Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

In Brief: On this site you will find pictures and information about some of the electronic, electrical and electrotechnical Obsolete technology relics that the Frank Sharp Private museum has accumulated over the years .
Premise: There are lots of vintage electrical and electronic items that have not survived well or even completely disappeared and forgotten.

Or are not being collected nowadays in proportion to their significance or prevalence in their heyday, this is bad and the main part of the death land. The heavy, ugly sarcophagus; models with few endearing qualities, devices that have some over-riding disadvantage to ownership such as heavy weight,toxicity or inflated value when dismantled, tend to be under-represented by all but the most comprehensive collections and museums. They get relegated to the bottom of the wants list, derided as 'more trouble than they are worth', or just forgotten entirely. As a result, I started to notice gaps in the current representation of the history of electronic and electrical technology to the interested member of the public.

Following this idea around a bit, convinced me that a collection of the peculiar alone could not hope to survive on its own merits, but a museum that gave equal display space to the popular and the unpopular, would bring things to the attention of the average person that he has previously passed by or been shielded from. It's a matter of culture. From this, the Obsolete Technology Tellye Web Museum concept developed and all my other things too. It's an open platform for all electrical Electronic TV technology to have its few, but NOT last, moments of fame in a working, hand-on environment. We'll never own Colossus or Faraday's first transformer, but I can show things that you can't see at the Science Museum, and let you play with things that the Smithsonian can't allow people to touch, because my remit is different.

There was a society once that was the polar opposite of our disposable, junk society. A whole nation was built on the idea of placing quality before quantity in all things. The goal was not “more and newer,” but “better and higher" .This attitude was reflected not only in the manufacturing of material goods, but also in the realms of art and architecture, as well as in the social fabric of everyday life. The goal was for each new cohort of children to stand on a higher level than the preceding cohort: they were to be healthier, stronger, more intelligent, and more vibrant in every way.

The society that prioritized human, social and material quality is a Winner. Truly, it is the high point of all Western civilization. Consequently, its defeat meant the defeat of civilization itself.

Today, the West is headed for the abyss. For the ultimate fate of our disposable society is for that society itself to be disposed of. And this will happen sooner, rather than later.

OLD, but ORIGINAL, Well made, Funny, Not remotely controlled............. and not Made in CHINA.

How to use the site:
- If you landed here via any Search Engine, you will get what you searched for and you can search more using the search this blog feature provided by Google. You can visit more posts scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year,
or you can click on the main photo-page to start from the main page. Doing so it starts from the most recent post to the older post simple clicking on the Older Post button on the bottom of each page after reading , post after post.

You can even visit all posts, time to time, when reaching the bottom end of each page and click on the Older Post button.

- If you arrived here at the main page via bookmark you can visit all the site scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year pointing were you want , or more simple You can even visit all blog posts, from newer to older, clicking at the end of each bottom page on the Older Post button.
So you can see all the blog/site content surfing all pages in it.

- The search this blog feature provided by Google is a real search engine. If you're pointing particular things it will search IT for you; or you can place a brand name in the search query at your choice and visit all results page by page. It's useful since the content of the site is very large.

Note that if you don't find what you searched for, try it after a period of time; the site is a never ending job !

Every CRT Television saved let revive knowledge, thoughts, moments of the past life which will never return again.........

Many contemporary "televisions" (more correctly named as displays) would not have this level of staying power, many would ware out or require major services within just five years or less and of course, there is that perennial bug bear of planned obsolescence where components are deliberately designed to fail and, or manufactured with limited edition specificities..... and without considering........picture......sound........quality........
..............The bitterness of poor quality is remembered long after the sweetness of todays funny gadgets low price has faded from memory........ . . . . . .....
Don't forget the past, the end of the world is upon us! Pretty soon it will all turn to dust!

Have big FUN ! !
©2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 Frank Sharp - You do not have permission to copy photos and words from this blog, and any content may be never used it for auctions or commercial purposes, however feel free to post anything you see here with a courtesy link back, btw a link to the original post here , is mandatory.
All sets and apparates appearing here are property of Engineer Frank Sharp. NOTHING HERE IS FOR SALE !
All posts are presented here for informative, historical and educative purposes as applicable within Fair Use.

Saturday, January 4, 2014


INTEGRATED circuits are slowly but surely taking over more and more of the circuitry used in television sets even B/W.
The first step, some many years ago now, was to wrap the 6MHz intercarrier sound strip into a neat package such as the TAA350 or TAA570. Then came the "jungle" i.c. which took over the sync separator and a.g.c. operations. Colour receiver decoder circuitry was the next obvious area to be parcelled up in i.c. form,  two i.c. decoder and the more sophisticated Philips four i.c. design was coming on the scene. The latter is about to be superseded by a three i.c. version in which the TBA530 and TBA990 are replaced by the new TCA800 which provides chrominance signal demodulation, matrixing, clamping and preamplification, with RGB outputs of typically 5V peak -to -peak.
To improve performance a number of sets adopted a synchronous detector i.c.-the MC1330P -for vision demodulation, which of course overcomes the problem of quadrature distortion. In one monochrome chassis this i.c. is partnered by a complete vision i.f. strip i.c., the MC1352P. In the timebase section the TBA920 sync separator/line generator i.c. has found its way into several chassis was a Texas's SN76544N 07 i.c. which wraps up the sync separator and both the field and line timebase generators has come into use. Several monochrome portables have had in use a high -power audio output i.c. as the field output stage. Audio i.c.s are of course common, and in several  chassis the Philips TCA270 has put in an appearance. This device incorporates a synchronous detector for vision demodulation, a video preamplifier with noise inversion and the a.g.c. and a.f.c. circuits. The   development to be adopted in a production chassis was that remarkable Plessey i.c., the SL437F, which combines the vision i.f. strip, vision demodulator, a.g.c. system and the intercarrier sound channel.

