Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

In Brief: On this site you will find pictures and information about some of the electronic, electrical and electrotechnical technology relics that the Frank Sharp Private museum has accumulated over the years .

Premise: There are lots of vintage electrical and electronic items that have not survived well or even completely disappeared and forgotten.

Or are not being collected nowadays in proportion to their significance or prevalence in their heyday, this is bad and the main part of the death land. The heavy, ugly sarcophagus; models with few endearing qualities, devices that have some over-riding disadvantage to ownership such as heavy weight,toxicity or inflated value when dismantled, tend to be under-represented by all but the most comprehensive collections and museums. They get relegated to the bottom of the wants list, derided as 'more trouble than they are worth', or just forgotten entirely. As a result, I started to notice gaps in the current representation of the history of electronic and electrical technology to the interested member of the public.


Following this idea around a bit, convinced me that a collection of the peculiar alone could not hope to survive on its own merits, but a museum that gave equal display space to the popular and the unpopular, would bring things to the attention of the average person that he has previously passed by or been shielded from. It's a matter of culture. From this, the Obsolete Technology Tellye Web Museum concept developed and all my other things too. It's an open platform for all electrical Electronic TV technology to have its few, but NOT last, moments of fame in a working, hand-on environment. We'll never own Colossus or Faraday's first transformer, but I can show things that you can't see at the Science Museum, and let you play with things that the Smithsonian can't allow people to touch, because my remit is different.

There was a society once that was the polar opposite of our disposable, junk society. A whole nation was built on the idea of placing quality before quantity in all things. The goal was not “more and newer,” but “better and higher" .This attitude was reflected not only in the manufacturing of material goods, but also in the realms of art and architecture, as well as in the social fabric of everyday life. The goal was for each new cohort of children to stand on a higher level than the preceding cohort: they were to be healthier, stronger, more intelligent, and more vibrant in every way.

The society that prioritized human, social and material quality is a Winner. Truly, it is the high point of all Western civilization. Consequently, its defeat meant the defeat of civilization itself.

Today, the West is headed for the abyss. For the ultimate fate of our disposable society is for that society itself to be disposed of. And this will happen sooner, rather than later.

OLD, but ORIGINAL, Well made, Funny, Not remotely controlled............. and not Made in CHINA.

How to use the site:

- If you landed here via any Search Engine, you will get what you searched for and you can search more using the search this blog feature provided by Google. You can visit more posts scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year,
or you can click on the main photo-page to start from the main page. Doing so it starts from the most recent post to the older post simple clicking on the Older Post button on the bottom of each page after reading , post after post.

You can even visit all posts, time to time, when reaching the bottom end of each page and click on the Older Post button.

- If you arrived here at the main page via bookmark you can visit all the site scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year pointing were you want , or more simple You can even visit all blog posts, from newer to older, clicking at the end of each bottom page on the Older Post button.
So you can see all the blog/site content surfing all pages in it.

- The search this blog feature provided by Google is a real search engine. If you're pointing particular things it will search IT for you; or you can place a brand name in the search query at your choice and visit all results page by page. It's useful since the content of the site is very large.

Note that if you don't find what you searched for, try it after a period of time; the site is a never ending job !

Every CRT Television saved let revive knowledge, thoughts, moments of the past life which will never return again.........

Many contemporary "televisions" (more correctly named as displays) would not have this level of staying power, many would ware out or require major services within just five years or less and of course, there is that perennial bug bear of planned obsolescence where components are deliberately designed to fail and, or manufactured with limited edition specificities..... and without considering........picture......sound........quality........

..............The bitterness of poor quality is remembered long after the sweetness of todays funny gadgets low price has faded from memory........ . . . . . .....
Don't forget the past, the end of the world is upon us! Pretty soon it will all turn to dust!

