Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

In Brief: On this site you will find pictures and information about some of the electronic, electrical and electrotechnical Obsolete technology relics that the Frank Sharp Private museum has accumulated over the years .
Premise: There are lots of vintage electrical and electronic items that have not survived well or even completely disappeared and forgotten.

Or are not being collected nowadays in proportion to their significance or prevalence in their heyday, this is bad and the main part of the death land. The heavy, ugly sarcophagus; models with few endearing qualities, devices that have some over-riding disadvantage to ownership such as heavy weight,toxicity or inflated value when dismantled, tend to be under-represented by all but the most comprehensive collections and museums. They get relegated to the bottom of the wants list, derided as 'more trouble than they are worth', or just forgotten entirely. As a result, I started to notice gaps in the current representation of the history of electronic and electrical technology to the interested member of the public.

Following this idea around a bit, convinced me that a collection of the peculiar alone could not hope to survive on its own merits, but a museum that gave equal display space to the popular and the unpopular, would bring things to the attention of the average person that he has previously passed by or been shielded from. It's a matter of culture. From this, the Obsolete Technology Tellye Web Museum concept developed and all my other things too. It's an open platform for all electrical Electronic TV technology to have its few, but NOT last, moments of fame in a working, hand-on environment. We'll never own Colossus or Faraday's first transformer, but I can show things that you can't see at the Science Museum, and let you play with things that the Smithsonian can't allow people to touch, because my remit is different.

There was a society once that was the polar opposite of our disposable, junk society. A whole nation was built on the idea of placing quality before quantity in all things. The goal was not “more and newer,” but “better and higher" .This attitude was reflected not only in the manufacturing of material goods, but also in the realms of art and architecture, as well as in the social fabric of everyday life. The goal was for each new cohort of children to stand on a higher level than the preceding cohort: they were to be healthier, stronger, more intelligent, and more vibrant in every way.

The society that prioritized human, social and material quality is a Winner. Truly, it is the high point of all Western civilization. Consequently, its defeat meant the defeat of civilization itself.

Today, the West is headed for the abyss. For the ultimate fate of our disposable society is for that society itself to be disposed of. And this will happen sooner, rather than later.

OLD, but ORIGINAL, Well made, Funny, Not remotely controlled............. and not Made in CHINA.

How to use the site:
- If you landed here via any Search Engine, you will get what you searched for and you can search more using the search this blog feature provided by Google. You can visit more posts scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year,
or you can click on the main photo-page to start from the main page. Doing so it starts from the most recent post to the older post simple clicking on the Older Post button on the bottom of each page after reading , post after post.

You can even visit all posts, time to time, when reaching the bottom end of each page and click on the Older Post button.

- If you arrived here at the main page via bookmark you can visit all the site scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year pointing were you want , or more simple You can even visit all blog posts, from newer to older, clicking at the end of each bottom page on the Older Post button.
So you can see all the blog/site content surfing all pages in it.

- The search this blog feature provided by Google is a real search engine. If you're pointing particular things it will search IT for you; or you can place a brand name in the search query at your choice and visit all results page by page. It's useful since the content of the site is very large.

Note that if you don't find what you searched for, try it after a period of time; the site is a never ending job !

Every CRT Television saved let revive knowledge, thoughts, moments of the past life which will never return again.........

Many contemporary "televisions" (more correctly named as displays) would not have this level of staying power, many would ware out or require major services within just five years or less and of course, there is that perennial bug bear of planned obsolescence where components are deliberately designed to fail and, or manufactured with limited edition specificities..... and without considering........picture......sound........quality........
..............The bitterness of poor quality is remembered long after the sweetness of todays funny gadgets low price has faded from memory........ . . . . . .....
Don't forget the past, the end of the world is upon us! Pretty soon it will all turn to dust!

Have big FUN ! !
©2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 Frank Sharp - You do not have permission to copy photos and words from this blog, and any content may be never used it for auctions or commercial purposes, however feel free to post anything you see here with a courtesy link back, btw a link to the original post here , is mandatory.
All sets and apparates appearing here are property of Engineer Frank Sharp. NOTHING HERE IS FOR SALE !
All posts are presented here for informative, historical and educative purposes as applicable within Fair Use.