SGS-Aces Range
Now, from the, at the time,  Italian Development Division of SGS-Ates, comes a new range of i.c.s which SGS  will set a standard pattern for TV chassis IN 1975. How this range combines to provide a complete colour receiver is shown in Fig. 1. The only sections of the receiver left in discrete component form are the video output stages, the tuner, the a.f.c. circuit and of course the line output stage and power supplies. It will be seen that the colour decoder section is split up as in the Philips three i.c. design. The TDA1150 chrominance and burst channel carries out the same functions as the TBA560, the TDA1140 reference section the same functions as the TBA540 and the TDA1160 chrominance demodulator/matrix- ing i.c. the same functions as Philips's new TCA800. It looks therefore as if this basic decoder pattern could become widely established. The other five i.c.s in the range are common to both colour and monochrome receivers. Particularly interesting are the TDA1170 which comprises a complete monochrome receiver field timebase-for colour set use an output stage using discrete com- ponents is suggested-and the TDA440 which incorporates the vision i.f. strip, vision detector and a.g.c. circuitry. The intercarrier sound i.f. strip is neatly packed away with the audio circuitry in the TDA1190 while the TDA1180 sync separator/line oscillator i.c. is a very similar animal to the now well known TBA920. The fifth i.c., the TBA271, is a stabiliser for the varicap tuner tuning supply. The novel i.c.s in this family then were the TDA 440, TDA1170 and the TDA1190 and we shall next take a closer look at each of these.

Vision IF IC:
The TDA440 vision i.f. strip i.c. is housed in a 16 -pin plastic pack with a copper frame. There is a three -stage vision i.f. amplifier with a.g.c. applied over two stages, synchronous vision demodulator, gated a.g.c. system and a pair of video signal pre amplifiers which provide either positive- or negative - going outputs. Fig. 2 shows the i.c. in block diagram form. It is possible to design a very compact i.f. strip using this device and very exact performance is claimed. Note that apart from the tuned circuits which shape the passband at the input the only tuned circuit is the 39.5MHz carrier tank circuit in the limiter/demodulator section. The only other adjustments are the tuner a.g.c. delay potentiometer and a potentiometer (the one shown on the right-hand side) which sets the white level at the demodulator. This of course gives ease of setting up, a help to setmaker and service department alike. For a sensitivity of 200/4V the output is 3.3V peak - to -peak, giving an overall gain in the region of 82 to 85dB. The a.g.c. range is 55dB, a further 30 to 40dB being provided at the tuner. The tuner a.g.c. output is intended for use with a pnp transistor or pin diode tuner unit: an external inverter stage is required with the npn transistor tuner units generally used. discrete component video output stage; in a colour In a monochrome set the output would be fed to a design the output is fed to the chrominance section of the TDA1150 and, via the luminance delay line, to the luminance channel in the TDA1150. Also of course in both cases to the sync separator which in this series of i.c.s is contained in the TDA1180.

Field Timebase IC :
The TDA1170 field timebase i.c. is shown in block diagram form in Fig. 3. The i.c. is housed in a 12 -pin package with copper frame and heat dissipation tabs. It is capable of supplying up to 1.6A peak -to -peak to drive any type of saddle -wound scanning yoke but for a colour receiver it is suggested that the toroidal deflection coil system developed by RCA is used. In this case the i.c. acts as a driver in conjunction with a complementary pair of output transistors. The yoke current in this case is in the region of 6A. The TDA1170 is designed for operation with a nominal 22V supply. It can be operated at up to 35V however. A voltage doubler within the i.c. is brought into action during the flyback time to raise the supply to 70V. Good frequency stability is claimed and the yoke current stability with changes in ambient temperature is such that the usual thermistor in series with the field coils is not required. For monochrome receiver use the power supplied to the yoke would be 0-83W for a yoke current of lA peak -to -peak with a 1012 coil impedance and 20V supply. As the power dissipation rating of the i.c. is 2.2W no further heatsink is required. For use in a colour receiver with a toroidal coil impedance of 1.6Ohm the scanning current would be 7A peak -to -peak. The power supplied to the yoke may be as much as 6.5W while the dissipation in the i.c. would be up to 2-3W. In this case a simple heatsink can be formed from a thin copper sheet soldered to the heat fins- an area of about 3-4 sq. in. should be adequate. The sync circuit at the input gives good noise immunity while the difference between the actual and ideal interlace is less than 0-3% of the field amplitude. Because of the high output impedance a relatively low value (1/iF or less) output coupling capacitor can be used. This means that mylar types instead of electrolytics can be used, reducing the problems of linearity and amplitude stability with respect to temperature and ageing. The external controls shown in Fig. 3 are hold, height and linearity (from left to right).

Complete Sound Channel:
The TDA1190 sound channel (see Fig. 4) is housed in a 12 -pin package. Possible radiation pick-up and thermal feedback risks have been avoided by careful layout of the chip. This pack also has a copper frame, with two cooling tabs which are used as the earthing terminals. The built-in low-pass filter overcomes radiation problems and with a response 3dB down at 3MHz allows for a flat amplitude response throughout the audio range: this particular feature will appeal to hi-fi enthusiasts as well since it makes the i.c. a good proposition for f.m. radio reception. The d.c. volume control has a range of 100dB. The external CR circuit (top, Fig. 4) sets the closed - loop gain of the power amplifier. The external feedback capacitor network (right) provides a.f. bandwidth and frequency compensation while the CR circuit across the output limits any r.f. which could cause severe audio distortion. The TDA1190 does not require an extra heatsink when operating in normal ambient temperatures-up to 55°C-because of the new technique of soldering the chip directly on to the copper frame that forms part of the external tabs. By doing this, SGS-Ates have reduced the thermal resistance of the device to 12°C per watt. The device can dissipate up to 2.2W at 55°C without using an external heatsink other than the printed circuit pad (about 2 sq. in.) which is soldered to the tab. The output stages of the TDA1190 are in quasi - complementary mode (with patented features), eliminating the need for bootstrap operation without loss of power. The absolute maximum output power is 4.2W with a supply voltage of 24V and a nominal loudspeaker impedance of 1612. At 12V and 812 an output of 1.8W can be achieved. Total harmonic distortion is 0.5% for 1 mV f.m. input and 2W output into 1611 at 24V. Satisfactory operation is possible over a voltage supply range of 9 to 28V, making this versatile i.c. suitable for a wide range of applications. The whole audio circuit can be mounted on a p.c.b. 2in. x 25in. without a heatsink.

