Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

In Brief: On this site you will find pictures and information about some of the electronic, electrical and electrotechnical technology relics that the Frank Sharp Private museum has accumulated over the years .

Premise: There are lots of vintage electrical and electronic items that have not survived well or even completely disappeared and forgotten.

Or are not being collected nowadays in proportion to their significance or prevalence in their heyday, this is bad and the main part of the death land. The heavy, ugly sarcophagus; models with few endearing qualities, devices that have some over-riding disadvantage to ownership such as heavy weight,toxicity or inflated value when dismantled, tend to be under-represented by all but the most comprehensive collections and museums. They get relegated to the bottom of the wants list, derided as 'more trouble than they are worth', or just forgotten entirely. As a result, I started to notice gaps in the current representation of the history of electronic and electrical technology to the interested member of the public.


Following this idea around a bit, convinced me that a collection of the peculiar alone could not hope to survive on its own merits, but a museum that gave equal display space to the popular and the unpopular, would bring things to the attention of the average person that he has previously passed by or been shielded from. It's a matter of culture. From this, the Obsolete Technology Tellye Web Museum concept developed and all my other things too. It's an open platform for all electrical Electronic TV technology to have its few, but NOT last, moments of fame in a working, hand-on environment. We'll never own Colossus or Faraday's first transformer, but I can show things that you can't see at the Science Museum, and let you play with things that the Smithsonian can't allow people to touch, because my remit is different.

There was a society once that was the polar opposite of our disposable, junk society. A whole nation was built on the idea of placing quality before quantity in all things. The goal was not “more and newer,” but “better and higher" .This attitude was reflected not only in the manufacturing of material goods, but also in the realms of art and architecture, as well as in the social fabric of everyday life. The goal was for each new cohort of children to stand on a higher level than the preceding cohort: they were to be healthier, stronger, more intelligent, and more vibrant in every way.

The society that prioritized human, social and material quality is a Winner. Truly, it is the high point of all Western civilization. Consequently, its defeat meant the defeat of civilization itself.

Today, the West is headed for the abyss. For the ultimate fate of our disposable society is for that society itself to be disposed of. And this will happen sooner, rather than later.

OLD, but ORIGINAL, Well made, Funny, Not remotely controlled............. and not Made in CHINA.

How to use the site:

- If you landed here via any Search Engine, you will get what you searched for and you can search more using the search this blog feature provided by Google. You can visit more posts scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year,
or you can click on the main photo-page to start from the main page. Doing so it starts from the most recent post to the older post simple clicking on the Older Post button on the bottom of each page after reading , post after post.

You can even visit all posts, time to time, when reaching the bottom end of each page and click on the Older Post button.

- If you arrived here at the main page via bookmark you can visit all the site scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year pointing were you want , or more simple You can even visit all blog posts, from newer to older, clicking at the end of each bottom page on the Older Post button.
So you can see all the blog/site content surfing all pages in it.

- The search this blog feature provided by Google is a real search engine. If you're pointing particular things it will search IT for you; or you can place a brand name in the search query at your choice and visit all results page by page. It's useful since the content of the site is very large.

Note that if you don't find what you searched for, try it after a period of time; the site is a never ending job !

Every CRT Television saved let revive knowledge, thoughts, moments of the past life which will never return again.........

Many contemporary "televisions" (more correctly named as displays) would not have this level of staying power, many would ware out or require major services within just five years or less and of course, there is that perennial bug bear of planned obsolescence where components are deliberately designed to fail and, or manufactured with limited edition specificities..... and without considering........picture......sound........quality........

..............The bitterness of poor quality is remembered long after the sweetness of todays funny gadgets low price has faded from memory........ . . . . . .....
Don't forget the past, the end of the world is upon us! Pretty soon it will all turn to dust!

Have big FUN ! !
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©2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 Frank Sharp - You do not have permission to copy photos and words from this blog, and any content may be never used it for auctions or commercial purposes, however feel free to post anything you see here with a courtesy link back, btw a link to the original post here , is mandatory.
All sets and apparates appearing here are property of
Engineer Frank Sharp. NOTHING HERE IS FOR SALE !

Thursday, December 8, 2011

PHILIPS 28DC2271/02R D2MAC DIGI16 YEAR 1990.










The PHILIPS 28DC2271/02R D2MAC MatchLine DIGI16 was top flagship set in 1990 from PHILIPS with color screen 28 inches FSQ SCREEN .

The PHILIPS 28DC2271/02R D2MAC MatchLine DIGI16 With pretty unique features and options included THE PHILIPS 28DC2271/02R Matchline D2MAC IS A RARE TELEVISION SET FROM PHILIPS WITH A decoder toghether combined with satellite receiver integrated in the set, TODAY here presented.



Even with his all own technology, PHILIPS has developed this digital television series the DC model which was employing the D16 (DIGI16) CHASSIS mainly based on the DIGIVISION ITT DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY.

The set was very expensive with his features and the Integrated satellite receiver unit.

Also This is the first and LAST Digital television series from PHILIPS using DIGIVISION ITT technology, these weren't sold much.

All other models are employing the 100HZ scan rate technology invented by PHILIPS.

It has 100 Programs and 150 Channels with TRD search tuning system, PIP Feature, Multi AV capability, Multistandard, Multisound, All digital processing and many other features in high class presented and plus D2MAC DECODING AND INTEGRATED SATELLITE RECEIVER.
An enhanced MAC signal for satellite broadcasting purposes is provided by adding additional chrominance and luminance component information to the existing signal without altering the timing relationship of the existing component information. This is done by adding the additional information in the field blanking interval as well as using the time allocated to two sound channels in the data burst preceding the video information in the MAC signal. Preferably chrominance signals are added in the field blanking interval and the corresponding luminance signals are added to the active lines in the time normally allocated to the two sound channels. In this way an aspect ratio of substantially 5:3 can be achieved without affecting the usual 4:3 aspect ratio picture.
The present invention relates to an improvement in the Multiplexed Analogue Component (MAC) type of television signal in which chrominance and luminance components are time compressed and are placed sequentially so as to occupy together with the necessary data, sync and clamping signals, a period substantially equal to the conventional line period e.g. approximately 64 uS .
The presently proposed type of MAC signal provides an aspect ratio of approximately 4:3 and provides superior pictures to those available with either existing PAL or SECAM. It is also capable of modification to provide even better pictures.
It is an object of the present invention to add additional information to the MAC signal so as to enable extended definition pictures to be reproduced by a suitable receiver without interfering with the picture reproduced by a standard MAC receiver.
The present invention proposes to make use of the time allocated to the data burst equivalent to two sound channels for additional video information without affecting the positions in the line interval of the basic chrominance and luminance information for the standard 4:3 aspect ratio picture.
The additional video information can represent additional lines of a television signal or can represent

MAC TECHNOLOGY IN BRIEF.
Among the family of MAC or Multiplexed Analog Components systems for television broadcasting, D-MAC is a reduced bandwidth variant designed for transmission down cable.
  • The data is duo-binary coded with a data burst rate of 20.25Mbit/s so that 0° as well as ±90° phasors are used.
  • D-MAC has a bandwidth of 8.4 MHz versus 27 MHz for C-MAC.
  • Most cable systems work on EBU 7 MHz channel spacing, so this approach did not work universally.
  • D-MAC's bandwidth problems were later fixed by D2-MAC.So that the television transmissions of private television companies cannot be received by everybody but only by authorised subscribers, the televisions signals are scrambled by means of a scrambler at the transmitter end and descrambled at the receiving end by means of a descrambler for which the subscriber is charged. For the D2MAC process, which has already been developed but not yet introduced, no standards have yet been defined with respect to the scrambling and descrambling. To be able to transmit television signals (Y, U, V) scrambled in accordance with the D2MAC process in a television transmission system, a scrambler (V1, V2) is provided in front of the D2MAC encoder (E) at the transmitter end and a descrambler (E1, E2) is provided following the D2MAC decoder (D) at the receiving end. It is particularly advantageous to scramble only the Y signal (Y) upstream of the D2MAC encoder (E). Television transmission system which operates in accordance with the D2MAC process

History and Politics

MAC was developed by the UK's Independent Broadcasting Authority (IBA) and in 1982 was adopted as the transmission format for the UK's forthcoming direct broadcast satellite (DBS) television services (evntually provided by British Satellite Broadcasting). The following year MAC was adopted by the European Broadcasting Union (EBU) as the standard for all DBS.
By 1986, despite there being two standards, D-MAC and D2-MAC, favoured by different countries in Europe, an EU Directive imposed MAC on the national DBS broadcasters, to provide a stepping stone from analogue PAL and Secam formats to the eventual high definition and digital television of the future, with European TV manufacturers in a privileged position to provide the equipment required.
However, the Astra satellite system was also starting up at this time (the first satellite, Astra 1A was launched in 1989) and that operated outside of the EU’s MAC requirements. Through the 1990s, a battle raged between the proponents of PAL on Astra and MAC on the DBS satellites. Despite further pressure from the EU (including a further Directive originally intended to make MAC provision compulsory in TV sets, and a subsidy to broadcasters to use the MAC format), the broadcasters and viewers preferred the ease and lower cost of PAL equipment and voted with their dishes, choosing the pan-European PAL broadcasts of Astra over the national DBS satellites.
By the mid-1990s, the unexpectedly rapid rise of digital broadcasting technology rendered the arguments irrelevant, and the use of D-MAC and D2-MAC faded away.