Wednesday, December 15, 2010


CHASSIS FM 100-21/0 GH

This Chassis is basically divided in 3 "sides"

- Tuning and control section

- Power / deflections section

- Video Signal + Synchronization section

The first is on a separate way on the left side of mani pcb.

The last two are put on one pcb at the bottom of the wooden cabinet.

TDA3300B (Motorola) is a Video Combination, Single-Chip-Multifunction TV Support Circuit - Colour Processing Circuit

TDA2593 (Philips) Synchronization.


Single-Chip-Multifunction TV Support Circuit - Horizontal Combination

Nom. Supp (V)=12
Tda4600 (Siemens) SMPS Power supply control.


Single-Output Voltage-Mode SMPS Circuit - Control IC for Switch Mode Power Supplies,Vcc 7.6
Maximum Frequency (Hz)=75k
UV Lockout (Y/N)=Yes
Soft Start (Y/N)=Yes
Supply Voltage Minimum (V)=12
Supply Voltage Maximum (V)=12

Power supply is based on TDA4601d (SIEMENS)

TDA4601 Operation. * The TDA4601 device is a single in line, 9 pin chip. Its predecessor was the TDA4600 device, the TDA4601 however has improved switching, better protection and cooler running. The (SIEMENS) TDA4601 power supply is a fairly standard parallel chopper switch mode type, which operates on the same basic principle as a line output stage. It is turned on and off by a square wave drive pulse, when switched on energy is stored in the chopper transformer primary winding in the form of a magnetic flux; when the chopper is turned off the magnetic flux collapses, causing a large back emf to be produced. At the secondary side of the chopper transformer this is rectified and smoothed for H.T. supply purposes. The advantage of this type of supply is that the high chopping frequency (20 to 70 KHz according to load) allows the use of relatively small H.T. smoothing capacitors making smoothing easier. Also should the chopper device go short circuit there is no H.T. output. In order to start up the TDA4601 I.C. an initial supply of 9v is required at pin 9, this voltage is sourced via R818 and D805 from the AC side of the bridge rectifier D801, also pin 5 requires a +Ve bias for the internal logic block. (On some sets pin 5 is used for standby switching). Once the power supply is up and running, the voltage on pin 9 is increased to 16v and maintained at this level by D807 and C820 acting as a half wave rectifier and smoothing circuit. PIN DESCRIPTIONS Pin 1 This is a 4v reference produced within the I.C. Pin 2 This pin detects the exact point at which energy stored in the chopper transformer collapses to zero via R824 and R825, and allows Q1 to deliver drive volts to the chopper transistor. It also opens the switch at pin 4 allowing the external capacitor C813 to charge from its external feed resistor R810. Pin 3 H.T. control/feedback via photo coupler D830. The voltage at this pin controls the on time of the chopper transistor and hence the output voltage. Normally it runs at Approximately 2v and regulates H.T. by sensing a proportion of the +4v reference at pin 1, offset by conduction of the photo coupler D830 which acts like a variable resistor. An increase in the conduction of transistor D830 and therefor a reduction of its resistance will cause a corresponding reduction of the positive voltage at Pin 3. A decrease in this voltage will result in a shorter on time for the chopper transistor and therefor a lowering of the output voltage and vice versa, oscillation frequency also varies according to load, the higher the load the lower the frequency etc. should the voltage at pin 3 exceed 2.3v an internal flip flop is triggered causing the chopper drive mark space ratio to extend to 244 (off time) to 1 (on time), the chip is now in over volts trip condition. Pin 4 At this pin a sawtooth waveform is generated which simulates chopper current, it is produced by a time constant network R810 and C813. C813 charges when the chopper is on and is discharged when the chopper is off, by an internal switch strapping pin 4 to the internal +2v reference, see Fig 2. The amplitude of the ramp is proportional to chopper drive. In an overload condition it reaches 4v amplitude at which point chopper drive is reduced to a mark-space ratio of 13 to 1, the chip is then in over current trip. The I.C. can easily withstand a short circuit on the H.T. rail and in such a case the power supply simply squegs quietly. Pin 4 is protected by internal protection components which limit the maximum voltage at this pin to 6.5v. Should a fault occur in either of the time constant components, then the chopper transistor will probably be destroyed. Pin 5 This pin can be used for remote control on/off switching of the power supply, it is normally held at about +7v and will cause the chip to enter standby mode if it falls below 2v. Pin 6 Ground. Pin 7 Chopper switch off pin. This pin clamps the chopper drive voltage to 1.6v in order to switch off the chopper. Pin 8 Chopper base current output drive pin. Pin 9 L.T. pin, approximately 9v under start-up conditions and 16v during normal running, Current consumption of the I.C. is typically 135mA. The voltage at this pin must reach 6.7v in order for the chip to start-up.



