higher mains voltage of FIG. 3 because the extent of heating is a function of the power dissipation in the PTC resistors. Since the heating of the PTC resistors is a nonlinear effect, the substantially higher resistance of PTC resistor V1 at the higher mains voltage and temperature is such that the voltage applied to resistor 12 in the negative phase is proportionately much lower than the voltage in the positive phase when operating at the higher mains voltage. Thus, the relative amplitude of 82 to 84 at the lower mains voltage is closer to unity than the relative amplitude of 92 to 94 at the higher mains voltage. The difference in the illustrated example is such that power dissipated in current limiting resistor R2 is reduced by about 25% over the range of mains voltages from 90 VAC to 250 VAC.
It should be noted that the startup circuit of the instant invention uses the PTC resistor V1, which is part of the degaussing circuitry. As a result, the startup circuit requires only a few parts in addition to the degaussing circuitry.
It should be further noted that diode D7 reduces the power dissipated by PTC resistor V1 by about half. Nevertheless, the degaussing function is not impaired. The residual current through degaussing coil L3 after the end of the degaussing interval is insignificant.
In some applications, it may be desirable to operate the SMPS in synchronism with deflection in order to prevent switching transients from appearing on the display screen. In such an arrangement, the SMPS would free-run during start-up until stable synchronization signals become available.
 

TELEFUNKEN SR285 (ICC8)  CHASSIS THOMSON ICC8  Line synchronized power supply based on TEA2261 (THOMSON).

DESCRIPTION
The TEA2260/61 is a monolithic integrated circuit
for the use in primary part of an off-line switching
mode power supply.
All functions required for SMPS control under normal
operating, transient or abnormal conditions
are provided.
The capability of working according to the “master-
slave” concept, or according to the “primary
regulation” mode makes the TEA2260/61 very
flexible and easy to use. This is particularly true for
TV receivers where the IC provides an attractive
and low cost solution (no need of stand-by auxiliary
power supply).

Positive and Negative Current up to 1.2A and -
2A
- Low Start-Up Current
- Direct Drive of the Power Transistor
- Two Levels Transistor Current Limitation
- Double Pulse Suppression
- Soft-Starting
- Under and Overvoltage Lock-out
- Automatic Stand-By Mode Recognition
- Large Power Range Capability in Stand-By
(Burst Mode)
- Internal PWM Signal Generator



GENERAL DESCRIPTION
The TEA2260/61 is an off-line switch mode power
supply controller. The synchronization function
and the specific operation in stand-by mode make
it well adapted to video applications such as TV
sets, VCRs, monitors, etc..
The TEA2260/61 can be used in two types of architectures:
– Master/Slave architecture. In this case, the
TEA2260/61 drives the power transistor according
to the pulse width modulated signals generated
by the secondary located master circuit. A
pulse transformer provides the feedback (see
Figure 1).
– Conventional architecture with linear feedback
signal (feedback sources: optocoupler or transformer
winding) (see Figure 2).


Using the TEA2260/61, the stand-by auxiliary
power supply, often realized with a small but costly
50Hz transformer, is no longer necessary. The
burst mode operation of the TEA2260/61 makes
possible the control of very low output power
(down to less than 1W) with the main power transformer.
When used in a master/slave architecture, the
TEA2260/61 and also the power transistor turn-off
can be easily synchronized with the line transformer.
The switching noise cannot disturb the picture
in this case.
As an S.M.P.S. controller, the TEA2260/61 features
the following functions:
– Power supply start-up (with soft-start)
– PWM generator
– Direct power transistor drive (+1.2A, -2.0A)
– Safety functions: pulse by pulse current limitation,
output power limitation, over and under voltage
lock-out.