Mounting: The complete family of i.c.s has been designed so that it can be incorporated in very small and simple printed circuit modules. The use of a copper frame assists in improving the thermal stability as well as facilitating the mounting of the i.c.s on the board. Where an extra heatsink is required this can be a simple fin added to the mounting tabs or a metal clamp on the top of the pack. SGS claim that insta- bility experienced with conventional layouts in colour receivers has been eliminated provided their recommendations are observed.

Power Supplies:
A simple power supply circuit without sophisticated stabilisation can be used. The requirements are for outputs ranging between 10V and 35V with adequate decoupling and smoothing. It was  possible to provide only three supply lines to feed the whole receiver system-plus of course the high- voltage supplies required by the c.r.t. The power supply requirements are simplified since the TDA1170 incorporates a voltage regulator for its oscillator, the TDA440 incorporates a regulator for the vision i.f. strip and the TDA1190 a regulator for the low -voltage stages and the d.c. volume control.
TDA1170 vertical deflection FRAME DEFLECTION INTEGRATED CIRCUITGENERAL DESCRIPTION f The TDA1170 and TDA1270 are monolithic integrated
circuits designed for use in TV vertical deflection systems. They are manufactured using
the Fairchild Planar* process.
Both devices are supplied in the 12-pin plastic power package with the heat sink fins bent
for inse
rtion into the printed circuit board.
The TDA1170 is designed primarily for large and small screen black and white TV
receivers and industrial TV monitors. The TDA1270 is designed primarily for driving
complementary vertical deflection output stages in color TV receivers and industrial
The vertical oscillator is directly synchronized by the sync pulses (positive or negative); therefore its free
running frequency must be lower than the sync frequency. The use of current feedback causes the yoke
current to be independent of yoke resistance variations due to thermal effects, Therefore no thermistor is
required in series with the yoke. The flyback generator applies a voltage, about twice the supply voltage, to
the yoke. This produces a short flyback time together with a high useful power to dissipated power

TBA920 line oscillator combination
The line oscillator combination TBA920 is a monolithic
integrated circuit intended for the horizontal deflection of the black and white
and colour TV sets
picture tube.


 THE TBA920 SYNC/TIMEBASE IC It has been quite common for some time for sync separation to be carried out in an i.c. but until 1971 this was as far as i.c.s had gone in television receiver timebase circuitry. With the recent introduction of the delta featured 110°  colour series however i.c.s have gone a step farther since this chassis uses a TBA920 as sync separator and line generator. A block diagram of this PHILIPS /Mullard  i.c. is shown in Fig. 1.
The video signal at about 2-7V peak -peak is fed to the sync separator section at pin 8, the composite sync waveform appearing at pin 7.
The noise gate switches off the sync separator when a positive -going input pulse is fed in at pin 9, an external noise limiter circuit being required .
The line sync pulses are shaped by R1 /C1 /C2/R2 and fed in to the oscillator phase detector section at pin 6.
The line oscillator waveform is fed internally to the oscillator phase detector circuit which produces at pin 12 a d.c. potential which is used to lock the line oscillator to the sync pulse frequency, the control potential being fed in at pin 15. The oscillator itself is a CR type whose waveform is produced by the charge and discharge of the external capacitor (C7) connected to pin 14. The oscillator frequency is set basically by C7 and R6 and can be varied by the control potential appearing at pin 15 from pin 12 and the external line hold control. Internally the line oscillator feeds a triangular waveform to the oscillator and flyback phase detector sections and the pulse width control section. The coincidence detector section is used to set the time constant of the oscillator phase detector circuit. It is fed internally with sync pulses from the sync separator section, and with line flyback pulses via pin 5. When the flyback pulses are out of phase with the sync pulses the impedance looking into pin 11 is high (21(Q). When the pulses are coincident the impedance falls to about 150Q and the oscillator phase detector circuit is then slow acting. The effect of this is to give fast pull -in when the pulses are out of sync and good noise immunity when they are in sync. The coincidence detector is controlled by the voltage on pin 10. When the sync and flyback pulses are in sync C3 is charged: when they are out of sync C3 discharges via R3. VTR use has been taken into consideration here. With a video recorder it is necessary to be able to follow the sync pulse phase variations that occur as a result of wow and flutter in the tape transport system, while noise is much less of a problem. For use with a VTR therefore the network on pin 10 can simply be left out so that the oscillator phase detector circuit is always fast acting. A second control loop is used to adjust the timing of the pulse output obtained from pin 2 to take into account the delay in the line output stage. The fly back phase detector compares the frequency of the flyback pulses fed in at pin 5 with the oscillator signal which has already been synchronised to the sync pulse frequency.
Any phase difference results in an output from pin 4 which is integrated and fed into the pulse width control section at pin 3. The potential at pin 3 sets the width of the output pulse obtained at pin 2: with a high positive voltage (via R11 and R12) at pin 3 a 1:1 mark -space ratio out- put pulse (32/us on, 32/us off) will be produced while a low potential at pin 3 (negative output at pin 4) will give a 16us output pulse at  the same frequency. The action of this control loop continues until the fly- back pulses are in phase with a fixed point on the oscillator waveform: the flyback pulses are then in phase with the sync pulses and delays in the line output stage are compensated. The output obtained at pin 2 is of low impedance and is suitable for driving valves, transistors or thyristors: R9 is necessary to provide current limiting.

Power supply is realized with mains transformer and Linear transistorized power supply stabilizer, A DC power supply apparatus includes a rectifier circuit which rectifies an input commercial AC voltage. The rectifier output voltage is smoothed in a smoothing capacitor. Voltage stabilization is provided in the stabilizing circuits by the use of Zener diode circuits to provide biasing to control the collector-emitter paths of respective transistors.A linear regulator circuit according to an embodiment of the present invention has an input node receiving an unregulated voltage and an output node providing a regulated voltage. The linear regulator circuit includes a voltage regulator, a bias circuit, and a current control device.

