Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

In Brief: On this site you will find pictures and information about some of the electronic, electrical and electrotechnical technology relics that the Frank Sharp Private museum has accumulated over the years .

Premise: There are lots of vintage electrical and electronic items that have not survived well or even completely disappeared and forgotten.

Or are not being collected nowadays in proportion to their significance or prevalence in their heyday, this is bad and the main part of the death land. The heavy, ugly sarcophagus; models with few endearing qualities, devices that have some over-riding disadvantage to ownership such as heavy weight,toxicity or inflated value when dismantled, tend to be under-represented by all but the most comprehensive collections and museums. They get relegated to the bottom of the wants list, derided as 'more trouble than they are worth', or just forgotten entirely. As a result, I started to notice gaps in the current representation of the history of electronic and electrical technology to the interested member of the public.


Following this idea around a bit, convinced me that a collection of the peculiar alone could not hope to survive on its own merits, but a museum that gave equal display space to the popular and the unpopular, would bring things to the attention of the average person that he has previously passed by or been shielded from. It's a matter of culture. From this, the Obsolete Technology Tellye Web Museum concept developed and all my other things too. It's an open platform for all electrical Electronic TV technology to have its few, but NOT last, moments of fame in a working, hand-on environment. We'll never own Colossus or Faraday's first transformer, but I can show things that you can't see at the Science Museum, and let you play with things that the Smithsonian can't allow people to touch, because my remit is different.

There was a society once that was the polar opposite of our disposable, junk society. A whole nation was built on the idea of placing quality before quantity in all things. The goal was not “more and newer,” but “better and higher" .This attitude was reflected not only in the manufacturing of material goods, but also in the realms of art and architecture, as well as in the social fabric of everyday life. The goal was for each new cohort of children to stand on a higher level than the preceding cohort: they were to be healthier, stronger, more intelligent, and more vibrant in every way.

The society that prioritized human, social and material quality is a Winner. Truly, it is the high point of all Western civilization. Consequently, its defeat meant the defeat of civilization itself.

Today, the West is headed for the abyss. For the ultimate fate of our disposable society is for that society itself to be disposed of. And this will happen sooner, rather than later.

OLD, but ORIGINAL, Well made, Funny, Not remotely controlled............. and not Made in CHINA.

How to use the site:

- If you landed here via any Search Engine, you will get what you searched for and you can search more using the search this blog feature provided by Google. You can visit more posts scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year,
or you can click on the main photo-page to start from the main page. Doing so it starts from the most recent post to the older post simple clicking on the Older Post button on the bottom of each page after reading , post after post.

You can even visit all posts, time to time, when reaching the bottom end of each page and click on the Older Post button.

- If you arrived here at the main page via bookmark you can visit all the site scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year pointing were you want , or more simple You can even visit all blog posts, from newer to older, clicking at the end of each bottom page on the Older Post button.
So you can see all the blog/site content surfing all pages in it.

- The search this blog feature provided by Google is a real search engine. If you're pointing particular things it will search IT for you; or you can place a brand name in the search query at your choice and visit all results page by page. It's useful since the content of the site is very large.

Note that if you don't find what you searched for, try it after a period of time; the site is a never ending job !

Every CRT Television saved let revive knowledge, thoughts, moments of the past life which will never return again.........

Many contemporary "televisions" (more correctly named as displays) would not have this level of staying power, many would ware out or require major services within just five years or less and of course, there is that perennial bug bear of planned obsolescence where components are deliberately designed to fail and, or manufactured with limited edition specificities..... and without considering........picture......sound........quality........

..............The bitterness of poor quality is remembered long after the sweetness of todays funny gadgets low price has faded from memory........ . . . . . .....
Don't forget the past, the end of the world is upon us! Pretty soon it will all turn to dust!

Have big FUN ! !
-----------------------

©2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 Frank Sharp - You do not have permission to copy photos and words from this blog, and any content may be never used it for auctions or commercial purposes, however feel free to post anything you see here with a courtesy link back, btw a link to the original post here , is mandatory.
All sets and apparates appearing here are property of
Engineer Frank Sharp. NOTHING HERE IS FOR SALE !

Saturday, May 25, 2013

SCHAUB LORENZ WELTECHO T920 YEAR 1967.