Audio and scrambling (selective access)

  • Audio, in a format similar to NICAM was transmitted digitally rather than as an FM subcarrier.
  • The MAC standard included a standard scrambling system, EuroCrypt, a precursor to the standard DVB-CSA encryption system.

Luminance and chrominance

MAC transmits luminance and chrominance data separately in time rather than separately in frequency (as other analog television formats do, such as composite video).


D2-MAC: A fix for D-MAC

D-MAC consumed too much bandwidth for many applications, so D2-MAC was designed for European cable TV systems.

D2-MAC was created to solve D-MAC's bandwidth problem on European cable systems.
  • D2-MAC uses half the data rate of D-MAC {10.125Mb/s}
  • D2-MAC has a reduced vision bandwidth, about 1/2 that of D-MAC.
  • D2-MAC retains most of the quality of a D-MAC signal -- but consumes only 5MHz of bandwidth.


MAC transmits luminance and chrominance data separately in time rather than separately in frequency (as other analog television formats do, such as composite video).
Audio and Scrambling (selective access)
  • Audio, in a format similar to NICAM was transmitted digitally rather than as an FM sub-carrier.
  • The MAC standard included a standard scrambling system, EuroCrypt, a precursor to the standard DVB-CSA encryption system.
  •  The invention relates to a system for providing the synchronization of a television receiver intended to receive a signal, more specifically a signal of the "MAC" type, for example, DMAC or D2MAC which conveys the luminance and analog color information components associated with periods of what is referred to as a duobinary signal, which signal comprises once in every frame analog frame reference voltage plateaus for the black, grey, white levels, and a duobinary portion containing more specifically, a synchronization signal, the "Frame synchronization word". The frame synchronization word passes through the system via a variable gain amplifier and via a continuous component aligning device, the system including a duobinary signal decoding device, a peak detector for measuring and storing the peak values of the signal and associated means for applying, on the basis of these values, to the aligning device a datum for the correction of the so-called continuous component and, to the amplifier, a datum for the gain control, a measuring arrangement for measuring the levels of said frame reference voltage plateaus of each frame and associated means for applying, based on these levels, a gain control value to the amplifier, and a word detector for recognizing the frame synchronization word. The problem presented has its origin in the fact that, to ensure a fail-safe detection of the digital frame synchronization words, it is necessary to correctly check the level of the continuous component of the signal and its amplitude beforehand, while for the control of these values, one is to base oneself on the reference voltage plateau which cannot be used until after synchronization has been detected. These reference voltage plateaus will hereafter be called "plateaus".

    This system is of the type in which a digital data transmission is associated with the analogue transmission of the video signal. It is to be compatible with conventional D2-MAC packet receivers. The conventional D2-MAC offers a digital rate of 2050 packets/s (D-MAC offers twice this). To increase the digital rate of a D2-MAC channel data can be transmitted at the 20.25 MHz frequency (D frequency) with frame blanking: an additional capacity of 1400 packets/s is obtained. For certain applications this capacity is still insufficient. The invention uses "mixed" packets comprising a part at the D frequency and a part at the D2 frequency, which are obtained by bit by bit juxtaposition of two consecutive packets of the same service. The same continuity index is imposed on the two basic packets. In this way, the two hiders are identical and after juxtaposition everything occurs as if the D2-D was formed by a 23 bit header at the D2 frequency with contents at the D frequency. These packets can be transmitted in digital bursts of the video lines, and not only with frame blanking. 
 
IS D2-MAC THE Digital Future ? ?

 While the European Commission continues in 1991 with the sorry saga of trying to get agreement over the use of MAC for satellite TV broadcasting in Europe the industry itself seems tobe looking and working towards the next generation of TV systems and equipment. The EC effort doesn't seem to be able to make any convincing progress. Apparently some forty major European companies, broadcasters and satellite operators have at last agreed in principle to the wording of a memorandum of understanding. They've got that far after months and months of haggling and discussion. The agreement - to adopt D2 -MAC and go on to HDMAC - might be implemented if the Commission is able to provide some £590m of funds to help pay for the cost of installing MAC equipment. Its ability to do so depends on achieving the unanimous approval of the EC governments to this expenditure. This seems unlikely to occur. A majority of finance ministers have attacked the proposalwhile the UK's technology minister Edward Leigh has commented that the figure is "totally unacceptable". One wonders why the EC persists. The industry is half-hearted, and governments are unwilling to agree to the expenditure. But the EC is one of those lumbering, monolithic entities that once set in motion is hard to control let alone stop. Meanwhile increasing research effort is being put into digital TV systems. Both the BBC and the ITC are progressing along this path. They are two of twenty five partners in the European digital terrestrial television broadcasting (dTTb) consortium. The BBC recently demonstrated compressed digital HDTV transmission via satellite and is playing a leading role in the development of digital communications technology under the RACE programme. Writing in the latest issue of the ITC's quarterly magazine Spectrum Gary Tonge, the ITC's Controller of Engineering, describes the progress being made with the SPECTRE (Special Purpose Extra Channels for Terrestrial Radiocommunications Enhancements) programme. This project is being carried out by National Transcommunications Ltd. under contract to the ITC. It was started by the IBA in 1988 as an investigation into the possibility of using modern modulation methods to increase the usefulness of the u.h.f. TV spectrum. More recently the objective has changed to proving the feasibility of a digital terrestrial TV broadcasting system. As always, one major problem is how to move from the present broadcasting standard to a future one in a manner that causes the minimum disruption to viewers. The proposal here is to use simulcasting. The four existing TV channels plus Channel 5 if appropriate would be broadcast simultaneously with current transmissions but using a high -quality, widescreen format. Some frequency planning studies already carried out indicate that the u.h.f. frequencies required for the purpose would be available in most, but not all, parts of the UK. Because the average power levels required for the digital transmissions are significantly lower, while such transmissions can have a high immunity to interference, they can be squeezed in where extra PAL transmissions would be impossible. Viewers wouldbe encouraged to buy a digital receiver or a dual -standard one when they renew their sets. It's estimated that the simulcast period would last for about fifteen years, at the end of which time few PAL sets would remain in use. It worked with the 405/625 changeover, it could with digital TV. In addition to the use of a more efficient technology for terrestrial HDTV transmissions the digital approach offers other advantages. Depending on the resolution required, a u.h.f. frequency slot could be used to carry several channels, while the digital standard could be made compatible with developments in digital VCR and disc technology. All this remains in the experimental stage at present, but NTL has built and demonstrated modulators and demodulators (this work was completed at the end of last year) and is carrying out field tests of the system at the Stockland Hill and Beacon Hill transmitters. At a conference held in Mexico this April broadcasters from Europe, the USA, Japan and other regions agreed to co-ordinate their studies on digital terrestrial TV with a view to achieving optimum standardisation. The target timescale is for CCIR approval of a standard for the USA in 1995 (the FCC is due to approve a US HDTV standard, which will almost certainly be digital, in 1993 for implementation in 1998) and for Europe in 1998. As Dr. Tong points out, it usually takes five -ten years from the agreement of a standard to its application. Thus European terrestrial digital TV is not likely to be available for a decade or so. The EC's MAC efforts relate to satellite TV of course, and satellite MAC could coexist with terrestrial digital TV. But since the future obviously lies with digital TV there seems to be little point in investing in MAC. MAC was of course the IBA/ITC's baby: the ITC is now leading the way into the post MAC era.
THE PHILIPS  28DC2271/02R  D2MAC  DIGI16  is a digital TV receiver includes an A/D converter circuit for converting an analog video signal to a digital video signal, a signal separator circuit for separating a digital chroma signal and a digital Y signal from the digital video signal, a color killer circuit for gating the digital chroma signal to generate a gated C signal when burst components are contained in the digital chroma signal, and a processor circuit for digitally composing RGB signals from the digital Y signal and the gated C signal. The RGB signals are used as tricolor signals for a color CRT.
A digital TV system includes a CCU that is interconnected by a three-wire, high speed bus to a plurality of TV signal function modules for controlling operation thereof by means of a high speed hardware generated clock signal. A software generated clock signal in the CCU is supplied on a low speed two-wire auxiliary device bus which is connected to microprocessors in a plurality of auxiliary devices for performing functions ancillary to TV signal processing. The microprocessor in each auxiliary device is an off-the-shelf type that does not require any special hardware because the timing on the auxiliary device bus is sufficiently slow to enable software monitoring of the line and data transfer.