In one embodiment, the current control device is implemented as an NPN bipolar junction transistor (BJT) having a collector electrode forming the input node of the linear regulator circuit, an emitter electrode coupled to the input of the voltage regulator, and a base electrode coupled to the second terminal of the bias circuit. A first capacitor may be coupled between the input and reference terminals of the voltage regulator and a second capacitor may be coupled between the output and reference terminals of the voltage regulator. The voltage regulator may be implemented as known to those skilled in the art, such as an LDO or non-LDO 3-terminal regulator or the like.
The bias circuit may include a bias device and a current source. The bias device has a first terminal coupled to the output terminal of the voltage regulator and a second terminal
coupled to the control electrode of the current control device. The current source has an input coupled to the first current electrode of the current control device and an output coupled to the second terminal of the bias device. A capacitor may be coupled between the first and second terminals of the bias device.
In the bias device and current source embodiment, the bias device may be implemented as a Zener diode, one or more diodes coupled in series, at least one light emitting diode, or any other bias device which develops sufficient voltage while receiving current from the current source. The current source may be implemented with a PNP BJT having its collector electrode coupled to the second terminal of the bias device, at least one first resistor having a first end coupled to the emitter electrode of the PNP BJT and a second end, a Zener diode and a second resistor. The Zener diode has an anode coupled to the base electrode of the PNP BJT and a cathode coupled to the second end of the first resistor. The second resistor has a first end coupled to the anode of the Zener diode and a second end coupled to the reference terminal of the voltage regulator. A second Zener diode may be included having an anode coupled to the cathode of the first Zener diode and a cathode coupled to the first current electrode of the current control device.
A circuit is disclosed for improving operation of a linear regulator, having an input terminal, an output terminal, and a reference terminal. The circuit includes an input node, a transistor, a bias circuit, and first and second capacitors. The transistor has a first current electrode coupled to the input node, a second current electrode for coupling to the input terminal of the linear regulator, and a control electrode. The bias circuit has a first terminal for coupling to the output terminal of the linear regulator and a second terminal coupled to the control electrode of the transistor. The first capacitor is for coupling between the input and reference terminals of the linear regulator, and the second capacitor is for coupling between the output and reference terminals of the linear regulator. The bias circuit develops a voltage sufficient to drive the control terminal of the transistor and to operate the linear regulator. The bias circuit may be a battery, a bias device and a current source, a floating power supply, a charge pump, or any combination thereof. The transistor may be implemented as a BJT or FET or any other suitable current controlled device.

Power Supply: The examples chosen are taken from manufacturers' circuit diagrams and are usually simplified to emphasise the fundamental nature of the circuit. For each example the particular transistor properties that are exploited to achieve the desired performance are made clear. As a rough and ready classification the circuits are arranged in order of frequency: this part is devoted to circuits used at zero frequency, field frequency and audio frequencies. Series Regulator Circuit Portable television receivers are designed to operate from batteries (usually 12V car batteries) and from the a.c. mains. The receiver usually has an 11V supply line, and circuitry is required to ensure that the supply line is at this voltage whether the power source is a battery or the mains. The supply line also needs to have good regulation, i.e. a low output resistance, to ensure that the voltage remains constant in spite of variations in the mean current taken by some of the stages in the receiver. Fig. 1 shows a typical circuit of the power -supply arrangements. The mains transformer and bridge rectifier are designed to deliver about 16V. The battery can be assumed to give just over 12V. Both feed the regulator circuit Trl, Tr2, Tr3, which gives an 11V output and can be regarded as a three -stage direct -coupled amplifier. The first stage Tr 1 is required to give an output current proportional to the difference between two voltages, one being a constant voltage derived from the voltage reference diode D I (which is biased via R3 from the stabilised supply). The second voltage is obtained from a preset potential divider connected across the output of the unit, and is therefore a sample of the output voltage. In effect therefore Tr 1 compares the output voltage of the unit with a fixed voltage and gives an output current proportional to the difference between them. Clearly a field-effect transistor could do this, but the low input resistance of a bipolar transistor is no disadvantage and it can give a current output many times that of a field-effect transistor and is generally preferred therefore. The output current of the first stage is amplified by the two subsequent stages and then becomes the output current of the unit. Clearly therefore Tr2 and Tr3 should be current amplifiers and they normally take the form of emitter followers or common emitter stages (which have the same current gain). By adjusting the preset control we can alter the fraction of the output voltage' applied to the first stage and can thus set the output voltage of the unit at any desired value within a certain range. By making assumptions about the current gain of the transistors we can calculate the degree of regulation obtainable. For example, suppose the gain of Tr2 and Tr3 in cascade is 1,000, and that the current output demanded from the unit changes by 0.1A (for example due to the disconnection of part of the load). The corresponding change in Tr l's collector current is 0.1mA and, if the standing collector current of Tr 1 is 1mA, then its mutual conductance is approximately 4OmA/V and the base voltage must change by 2.5mV to bring about the required change in collector current. If the preset potential divider feeds one half of the output voltage to Tr l's base, then the change in output voltage must be 5mV. Thus an 0.1A change in output current brings about only 5mV change in output voltage: this represents an output resistance of only 0.0552.

The line deflection output and EHT transformer is a DST type.
A high voltage transformer (Tr) includes a primary winding (Lp), secondary windings (Ls1, Ls2, Ls3), and diodes (Di) coupled between successive secondary windings. The polarity of the diodes and the secondary windings is selected such that the flyback voltages across each of the secondary windings are summed via conductive diodes during at least a part of a flyback period (Tf) for generating a high voltage. A damp-circuit (1) comprises a rectifier element, a load (L), and a further winding (Ls4) of the high voltage transformer. These elements are arranged with respect to one of the secondary windings such that the further winding and the one of the secondary windings form a capacitance (Cd) across the load. The diode (D) is non-conductive during the flyback period. In this way, electrical oscillations of the high voltage transformer are damped.