Have big FUN ! !
-----------------------

©2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 Frank Sharp - You do not have permission to copy photos and words from this blog, and any content may be never used it for auctions or commercial purposes, however feel free to post anything you see here with a courtesy link back, btw a link to the original post here , is mandatory.
All sets and apparates appearing here are property of
Engineer Frank Sharp. NOTHING HERE IS FOR SALE !

Thursday, June 23, 2011

MIVAR 14C1V CHASSIS TV2697 + TV2633 INTERNAL VIEW.






































































































































In this era MIVAR had developed a small chassis, so called essential, will have all functions toghether in 3 main boards.

This version is the FIRST MIVAR using a DST Line EHT Transformer instead a classic EHT KASKADE Multiplier.

The tellye has a frequency synthesized tuning system RT17A-99 with direct selection of 99 Channels and manual search functions .

And it started using the TDA3562A instead of the TDA3560

Left: Signal processing or small signal panel

Centre: Synchronization + Frame deflection output

Right: Power supply and line output + EHT.

On the bottom of the plastic cabinet there is the ST-BY supply unit.


--------------------------

- Video chrominance and Luminance with TDA3562A

.CHROMINANCE SIGNALPROCESSOR
.LUMINANCE SIGNAL PROCESSING WITH
CLAMPING
.HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL BLANKING
.LINEAR TRANSMISSION OF INSERTED
RGB SIGNALS
.LINEAR CONTRAST AND BRIGHTNESS
CONTROL ACTING ON INSERTED AND MATRIXED
SIGNALS
.AUTOMATIC CUT-OFF CONTROL
.NTSC HUE CONTROL

DESCRIPTION
The TDA3562A is a monolithic IC designed as
decode PAL and/or NTSC colour television standards
and it combines all functions required for the
identification and demodulation of PAL and NTSC
signals.



THE PHILIPS TDA3562A Circuit arrangement for the control of a picture tube :

 1. Circuit arrangement for the control of at least one beam current in a picture tube by a picture comprising
a control loop which in one sampling interval obtains a measuring signal from the value of the beam current on the occurrence of a given reference level in the picture signal, stores a control signal derived therefrom until the next sampling interval and thereby adjusts the beam current to a value preset by a reference signal.
and a trigger circuit which suppresses auxiliary pulses used to generate the beam current after the picture tube has been started up and issues a switching signal for the purpose of closing the control loop during the sampling intervals and for releasing the control of the beam current by the picture signal after the measuring signal has exceeded the threshold value,
a change detection arrangement which delivers a change signal when the stored signal has assumed a largely constant value, and
a logic network which does not release the control of the beam current by the picture signal outside the sampling intervals until the change signal has also been issued after the switching signal.


2. Circuit arrangement as set forth in claim 1, in which the picture signal comprises several color signals for the control of a corresponding number of beam currents for the display of a color picture in the picture tube and the control loop stores a part measuring signal or a part control signal derived therefrom for each color signal, characterized in that the change detection arrangement includes a change detector for each color signal which delivers a part change signal when the relevant stored signal has assumed a largely constant value, and the logic network does not release the control of the beam currents by the color signals outside the sampling intervals until the part change signals have been delivered by all change detectors.

3. Circuit arrangement as set forth in claim 1, including a comparator arrangement which compares the measuring signal with the reference signal and derives the control signal from this comparison, characterized in that the change detection arrangement detects a change in the control signal with respect to time and issues the change signal when the control signal has assumed a largely constant value.

4. Circuit arrangement as set forth in claims 1, 2, 3 including a control signal memory which contains at least one capacitor, characterized in that the change detection arrangement delivers the change signal when a charge-reversing current of the capacitor occuring during the starting up of the picture tube falls below a limit value.

5. Circuit arrangement as set forth in claim 2, including a comparator arrangement which compares the measuring signal with the reference signal and derives the control signal from this comparison, characterized in that the change detection arrangement detects a change in the control signal with respect to time and issues the change signal when the control signal has assumed a largely constant value.