This device will accept a PAL or NTSC composite video signal and output the
three color signals, needing only a simple driver amplifier to interface to the pic-
ture tube. The provision of high bandwidth on-screen display inputs makes it
suitable for text display, TV games, cameras, etc. The TDA3301 B has user con»
trol laws, and also a phase shift control which operates in PAL, as well as NTSC.
0 Automatic Black Level Setup
0 Beam Current Limiting
0 Uses Inexpensive 4.43 MHZ to 3.58 MHz Crystal
0 No Oscillator Adjustment Required
0 Three OSD Inputs Plus Fast Blanking Input
0 Four DC, High Impedance User Controls
0 lnterlaces with TDA33030B SECAM Adaptor
0 Single 12 V Supply
0 Low Dissipation, Typically 600 mW
The brilliance control operates by adding a pedestal to the output
signals. The amplitude of the pedestal is controlled by Pin 30.
During CRT beam current sampling a standard pedestal is
substituted, its value being equivalent tothe value given by V30 Nom
Brightness at black level with V30 Nom is given by the sum of three gun
currents at the sampling level, i.e. 3x20 |.1A with 100 k reference
resistors on Pins 16, 19, and 22.
During picture blanking the brilliance pedestal is zero; therefore, the
output voltage during blanking is always the minimum brilliance black
level (Note: Signal channels are also gain blanked).

Chrominance Decoder
The chrominance decoder section of the TDA3301 B
consists of the following blocks:
Phase-locked reference oscillator;
Phase-locked 90 degree servo loop;
U and V axis decoders
ACC detector and identification detector; .
Identification circuits and PAL bistable; .
Color difference filters and matrixes with fast blanking
The major design considerations apart from optimum
performance were:
o A minimum number of factory adjustments,
o A minimum number of external components,
0 Compatibility with SECAM adapter TDA3030B,
0 Low dissipation,
0 Use of a standard 4.433618 Mhz crystal rather
than a 2.0 fc crystal with a divider.

The crystal VCO is of the phase shift variety in which the
frequency is controlled by varying the phase of the feedback.
A great deal of care was taken to ensure that the oscillator loop
gain and the crystal loading impedance were held constant in
order to ensure that the circuit functions well with low grade
crystal (crystals having high magnitude spurious responses
can cause bad phase jitter). lt is also necessary to ensure that
the gain at third harmonic is low enough to ensure absence of
oscillation at this frequency.

It can be seen that the
necessary 1 45°C phase shift is obtained by variable addition
ol two currents I1 and I2 which are then fed into the load
resistance of the crystal tuned circuit R1. Feedback is taken
from the crystal load capacitance which gives a voltage of VF
lagging the crystal current by 90°.
The RC network in the T1 collector causes I1 to lag the
collector current of T1 by 45°.
For SECAM operation, the currents I1 and I2 are added
together in a fixed ratio giving a frequency close to nominal.
When decoding PAL there are two departures from normal
chroma reference regeneration practice:
a) The loop is locked to the burst entering from the PAL
delay line matrix U channel and hence there is no
alternating component. A small improvement in signal
noise ratio is gained but more important is that the loop
filter is not compromised by the 7.8 kHz component
normally required at this point for PAL identification
b) The H/2 switching of the oscillator phase is carried out
before the phase detector. This implies any error signal
from the phase detector is a signal at 7.8 kHz and not dc.
A commutator at the phase detector output also driven
from the PAL bistable coverts this ac signal to a dc prior
to the loop filter. The purpose ot this is that constant
offsets in the phase detector are converted by the
commutator to a signal at 7.8 kHz which is integrated to
zero and does not give a phase error.
When used for decoding NTSC the bistable is inhibited, and
slightly less accurate phasing is achieved; however, as a hue
control is used on NTSC this cannot be considered to be a
serious disadvantage.