The basic essentials of a transistor line output stage are shown in Fig. 1(a). They comprise: a line output transformer which provides the d.c. feed to the line output transistor and serves mainly to generate the high -voltage pulse from which the e.h.t. is derived, and also in practice other supplies for various sections of the receiver; the line output transistor and its parallel efficiency diode which form a bidirectional switch; a tuning capacitor which resonates with the line output transformer primary winding and the scan coils to determine the flyback time; and the scan coils, with a series capacitor which provides a d.c. block and also serves to provide slight integration of the deflection current to compensate for the scan distortion that would otherwise be present due to the use of flat screen, wide deflection angle c.r.t.s. This basic circuit is widely used in small -screen portable receivers with little elaboration - some use a pnp output transistor however, with its collector connected to chassis.

Circuit Variations:
Variations to the basic circuit commonly found include: transposition of the scan coils and the correction capacitor; connection of the line output transformer primary winding and its e.h.t. overwinding in series; connection of the deflection components to a tap on the transformer to obtain correct matching of the components and conditions in the stage; use of a boost diode which operates in identical manner to the arrangement used in valve line output stages, thereby increasing the effective supply to the stage; omission of the efficiency diode where the stage is operated from an h.t. line, the collector -base junction of the line output transistor then providing the efficiency diode action without, in doing so, producing scan distortion; addition of inductors to provide linearity and width adjustment; use of a pair of series -connected line output transistors in some large -screen colour chassis; and in colour sets the addition of line convergence circuitry which is normally connected in series between the line scan coils and chassis. These variations on the basic circuit do not alter the basic mode of operation however.

The most important fact to appreciate about the circuit is that when the transistor and diode are cut off during the flyback period - when the beam is being rapidly returned from the right-hand side of the screen to the left-hand side the tuning capacitor together with the scan coils and the primary winding of the line output transformer form a parallel resonant circuit: the equivalent circuit is shown in Fig. 1(b). The line output transformer primary winding and the tuning capacitor as drawn in Fig. 1(a) may look like a series tuned circuit, but from the signal point of view the end of the transformer primary winding connected to the power supply is earthy, giving the equivalent arrangement shown in Fig. 1(b).

The Flyback Period:
Since the operation of the circuit depends mainly upon what happens during the line flyback period, the simplest point at which to break into the scanning cycle is at the end of the forward scan, i.e. with the beam deflected to the right-hand side of the screen, see Fig. 2. At this point the line output transistor is suddenly switched off by the squarewave drive applied to its base. Prior to this action a linearly increasing current has been flowing in the line output transformer primary winding and the scan coils, and as a result magnetic fields have been built up around these components. When the transistor is switched off these fields collapse, maintaining a flow of current which rapidly decays to zero and returns the beam to the centre of the screen. This flow of current charges the tuning capacitor, and the voltage at A rises to a high positive value - of the order of 1- 2k V in large -screen sets, 200V in the case of mains/battery portable sets. The energy in the circuit is now stored in the tuning capacitor which next discharges, reversing the flow of current in the circuit with the result that the beam is rapidly deflected to the left-hand side of the screen - see Fig. 3. When the tuning capacitor has discharged, the voltage at A has fallen to zero and the circuit energy is once more stored in the form of magnetic fields around the inductive components. One half -cycle of oscillation has occurred, and the flyback is complete.

Energy Recovery:
First Part of Forward Scan The circuit then tries to continue the cycle of oscillation, i.e. the magnetic fields again collapse, maintaining a current flow which this time would charge the tuning capacitor negatively (upper plate). When the voltage at A reaches about -0.6V however the efficiency diode becomes forward biased and switches on. This damps the circuit, preventing further oscillation, but the magnetic fields continue to collapse and in doing so produce a linearly decaying current flow which provides the first part of the forward scan, the beam returning towards the centre of the screen - see Fig. 4. The diode shorts out the tuning capacitor but the scan correction capacitor charges during this period, its right-hand plate becoming positive with respect to its left-hand plate, i.e. point A. Completion of Forward Scan When the current falls to zero, the diode will switch off. Shortly before this state of affairs is reached however the transistor is switched on. In practice this is usually about a third of the way through the scan. The squarewave applied to its base drives it rapidly to saturation, clamping the voltage at point A at a small positive value - the collector emitter saturation voltage of the transistor. Current now flows via the transistor and the primary winding of the line output transformer, the scan correction capacitor discharges, and the resultant flow of current in the line scan coils drives the beam to the right-hand side of the screen see Fig. 5.

The transistor is then cut off again, to give the flyback, and the cycle of events recurs. The efficiency of the circuit is high since there is negligible resistance present. Energy is fed into the circuit in the form of the magnetic fields that build up when the output transistor is switched on. This action connects the line output transformer primary winding across the supply, and as a result a linearly increasing current flows through it. Since the width is
dependent on the supply voltage, this must be stabilised.

Harmonic Tuning:
There is another oscillatory action in the circuit during the flyback period. The considerable leakage inductance between the primary and the e.h.t. windings of the line output transformer, and the appreciable self -capacitance present, form a tuned circuit which is shocked into oscillation by the flyback pulse. Unless this oscillation is controlled, it will continue into and modulate the scan. The technique used to overcome this effect is to tune the leakage inductance and the associated capacitance to an odd harmonic of the line flyback oscillation frequency. By doing this the oscillatory actions present at the beginning of the scan cancel. Either third or fifth harmonic tuning is used. Third harmonic tuning also has the effect of increasing the amplitude of the e.h.t. pulse, and is generally used where a half -wave e.h.t. rectifier is employed. Fifth harmonic tuning results in a flat-topped e.h.t. pulse, giving improved e.h.t. regulation, and is generally used where an e.h.t. tripler is employed to produce the e.h.t. The tuning is mainly built into the line output transformer, though an external variable inductance is commonly found in colour chassis so that the tuning can be adjusted. With a following post I will go into the subject of modern TV line timebases in greater detail with other models and technology shown here at  Obsolete Technology Tellye !