Description:
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

The invention relates to a circuit arrangement for the control of at least one beam current in a picture tube by a picture signal with a control loop which in one sampling interval obtains a measuring signal from the value of the beam current on the occurrence of a given reference level in the picture signal, stores a control signal derived therefrom until the next sampling interval and by this means adjusts the beam current to a value preset by a reference signal, and with a trigger circuit which suppresses auxiliary pulses used to generate the beam current after the picture tube is turned on and issues a switching signal for the purpose of closing the control loop during the sampling intervals and releasing the control of the beam current by the picture signal after the measuring signal has exceeded a threshold value.
Such a circuit arrangement has been described in Valvo Technische Information 820705 with regard to the integrated color decoder circuit PHILIPS TDA3562A and is used in this as a so-called cut-off point control. In the known circuit arrangement, such a cut-off point control provides automatic compensation of the so-called cut-off point of the picture tube, i.e. it regulates the beam current in the picture tube in such a way that for a given reference level in the picture signal the beam current has a constant value despite tolerances and changes with time (aging, thermal modifications) in the picture tube and the circuit arrangement, thereby ensuring correct picture reproduction.
Such a blocking point control is particularly advantageous for the operation of a picture tube for the display of color pictures because in this case there are several beam currents for different color components of the color picture which have to be in a fixed ratio with one another. If this ratio changes, for example, as the result of manufacturing tolerances or ageing processes, distortions of the colors occur in the reproduction of the color picture. The beam currents, therefore, have to be very accurately balanced. The said cut-off point control prevents expensive adjustment and maintenance time which is otherwise necessary.
Conventional picutre tubes are constructed as cathode-ray tubes with hot cathodes which require a certain time after being turned on for the hot cathodes to heat up. Not until a final operating temperature has been reached do these hot cathodes emit the desired beam currents to the full extent, while gradually rising beam currents occur in the time interval when the hot cathodes are heating up. The instantaneous values of these beam currents depend on the instantaneous temperatures of the hot cathodes and on the accelerating voltages for the picture tube which build up simultaneously with the heating process and are undefined until the end of the heating time. After the picture tube is turned on, these values initially produce a highly distorted picture until the beam currents have attained their final value. These picture distortions after the picture tube is turned on are even further intensified by the fact that the cut-off point control is not yet adjusted to the beam currents which flow after the heating time is over.
For the purpose of suppressing distorted pictures during the heating time of the hot cathodes, the known circuit arrangement has a turn-on delay element operating as a trigger circuit which, in essence, contains a bistable flip-flop. When the picture tube and the circuit arrangement controlling the beam currents flowing in it are turned on, the flip-flop is switched into a first state in which it interrupts the supply of the picture signal to the picture tube. Thus, during the heating time the beam currents are suppressed, and the picture tube does not yet display any picture. In sampling intervals which are provided subsequent to flybacks of the cathode beam into an initial position on the changeover from the display of one picture to the display of a subsequent picture and even within the changeover, that is outside the display of pictures, the picture tube is controlled for a short time in such a way that beam currents occur when the hot cathodes are sufficiently heated up and an accelerating voltage is resent. If these currents exceed a certain threshold value, the flip-flop circuit switches into a second state and releases the picture signal for the control of the beam currents and the cut-off point control.
It is found, however, that the picture displayed in the picture tube immediately after the switching over of the flip-flop is still not fault-free. Because, in fact, the beam currents are supported during the heating time of the hot cathodes, the cut-off point control cannot respond yet. This response of the cut-off point control takes place only after the beam currents are switched on, i.e. after the flip-flop is switched into the second state and therefore at a time in which the picture signal already controls the beam currents. In this way the response of the blocking point control makes its presence felt in the picture displayed.
With the known circuit arrangement the brightness of the picture gradually increases, during the response of the cut-off point control, from black to the final value.