90° Reference Generation
To generate the U axis reference a variable all-pass network
is utilized in a servo loop. The output of the all-pass network
is compared with the oscillator output with a phase detector of
which the output is filtered and corrects the operating point of
the variable all»pass network .
As with the reference loop the oscillator signal is taken after
the H/2 phase switch and a commutator inserted before the
filter so that constant phase detector errors are cancelled.
For SECAM operation the loop filter is grounded causing
near zero phase shift so that the two synchronous detectors
work in phase and not in quadralure.
The use of a 4.4 MHz oscillator and a servo loop to generate
the required 90° reference signal allows the use of a standard,
high volume, low cost crystal and gives an extremely accurate
90° which may be easily switched to 0° for decoding AM
SECAM generated by the TDA3030B adapter.

ACC and Identification Detectors
During burst gate time the output components of the U and
also the V demodulators are steered into PNP emitters. One
collector current of each PNP pair is mirrored and balanced
against its twin giving push-pull current sources for driving the
ACC and the identification filter capacitors.
The identification detector is given an internal offset by
making the NPN current mirror emitter resistors unequal. The
resistors are offset by 5% such that the identification detector
pulls up on its filter capacitor with zero signal.
See Figure 11 for definitions.
Monochrome I1 > I2
PAL ldent. OK I1 < lg
PAL ldent_ X l1 > I2
NTSC I3 > I2
Only for correctly identified PAL signal is the capacitor
voltage held low since I2 is then greater than I1.
For monochrome and incorrectly identified PAL signals l1>l2
hence voltage VC rises with each burst gate pulse.
When V,ef1 is exceeded by 0.7 V Latch 1 is made to conduct
which increases the rate of voltage rise on C. Maximum
current is limited by R1.
When Vref2 is exceeded by 0.7 V then Latch 2 is made to
conduct until C is completely discharged and the current drops
to a value insufficient to hold on Latch 2.
As Latch 2 turns on Latch 1 must turn off.
Latch 2 turning on gives extra trigger pulse to bistable to
correct identification.
The inhibit line on Latch 2 restricts its conduction to alternate
lines as controlled by the bistable. This function allows the
SECAM switching line to inhibit the bistable operation by firing
Latch 2 in the correct phase for SECAM. For NTSC, Latch 2
is fired by a current injected on Pin 6.
lf the voltage on C is greater than 1.4 V, then the saturation
is held down. Only for SECAM/NTSC with Latch 2 on, or
correctly identified PAL, can the saturation control be
anywhere but minimum.
NTSC Switch
NTSC operation is selected when current (I3) is injected into
Pin 6. On the TDA33O1 B this current must be derived
externally by connecting Pin 6 to +12 V via a 27 k resistor (as
on TDA33OOB). For normal PAL operation Pin 40 should be
connected to +12 V and Pin 6 to the filter capacitor.

4 Color Difference Matrixing, Color Killing,
and Chroma Blanking
During picture time the two demodulators feed simple RC
filters with emitter follower outputs. Color killing and blanking
is performed by lifting these outputs to a voltage above the
maximum value that the color difference signal could supply.
The color difference matrixing is performed by two
differential amplifiers, each with one side split to give the
correct values of the -(B-Y) and -(Ft-Y) signals. These are
added to give the (G-Y) signal.
The three color difference signals are then taken to the
virtual grounds of the video output stages together with
luminance signal.
Sandcastle Selection
The TDA3301B may be used with a two level sandcastle
and a separate frame pulse to Pin 28, or with only a three level
(super) sandcastle. In the latter case, a resistor of 1.0 MQ is
necessary from + 12 V to Pin 28 and a 70 pF capacitor from
Pin 28 to ground.