GRUNDIG TRIUMPH 1221 CHASSIS 29300-277.12(07)  GRUNDIG Tuning unit with bandswitch for high frequency receivers

A tuning unit with a bandswi
tch for high frequency receivers having a potentiometer system for the control of capacity diodes is disclosed. The potentiometer system includes a plurality of parallelly disposed resistance paths on which wipers can be moved by means of screw tuning spindles mounted beside one another in a common housing made of an insulating material. The bandswitch is formed of metal wires and is associated with each tuning spindle. The tuning spindles are joined for rotation with sleeves simultaneously forming the operating knobs which are carried in apertures in the front plate and each have a flange engaging the back side of the front plate about the apertures. The flange is slightly larger than the cross section of the apertures and tapers conically away from the back side of the front plate.

1. Tuning unit with bandswitch for high frequency receivers having potentiometer means for the control of capacity diodes composed of a plurality of parallelly disposed resistance paths on which wipers are moved by means of screw tuning spindle means mounted beside one another in a common housing of insulating material, bandswitch means formed of metal wires associated with each tuning spindle means, said tuning spindle means being joined for rotation with sleeve means simultaneously forming operating knobs which are borne in apertures in the front plate and each sleeve means having an axial flange surface engaging the back side of the front plate about one aperture therein, said flange surface being slightly larger than the cross section of the apertures and tapering conically away from the back side of the front plate.

2. Tuning unit of claim 1 wherein the sleeve means are joined telescopically and coaxially with the tuning spindle means, and the flange surface engages the back side of the front plate when the sleeve means are in the state wherein they are pulled out of the front plate.

3. Tuning unit of claim 1 wherein the ends of the tuning spindle means which are opposite the front plate have each an annular groove into which a spring bracket engages whose bent end is supported against the housing and which has two diametrically disposed spring arms having opposite spring curvature, the said spring arms in each case contacting the opposite axial walls of the groove.

4. Tuning unit of claim 3 wherein the spring bracket rests with its bent end against the housing and the spring arms additionally engage a bracket formed on the housing or an intermediate bracket formed in one piece with the connection soldering lugs.

5. Tuning unit of claim 3 wherein the spring bracket is formed in one piece with the connection soldering lugs and has spring arms curved both in the same direction which engage an axial wall of the annular groove in the spindle and the opposite axial wall rests against a housing wall.

6. Tuning unit of claim 1 wherein the pointers associated with each potentiometer means lie on the one hand in windows associated with each tuning spindle means in the front plate, and on the other hand are rotatably mounted with their ends opposite the front plate in pivot pins on the housing, and the guiding pin of the spindle nuts carried in a longitudinally displaceable manner on each tuning spindle is provided with a slit disposed parallel to the longitudinal axis of the tuning spindle and slides with its peripheral surface resiliently within the slide tract of the pointer.

7. Tuning unit of claim 1 wherein the bandswitches are formed each of a displaceable metal rod which is in working engagement with stationary metal rods common to all bandswitches of a tuning unit, contacting each of them individually.

8. Tuning unit of claim 7 wherein the metal rods are metal wires.

9. Tuning unit of claim 7 wherein the metal rods are stamped metal parts.

10. Tuning unit of claim 7 wherein levers of insulating material are placed on the front ends of the displaceable metal rods and extend through windows which are provided with detents and which are associated with each tuning spindle in the housing front plate, while the opposite ends are held fixedly in the rearward end of the housing, and the displaceable metal rods individually make contact with contact cams on the stationary metal rods, these cams being in an offset array corresponding to the detents in the windows, the corresponding rods extending parallel to the front plate and parallel to one another behind the front plate.

11. Tuning unit of claim 7 wherein insulating material bridges or insulating material slide pieces are inserted between the contact cams of two adjacent, stationary metal rods and within the free space between two such parallel metal rods.

12. Tuning unit of claim 7 wherein the displaceable metal rods have, in the vicinity of their mountings on the housing, an articulation in the form of a vertically disposed flat portion.