S.M.P.S. OPERATING DESCRIPTION
Starting Mode - Stand By Mode
Power for circuit supply is taken from the mains
through a high value resistor before starting. As
long as VCC of the TEA2260/61 is below VCC start,
the quiescent current is very low (typically 0.7mA)
and the electrolytic capacitor across VCC is linearly
charged. When VCC reaches VCC start (typically
10.3V), the circuit starts, generating output pulses
with a soft-starting. Then the SMPS goes into the
stand-by mode and the output voltage is a percentage
of the nominal output voltage (e.g. 80%).
To do this, the TEA2260/61 contains all the functions
required for primary mode regulation: a fixed
frequency oscillator, a voltage reference, an error
amplifier and a pulse width modulator (PWM).
For transmission of low power with a good efficiency
in stand-by, an automatic burst generation system
is used, in order to avoid audible noise.
Normal Mode (Secondary Regulation)
The normal operating of the TV set is obtained by
sending to the TEA2260/61 regulation pulses generated
by a regulator located in the secondary side
of the power supply.
This architecture uses the “Master/Slave Concept”,
advantages of which are now well-known
especially the very high efficiency in Stand-by
mode, and the accurate regulation in Normal
mode.
Stand-by mode or normal mode are obtained by
supplying or not the secondary regulator. This can
be ordonnered for example by a microprocessor in
relation with the remote control unit.
Regulation pulses are applied to the TEA2260/61
through a small pulse-transformer to the IN input
(Pin 2). This input is sensitive to positive square
pulses. The typical threshold of this input is 0.85V.
The frequency of pulses coming from the secondary
regulator can be lower or higher than the frequency
of the starting oscillator.
The TEA2260/61 has no soft-starting system
when it receives pulses from the secondary. The
soft-start must be located in the secondary regulator.
Due to the principle of the primary regulation, pulses
generated by the starting system automatically
disappear when the voltage delivered by the
SMPS increases.
Stand-by Mode - Normal Mode Transition
During the transition there are simultaneously
pulses coming from the primary and secondary
regulators.
These signals are not synchronized and some
care has to be taken to ensure the safety of the
switching power transistor.
A very sure and simple way consist in checking the
transformer demagnetization state.
– A primary pulse is taken in account only if the
transformer is demagnetized after a conduction
of the power transistor required by the secondary
regulator.
– A secondary pulse is taken in account only if the
transformer is demagnetized after a conduction
of the power transistor required by the primary
regulator.
With this arrangement the switching safety area of
the power transistor is respected and there is no
risk of transformer magnetization.


SECURITY FUNCTIONS OF THE TEA2261



Undervoltage Detection. This protection works in
association with the starting device “VCC switch”
(see paragraph Starting-mode - stand-by mode). If
VCC is lower than VCCstop (typically 7.4V) output
pulses are inhibited, in order to avoid wrong operation
of the power supply or bad power transistor
drive.
Overvoltage Detection. If VCC exceeds VCCmax
(typically 15.7V) output pulses are inhibited and
the external capacitor C2 is charged as long as
VCC is higher than VCC stop. Restarting of the
power supply is obtained by reducing VCC below
VCCstop except if the voltage across C2 reaches
VC2 (typically 2.55V) (refer to “Restart of the power
supply” paragraph).In this last case, the circuit is
definitively stopped.
Current Limitation of the Power Transistor. The
current is measured by a shunt resistor. A double
threshold system is used:
– When the first threshold (VIM1) is reached, the
conduction of the power transistor is stopped until
the end of the period: a new conduction signal
is needed to obtain conduction again.
– Furthermore as long as the first threshold is
reached (it means during several periods), an external
capacitor C2 is charged. When the voltage
across the capacitor reaches VC2 (typically
2.55V) the output is inhibited. This is called the
“repetitive overload protection”. If the overload
disappears before VC2 is reached, C2 is discharged,
so transient overloads are tolerated.
– Second current limitation threshold (VIM2). When
this threshold is reached the output of the circuit
is immediately inhibited. This protection is helpful
in case of hard overload for example to avoid the
magnetization of the transformer.
Restart of the Power Supply. After stopping due
to VIM2, VCCMax or VCCstop triggering, restart of
the power supply can be obtained by the normal
operating of the “VCC switch” VCC switch sequency
from VCCstop to VCCstart. After stopping due to
VC2 threshold reaching, the circuit is definitively
stopped. In this case it is necessary to reduce VCC
below approximately 5V to reset the circuit. From a
practical point of view, it means that the power
supply has to be temporarily disconnected from
any power source to get the restart.

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