The SCHAUB LORENZ WELTECHO T920  is a 23 inches (59cm) B/W television with 5 programs mechanic preselection integrated transistorized tuner.

The set was first Schaub Lorenz with such type of tuner and having a large speaker for extensive sound bandwidth featuring warm sound.

Tuning was helped via a tuning window showing band search.

(Television set kindly donated to me by Marshal Elia Z.)









The B/W Tubes Television set was powered with a External Voltage stabiliser unit for Television (portable metal box) which relates to voltage regulators of the type employed to supply alternating current and a constant voltage to a load circuit from a source in which the line voltage varies.Conventional AC-operated television receivers exhibit several undesirable performance attributes. For example, under low-line voltage conditions such as those encountered during peak load periods or temporary power brown-outs imposed during times of power shortage, picture shrinkage and defocusing are encountered and under extreme brown-out conditions the receiver loses synchronization with a resultant total loss of picture intelligibility.

On the other hand, abnormally high-line voltage conditions are sometimes encountered, and this can lead to excessive high voltage and X-ray generation. In addition, either abnormally high steady state line voltage conditions or high voltage transients such as those encountered during electrical storms or during power line switching operations may subject the active devices and other components of the receiver to over-voltage stresses which can lead to excessive component failure.

It is a principal object of the present invention to provide a new and improved AC-operated television receiver having greatly improved performance characteristics in the presence of fluctuating power supply voltages.

A more specific object of the invention is to provide an AC-operated television receiver affording substantially undegraded performance under even extremely low-line voltage conditions without excessive high voltage and X-ray generation under even extremely high-line voltage conditions.

Still another and extremely important object of the invention is to provide a new and improved AC-operated television receiver having greatly improved reliability against component failure. Such regulators are frequently provided employing saturable core reactors and condensers connected in circuit...  in such manner as to provide a plurality of variable voltage vectors which vary in different senses, as the line voltage varies, but which add vectorially in such manner that the
voltage stabilization
is automatically effected by the provision of an inductive pilot control device which is adapted to provide two excitation supply voltages for producing excitation or satuation of two magnetic circuits of a reversible booster transformer unit or units and diversion of flux from one magnetic circuit to the other, the booster unit being energized by primary windings from the A. C. supplysystem and being provided with a secondary winding or windings connected between the supply system and the corresponding inain or distribution circuit and in series therewith, through which a corrective boost voltage is
introduced into the circuit under the influence of the pilot control device, of an amount equal to that of the supply voltage fluctuation which initiated it and appropriate in polarity and direction for restoring the voltage to normal value and providing automatic stabilization of the circuit voltage against supply voltages which fluctuate above and below normal value.

Their vector sum remains substantially constant upon variations in line voltage, for providing automatic voltage stabilization of single or multiphase A. C. circuits where the supply voltage and frequency are subject to variation above and below normal value and where the load is subject to variation between normal limits.
The pilot control device which may be employed singly or may comprise three units or their equivalent when applied to multiphase supply systems comprises a pair of closed magnetic circuits or cores constructed of strip wound magnetic material or stacked laminations, the two
circuits forming a pair being constructed of materials possessing dis~similar magnetic characteristics when jointly energized by identical windings in series or by a collective primary winding, the said magnetic circuits being suitably proportioned to provide equal fluxes when energized at normal voltage.

The pilot control device is provided with a main and an auxiliary secondary winding or group of windings, the main secondary winding or windings being adapted to provide a voltage representing the difference in the fluxes of the two circuits to which it is jointly associated, while
the auxiliary secondary winding embraces only one circuit, preferably that subject to the least amount of flux variation. Either of the windings consists of two equal sections or in effect a double winding with a center tapping to which one end of the single winding is connected.