The invention relates to a tuning unit with bandswitch for high frequency receivers, especially radio and television receivers, having a potentiometer system for the control of capacity diodes, the said potentiometer system consisting of a plurality of parallel resistance paths along which wiper contacts can be driven by means of screw spindles disposed adjacent one another in a common insulating material housing in which a bandswitch formed of metal rods is associated with each tuning spindle.
In these tuning units, the working voltages of the capacity diodes in the tuning circuits are recorded once a precise tuning to the desired frequency has been performed. A potentiometer tuning system has great advantages over the formerly used channel selectors operating with mechanically adjustable capacitors (tuning condensers) or mechanically adjustable inductances (variometers), mainly because it is not required to have such great precision in its tuning mechanism.
Tuning units with bandswitches formed of variable resistances and combined with interlocking pushbuttons controlling the supply of recorded working voltages to capacity diodes are known. Channel selection is accomplished by depressing the knobs, and the tuning or fine tuning are performed by turning the knobs. The resistances serving as voltage dividers in these tuning units are combined into a component unit such that they are in the form of a ladderlike pattern on a common insulating plate forming the cover of the housing in which the tuning spindles and wiper contacts corresponding to the variable resistances are housed. The number of resistances corresponds to the number of channels or frequencies which are to be recorded. The wiper contact picks up a voltage which, when applied to the capacity diodes determines their capacitance and hence the frequency of the corresponding oscillating circuit. The adjustment of the wipers is performed by turning the tuning spindle coupled to the tuning knob. By the depression of a button the electrical connection between a contact rod and a tuning spindle is brought about and thus the selected voltage is applied to the capacity diodes. Since the push buttons release one another, it is possible simply by depressing another button to tune to a different receiving frequency or a different channel, as the case may be.
To permit the switching of a number of channels in a certain tuning range, bandswitches for a plurality of tuning ranges, such as UHF and VHF for example, are often provided in the tuning units described above. In the pushbutton tuning unit of the above-named type, the bandswitch consists of a printed circuit board which is fastened on the housing of the tuning unit, and a switch lever which is preset by means of the pushbutton by turning, and is operated by depressing the pushbutton while at the same time selecting the channel.
Where this combination of knobs and pushbuttons is not possible, the selection of the range is accomplished by means of an additional lever which can be set over to select the range.
However, since such tuning units require too many riveting operations when they are assembled, tuning units were later created in which the individual parts in the voltage divider and pushbutton housing were loosely inserted and/or held in place by projections, lugs, hooks or tabs of resilient plastic. In spite of these initial improvements, the bandswitch, especially the one associated with the tuning units, was still technically intricate and very expensive.
It is the object of the invention, therefore, to create an additionally improved and simplified tuning unit containing a bandswitch of simple, space-saving and reliably operating design.
In accordance with the invention, this object is accomplished in a tuning unit with bandswitch of the kind described in the beginning by joining the tuning spindles for rotation with sleeves simultaneously forming the control knobs, which are mounted in apertures in the front plate of the housing and have each a flange engaging the back of the front plate around the aperture, the said flange being slightly larger than the aperture and tapering conically away from the back of the front plate.
In further development, the sleeves can be joined telescopically for rotation with the tuning spindles, and the flange is able to engage the back side of the front plate when the sleeve is in the position in which it is drawn out of the front plate. The sleeves constructed in this manner, whose portions projecting from the apertures in the front plate form the control knobs for the tuning spindles, permit easy assembly of the tuning uni
t and at the same time assure positive co-rotation of sleeves and spindles. The sleeves can be pushed from the front side of the front plate through the apertures onto the clutch surfaces of the spindles, this inward pushing being easily accomplished on account of the taper, and the dropping out of the sleeve being prevented by the flange engaging the back of the front plate. If the control knobs project only slightly out of the front plate, they can be operated from the outside by inserting a tool into them. With the telescoping type of coupling, however, it is possible to draw the sleeves or control knobs further outwardly so that they can be rotated by hand without the use of tools.
To provide constant assurance of the axial fixation of the tuning spindles, the tuning spindle ends farthest from the front plate can each be provided with an annular groove engaged by a spring bracket whose one leg is supported against the housing and whose other leg is forked to form two spring arms, each bent in the opposite direction and each engaging one of the two opposite walls of the annular groove. The tuning spindles are secured against axial displacement by this construction of the invention alone, without the need for further measures. This facilitates the joining of the sleeves or control knobs to the tuning spindle, because in this case there is no need for precise axial fixation and extreme dimensional accuracy.
Furthermore, the indicators associated with each potentiometer can be mounted in windows in the front plate which are associated with each tuning spindle or tuning knob for visual indication at the front, the other extremities farthest from the front plate being mounted for pivoting on pins set in the housing; the guiding pin on the spindle nut that is driven longitudinally on each tuning spindle can be provided with a slit disposed parallel to the long axis of the tuning spindles and can slide within the indicator slide lever slot, with its surface resiliently engaging the walls of said slot.
In an especially advantageous embodiment, the tuning unit can have bandswitches each formed of a displaceable metal rod which is in contacting engagement individually with stationary metal rods which are common to all of the bandswitches of a tuning unit. It contrast to the bandswitches known hitherto, which as a rule consist of a printed circuit board with switchable contacts thereon, this frequency bandswitch of the invention is of great simplicity, can be manufactured simply and inexpensively, and at the same time is very reliable in operation.
The displaceable and stationary metal rods of the bandswitches can be formed of metal wires or they can be of stamped sheet metal. Also, in further expansion of the concept of the invention, the stationary metal rods thus formed can be all entirely alike and merely offset from one another, thereby further simplifying the manufacture and stocking thereof.
To permit connection also to audiovisual apparatus, one or more of the stationary metal rods can be divided electrically into at least two parts each.
In a special development of this concept, lugs of insulating material can be mounted on the front ends of the displaceable metal wires, these lugs extending through windows in the front plate of the housing which are associated with each tuning spindle and are provided with detents, while the opposite ends can be held fixedly at the rear end of the housing, and the displaceable metal wires can make contact with contact humps on the stationary metal wires, the humps being offset from one another to correspond to the detents in the windows, and the stationary metal wires extending in back of the front plate, parallel to the latter and parallel to one another.
To increase switching reliability, bridges or sliding pieces made of insulating material can be inserted between the contact humps of adjacent stationary wires within the free space between two such parallel lying metal wires.
To achieve easy displacement of the displaceable metal wires despite the fixed end mounting on the housing, the displaceable metal wires, in further embodiment of the invention, can have each an articulation adjacent their end mountings, in the form of a vertically disposed flattened portion. This flat permits the metal wires to be deflected horizontally against a weak spring bias.