With the proliferation of low cost microprocessors and microprocessor controlled devices, television (TV) receivers are being designed to utilize digitized signals and controls. There are many advantages associated with digital TV receivers, including uniformity of product, precise control of signal parameters and operating conditions, elimination of mechanical switches and a potential for reliability that has been heretofore unknown. Digital television receivers include a high speed communication bus for interconnecting a central control unit microprocessor (CCU) with various TV function modules for processing a TV signal. These modules include a deflection processing unit (DPU), a video processing unit (VPU), an automatic phase control (APC), a video codec unit (VCU), an audio analog to digital converter (ADC) and an audio processing unit (APU). The CCU has associated with it a non-volatile memory, a hardware-generated clock signal source and a suitable interface circuit for enabling the CCU to control processing of the TV signal throughout the various TV function modules. The received TV signal is in analog form and suitable analog to digital (A/D) converters and digital to analog (D/A) converters are provided for converting the digital and analog signals for signal processing and for reconverting them after processing for driving a cathode ray tube (CRT) and suitable speakers. The CCU microprocessor is heavily burdened because of the high speed timing required to control the various TV function modules.
To further complicate matters, modern TV receivers are increasingly being used with auxiliary devices for other than simple processing of TV signals. For example, the video cassette recorder (VCR) has enabled so-called "time-shifting" of program material by recording TV signals for later, more convenient viewing. The VCR is also extensively used with prerecorded material and with programs produced by users having access to a video camera. Other auxiliary devices providing features such as "Space Phone" whereby the user is enabled to make and receive telephone calls through his TV receiver, are desirable options. Additionally, a source selector auxiliary device enables a host of different signal sources, such as cable, over-the-air antenna, video disk, video games, etc. to be connected for use with the signal processing circuitry of the TV. In addition, all of these many auxiliary devices are preferably controllable from a remote position. A great deal of flexibility is available since each of the above auxiliary devices includes a microprocessor for internally controlling functioning of the device.
In the digital TV system described, the CCU microprocessor and the microprocessors in the auxiliary devices may be conventionally arranged to communicate over the main communication bus. Such a system would entail a specialized microprocessor with a hardware-generated clock signal in each auxiliary device in order to communicate at the high speeds used on the main communication bus. A specialized microprocessor, that is, one that is hardware configured, is significantly more expensive than an off-the-shelf microprocessor. Also, the auxiliary devices may not be required, or even desired, by all users and their low volume production cost becomes very important. It would therefore be desirable to provide a digital TV in which such auxiliary devices utilized off-the-shelf microprocessors for their control.


The PHILIPS  28DC2271/02R  D2MAC  DIGI16   is a DIGITAL Colour television receiver or set , are known in which the majority of signal processing that takes place therein is carried out digitally. That is, a video or television signal is received in a conventional fashion using a known analog tuning circuit and then, following the tuning operation, the received analog television signal is converted into a digital signal and digitally processed before subsequently being converted back to an analog signal for display on a colour cathode ray tube.

In a conventional television receiver, all signals are analog-processed. Analog signal processing, however, has the problems at the video stage and thereafter. These problems stem from the general drawbacks of analog signal processing with regard to time-base operation, specifically, incomplete Y/C separation (which causes cross color and dot interference), various types of problems resulting in low picture quality, and low precision of synchronization. Furthermore, from the viewpoints of cost and ease of manufacturing the analog circuit, a hybrid configuration must be employed even if the main circuit comprises an IC. In addition to these disadvantages, many adjustments must be performed.

In order to solve the above problems, it is proposed to process all signals in a digital form from the video stage to the chrominance signal demodulation stage. In such a digital television receiver, various improvements in picture quality should result due to the advantages of digital signal processing.

Therefore digital television signal processing system introduced in 1984 by the Worldwide Semiconductor Group (Freiburg, West Germany) of International Telephone and Telegraph Corporation is described in an ITT Corporation publication titled "VLSI Digital TV System--DIGIT 2000." In that system color video signals, after being processed in digital (binary) form, are converted to analog form by means of digital-to-analog converters before being coupled to an image displaying kinescope. The analog color video signals are coupled to the kinescope via analog buffer amplifiers and video output kinescope driver amplifiers which provide video output signals at a high level suitable for driving intensity control electrodes of the kinescope.

The  PHILIPS  28DC2271/02R  D2MAC  DIGI16   Is a multistandard set and relates to a digital multistandard decoder for video signals and to a method for decoding video signals.
Colour video signals, so-called composite video, blanking and sync signals (CVBS) are essentially composed of a brightness signal or luminance component (Y), two colour difference signals or chrominance components (U, V or I, Q), vertical and horizontal sync signals (VS, HS) and a blanking signal (BL).

The different coding processes, e.g. NTSC, PAL and SECAM, introduced into the known colour television standards, differ in the nature of the chrominance transmission and in particular the different systems make use of different colour subcarrier frequencies and different line frequencies.
The following explanations relate to the PAL and NTSC systems, but correspondingly apply to video signals of other standards and non-standardized signals.
The colour subcarrier frequency (fsc) of a PAL system and a NTSC system is fsc(NTSC) = 3.58 MHz or fsc(PAL) = 4.43 MHz.
In addition, in PAL and NTSC systems the relationships of the colour subcarrier frequency (fsc) to the line frequency (fh) are given by fsc(NTSC) = 227.50 * fh or 4•fsc(NTSC) = 910 • fh fsc(PAL) = 283.75 * fh or 4•fsc(PAL) = 1135 • fh so that the phase of the colour subcarrier in the case of NTSC is changed by 180°/line and in PAL by 270°/line.

In the case of digital video signal processing and decoding the prior art fundamentally distinguishes between two system architectures. These are the burst-locked architecture and the line-locked architecture, i.e. systems which operate with sampling frequencies for the video signal, which are produced in phase-locked manner to the colour subcarrier frequency transmitted with the burst pulse or in phase-locked manner with the line frequency, respectively.

The principal advantage of the present invention is a color television receiver is provided having a fully digital color demodulator wherein the luminance signal and the chrominance signals are separated and digitally processed prior to being converted to analog signals in that the all-digital signal processing largely eliminates the need for nonintegratable circuit elements, i.e., particularly coils and capacitors, and that the subcircuits can be preferably implemented using integrated insulated-gate field-effect transistor circuits, i.e., so-called MOS technology. This technology is better suited for implementing digital circuits than the so-called bipolar technology.

 The  PHILIPS  28DC2271/02R  D2MAC  DIGI16  is a multisound tv digital sound processing.

It has a DTI.(dti digital transient improvement pertains to a circuit for steepening color-signal transitions in color television receivers or the like particularly in DIGIVISION DIGIT2000 . ) circuit arrangement designed for use in digital color-television receivers or the like and contains for each of the two digital color-difference signals a slope detector to which both a digital signal defining an amplitude threshold value and a digital signal defining a time threshold value are applied. At least one intermediate value occurring during an edge to be steepened is stored, and at the same time value of the steepened edge, it is "inserted" into the latter.

The bandwidth of the color-difference channel is very small compared with the bandwidth of the luminance channel, namely only about 1/5 that of the luminance channel in the television standards now in use. This narrow bandwidth leads to blurred color transitions ("color edging") in case of sudden color-signal changes, e.g., at the edges of the usual color-bar test signal, because, compared with the associated luminance-signal transition, an approximately fivefold duration of the color-signal transition results from the narrow transmission bandwidth.

In the prior circuit arrangement, the relatively slowly rising color-signal edges are steepened by suitably delaying the color-difference signals and the luminance signal and steepening the edges of the color-difference signals at the end of the delay by suitable analog circuits. The color-difference signals and the luminance signal are present and processed in analog form as usual. This circuit arrangement is designed for use in digital color-television receivers or the like and contains for each of the two digital color-difference signals a slope detector to which both a digital signal defining an amplitude threshold value and a digital signal defining a time threshold value are applied. At least one intermediate value occurring during an edge to be steepened is stored, and at the same time value of the steepened edge, it is "inserted" into the latter. This is done by means of memories, switches, output registers, and a sequence controller.

ADVANTAGE - Increased picture sharpness and highly improved signal-to-noise ratio.