The voltage in the single secondary winding of the pilot device becomes directionally additive to that in one half of the tapped secondary winding a nd substractive in respect to that in the other half. When the supply voltage is normal the voltage provided by the single secondary winding is zero, since there is no difference of flux in the two magnetic circuits, and the two excitation voltages
produced in the halves of the other secondary winding are equal and when connected to the two excitation windings of the booster units, do not produce any diversion of flux between the two circuits or sets of circuits in the magnetic system of the booster transformer unit become equal, and since the series winding on the booster unit is arranged to provide a voltage due to the difference of
the fluxes in its two magnetic circuits or sets of magnetic circuits, no corrective voltage is introduced into the main circuit by the booster. If, however, the supply voltage varies from normal the pilot control device provides a voltage across the one secondary winding due to the difference in the fluxes of the two dis-similar magnetic circuits of which it is comprised, which voltage is combined with thosc in the halves of the other secondary winding to provide two excitation voltages which vary complementarily to each other as the supply voltage fluotuates, and cause a transference of flux between the two
circuits or groups of circuits in the booster unit and automatically provide a corrective boost voltage in the main circuit in which the series winding of the booster transformer is included of a value equal to that of the variation in supply voltage which initiated it.
The pilot device may be arranged in various ways, forboth single phase and multiphase operation, as exemplified by the constructions hereinafter more fully described.Similarly, numerous arrangements of the booster transformer unit are possible, some of which are hereinafter described in detail. The booster transformer unit embodies thc principles of the inductive devices described in my co-pending Application No. 411,189, filed February 18, 1954.

As an alternative to the provision of an auxiliary secondary winding on the pilot control device this may be
replaced by an independent or external source of supply,which may be either subject to or independent of supply voltage variation, provided such supply may be arranged with a center tapping if required.

Feed-back arrangements may be employed for providing compensation against voltage drop due to the effects of load in various ways. These are preferably providedon the booster transformer unit and may comprise a current transformer in one or more lines of the main circuit,
the secondary output of the transformer being rectified and arranged to energize an additional excitation winding on the booster transformer unit which in clfect increases the amount of the corrective boost voltage as the load increases.


Started in 1921 by Georg von Schaub as Schaub-Elektrizitätsgesellschaft and was located in the Charlottenburg district of Berlin, Germany, originally manufacturing various electric equipment but entered the radio receiver market in 1923. The name of the company was changed to G. Schaub Apparatebau Gesellschaft GmbH in 1925 but continued to use plain Schaub as it's trademark and it became one of the better known manufacturers of radios in central Europe. Moved to Pforzheim-Dillweissenstein in 1934 and was taken over by C. Lorenz in 1940 although the company operated mostly independently until the early 50's. Restarted production of loudspeakers and receivers in 1946 or as soon as the occupation forces allowed and sold consumer products initially as Schaub and as later as Schaub-Lorenz, all manufacture of Lorenz CE products was actually handed over to the company in 1950 due to the blockade of Berlin by the Soviet occupation forces, the Schaub company was finally merged with the rest of the C. Lorenz companies in 1958 although the name was used at the least partially up until the sale of the Lorenz consumer division to Nokia in 1988.



One side Note:
The advert says "ITT Technik der Welt" (ITT the world Technology) indeed the contribution given by these organizations toghether the products of them increased man's life quality on certains aspects, so no surprises if today quality is heavily lowered by chinese market and other society crap mixtures, because anyway at the end it's a man choice.























ITT Corporation (NYSE: ITT) is a global diversified manufacturing company with 2008 revenues of $11.7 billion. ITT participates in global markets including water and fluids management, defense and security, and motion and flow control. Forbes.com named ITT Corporation to its list of "America's Best Managed Companies" for 2008, and awarded the company the top spot in the conglomerates category.

,ITT's water business is the world's largest supplier of pumps and systems to transport, treat and control water, and other fluids. The company's defense electronics and services business is one of the ten largest US defense contractors providing defense and security systems, advanced technologies and operational services for military and civilian customers. ITT's motion and flow control business manufactures specialty components for aerospace, transportation and industrial markets.

In 2008, ITT was named to the Dow Jones Sustainability World Index (DJSI World) for the tenth time in recognition of the company's economic, environmental and social performance. ITT is one of the few companies to be included on the list every year since its inception in 1999.

The company was founded in 1920 as International Telephone & Telegraph. During the 1960s and 1970s, under the leadership of its CEO Harold Geneen the company rose to prominence as the archetypal conglomerate, deriving its growth from hundreds of acquisitions in diversified industries. ITT divested its telecommunications assets in 1986, and in 1995 spun off its non-manufacturing divisions, later to be purchased by Starwood Hotels & Resorts Worldwide.