This slow increase in the picture brightness after the tube is turned on is disturbing to the eyes of the viewer not only in the case of the black-and-white picture tubes with one hot cathode, but especially so in the case of colour picture tubes which usually have three hot cathodes. With a color picture tube, color purity errors can also occur in addition to the change in the picture brightness if, as a result of different speeds of response of the cut-off point control for the three beam currents, there are found to be intermittent variations from the interrelation between the beam currents required for a correct picture reproduction.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
The aim of the invention is to create a circuit arrangement which suppresses the above-described disturbances of brightness and color of the displayed picture when the picture tube is being started.
The invention achieves this aim in that a circuit arrangement of the type mentioned in the preamble contains a change detection arrangement which emits a change signal when the stored signal has assumed an essentially constant value, and a logic network which does not release the control of the beam current by the picture signal until the change signal has also been emitted after the switching signal.
In the circuit arrangement according to the invention, therefore, the display of the picture is suppressed after the picture tube is turned on until the cut-off point control has responded. If the picture signal then starts to control the beam current, a perfect picture is displayed immediately. In this way, all the disturbances of the picture which affect the viewer's pleasure are suppressed. The circuit arrangement of the invention is of simple design and can be combined on one semiconductor wafer with the existing picture signal processing circuits and also, for example, with the known circuit arrangement for cut-off point control. Such an integrated circuit arrangement not only requires very little space on the semiconductor wafer, but also needs no additional external leads. Thus the circuit arrangement of the invention can be arranged, for example, in an integrated circuit which has precisely the same external connections as known integrated circuits. This means that an integrated circuit containing the circuit arrangement of the invention can be directly incorporated in existing equipment without the need for additional measures.
In one embodiment of the said circuit arrangement, in which the picture signal contains several color signals for the control of a corresponding number of beam currents for representing a color picture in the picture tube and, for each color signal, the control loop stores a part measuring signal or a part control signal derived from it, the change detection arrangement contains a change detector for each color signal which emits a part change signal when the relevant stored signal has assumed an essentially constant value, and the logic network does not release the control of the beam currents by the color signals outside the sampling intervals until the part change signals have been emitted from all change detectors.
In principle, therefore, such a circuit arrangement has three cut-off point controls for the three beam currents controlled by the individual color signals. To reduce the cost of the circuitry, the measuring stage is common to all the cut-off point controls, as in the known circuit arrangement. All three beam currents are then measured successively by this measuring stage. In this way, a part measuring signal or a part control signal derived from it is obtained for each beam current and is stored sesparately according to which of the beam currents it belongs. Changes in the part measuring signal or part control signal are detected for each beam current by one of the change detectors each time. Each of these change detectors issues a part change signal to the logic network. The latter does not release the control of the beam currents by the picture signal outside the sampling intervals until all the part change signals indicate that the part measuring signal or the part control signal, as the case may be, remains constant. This ensures that the cut-off point controls for the beam currents of all color signals have responded when the picture appears in the picture tube.
In a further embodiment of the circuit arrangement according to the invention with a comparator arrangement which compares the measuring signal with the reference signal and derives the control signal from this comparison, the change detection arrangement detects a change in the control signal with respect to time and issues the change signal when the control signal has assumed an essentially constant value. In the case of the representation of a color signal the comparator arrangement derives several part control signals, whose changes with time are detected by the change detectors, from a corresponding comparison of the part measuring signals with the reference signal. In this embodiment of the circuit arrangement of the invention, preference is given to storage of only the control signal or the part control signals for the purpose of controlling the beam currents.
In another embodiment of the circuit arrangement of the invention which includes a control signal memory which contains at least one capacitor in which a charge or voltage corresponding to the control signal is stored, the change detection arrangement issues the change signal when a charge-reversing current of the capacitor occurring during the turning on of the picture tube has fallen below a limit value and has thus at least largely decayed. Such a detection of the steady state of the cut-off point control is independent of the actual magnitude of the control signal and therefore independent of, for example, the level of the picture tube cut-off voltage, circuit tolerances or ageing processes in the circuit arrangement or the picture tube.