Digital Signal Processing DIGVISION ITT in Brief:
 FOR several years now the use of digital techniques in television has been growing. A considerable impetus came initially from the need for high -quality Tv standards conversion. The IBA's DICE (Digital Intercontinental Conversion Equipment) standards converter came into operational use in 1972. It's success demonstrated convincingly the advantages of processing video signals in digital form - digital signals are neither phase nor level dependent. The trend since then has been towards the all - digital studio: digital effects generators have been in use for some time, and digital telecines were announced earlier this year. An earlier example of the application of digital techniques to television was the BBC's sound-in-syncs system, in which the sound signal is converted to digital form so that it can be added to the video signal for network distribution. The sound-in-syncs system first came into use in 1969, and is was  widely employed in pay tv systems alongside with video scrambling methods in the 80's.  Digital techniques have already appeared on the domestic TV scene. The teletext signals are digital, and require digital processing. In modern remote control systems the commands from the remote control transmitter are in digital form, and require digital decoding and digital - to -analogue conversion in the receiver before the required control action can be put into effect. Allied to this, digital techniques are used for the more sophisticated channel tuning systems. The basic TV receiver itself continues to use analogue techniques however. Are we about to see major changes here? 
ITT Semiconductors in W. Germany have been working on the application of digital techniques to basic TV receiver signal processing since 1977 with the supervision of the Engineer Micic Ljubomir, and at the recent Berlin Radio Show presented a set of digital chips for processing the video, audio and deflection signals in a TV receiver. The set consists of a' couple of l.s.i. and six v.l.s.i. chips - and by very large scale integration (v.l.s.i.) we're talking about chips that contain some more 200,000 transistors. What are the advantages? 
For the setmaker, there's reduction in the component count and simpler, automated receiver alignment - alignment data is simply fed into a programmable memory in the receiver, which then adjusts itself. Subsequently, the use of feedback enables the set to maintain its performance as it ages. From the user's viewpoint, the advantages are improved performance and the fact that extra features such as picture -within -a -picture (two pictures on the screen at the same time) and still pictures become relatively simple to incorporate. The disadvantage of course is the need for a lot of extra circuitry. Since the received signals remain in analogue form, analogue -to -digital conversion is required before signal processing is undertaken. As the c.r.t. requires analogue drive signals, digital -to -analogue conversion is required prior to the RGB output stages - the situation is somewhat different in the timebase and audio departments, since the line drive is basically digital anyway and class D amplifier techniques can be used in the field and audio output stages. In between the A -D conversion and the various output stages, handling the signals in digital form calls for much more elaborate circuitry - hence those chips with 200,000 or so transistors. The extra circuitry is all incorporated within a handful of chips of course, but the big question is if and when the use of these chips will become an economic proposition, taking into account reduced receiver assembly/setting up costs, compared to the use of the present analogue technology - after all, colour receiver component counts are already very low. With the present digital technology, it's not feasible to convert the signals to digital form at i.f. So conversion takes place following video and sound demodulation. Fig. 1 shows in simple block diagram form the basic video and deflection signal processing arrangement used in the system devised by ITT Semiconductors. Before going into detail, two basic points have to be considered - the rate at which the incoming analogue signals are sampled for conversion to digital form, and the number of digits required for signal coding. Consider the example shown in Fig. 2. At both (a) and (b) the signals are sampled at times Ti, T2 etc. In (a) the signal is changing at a much faster rate than the sampling rate. So very little of the signal information would be present in the samples. In (b) the rate at which the signal is changing is much slower, and since the sampling rate is the same the samples will contain the signal information accurately. In practice, the sampling rate has to be at least twice the bandwidth of the signal being sampled. Once you've got your samples, the next question is how many digits are required for adequate resolution of the signal, i.e. how many steps are required on the vertical (signal level) scale in Fig. 2 The use of a four -digit code, i.e. 0000, 0001 etc., gives 16 possible signal levels. Doubling the number of digits to eight gives 256 signal levels and so on. ITT's experience shows that the luminance signal requires 8 bits (digits), the colour -difference signals require 6 bits, the audio signal requires 12 bits (14 for hi-fi quality) while 13 bits are required for a linear horizontal scan on a 26inch tube. These digital signals are handled as parallel data streams in the subsequent signal processing. Returning to Fig. 1, the A -D and D -A conversion required in the video channel is carried out by a single chip which ITT call the video codec (coder/decoder). A clock pulse generator i.c. is required to produce the various pulse trains necessary for the digital signal processing, and a control i.c. is used to act as a computer for the whole digital system and also to provide interfacing to enable the external controls (brightness, volume, colour etc.) to produce the desired effects. In addition, the control i.c. incorporates the digital channel selection system. The video codec i.c. uses parallel A-D/D-A conversion, i.e. a string of voltage comparators connected in parallel. This system places a high premium on the number of bits used to code the signal in digital form, so ITT have devised a technique of biasing the converter to achieve 8 -bit resolution using only 7 bits (the viewer's eye does some averaging on alternate lines, as with Simple PAL, but this time averaging luminance levels). The A -D comparators provide grey -encoded outputs, so the first stage in the video processor i.c. is a grey -to -binary transcoder. As Fig. 3 shows, the processes carried out in the video processor i.c. then follow the normal practice, though everything's done in digital form. The key to this processing is the use of digital filters. These are clocked at rates up to 18MHz, and provide delays, addition and multiplication. The glass chroma delay line required for PAL decoding in a conventional analogue decoder consists of blocks of RAM (random-access memory) occupying only three square millimeters of chip area each. As an example of the ingenuity of the ITT design, the digital delay line used for chroma signal averaging/separation in the PAL system is used in the NTSC version of the chip as a luminance/chrominance signal separating comb filter. Fig. 4 shows the basic processes carried out in the deflection processor i.c. This employs the sorts of techniques we're becoming used to in the latest generation of sync processor i.c.s. Digital video goes in, and the main outputs consist of a horizontal drive pulse plus drives to the field output and EW modulator circuits. The latter are produced by a pulse -width modulator arrangement, i.e. the sort of thing employed with class D output stages. The necessary gating and blanking pulses are also provided. A further chip provides audio signal processing. One might wonder why the relatively simple audio department calls for this sort of treatment. The W. German networks are already equipping themselves for dual -channel sound however, and the audio processor i.c. contains the circuitry required to sort out the two -carrier sound signals. These chips represent a major step in digitalizing the domestic TV receiver. It seems likely that some enterprising setmaker will in due course announce a "digital TV set". The interesting point then will be whether the chip yields, and the chip prices as production increases, will eventually make it worthwhile for all setmakers to follow this path (in 1984).





The Tv set here shown features a PIP  picture-in-picture (PIP or pix-in-pix) feature; in a digital television system having a picture-in-picture (PIP or pix-in-pix) feature, two images from possibly unrelated sources are displayed simultaneously on the TV screen as a single composite image. The composite image includes a small picture (defined by an auxiliary video signal, for example, from a VCR) displayed as an inset within a large main picture (defined by a primary video signal, for example, from the TV antenna). The output signal of one tuner or of other TV signal sources in the base band are digitized and stored in a part of a memory. After automatic switching over to another TV-channel, this new signal is stored in another part of the memory and so on. The whole memory is then read out continuously and produces the displayed multipicture on the screen.
More specifically, the present invention pertains to a television receiver with a multipicture display.
In a television receiver with multipicture display a single video signal can be reproduced simultaneously in two or more subareas, or two or more different video signals can each be reproduced in associated subareas. Each of the subareas can display either a reduced-size picture or a part of the picture supplied by a video-signal source. A digital signal-processing circuit converts the signals from the video-signal source to picture data consisting of luminance and color data for each picture element. A random-access memory (RAM) holds the picture data of the entire screen. A control unit controls the writing of the picture data into an area of the RAM depending on the number of video signals to be reproduced and the line-by-line readout, with only selected lines being transferred from the video-signal source into the associated memory area. A digital-to-analg converted which is furnished with the picture data read from the RAM delivers the analog red, green, and blue signals.
A television receiver of this kind is described in a printed publication by Intermetall Semiconductors ITT, "VMC Video Memory Controller", August 1985.
That television receiver circuit uses random-access memories (RAMs). For the multipicture display, the screen is divided into up to nine equal-sized subareas which each contain a part of a picture of normal size or a complete picture of reduced size. In that mode, successively produced "snapshots" of up to nine different video signals can be displayed simultaneously. The switching of the video signals takes place manually.
Offenlegungsschrift DE No. 24 13 839 A1 describes a circuit for a television receiver with a facility for simultaneously reproducing two or more programs. In a part of the picture of the directly received main program, the secondary program, received with a single switchable tuner, is stored in a memory with a reduced number of lines and is called up line by line when the electron beam of the picture tube sweeps across the predetermined part of the picture. The disadvantage of this method lies in horizontal grating-like interference in the main picture which results from the fact that lines of the main picture are missing at regular intervals when the tuner has been switched to the secondary program, and which can only be incompletely compensated.
Accordingly, the problem to be solved by the invention is to provide a circuit of the above kind with which the grating-like interference caused during reproduction using the above-described single-tuner switching method is eliminated.
The output signal of one tuner or of other TV signal sources in the base band are digitize and stored in part of a memory. After automatic switching over to another TV-channel, this new signal is stored in another part of the memory and so on.
The whole memory is then read out continuously and produces the multi-picture display on the screen. Another advantage consists in the fact that, for the construction of the whole screen picture, all picture data are withdrawn from the RAM, so that the usual picture-improvement techniques can be applied. By fast readout from the memory rows, the displayed picture is freed from both line flicker and background flicker.
By changing the sampling rates of the different video-signal sources, it is readily possible to monitor the latter, nearly up to the still picture. In an arrangement in accordance with the invention digital picture processing and digital storage are used thereby permitting the circuit to process analog or digital signals,from video signal sources.


 1992........   MAC  , D2-MAC  , MAC/HDMAC    is  becomed.............  a DEAD END ?? ?? ??

It's understandable that Philips' 1992 president Jan Timmer should have expressed deep feelings about the prospect of the loss of MAC/HDMAC, "Europe's wonderful initiative" as he called it, as the future broadcasting system for Europe. At his recent press conference in Eindhoven he commented that "we have reached the end point technically: we are ready to move from MAC to HDMAC". To have travelled so far alongthis path, achieved so much technically and spent so much (though the figures are not available) and found that you've come to a dead end is a bitter experience. But it's happenedoften enough before and will doubtless happen often enough in the years to come. From the very beginning different groups have developed different TV and video systems. Because of the need for some degree of standardisation, only a few can ever be adopted for use. At the start of TV broadcasting in the UK there were the competing Baird and EMI systems. At that time any number of other systems were being developed around the world, particularly in the USA. Only the 525, 625 and 819 line systems came into general use. Colour brought with it another multitude of different solutions to the problem of developing an acceptable system. We all know about PAL, SECAM and NTSC, which are still very much with us: who remembers ART and NIR? Satellite TV brought the subject of system design into the limelight once more. It offered wider channel bandwidth and hence the possibility of enhanced TV systems. Now various proposed digital systems are squeezing enhanced TV back into narrower bandwidths. There's a great deal going on in the world of TV transmission systems at present, as George Cole brings out in his IBC report on a later page. The sad thing about MAC is that such a good system has been around for so long without being convincingly relevant to current broadcasting needs and has in the end been overtaken by events. Jan Timmer seems to blame the European Commission for this situation, on the grounds that it allowed telecom band satellites to be used for TV broadcasting using the current terrestrial signal coding systems. But it was rather the case that the authorities were neatly sidestepped than that they failed to impose a policy. Satellite broadcasting opened a whole new ball game, one that's not amenable to the close supervision possible with terrestrial transmissions. Philips has been particularly unlucky when it comes to TV/video dead ends. There were the banana and ultra -violet beam -indexing colour tubes, the original laser disc system and the N1500/N1700N2000 VCR systems. That lot must have cost a pretty penny one way and another. You can't simply put the blame on inability to complete development and bring products to the marketplace quickly. Some technologies just aren't going to make it however well managed the development programme is. One thinks for example of RCA's capacitance video disc, possibly the most costly consumer electronics flop of all time, and of the EVR (electronic video recording) system in which CBS and Rank were involved. Right now those of us who recall these dead ends must be wondering about CD -I and all those multimedia systems that are being worked on, some because computer and other electronics concerns simply don't know where to go or what to do next. Some of these multimedia ideas have, perhaps unfairly, been described as solutions looking for a problem. We already seem to have one dead end in the CDTV system. The news that Philips has just slashed the price of its CD -I players in the USA from $1,000 to $700, less than a year after launching the system there, is not exactly encouraging. Interactive video is of course something that calls for long-term public education. We just don't know what the eventual level of interest will be.