Timing Counter for Sample Control
In order to control beam current sampling at the beginning
of each frame scan, two edge triggered flip-flops are used.
The output K ofthe first flip-flop A is used to clock the second
tlip-flop B. Clocking of A by the burst gate is inhibited by a count
of A.B.
The count sequence can only be initiated by the trailing
edge of the frame pulse. ln order to provide control signals for:
Luma/Chroma blanking
Beam current sampling
On-screen display blanking
Brilliance control
The appropriate flip-flop outputs ar matrixed with sandcastle
and frame signals by an emitter-follower matrix.

Video Output Sections
Each video output stage consists of a feedback amplifier in A further drive current is used to control the DC operating
which the input signal is a current drive to the virtual earth from point; this is derived from the sample and hold stage which
the luminance, color difference and on-screen display stages. samples the beam current after frame flyback.

Description of the EHT FLYBACK Transformer used in Blaupunkt CHASSIS types.
High-voltage-secondary transformer, particularly television line transformer:

To decrease the internal resistance of a transformer operable as a television line transformer of the "diode-split" type, the secondary winding sections are matched to each other and to the frequency of operation of the transformer in such a manner that the current in the respective sections will flow at respectively different instants of time; in a preferred form, the winding sections, on the average, are tuned to a harmonic of the frequency of the signal applied to the primary and are positioned on winding forms or holders such that the distance between the bottom wall of the primary and the bottom wall of the secondary is constant over the entire length of the windings. Preferably, the tuning of the respective winding sections is effected by matching of the primary winding to the secondary within the region of the secondary winding sections.

1. High-voltage secondary transformer, particularly television line transformer, having
a primary winding (5) and a secondary winding (7a, 7b, 7c) in which the secondary winding is subdivided into a plurality of windings sections (7a-7b-7c), and a plurality of rectifier diodes (10) connecting said secondary winding sections together,
wherein, in accordance with the invention,
the secondary winding sections (7a, 7b, 7c) are physically positioned with respect to the primary winding to form spatially separated winding sections, each having individual inductance and capacity values and with respect to the primary, and each other, said positioning on the primary winding being effected to result in current flow in the respective sections (7a, 7b, 7c) of the secondary at respectively different instants of time.

2. Transformer according to claim 1, wherein the secondary winding sections are tuned to a harmonic of the frequency of the signal applied to the primary winding (5).

3. Transformer according to claim 2, wherein the respective winding sections (7a, 7b, 7c) of the secondary are tuned to the primary (5) by matching the primary winding to the secondary in the region of the respective secondary winding section.

4. Transformer according to claim 3, wherein the distance between the inner dimension of the primary winding and the inner dimension of the secondary winding is constant throughout the length of a winding section.

5. Transformer according to claim 4, wherein said distance is constant throughout the length of all the winding sections.

6. Transformer according to claim 5, for use as a television high-voltage transformer further comprising a resistor (R) connected to one of the secondary winding sections to provide a bleeder voltage for focussing of an image tube of a television apparatus,
comprising a housing being formed with a first portion receiving said primary winding (5) and said secondary winding sections (7a, 7b, 7c) and a resistor chamber portion defining a chamber (16) in which said resistor (R) is located, said resistor chamber portion being separated from the portion retaining said windings by an air gap (15).

7. Transformer according to claim 3, for use as a television high-voltage transformer further comprising a resistor (R) connected to one of the secondary winding sections to provide a bleeder voltage for focussing of an image tube of a television apparatus,
comprising a housing being formed with a first portion receiving said primary winding (5) and said secondary winding sections (7a, 7b, 7c) and a resistor chamber portion defining a chamber (16) in which said resistor (R) is located, said resistor chamber portion being separated from the portion retaining said windings by an air gap (15).