As an example of the embodiment of the invention, there is represented in the drawings a tuning unit with bandswitch for television receivers. In these drawings,
FIG. 1 is a front elevational view of a tuning unit with bandswitch,
FIG. 2 is a plan view showing the bandswitch of the tuning unit of FIG. 1,
FIG. 3 is a side elevational, cross-sectional view of the tuning unit of FIG. 1,
FIG. 4 is a rear elevational view of the tuning unit of FIG. 1,
FIG. 5 is a plan view showing the indicator means of the tuning unit of FIG. 1,
FIG. 6 shows the sleeve with the operating knob and tuning spindle,
FIG. 7 shows the telescoping manner in which the sleeve is joined to the tuning spindle,
FIG. 8 is a fragmentary view of the bandswitch,
FIG. 9 is another fragmentary view of the bandswitch, and
FIG. 10 shows how the tuning spindle is fixed in position.
The method of representation used in the drawings is greatly simplified, for the purpose of better delineating the features of the invention. The tuning unit with bandswitch consists of an insulating material housing 1 with a front plate 2, which is closed by a cover plate 3 accommodating the resistance paths. The housing 1 is divided by parallel sidewalls 4 into chambers in which the tuning spindles 5 are disposed.
The embodiments is an 8-fold tuning unit having eight bandswitches assocated with each tuning spindle, and eight indicators.
Accordingly, there are eight apertures 6 in a central row, through which the operating knobs 7 of the sleeves 8 coupled with the tuning spindles 5 are passed. The operating knobs 7 have recessed surfaces 9 for turning with a turning tool. In a row extending parallel above the row of the apertures 6 there are eight windows 10, whose upper edge is provided with notches 11. Lugs 12 of insulating material extend through the windows 10 and engage the upper notches 11 and are joined behind the front plate to displaceable metal wires 13 of the bandswitch. In a row located beneath the row of apertures 6 another eight windows 14 are provided, through which the ends of the pointers of the indicators 15 protrude.
Now, the bandswitch consists in each case of a displaceable metal wire 13 which can be brought into working engagement with stationary metal wires 16, which are all of the same construction and are only disposed offset from one another. While the displaceable metal wire 13 extends substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis and thus at right angles to the front plate 2, the stationary, parallelly disposed metal wires 16 are parallel to the front plate 2 and are thus inserted at a right angle to the displaceable metal wire. A departure from parallelism or from the right angle, as the case may be, takes place substantially only when the displaceable metal wire 13 is deflected to the two outer notches. The rearward end 18 of the displaceable metal wire, which forms a vertical loop, is tightly inserted into a receiver 17. Just ahead of the loop 18, the metal wire 13 is provided with a vertically disposed portion 19 by a flattening on the metal wire 13. The movement, when the metal wire 13 is deflected into the desired notches or detents, takes place horizontally by the flexing of these portions 19. The stationary metal wires 16 are held tightly in their positions in projections 20 on the housing, or by lugs or the like. Since three switch actions are provided, that is, three ranges, for each tuning spindle, a bandswitch consists of one displaceable metal wire and three stationary metal wires 16, which are used for all switches.
To permit each bandswitch to have exactly three switching actions, each of the three stationary metal wires 16 has one contact hump 21 corresponding to one of the detents 11 in the windows 10 of the front plate 2. The contact humps 21 are thus located one next to the other as seen from the front plate 2. So that the displaceable metal wire 13 will always come into mechanical and electrical contact only with the desired contact hump, and prevent short circuits, insulating bridges 22 are installed between the adjacent metal wires 16, said insulating bridges being stationary.
If more or less than three switching actions are desired, all that need be done in the case of the bandswitch of the invention is to change the number of stationary metal rods or wires accordingly.
The sleeves 8 with the operating knob 7 have a flange 23 engaging the back of the front plate 2 and tapering back to the point where it joins the tuning spindle. This enables the sleeves to be pushed in, in the case of a housing that has already been manufactured with the tuning spindle installed, without creating the possibility that the sleeves 8 might escape after they have been inserted. The sleeves 8 are connected to the tuning spindles 5 usually by means of driving surfaces. If manual operation without tools is to be possible, rather than requiring a tool for the operation of the sleeves, the coupling of the sleeve 8 to the tuning spindle will be a telescoping coupling (see FIG. 7).
The actual firm axial fixation of the tuning spindle 5 is located on the rear end of the housing. Here the tuning spindle 5 has an annular groove 24 which is engaged by a spring by means of two diametrically disposed spring arms 25 and 26. The spring arms 25 and 26 have oppositely curved lugs and are supported on the housing at their terminal and marginal surfaces and their lugs engage opposite axial walls 27 and 28 of the annular groove 24.
Additional support is provided by the common, bent foot 29 of the spring arms 25 and 26 against the cover plate of the housing.
The indicator means of the tuning unit with bandswitch consists of a pointer 15 which is movable within the window 14, and a cam 30 which is a prolongation of the pointer 15. At its rearward end, the pointer is mounted rotatably in the housing on pin 31. Within the cam 30 slides a guiding pin 32 which is attached to the spindle nut or carriage 40. Upon the rotation of the tuning spindle, the spindle nut is longitudinally displaceable therewith. In order to achieve good guidance and hence precise indication, the guiding pin has a slit 33 extending parallel to the longitudinal axis of the tuning spindle 5, so that it will resiliently engage the cam 30 within the slot thereof.
The necessary soldering lugs are indicated at 34.
On the basis of the design of the tuning unit with bandswitch in accordance with the invention, a desired frequency range--UHF, for example--can be selected by deflecting a displaceable metal wire 13 into one of the detents 11 by means of the lug 12 mounted thereon. Within this range, a transmitter or channel can then be selected by turning the tuning spindle 5. The transmitter preselected in this manner can then be tuned in by means of a keyboard or by electronic recall from a keyboard which is not shown. The fine tuning of this tuned-in transmitter, as well as the selection of a different transmitter within the same frequency range, is accomplished by turning the tuning spindle 5.
All of the details explained in the above description and represented in the drawings are important to the invention.

A combination VHF-UHF tuner includes a VHF tuner and a UHF tuner in which the VHF tuner has at least three tuning networks connected in a stage preceding a mixer and each constituted by first and second coils and a variable capacitance diode. The first coil in each of the tuning network is coupled to a switching diode for shortcircuiting the first coil for establishing a network operable to a high band VHF signal and for opening the first coil connected to the second coil for establishing a tuning network operable to a low band VHF signal. A band selecting circuit is provided for controlling the three tuning networks in such a manner that the three tuning networks are all operable to the high or low band VHF signal when the VHF channel is tuned in and that at least one of the three tuning networks is operable to the high band VHF signal while the remaining is operable to the low band VHF signal when the UHF channel is tuned in. 

In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the invention, a combination VHF-UHF tuner comprises: a UHF tuner; a VHF tuner having an input tuning circuit, a primary interstage tuning circuit, a secondary interstage tuning circuit and a mixer connected in series between a VHF input and a tuner output and local oscillator; means connected to the UHF tuner for operating the same when UHF channel is tuned in; and means connected to the VHF tuner for making the input tuning circuit, primary interstage tuning circuit and secondary interstage tuning circuit operative to high band VHF signal when high channel VHF signal is tuned in, for making the input tuning circuit, primary interstage tuning circuit and secondary interstage tuning circuit operative to low band VHF signal when low channel VHF signal is tuned in, and for making at least one of the input tuning circuit, primary interstage tuning circuit and secondary interstage tuning circuit operative to high band VHF signal and the remaining operative to low band VHF signal when UHF channel is tuned in.

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