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An Increasingly Versatile Device The domestic television set used to be simply the thing that reproduced the programmes transmitted by one or other of the three programme networks  unless you happened to be connected to one of the wire systems that have experimented with local TV and pay TV at various times. But have you noticed what an increasingly versatile thing the TV set is becoming?
- The first major extension to the domestic TV set's possibilities came with the VCR, enabling you to record off air or replay prerecorded tapes. Domestic VTR systems have at a price  been with us for roughly a decade now, but till the advent of the easy to handle VCR most low-cost VTR systems were intended for use with monitors, with the signal interconnections at video and audio frequencies.
- Then came TV games, first found in the pubs and amusement arcades, later appearing in compact, relatively inexpensive packages for home use. The significant point here was the entry of digital techniques on the domestic TV scene. On the broadcast side, digital techniques had been making a substantial contribution to operations for some years, starting with the BBC's sound-in-syncs system (1969) in which the TV sound signal is compressed, converted to digital form and inserted in the line sync pulse period, and culminating with the IBA's famed DICE, which provides electronic standards (lines, fields, colour) conversion by converting the signals to digital form, processing them, then converting them back into analogue form.
Rather far from TV games you might think, but it's all part of the same process - the increasing impact of digital techniques on the world of television. In fact the technology of TV games has evolved considerably since their first appearance.
The approach then was to employ a fair number of standard digital i.c.s to build up the circuitry required. But why not go about it in the same way as the calculator manufacturers?
It didn't take long for the semiconductor people to see this new possibility for using their l.s.i. technology. This made it a relatively simple matter to provide a range of games with just a single i.c.  the basis of the present generation of TV games.
Add a second i.c. and the whole thing comes up in glorious colour. But it doesn't end there. The talk was now is of adopting microprocessor technology and making the system programmable, so that an almost unlimited range of games of varying degrees of complexity can be played. The favoured system seems to been to use prerecorded cassettes to provide the various programmes. And once you do that, you can extend the system to all sorts of other uses - teaching systems and so on. In fact you've made the TV set into part of a home computer installation - as we outlined in Teletopics last month. It's not impossible then to imagine some "viewers" using their TV sets for games, instruction and VCR use, while keeping up to date with teletext news and getting extra information via the PO's Viewdata system - and never watching a transmitted programme at all! We've come a long way then from the days of the TV set as a goggle
(goggle ????? or gooooooooooogle).................. box.
Teletext decoders and TV games were already being built into a few sets. What other digital innovations can we expect in TV sets? (may be DVB)
One now well established use of digital techniques is to provide all electronic channel selection.
The varicap tuner simply asks to be controlled in this way, and the system lends itself readily to remote control operation. Once you're controlling the tuner and generating various signals digitally there are other things you might as well do. Like flashing the selected channel number on the screen, or the time (coming shortly in Television!). Sets which do this sort of thing have been available on the Continent for some while now.
- The latest development along these lines is the picture within a picture a reduced size picture from another channel being inserted in the corner of the main display (PIP), so that you can watch two progrpnmes at once or see when to change over to a programme due to start on another channel. This involves some interesting digital processes - you've got to lose lines, and compact the video information by reading it into a memory at one speed and reading it out at another, in effect operating at two standards simultaneously while keeping both in sync (remember how difficult it has sometimes been to keep a set in sync on one standard!).
- There's only one thing that prevents a space-age TV installation in every home: cost.
But the cost of electronic hardware has a habit of falling dramatically once production has achieved a certain level. TV games are already commonplace, and teletext decoders have  become a lot cheaper once specialised i.c. modules for the purpose go into large scale production. From this point in time, it already seems that one can regard the days when the TV set simply displayed one of the programmes available as the age of stream TV.

....................................But we all know how it ended !


One more comment about digital in 2000..............


Over the years we have learnt that one of the most important things in video/ TV technology is selecting the best system to use. We have also seen how difficult this can be. Prior to the start of the colour TV era in Europe there was an great to-do about the best system to adopt. The US NTSC system seemed an obvious choice to start with. It had been proved in use, and refine- ments had been devised. But alternative, better solutions were proposed - PAL and Secam. PAL proved to be a great success, in fact a good choice. 
The French Secam system seems to have worked just as well. Apart from the video tape battles of the Seventies, the next really big debate concerned digital TV. When it came to digital terrestrial TV (DTT), Europe and the USA again adopted different standards. 

One major difference is the modulation system used for transmission. Coded orthogonal frequency   division multiplexing (COFDM) was selected for the European DVB system, while in the USA a system called 8VSB was adopted. COFDM uses quadrature amplitude modulation of a number of orthogonal carriers that are spread across the channel bandwidth. Because of their number, each carrier has a relatively low bit rate. 
The main advantage of the system is its excellent behaviour under multipath reception conditions. 8VSB represents a rather older,  pre phase modulation technoogy: eight  state amplitude modulation of a single carrier, with a vestigial sideband. The decision on the US system was assigned to the Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC), reporting to the FCC. The system it proposed was approved by the FCC on December 26th, 1996. The curious date might suggest that there had been a certain amount of politicking. In fact there had been an almighty row between the TV and computer industries about the video standard to adopt, the two fearing that one or other would gain an advantage as the technologies converged. It was 'resolved' by adopting a sort of   "open standard"  we are talking about resolution and scanning standards here - the idea apparently being that the technology would somehow sort itself out.

 There seems to have been rather less concern about the modulation standard. 8VSB was adopted because it was assumed to be able to provide a larger service area than the alternatives, including COFDM, for a given transmitter power. Well, the USA is a very large place! But the US TV industry, or at least some parts of it, is now having second thoughts. Once the FCC had made its decision, there was pressure to get on with digital TV. In early 1998 there were announce- ments about the start of transmissions and broadcasters assured the FCC that DTT would be available in the ten areas of greatest population concentration by May 1999. Rapid advances were expected, with an anticipated analogue TV switch -off in 2006. So far however things have not gone like that. At the end of 1999 some seventy DTI' transmitters were in operation, but Consumer Electronics Manufacturers Association estimates suggest that only some 50,000 sets and 5,000 STBs had been sold.

 There have been many reports of technical problems, in particular with reception in urban and hilly areas and the use of indoor aerials, also with video/audio sync and other matters. Poor reception with indoor aerials in urban conditions is of particular concern: that's how much of the population receives its TV. The UK was the first European country to start DTI', in late 1998 - at much the same time as in the USA. The contrast is striking. ONdigital had signed up well over 500,000 subscribers by the end of 1999, a much higher proportion of viewers than in the USA. Free STBs have played a part of course, but it's notable that DTT 's reception in the UK has been relatively hassle -free. In making this comparison it should also be remembered that the main aim of DTT technology differs in Europe and the USA. 

The main concern in Europe has been to provide additional channels. In the USA it has been to move to HDTV, in particular to provide a successor the NTSC system. There have been plenty of channels in the USA for many a year. For example the DirecTV satellite service started in mid 1994 and offers some 200 channels. Internationally, various countries have been comparing the US and European digital systems. They have overwhelmingly come down in favour of the DVB system. There have been some very damaging assessments of the ATSC standard. The present concern in the US TV industry results from this poor domestic take up and lack of international success. Did the FCC make a boob, in particular in the choice of 8VSB? Following compara- tive tests carried out by Sinclair Broadcasting Group Inc., the company has petitioned the FCC to adopt COFDM as an option in the ATSC standard. Not only did its tests confirm poor reception with indoor aerials: they also established that the greater coverage predicted for 8VSB failed to materialise in practice. Could the USA have two DTT transmission standards? It seems unlikely. It would involve dual standard receivers and non  standardisation of transmitters. In the all important business of system selection, it looks as if the FCC got it wrong.
              ....................................   It is obviously wasteful to duplicate terrestrial TV transmissions in analogue and digital form. Sooner or later transmissions will all be digital, since this is a more efficient use of spectrum space. The question is when? It would suit some to switch off the analogue transmitters as soon as possible. 2006 has been suggested as a time to start, with ana- logue transmissions finally ending in 2010. All very neat and tidy. Whether it will work out in that way is another matter. Strong doubts are already beginning to be aired. 
 The government has, quite properly, laid down conditions to be met before the switch off occurs. Basically that the digital signal coverage should equal that achieved for analogue TV, currently 99.4 per cent of the population, and that digital receiving equipment should be available at an affordable price. The real problem is that there is a difference between a coverage of 99.4 per cent and 99.4 per cent of the population actually having digital receiving equipment. Why should those who are interested in only free - to -air channels go out and buy/rent a digital receiver? It is already becoming evident that this represents a fair chunk of the population. 
The ITC has warned the government that the 2006-2010 timetable is in jeopardy. Peter Rogers, the ITC's chief executive, has said "we need to persuade people only interested in watching free -to -air television to switch to digital. "
Unless we do, there will be no switch - over." Well not quite, because the analogue receivers will eventually wear out and have to be replaced. But that could take a long, long time. Meanwhile many people will expect to be able to continue to watch their usual TV fare using their existing analogue receivers. 