The present invention relates to a transformer providing a high-voltage secondary output, and particularly to a television line transformer having a secondary winding which is subdivided into winding sections or portions interconnected by rectifiers.
Television line transformers frequently have divided secondaries, that is, secondaries which are subdivided into sections, connected by rectifier diodes. These transformers, particularly when used as line transformers in TV apparatus, are supplied at the primary with signals of line frequency, and then provide the anode voltage for the TV electron gun, image tube at the secondary. Line transformers in which the secondaries are subdivided and connected by diodes are referred to as "diode-split" transformers. The voltages induced in the partial secondary windings or winding sections add in the form of a voltage doubler or voltage multiplier until the desired high voltage is reached. The stray or leakage capacitances within the transformer and particularly the stray capacitances of the partial windings with respect to a reference voltage act as intermediate storage capacities for the portions of the voltages which are being added.
Transformers of this type have a disadvantage in that they have poor regulation. As a voltage source, they have a comparatively high inherent or internal resistance. Changes in loading which may occur thus lead to changes in output voltage. Applied to a TV system, instability of the format of the resulting image may occur. Changes in loading often are the consequence of changes in beam current.
It is an object to provide a transformer, particularly suitable as a line transformer, which has a suitable low internal resistance so that the output power obtained therefrom will be at a voltage which is essentially constant and independent of variations in loading experienced in ordinary television sets, without the necessity of complex circuitry.
Briefly, a transformer of the diode-split type is so constructed that the secondary winding sections are matched to each other and to the frequency of operation of the transformer that the current in the respective section flows at respectively differently instants of time. In a preferred form, the winding sections, on the average, are tuned to a harmonic of the frequency of the signals applied to the primary. Tuning of the various winding sections can be effected by matching the configuration or winding arrangement or number of turns of the respective sections to the primary within the range of the inductive coupling between the primary and the particular section of the secondary. In accordance with a preferred feature, the primary is located within the secondary, and the distance between the inner winding portion of the coil of the primary and the inner winding portion of the coil forming the secondary is essentially constant over the entire width of the windings.
Transformers of this type often are associated with external circuitry, and particularly with a resistor which is connected to a specific secondary section and on which the focussing voltage for the TV image tube can be taken off. In accordance with a feature of the invention, the housing for the transformer is formed with a lateral chamber, remote from the transformer windings themselves and separated therefrom by an air gap. The transformer windings, as well as the chamber for a resistor from which the tapping voltage can be taken off, is filled with a potting compound. This resistor, also referred to as a bleeder resistor, can be applied by thin film or hybrid technology on a small ceramic plate and, by the specific location, is removed from the field generated by the transformer and thus provides a stable output voltage.
The transformer construction in accordance with the present invention, when used as a line transformer in a TV set provides for a more stable picture since it has substantially improved regulation with respect to prior art transformers by having an inherent or inner resistance which is less than that of previously used units. Tuning of the sections of the secondary winding is simple by matching the configuration of the primary winding to the configuration of the secondary sections, which is easier to accomplish in manufacture than if the secondary is matched to the primary.
Drawings, illustrating an example, wherein:
FIG. 1 is a side view, partially in section, of a line transformer for television use, having rectifier diodes located within the transformer and connected between individual winding sections; and