In 1996, the company became ITT Industries, Inc., but changed its name back to ITT Corporation in 2006.



History

ITT was formed in 1920, created from the Puerto Rico Telephone Company co-founded by Sosthenes Behn.[1] Its first major expansion was in 1923 when it consolidated the Spanish Telecoms market into what is now Telefónica.[2] From 1922 to 1925 it purchased a number of European telephone companies. In 1925 it purchased the Bell Telephone Manufacturing Company of Brussels, Belgium, which was formerly affiliated with AT&T, and manufactured rotary system switching equipment. In the 1930s, ITT grew through purchasing German electronic companies Standard Elektrizitaetsgesellschaft (SEG) and Mix & Genest, both of which were internationally active companies. Its only serious rival was the Theodore Gary & Company conglomerate, which operated a subsidiary, Associated Telephone and Telegraph, with manufacturing plants in Europe.

In the United States, ITT acquired the various companies of the Mackay Companies in 1928 through a specially organized subsidiary corporation, Postal Telegraph & Cable. These companies included the Commercial Cable Company, the Commercial Pacific Cable Company, Postal Telegraph, and the Federal Telegraph Company.





International telecommunications

International telecommunications manufacturing subsidiaries included STC in Australia and Britain, SEL in Germany, BTM in Belgium, and CGCT and LMT in France. Alec Reeves invented Pulse-code modulation (PCM), upon which future digital voice communication was based. These companies manufactured equipment according to ITT designs including the (1960s) Pentaconta crossbar switch and (1970s) Metaconta D, L and 10c Stored Program Control exchanges, mostly for sale to their respective national telephone administrations. This equipment was also produced under license in Poznań (Poland), and in Yugoslavia, and elsewhere. ITT was the largest owner of the LM Ericsson company in Sweden but sold out in 1960.




1989 breakup

In 1989 ITT sold its international telecommunications product businesses to Alcatel, now Alcatel-Lucent. ITT Kellogg was also part of the 1989 sale to Alcatel. The company was then sold to private investors in the U.S. and went by the name Cortelco Kellogg. Today the company is known as Cortelco (Corinth Telecommunications Corporation, named for Corinth, MS headquarters). ITT Educational Services, Inc. (ESI) was spun off through an IPO in 1994, with ITT as an 83% shareholder. ITT merged its long distance division with Metromedia Long Distance, creating Metromedia-ITT. Metromedia-ITT would eventually be acquired by Long Distance Discount Services, Inc. (LDDS) in 1993. LDDS would later change its name to Worldcom in 1995.

In 1995, ITT Corporation split into 3 separate public companies:

* ITT Corp. — In 1997, ITT Corp. completed a merger with Starwood Hotels & Resorts Worldwide, selling off its non-hotel and resorts business. By 1999, ITT completely divested from ITT/ESI; however, the schools still operate as ITT Technical Institute using the ITT name under license.[1] Also in 1999, ITT Corp. dropped the ITT name in favor of Starwood.[7]
* ITT Hartford (insurance) — Today ITT Hartford is still a major insurance company although it has dropped the ITT from its name altogether. The company is now known as The Hartford Financial Services Group, Inc.
* ITT Industries — ITT operated under this name until 2006 and is a major manufacturing and defense contractor business.
o On July 1, 2006, ITT Industries changed its name to ITT Corporation as a result of its shareholders vote on May 9, 2006.



Purchase of International Motion Control (IMC)

An agreement was reached on June 26, 2007 for ITT to acquire privately held International Motion Control (IMC) for $395 million. The deal was closed and finalized in September 2007. An announcement was made September 14, 2010, to close the Cleveland site.
Purchase of EDO

An agreement was reached September 18, 2007 for ITT to buy EDO Corporation for $1.7 billion.[12] After EDO shareholders' approval, the deal was closed and finalized on December 20, 2007.


Purchase of Laing

On April 16, 2009, ITT announced it has signed a definitive agreement to acquire Laing GmbH of Germany, a privately held leading producer of energy-efficient circulator pumps primarily used in residential and commercial plumbing and heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems.


2011 breakup

On January 12, 2011, ITT announced a transformation to separate the company into 3, stand-alone, publicly-traded, and independent companies.