Research carried out by Culture Secretary Chris Smith's department has established that between forty and fifty per cent of the population expects the BBC licence to cover their TV viewing, which means what they get at present in analogue form. A substantial percentage of the population simply isn't interested in going digital. In fact take up of integrated receiver -decoders, as opposed to the free digital set -top boxes, has so far been very slow. 
Of five million TV sets sold in the UK year 1999 , only 10,000 were digital. There are important factors apart from overall coverage and how many people have sets. There is the extension of coverage, which becomes more difficult to achieve eco- nomically as the number of those not covered decreases. There is the problem of reception quality. And there is the question of domestic arrangements and convenience. Extending coverage to the last ten fifteen per cent of the population by means of conventional terrestrial transmitters will be expensive. Mr Smith's department seems to have conceded that other methods of signal delivery may have to be adopted - by satellite, by microwave links or by cable. The latter has of course never been economic where few households are involved. 
The frequency planners have been trying to find ways of increasing coverage even to well populated areas. There are so many areas where problems of one sort or another make the provision of DTT difficult. Satellite TV is the obvious solution. 
The time may well come when it is wondered why anyone bothered with DTT. Signal quality is becoming an increasingly important factor as the digital roll out continues. In areas where the signal is marginal, viewers could experience the extreme irritation of picture break up or complete loss like even todays. This is quite apart from the actual quality of the channel, which depends on the number of bits per second used. There is a maximum number of bits per multiplex, the total being shared by several channels. The fewer the bits, the poorer the picture in terms of definition and rendering. 

There have already been complaints about poor quality. The question of domestic arrangements is one that has not so far received adequate public attention. Most households 2000 nowadays don't have just one TV set that the family watches. They have a main one, probably, almost certainly one or more VCRs, and several other sets around the house to serve various purposes. What 'the percentage of households that have digital TV' should really mean is the percentage willing to replace all this equipment. It will be expensive, and people would not be happy if they were told to throw away their other equipment when they get a single nice new all  singing all dancing widescreen digital TV set. It fact there would be uproar. The move from analogue to digital is not like that from 405 to 625 lines, which went fairly smoothly.

In those days few people had video equipment or a multitude of sets. The transition to digital is not going to be smooth, and the suggestion of a switch off during 2006-2010 already looks totally unrealistic. Unless the government subsidises or gives away digital TV sets - and why should it? - people will expect their existing equipment to continue to be usable.  

So it's likely that analogue TV will be with us for many years yet. But that would be the end of analogue too. 

.............................Indeed...............................

1990 - Historical Changes 1990  was living through a period of particularly rapid historical change. The crumbling of the communist regimes in Eastern Europe and the break-up tendencies of the Soviet Union are two such examples. Just a short while ago such changes would have been almost inconcievable. Look what happened when previous attempts were made. Then all of a sudden the situation changes dramatically. So much so that whereas in 1960, 1970 or 1980 one would have felt fairly safe in predicting how things would be ten years later, in 1990 one can have no such assurance. Ten years before 1990 there were two super powers and everything seemed to revolve around this fact. In the West the powerful US economy was the kingpin of the economic system. But the US position has changed markedly since then. In just seven years the USA has changed from being the world's largest net creditor to being the world's largest net debtor. The year 1985 saw the USA become a debtor for the first time since 1914. The US economy remains strong of course, but the country's poor trading performance in recent times highlights a relative decline and the growing importance of other economies, notably Japan's. One is brought up rather sharply to reflect on these things by the  death of Robert Noyce in early June 1990, at the age of 62. Robert Noyce had amongst other things been the president and chief executive of Sematech, a consortium of major US semiconductor manufacturers whose aim is to regain for the US its pre-eminent position in semiconductor technology. Robert Noyce and the silicon chip were intimately linked. It was as a young scientist in his thirties, working at Fairchild Semiconductor, that he created some of the earliest integrated circuits. Jack Kilby came up with similar ideas at the same time, working at Texas Instruments. There followed a ten-year patents battle between the two companies, and in the end the rights of both were upheld. Exactly who achieved what first is not too important. Both companies had by then developed the basic processes that came to be used in chip manufacture, and as we all know the world changed as a result, with products and processes that would have been economically impossible before suddenly becoming feasible. A decade or so later, in 1968, Robert Noyce with Gordon Moore formed Intel and in due course the microprocessor revolution came about. Intel produced a 4 -bit microprocessor in 1971 and, rather more significantly, the first 8 -bit microprocessor not long after. These were major steps in the development of electronics as we know it today. Earlier of course the transistor itself had been invented in the USA. The point -contact transistor was described by John Bardeen and Walter Brattan, working at the Bell Laboratories, in 1948. Then in 1949 William Shockley came up with the junction transistor. It seemed that for many years all major advances in electronics came from the USA. That's where it all happened. Money for defence and space projects helped to maintain the pace of development of course, but even without it a culture favourable to innovation had been created, particularly in the famed Silicon Valley. US pre-eminence in electronics seemed unassailable. The 1990 situation is somewhat different. According to a recent US Commerce Department study, if relative growth rates continue it won't be too long before the Japanese electronics industry becomes the world leader. It's not only a question of semiconductor devices. The worldwide market shared of US producers of a wide range of products from silicon wafers and memory chips to communications networks and computer displays has declined rapidly. The way in which things are going is highlighted by the fact that the share taken by US companies in new electronics patents has dropped reflecting, as the study puts it, "the declining capabilities of US firms relative to the Japanese in the research and development phasesmof bringing key electronic technologies to market". The study is critical of US government policies, commenting that "in contrast to foreign governments the US government has not had a co-ordinated set of policies directed to this sector. In general, the US has followed an ad hoc approach, the effect of which has been to place the US electronics sector at a competitive disadvantage vis-a-vis some of its foreign competitors." It concludes that US leadership in electronics "may very well be eclipsed unless continued tenacity by the US private sector is accompanied by a higher degree of consensus within the industry and improved co-ordination with academic, federal, state and local governments." As if to cap all this Hitachi has just announced in 1990 the development of a prototype 64 -bit dynamic RAM, said to be the first of its kind in the world, making Hitachi a front-runner in the race to develop the next generation of memory chips. Quite how it will all develop is hard to tell. The 1990's Japanese electronics industry goes from strength to strength, but the US industry has always shown a capacity to pull itself up, as happened after the launch of Sputnick in 1957. As mentioned at the outset, these were particularly fast moving times when even the immediate future is hard to see. The outstanding factor however is the sheer quantity of research effort being put in by the Japanese. Europe nowadays seems to be rather a backwater in the electronics world. As for the UK, well we were quite good at developing valves. And then there was television and radar. But that was rather long ago and nght now the UK electronics research and development scene seems to be a particularly arid one or nothing more.
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(IT'S A Heavy, Heavy Weight)

Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. (Royal Philips Electronics Inc.), most commonly known as Philips, (Euronext: PHIA, NYSE: PHG) is a multinational Dutch electronics corporation.

Philips is one of the largest electronics companies in the world. In 2009, its sales were €23.18 billion. The company employs 115,924 people in more than 60 countries.

Philips is organized in a number of sectors: Philips Consumer Lifestyles (formerly Philips Consumer Electronics and Philips Domestic Appliances and Personal Care), Philips Lighting and Philips Healthcare (formerly Philips Medical Systems).
The company was founded in 1891 by Gerard Philips, a maternal cousin of Karl Marx, in Eindhoven, Netherlands. Its first products were light bulbs and other electro-technical equipment. Its first factory survives as a museum devoted to light sculpture. In the 1920s, the company started to manufacture other products, such as vacuum tubes (also known worldwide as 'valves'), In 1927 they acquired the British electronic valve manufacturers Mullard and in 1932 the German tube manufacturer Valvo, both of which became subsidiaries. In 1939 they introduced their electric razor, the Philishave (marketed in the USA using the Norelco brand name).
Philips was also instrumental in the revival of the Stirling engine.

As a chip maker, Philips Semiconductors was among the Worldwide Top 20 Semiconductor Sales Leaders.

In December 2005 Philips announced its intention to make the Semiconductor Division into a separate legal entity. This process of "disentanglement" was completed on 1 October 2006.