FIG. 2 is a top view, with part of the housing cut away and in section, of the transformer of FIG. 1.
The transformer is a "diode-split" transformer, the principle of which is known. The transformer 1 is located within a plastic, typically injection-molded plastic, housing 2 which receives a potting compound 3 after the transformer is assembled within the housing. In FIG. 1, the front wall of the housing has been removed. The housing 2 receives, or inherently forms, a coil form 4 for the primary winding 5 of the transformer. The coil form 4 may be part of the housing structure, that is, molded integrally therewith, the coil 5 being wound initially as a coreless or formless structure so that it can be slipped directly over the form 4 which, as best seen from FIG. 2, is essentially a cylinder open at one end. A different type of housing can be used, however, in which the coil form 4 does not form an intergral, molded part, but rather is inserted as a separate form or winding body for the primary.
A coil carrier 6 is located on the primary 5 to receive the secondary of the transformer 1. In accordance with a feature of the invention, the secondary winding is wound in three sections 7a, 7b, 7c, which subdivide the secondary. The secondary winding sections 7a, 7b, 7c are each located in three winding chambers 6a, 6b, 6c of the form 6. The winding chambers 6a, 6b, 6c each have five winding grooves 8 in which the winding sections 7a, 7b, 7c each are uniformly distributed. These winding grooves 8 may, however, be non-uniformly distributed if it is desired to effect matching of the tuning of the winding sections to the primary by this distribution; in a preferred form, however, the distribution of the grooves 8 is uniform. The result of this subdivision of the windings into sections 7a, 7b, 7c, physically separated, i.e. axially spaced from each other (see FIG. 1), is a consequent division of capacity and inductance of the secondary into respectively, individually positioned individual capacity and inductance values and mutual capacity and inductance values of the sections, resulting in different phasing of the current flow, i.e. current flow in the respective sections at respectively different instants of time.
Holders 9 are located above each one of the winding chambers 6a, 6b, 6c, as best seen in FIG. 2, preferably formed integrally with the winding holder or body 6. The holders 9 receive the diodes 10. The diodes 10 are located in the holders 9 with externally bent connecting wires 11. The connecting wires extend through openings or passages of caps 12 snapped over the holders 9, thus securing the diodes 10 on the holders 9. The low-voltage connection of the transformer 1 is effected by connecting pins 13; some of the pins 13, shown in FIG. 1, may be left unconnected and serve as positioning elements. The high-voltage load is connected by a high-voltage cable--not shown--to a connecting bushing 14 located at the side opposite the low-voltage terminals 13.
The housing is formed with a separately arranged chamber 16, separated from the remainder of the transformer by an air gap 15. A ceramic plate 17 on which a resistor R, applied by hybrid technology is located, is positioned in the chamber 16. Thus resistor, forming a bleeder resistor, can be used to generate the focussing voltage for the image tube of the TV set for which the transformer is particularly suitable by connection to a tap point on one of the winding sections 7a, 7b, 7c, by a suitable connection, not shown for simplicity.
The average tuning frequency of the winding sections 7a, 7b, 7c is tuned to a harmonic of the frequency of the signal applied to the primary. The respective winding sections 7a, 7b, 7c are tuned by matching the primary winding to the secondary in the region of inductive coupling of the primary to the respective section of the secondary. The inner diameter of the form 4 for the primary winding and the inner diameter of the secondary winding form or holder 6 are concentric and equidistant throughout at least the length of one of the winding sections, and preferably uniform throughout their entire length.
The transformer will form a voltage source of low internal resistance and thus can be used without additional circuitry or without increasing the size of the transformer. Miniaturization of the transformer is thus possible which is particularly important in modern television equipment.
Making the inner wall of the primary winding and the inner wall of the secondary winding in such a manner that the distances between these two walls are uniform reduces the overall size and substantially simplifies manufacture of the tuned winding sections. It was previously thought necessary to tune the winding sections with respect to each other by varying the thickness of the windings or the distances of the inner limits of the windings with respect to each other. In the transformer as described, this is not necessary and, rather, the inner wall of the transformer primary and the inner wall of the transformer secondary winding sections is uniform which results in a structure in which the comparatively complex secondary winding sections can be made identical to each other, since tuning or matching of the output is obtained by matching the secondary and primary by the shape of the primary winding. The primary winding is matched to the secondary by different magnetic coupling of the primary with respect to the sections of the secondary, that is, with a coupling which differs between the sections of the secondary; and by respectively different stray capacitances between the sections of the secondary and the primary winding, that is, by so arranging the coils that the stray capacitances of any one of the sections 7a, 7b, 7c of the secondary with respect to the primary are different.
The potting compound 3 can be filled into the transformer after assembly; the resistor secured to the ceramic plate 17 is connected before potting to a tap of the secondary winding. The resistor, by being located in chamber 16 separated from the housing of the transformer itself, eliminates undesired capacitative losses or stray currents which otherwise occur between the secondary winding of the transformer and the resistor. Such stray currents are a minimum by the separation of the resistor from the remainder of the transformer by the air gap, and its positioning in a separate chamber. This separation effectively eliminates electric stray fields which have a disturbing effect at line frequency, since the focussing voltage is undesirably modulated thereby.
In an operating example, a transformer designed for 625 lines, 50 frames (PAL standard) was wound with a diameter of the bottom 4 of 22.5 mm, having 110 turns of 0.31 mm wire to form the primary; over this form, a secondary with an inner winding diameter for the winding sections 7a, 7b, 7c, of 24.1 mm was placed; the secondary was composed of 2910 turns of 0.071 mm wire, having each three sections of 5 grooves, interconnected by diodes.

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Resisting the tide of post-modernity may be difficult, but I will attempt it anyway.

Your choice.........Live or DIE.
That indeed is where your liberty lies.

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