HISTORY OF Standard Elektrik Lorenz AG IN GERMAN:

Die Standard Elektrik Lorenz AG (heute Alcatel-Lucent Deutschland AG) ist ein Unternehmen der Nachrichtentechnik (früherer Slogan: SEL – Die ganze Nachrichtentechnik) mit Hauptsitz in Stuttgart. Zur Nachrichtentechnik zählen auch Informations- und Kommunikationstechnik, Telekommunikationstechnik (SEL war für die Röchelschaltung bekannt) und früher Fernmeldetechnik oder Schwachstromtechnik. Einen weiteren Geschäftsbereich hatte das Unternehmen in der Bahnsicherungstechnik, so wurden für die Deutsche Bundesbahn Relaisstellwerke und elektronische Stellwerke mit den dazugehörigen Außenanlagen (Signale, Gleisfreimeldeanlagen, Weichenantriebe) sowie die Linienzugbeeinflussung entwickelt und gebaut, welche auch bei ausländischen Bahnen Abnehmer fanden. Der Bereich gehört seit 2007 als Thales Transportation Systems GmbH (seit 02.2011 vorher Thales Rail Signalling Solutions GmbH) zum Thales-Konzern. Die bereits 1998 ausgegliederten Bereiche Alcatel Air Navigation Systems und SEL Verteidigungssysteme sind ebenfalls heute in Thales Deutschland beheimatet.[1]
Fernseher Illustraphon 743 von 1957
„Goldsuper Stereo 20“ (1961)
Das Flaggschiff der erfolgreichen Schaub-Lorenz Kofferradios der sechziger Jahre: Touring 70 Universal
Erster Digitalfernseher der Welt (1983)

Bis 1987 gehörte SEL zusammen mit anderen auf dem Sektor Telekommunikation in anderen Ländern tätigen Schwesterfirmen zum US-amerikanischen Mischkonzern International Telephone and Telegraph (ITT). ITT verkaufte die Aktien-Mehrheit an den ITT-Telekommunikationsfirmen an die französische Compagnie Générale d’Electricité (CGE), die nach der Zusammenfassung mit den eigenen Telekommunikationsaktivitäten daraus die Alcatel N.V. bildete.

Die Standard Elektrik Lorenz AG wurde 1993 in Alcatel SEL AG umbenannt. Die Aktienmehrheit liegt mit über 99 % bei der Alcatel. Mit der Fusion von Alcatel und Lucent zu Alcatel-Lucent am 1. Dezember 2006 und der Neu-Firmierung beider Unternehmen in Deutschland zur Alcatel-Lucent Deutschland AG entfiel der Zusatz SEL.


Geschichte

Die beiden Stammfirmen des Unternehmens, die Mix & Genest AG und die Telegraphenbauanstalt von C. Lorenz, wurden 1879 bzw. 1880 gegründet. Das erste Patent von Mix & Genest datiert von 1883, das erste Patent von C. Lorenz ist aus dem Jahr 1902.

Das Unternehmen Mix & Genest war wesentlicher Teil der Standard Elektrizitäts-Gesellschaft (SEG), in die auch die Süddeutsche Apparatefabrik (SAF), die 1875 von F. Heller als "Friedrich Heller, Fabrik Elektrotechnischer Apparate" gegründet wurde, integriert wurde. Der technische Schwerpunkt von Mix & Genest bzw. SEG sowie der C. Lorenz AG war der klassischen Fernmelde- bzw. Funktechnik zuzuordnen. Die C. Lorenz AG baute in den 1920er und 1930er Jahren Großsender für den neu gegründeten Rundfunk.

1930 übernahm die International Telephone and Telegraph Company (ITT) die Aktienmehrheit der Mix & Genest AG und der C. Lorenz AG. [2]

Die C. Lorenz AG positionierte sich mit der Übernahme der G. Schaub Apparatebau-Gesellschaft mbH im Jahr 1940 in der Entwicklung und Herstellung von Rundfunkempfängern. Ab dem Jahr 1950 wurden alle Geräte bei Schaub in Pforzheim gefertigt. 1952 wurde das Typenprogramm beider Unternehmen verschmolzen und der Lorenz-Radio-Vertrieb in die Firma Schaub integriert. Ab 1955 wurden die Geräte unter dem Namen Schaub-Lorenz vertrieben.