On 2 August 2006, Philips completed an agreement to sell a controlling 80.1% stake in Philips Semiconductors to a consortium of private equity investors consisting of Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co. (KKR), Silver Lake Partners and AlpInvest Partners. The sale completed a process, which began December 2005, with its decision to create a separate legal entity for Semiconductors and to pursue all strategic options. Six weeks before, ahead of its online dialogue, through a letter to 8,000 of Philips managers, it was announced that they were speeding up the transformation of Semiconductors into a stand-alone entity with majority ownership by a third party. It was stated then that "this is much more than just a transaction: it is probably the most significant milestone on a long journey of change for Philips and the beginning of a new chapter for everyone – especially those involved with Semiconductors".

In its more than 115 year history, this counts as a big step that is definitely changing the profile of the company. Philips was one of few companies that successfully made the transition from the electrical world of the 19th century into the electronic age, starting its semiconductor activity in 1953 and building it into a global top 10 player in its industry. As such, Semiconductors was at the heart of many innovations in Philips over the past 50 years.

Agreeing to start a process that would ultimately lead to the decision to sell the Semiconductor Division therefore was one of the toughest decisions that the Board of Management ever had to make.

On 21 August 2006, Bain Capital and Apax Partners announced that they had signed definitive commitments to join the expanded consortium headed by KKR that is to acquire the controlling stake in the Semiconductors Division.

On 1 September 2006, it was announced in Berlin that the name of the new semiconductor company founded by Philips is NXP Semiconductors.

Coinciding with the sale of the Semiconductor Division, Philips also announced that they would drop the word 'Electronics' from the company name, thus becoming simply Koninklijke Philips N.V. (Royal Philips N.V.).


PHILIPS FOUNDATION:

The foundations of Philips were laid in 1891 when Anton and Gerard Philips established Philips & Co. in Eindhoven, the Netherlands. The company begun manufacturing carbon-filament lamps and by the turn of the century, had become one of the largest producers in Europe. Stimulated by the industrial revolution in Europe, Philips’ first research laboratory started introducing its first innovations in the x-ray and radio technology. Over the years, the list of inventions has only been growing to include many breakthroughs that have continued to enrich people’s everyday lives.



In the early years of Philips &; Co., the representation of the company name took many forms: one was an emblem formed by the initial letters of Philips ; Co., and another was the word Philips printed on the glass of metal filament lamps.


One of the very first campaigns was launched in 1898 when Anton Philips used a range of postcards showing the Dutch national costumes as marketing tools. Each letter of the word Philips was printed in a row of light bulbs as at the top of every card. In the late 1920s, the Philips name began to take on the form that we recognize today.



The now familiar Philips waves and stars first appeared in 1926 on the packaging of miniwatt radio valves, as well as on the Philigraph, an early sound recording device. The waves symbolized radio waves, while the stars represented the ether of the evening sky through which the radio waves would travel.



In 1930 it was the first time that the four stars flanking the three waves were placed together in a circle. After that, the stars and waves started appearing on radios and gramophones, featuring this circle as part of their design. Gradually the use of the circle emblem was then extended to advertising materials and other products.



At this time Philips’ business activities were expanding rapidly and the company wanted to find a trademark that would uniquely represent Philips, but one that would also avoid legal problems with the owners of other well-known circular emblems. This wish resulted in the combination of the Philips circle and the wordmark within the shield emblem.



In 1938, the Philips shield made its first appearance. Although modified over the years, the basic design has remained constant ever since and, together with the wordmark, gives Philips the distinctive identity that is still embraced today.

The first steps of CRT production by Philips started in the thirties with the Deutsche Philips Electro-Spezial gesellschaft in Germany and the Philips NatLab (Physics laboratory) in Holland. After the introduction of television in Europe, just after WWII there was a growing demand of television sets and oscilloscope equipment. Philips in Holland was ambitious and started experimental television in 1948. Philips wanted to be the biggest on this market. From 1948 there was a small Philips production of television and oscilloscope tubes in the town of Eindhoven which soon developed in mass production. In 1976 a part of the Philips CRT production went to the town of Heerlen and produced its 500.000'th tube in 1986. In 1994 the company in Heerlen changed from Philips into CRT-Heerlen B.V. specialized in the production of small monochrome CRT's for the professional market and reached 1.000.000 produced tubes in 1996. In this stage the company was able to produce very complicated tubes like storage CRT's.
In 2001 the company merged into Professional Display Systems, PDS worked on LCD and Plasma technology but went bankrupt in 2009. The employees managed a start through as Cathode Ray Technology which now in 2012 has to close it's doors due to the lack of sales in a stressed market. Their main production was small CRT's for oscilloscope, radar and large medical use (X-ray displays). New experimental developments were small Electron Microscopy, 3D-TV displays, X-Ray purposes and Cathode Ray Lithography for wafer production. Unfortunately the time gap to develop these new products was too big.


28 of September 2012, Cathode Ray Technology (the Netherlands), the last Cathode Ray Tube factory in Europe closed. Ironically the company never experienced so much publicity as now, all of the media brought the news in Holland about the closure. In fact this means the end of mass production 115 years after Ferdinand Braun his invention. The rapid introduction and acceptation of LCD and Plasma displays was responsible for a drastic decrease in sales. Despite the replacement market for the next couple of years in the industrial, medical and avionics sector.
The numbers are small and the last few CRT producers worldwide are in heavy competition.

Gerard Philips:

Gerard Leonard Frederik Philips (October 9, 1858, in Zaltbommel – January 27, 1942, in The Hague, Netherlands) was a Dutch industrialist, co-founder (with his father Frederik Philips) of the Philips Company as a family business in 1891. Gerard and his younger brother Anton Philips changed the business to a corporation by founding in 1912 the NV Philips' Gloeilampenfabrieken. As the first CEO of the Philips corporation, Gerard laid with Anton the base for the later Philips multinational.



Early life and education

Gerard was the first son of Benjamin Frederik David Philips (1 December 1830 – 12 June 1900) and Maria Heyligers (1836 – 1921). His father was active in the tobacco business and a banker at Zaltbommel in the Netherlands; he was a first cousin of Karl Marx.


Career

Gerard Philips became interested in electronics and engineering. Frederik was the financier for Gerard's purchase of the old factory building in Eindhoven where he established the first factory in 1891. They operated the Philips Company as a family business for more than a decade.


Marriage and family

On March 19, 1896 Philips married Johanna van der Willigen (30 September 1862 – 1942). They had no children.

Gerard was an uncle of Frits Philips, whom he and his brother brought into the business. Later they brought in his brother's grandson, Franz Otten.


Gerard and his brother Anton supported education and social programs in Eindhoven, including the Philips Sport Vereniging (Philips Sports Association), which they founded. From it the professional football (soccer) department developed into the independent Philips Sport Vereniging N.V.



Anton Philips:

Anton Frederik Philips (March 14, 1874, Zaltbommel, Gelderland – October 7, 1951, Eindhoven) co-founded Royal Philips Electronics N.V. in 1912 with his older brother Gerard Philips in Eindhoven, the Netherlands. He served as CEO of the company from 1922 to 1939.



Early life and education

Anton was born to Maria Heyligers (1836 – 1921) and Benjamin Frederik David Philips (December 1, 1830 – June 12, 1900). His father was active in the tobacco business and a banker at Zaltbommel in the Netherlands. (He was a first cousin to Karl Marx.) Anton's brother Gerard was 16 years older.



Career

In May 1891 the father Frederik was the financier and, with his son Gerard Philips, co-founder of the Philips Company as a family business. In 1912 Anton joined the firm, which they named Royal Philips Electronics N.V.

During World War I, Anton Philips managed to increase sales by taking advantage of a boycott of German goods in several countries. He provided the markets with alternative products.

Anton (and his brother Gerard) are remembered as being civic-minded. In Eindhoven they supported education and social programs and facilities, such as the soccer department of the Philips Sports Association as the best-known example.

Anton Philips brought his son Frits Philips and grandson Franz Otten into the company in their times. Anton took the young Franz Otten with him and other family members to escape the Netherlands just before the Nazi Occupation during World War II; they went to the United States. They returned after the war.

His son Frits Philips chose to stay and manage the company during the occupation; he survived several months at the concentration camp of Vught after his workers went on strike. He saved the lives of 382 Jews by claiming them as indispensable to his factory, and thus helped them evade Nazi roundups and deportation to concentration camps.

Philips died in Eindhoven in 1951.



Marriage and family

Philips married Anne Henriëtte Elisabeth Maria de Jongh (Amersfoort, May 30, 1878 – Eindhoven, March 7, 1970). They had the following children:

* Anna Elisabeth Cornelia Philips (June 19, 1899 – ?), married in 1925 to Pieter Franciscus Sylvester Otten (1895 – 1969), and had:
o Diek Otten
o Franz Otten (b. c. 1928 - d. 1967), manager in the Dutch electronics company Philips
* Frederik Jacques Philips (1905-2005)
* Henriëtte Anna Philips (Eindhoven, October 26, 1906 – ?), married firstly to A. Knappert (d. 1932), without issue; married secondly to G. Jonkheer Sandberg (d. September 5, 1935), without issue; and married thirdly in New York City, New York, on September 29, 1938 to Jonkheer Gerrit van Riemsdijk (Aerdenhout, January 10, 1911 – Eindhoven, November 8, 2005). They had the following children:
o ..., Jonkheerin Gerrit van Riemsdijk (b. Waalre, October 2, 1939), married at Waalre on February 17, 1968 to Johannes Jasper Tuijt (b. Atjeh, Koeta Radja, March 10, 1930), son of Jacobus Tuijt and wife Hedwig Jager, without issue
o ..., Jonkheerin Gerrit van Riemsdijk (b. Waalre, April 3, 1946), married firstly at Calvados, Falaise, on June 6, 1974 to Martinus Jan Petrus Vermooten (Utrecht, September 16, 1939 – Falaise, August 29, 1978), son of Martinus Vermooten and wife Anna Pieternella Hendrika Kwantes, without issue; married secondly in Paris on December 12, 1981 to Jean Yves Louis Bedos (Calvados, Rémy, January 9, 1947 – Calvados, Lisieux, October 5, 1982), son of Georges Charles Bedos and wife Henriette Louise Piel, without issue; and married thirdly at Manche, Sartilly, on September 21, 1985 to Arnaud Evain (b. Ardennes, Sedan, July 7, 1952), son of Jean Claude Evain and wife Flore Halleux, without issue
o ..., Jonkheerin Gerrit van Riemsdijk (b. Waalre, September 4, 1948), married at Waalre, October 28, 1972 to Elie Johan François van Dissel (b. Eindhoven, October 9, 1948), son of Willem Pieter
Jacob van Dissel and wife Francisca Frederike Marie Wirtz, without issue.



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A comment...........of a 1996 reality ..................
Philips, which seems to be a perennial walking wounded case. The company had appeared to be on the mend after a worldwide cost- cutting programme which was started five years ago when Jan Timmer took over as chairman.
 But, following a sharp profits fall, with the company's first quarterly loss since 1992, a further shake up is being undertaken.
The difficulty is that the company operates in a mature market, in which prices are falling at an annual rate of six per cent. Manufacturers are competing by cutting costs to gain a larger share of static demand. It's not a situation in which any firm that does its own manufacturing can achieve much. Philips' latest plan involves an overall loss of 6,000 jobs in its consumer electronics business, with far greater reliance placed on a group of external suppliers which are referred to as "a cluster of dedicated subcontractors".

This is an approach that was pioneered many years ago by major Japanese manufacturers. Rather than make everything yourself, you rely on subcontractors who, in return, rely on you for their main source of work. It is hardly a cosy arrangement: the whole point seems to be that the major fain can exert pressure on its subcontractors, thereby - in theory - achieving optimum efficiency and cost-effectiveness. What happens when lower and lower prices are demanded for subcontracted work is not made clear.

The whole edifice could collapse. However that might be, this is the course on which Philips has now embarked. The company is also to carry out distribution, sales and marketing on a regional rather than a national basis, and has said that it will not support Grundig's losses after this year.

But Philips' chief financial officer Dudley Eustace has said that it has "no intention of abandoning the television and audio business". One has to assume that the subcontracting will also be done on an international basis, as major Japanese firms have had to do. There is a sense of déjà vu about this, though one wishes Philips well - it is still one of the major contributors to research and development in our industry.

Toshiba, which has also just appointed a new top man, Taizo Nishimoro, provides an interesting contrast. Mr Nishimoro thinks that the western emphasis on sales and marketing rather than engineering is the way to go. So the whole industry seems to be moving full circle. Taizo Nishimoro has become the first non engineering president of Toshiba. Where the company cannot compete effectively on its own, he intends to seek international alliances or go for closures. He put it as follows. "The technology and the businesses we are engaged in are getting more complex.
 In these circumstances, if we try to do everything ourselves we are making a mistake." Here's how Minoru Makihara, who became head of Mitsubishi Corporation four years ago, sees it. "Technologies are now moving so fast that it is impossible for the top manager to know all the details. 
Companies are now looking for generalists who can understand broad changes, delegate and provide leadership." Corporate change indeed amongst our oriental colleagues. Major firms the world over are facing similar problems and having to adopt similar policies.
In a mature market such as consumer electronics, you have to rely on marketing to squeeze the last little bit of advantage from such developments as Dolby sound and other added value features. The consumer electronics industry has been hoping that the digital video disc would come to its aid and get sales and profits moving ahead.
The DVD was due to be released in Sept 1996 , but we are unlikely to hear much more about it yet awhile. There's no problem with the technology: the difficulty is with licensing and software. There is obviously no point in launching it without adequate software support. But the movie companies, which control most of the required supply of software, are concerned that a recordable version of the disc, due in a couple of years' time, would be a gift to pirates worldwide. Concessions have been made by the electronics industry, in particular that different disc formats should be used in different parts of the world. But a curious problem has arisen.
 The other main use of the DVD is as a ROM in computer systems. For this application flexible copying facilities are a major requirement. But the movie companies are unwilling to agree to this. At present the situation is deadlocked and the great hope of an autumn launch, all important for sales, has had to be postponed. Next year maybe? It's a great pity, since the DVD has much to offer.
There's a lot of sad news on the retail side as well. Colorvision has been placed in administrative receivership in 1996 , with a threat to 800 jobs at its 76 stores, while the Rumbelows shops that were taken over by computer retailer Escom have suffered a similar fate. The receivers have closed down the UK chain with the loss of 850 jobs at some 150 stores. Nothing seems to be going right just now.

 ................1990 - Historical Changes 1990  was living through a period of particularly rapid historical change. The crumbling of the communist regimes in Eastern Europe and the break-up tendencies of the Soviet Union are two such examples. Just a short while ago such changes would have been almost inconcievable. Look what happened when previous attempts were made. Then all of a sudden the situation changes dramatically. So much so that whereas in 1960, 1970 or 1980 one would have felt fairly safe in predicting how things would be ten years later, in 1990 one can have no such assurance. Ten years before 1990 there were two super powers and everything seemed to revolve around this fact. In the West the powerful US economy was the kingpin of the economic system. But the US position has changed markedly since then. In just seven years the USA has changed from being the world's largest net creditor to being the world's largest net debtor. The year 1985 saw the USA become a debtor for the first time since 1914. The US economy remains strong of course, but the country's poor trading performance in recent times highlights a relative decline and the growing importance of other economies, notably Japan's. One is brought up rather sharply to reflect on these things by the  death of Robert Noyce in early June 1990, at the age of 62. Robert Noyce had amongst other things been the president and chief executive of Sematech, a consortium of major US semiconductor manufacturers whose aim is to regain for the US its pre-eminent position in semiconductor technology. Robert Noyce and the silicon chip were intimately linked. It was as a young scientist in his thirties, working at Fairchild Semiconductor, that he created some of the earliest integrated circuits. Jack Kilby came up with similar ideas at the same time, working at Texas Instruments. There followed a ten-year patents battle between the two companies, and in the end the rights of both were upheld. Exactly who achieved what first is not too important. Both companies had by then developed the basic processes that came to be used in chip manufacture, and as we all know the world changed as a result, with products and processes that would have been economically impossible before suddenly becoming feasible. A decade or so later, in 1968, Robert Noyce with Gordon Moore formed Intel and in due course the microprocessor revolution came about. Intel produced a 4 -bit microprocessor in 1971 and, rather more significantly, the first 8 -bit microprocessor not long after. These were major steps in the development of electronics as we know it today. Earlier of course the transistor itself had been invented in the USA. The point -contact transistor was described by John Bardeen and Walter Brattan, working at the Bell Laboratories, in 1948. Then in 1949 William Shockley came up with the junction transistor. It seemed that for many years all major advances in electronics came from the USA. That's where it all happened. Money for defence and space projects helped to maintain the pace of development of course, but even without it a culture favourable to innovation had been created, particularly in the famed Silicon Valley. US pre-eminence in electronics seemed unassailable. The 1990 situation is somewhat different. According to a recent US Commerce Department study, if relative growth rates continue it won't be too long before the Japanese electronics industry becomes the world leader. It's not only a question of semiconductor devices. The worldwide market shared of US producers of a wide range of products from silicon wafers and memory chips to communications networks and computer displays has declined rapidly. The way in which things are going is highlighted by the fact that the share taken by US companies in new electronics patents has dropped reflecting, as the study puts it, "the declining capabilities of US firms relative to the Japanese in the research and development phasesmof bringing key electronic technologies to market". The study is critical of US government policies, commenting that "in contrast to foreign governments the US government has not had a co-ordinated set of policies directed to this sector. In general, the US has followed an ad hoc approach, the effect of which has been to place the US electronics sector at a competitive disadvantage vis-a-vis some of its foreign competitors." It concludes that US leadership in electronics "may very well be eclipsed unless continued tenacity by the US private sector is accompanied by a higher degree of consensus within the industry and improved co-ordination with academic, federal, state and local governments." As if to cap all this Hitachi has just announced in 1990 the development of a prototype 64 -bit dynamic RAM, said to be the first of its kind in the world, making Hitachi a front-runner in the race to develop the next generation of memory chips. Quite how it will all develop is hard to tell. The 1990's Japanese electronics industry goes from strength to strength, but the US industry has always shown a capacity to pull itself up, as happened after the launch of Sputnick in 1957. As mentioned at the outset, these were particularly fast moving times when even the immediate future is hard to see. The outstanding factor however is the sheer quantity of research effort being put in by the Japanese. Europe nowadays seems to be rather a backwater in the electronics world. As for the UK, well we were quite good at developing valves. And then there was television and radar. But that was rather long ago and nght now the UK electronics research and development scene seems to be a particularly arid one or nothing more.
R.I.P.   NETHERLAND.




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