1956 wurde das Unternehmen SEG in Standard Elektrik AG umbenannt. Ebenfalls 1956 wurde ein Kabelwerk gegründet. Wesentlicher Motor für das 1957 gegründete Informatikwerk war Karl Steinbuch, der von 1948–1958 dem Unternehmen, zuletzt als Technischer Direktor und Leiter der Zentralen Forschung, angehörte.

1958 erfolgte die Vereinigung der Standard Elektrik AG mit der C. Lorenz AG zur Standard Elektrik Lorenz AG (SEL).

Die Standard Elektrik Lorenz AG übernahm 1961 die Graetz KG. Die Firmenteile Schaub-Lorenz und Graetz waren zusammen mit einem Bildröhrenwerk Bestandteil der Unternehmensgruppe Audio Video der SEL AG, die 1979 als Audio-Video-Elektronik in die ITT ausgegliedert wurde. Die Produkte, die unter anderem Fernsehgeräte, Radios, Autoradios, Kassettenrecorder, Weltempfänger und Lautsprecherboxen umfassen, wurden fortan unter dem Namen ITT Schaub-Lorenz vertrieben.[2]

Versuche, auf dem neuen Gebiet der Raumfahrt-Elektronik Fuß zu fassen, waren auf folgende Produkte beschränkt:

* AZUR: Telemetrie/Telekommandogeräte
* Spacelab: Datenerfassung/Kommandoterminal.

SEL entwickelte zu Beginn der 1970er Jahre das Präzisionsanflugverfahren SETAC. Dieser Unternehmensbereich wurde im Jahre 1987 von der finnischen Firma Nokia übernommen.

1976 hatte SEL ein Grundkapital von 357 Mio. DM bei 33.000 Beschäftigten und einem Umsatz von 2,6 Mrd. DM.

1983 stellte SEL auf der Internationalen Funkausstellung Berlin 1983 mit dem ITT Digivision den weltweit ersten Fernseher mit digitaler Signalverarbeitung vor.

2003 wurden die Markenrechte am Namen Schaub Lorenz an die italienische General Trading SpA verkauft. Die neugegründete Schaub Lorenz International GmbH vertreibt seitdem unter dem alten Markennamen Schaub-Lorenz importierte Konsumelektronik aus dem unteren Preisbereich.





A good point  on good  old  B/W Televisions.....................

The Sixties was a time of great change for TV. At the start of the decade there were just monochrome sets with valves, designed for 405 -line transmissions at VHF. By the end there was 625 -line colour at UHF, with transistorised chassis that used the odd IC.

The following decade was one of growth. The "space race" had begun in 1957, when the USSR launched Sputnik 1 and terrified the Americans. Thereafter the USA began to spend countless billions of dollars on space missions. This got underway in earnest in the Sixties, with the announcement that America would be going all out to get a man on the moon by the end of the decade. There followed the Mercury series of earth - orbit missions, then the Apollo launches. Success was achieved in 1969. Most of these missions were televised, and in those days anything to do with space was hot stuff. It was inevitable that everyone wanted to have a television set. At the time an average receiver would be a monochrome one with a 14in. tube - there was no colour until 1967. It would cost about 75 guineas. 
TV sets were often priced in guineas (21 shillings) as it made the price look a bit easier on the pocket. Anyway 75 guineas, equivalent to about £78.75 in 2000's currency, was a lot of money then.  For those who couldn't, rental was a good option. The Sixties was a period of tremendous growth for rental TV. 
Much else was rented at that time, even radios, also washing machines, spin driers, refrigerators and, later on, audio tape recorders (no VCRs then). 
For most people these things were too expensive for cash purchase. 
There were no credit cards then. And when it came to a TV set, the question of reli- ability had to be taken into account: renting took care of repair costs. 

TV reliability.........The TV sets of the period were notoriously unreliable. They still used valves, which meant that a large amount of heat was generated. The dropper resistor contributed to this: it was used mainly as a series device to reduce the mains voltage to the level required to power the valve heaters. These were generally connected in series, so the heater volt- ages of all the valves were added together and the total was subtracted from the mains voltage. The difference was the voltage across the heater section of the dropper resistor, whose value was determined by simple application of Ohm's Law. 
As valves are voltage -operated devices, there was no need to stabilise the current. So the power supply circuits in TV sets were very simple. They often consisted of nothing more than a dropper resistor, a half or biphase rectifier and a couple of smoothing capacitors. If a TV set had a transformer and a full wave rectifier in addition to the other components, it was sophisticated!
 As the valve heaters were connected in series they were like Christmas -tree lights: should one fail they all went out and the TV set ceased to function. Another common problem with valves is the cathode -to -heater short. When this fault occurs in a valve, some of the heaters in the chain would go out and some would stay on. Those that stayed on would glow like search- lights, often becoming damaged as a result. Dropper failure could cause loss of HT (dead set with the heaters glowing), or no heater supply with HT present. When the HT rectifier valve went low emission, there was low EHT, a small picture and poor performance all round. CRTs would go soft or low emission, the result being a faint picture, or cathode -to -heater short-circuit, the result this time being uncontrollable brightness. On average a TV set would have twelve to fourteen valves, any one of which could go low -emission or fail in some other way. All valves have a finite life, so each one would probably have to be replaced at one time or another. The amount of heat generated in an average TV set would dry out the capacitors, which then failed. So you can see why people rented! 

The CRT could cause various problems. Because of its cost, it was the gen- eral practice to place its heater at the earthy end of the chain. In this position it was less likely to be overloaded by a heater chain fault. But during the winter months, when the mains voltage dropped a bit, it would be starved of power. This would eventually lead to 'cathode poi- soning' with loss of emission. The 'cure' for this was to fit a booster transformer designed to overrun the heater by 10, 20 or 30 per cent. It would work fine for a while, until the CRT completely expired. At about this time CRT reactivators came into being - and a weird and wonderful collection of devices they turned out to be. Regunned tubes also started to appear. You couldn't do this with the `hard -glass' triode tubes made by Emitron. These were fitted in a number of older sets. Yes, they were still around, at least during the early Sixties.



Developments................... A great deal of development occurred during the Sixties. Many TV sets and radios made in the early Sixties were still hard -wired: the introduction of the printed circuit board changed the construction of electronic equipment forever. The first one was in a Pam transistor radio. PCBs were ideal for use in transistor radios, because of the small size of the components used and the fact that such radios ran almost cold. 
They were not so good for use with valve circuitry, as the heat from the valves caused all sorts of problems. Print cracks could develop if a board became warped. If it became carbonised there could be serious leakage and tracking problems. In addition it was more difficult to remove components from a PCB. Many technicians at that time didn't like PCBs. As the Sixties progressed, transistors took over more and more in TV sets. They first appeared in a rather random fashion, for example in the sync separator stages in some Pye models. Then the IF strip became transistorised. Early transistors were based on the use of germanium, which was far from ideal. 

The change to silicon produced devices that were more robust and had a better signal-to-noise ratio. 
Car radios became fully transistorised, and 'solid-state' circuitry ceased to be based on earlier valve arrangements. Many hi-fi amplifiers had been transistorised from the late Fifties, and all tape recorders were now solid-state. 
Both reel-to-reel and compact -cassette recorders were available at this time. Initially, audio cassette recorders had a maximum upper frequency response of only about 9kHz. 
To increase it meant either a smaller head gap or a faster speed. Philips, which developed the compact audio cassette and holds the patents for the design (which we still use in 2000!) wouldn't allow an increase in speed. Good reel-to-reel recorders had a fre- quency response that extended to 20kHz when the tape speed was 15in./sec. 
This is true hi-fi. In time the frequency response of compact -cassette recorders did improve, because of the use of better head materials with a smaller gap. 
This led to the demise of the reel-to-reel audio recorder as a domestic product We began to benefit from spin-offs of the space race between the USA and the USSR. 
The need to squeeze as much technology as possible into the early computers in the Mercury space capsules used by the USA lead to the first inte- grated circuits. 
This technology soon found its way into consumer equipment. Often these devices were hybrid encap- sulations rather than true chips, but they did improve reliability and saved space. The few chips around in those days were analogue devices.  To start with most UHF tuners used valves such as the PC86 and PC88. They were all manually tuned. Some had slow-motion drives and others had push -buttons. They didn't have a lot of gain, so it was important to have an adequate aerial and use low -loss cable..............................



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