Detection of whether or not the charge-reversing current exceeds the limit value is performed preferentially by a current detector which is designed with a current mirror system which is arranged in a supply line to a capacitor acting as a control signal store. A current mirror arrangement of this kind supplies a current which coincides very precisely with the charging current of the capacitor. This current is then compared, preferably in a further device contained in the change detection arrangement, with a current representing a limit value or, after conversion into a voltage, with a voltage representing the limit value. The change signal is obtained from the result of this comparison.
On the other hand, digital memories may also be used as control signal memories, especially when the picture signal is supplied as a digital signal and the blocking point control is constructed as a digital control loop. In such a case, the comparator arrangement, the change detection arrangement and the trigger circuit are also designed as digital circuits. Then, the change detection arrangement advantageously forms the difference of the signals stored in the control signal memory in two successive sampling intervals and compares this with the limit value formed by a digital value. If the difference falls short of the limit value, the change signal is issued.


BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

An embodiment of the invention is described in greater detail below with the aid of the drawings in which:

FIG. 1 shows a block circuit diagram of the embodiment,
FIG. 2 shows a somewhat more detailed block circuit diagram of the embodiment,
FIG. 3 shows time-dependency diagrams of some signals occurring in the circuit diagram shown in FIG. 2, and
FIG. 4 shows a somewhat moredetailed block circuit diagram of a part of the circuit diagram shown in FIG. 2.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
FIG. 1 shows a block circuit diagram of a circuit arrangement to which a picture signal is fed via a first input 1 of a combinatorial stage 2. From the output 3 of the combinatorial stage 2 the picture signal is fed to the picture signal input of a controllable amplifier 5 which at an output 6 issues a current controlled by the picture signal. This current is fed via a measuring stage 7 to a hot cathode 8 in a picture tube 9 and forms therein a beam current of a cathode ray by means of which a picture defined by the picture signal is displayed on a fluorescent screen of the picture tube 9.
The measuring stage 7 measures the current fed to the hot cathode 8, i.e. the the beam current in the picture tube 9, and at a measuring signal output 10, issues a measuring signal corresponding to the magnitude of this current. This is fed to a measuring signal input 11 of a comparator arrangement 12 to which a reference signal is supplied at a reference signal input 13. In a preferably periodically recurring sampling interval during the occurrence of a given reference level in the picture signal, the comparator arrangement 12 forms a control signal from the value of the measuring signal fed to the measuring signal input 11 at this time, on the one hand, and the reference signal, on the other, by means of substraction and delivers this at a control signal output 14. From there the control signal is fed to an input 15 of a control signal memory 16 and is stored in the latter. The control signal is fed via an output 17 of the control signal memory 16 to a second input 18 of combinatorial stage 2 in which it is combined with the picture signal, e.g. added to it.
The combinatorial stage 2, the controllable amplifier 5, the measuring stage 7, the comparator arrangement 12 and the control signal memory 16 form a control loop with which the beam current is guided towards the reference signal in the sampling interval during the occurrence of the reference level in the picture signal. For the reference level, use is made in particular of a black level or a level with small, fixed distance from the black level, i.e. a value in the picture signal which produces a black or almost back picture area in the displayed picture in the picture tube. In this case the control loop, as described, forms a cut-off point control for the picture tube. If the reference level is away from the black level, the control loop is also designated as quasi-cut-off-point control.
The circuit arrangement as shown in FIG. 1 also has a trigger circuit 19 to which the measuring signal from the measuring signal output 10 of measuring stage 7 is fed at a measuring signal input 20. When the circuit arrangement and therefore the picture tube are turned on, the trigger circuit 19 is set in a first state in which by means of a first connection 21 it blocks the comparator arrangement 12 in such a way that the latter delivers no control signal or a control signal with the value zero at its control signal output 14. This prevents the control signal memory 16 from storing undefined values for the control signal at the moment of turning on or immediately thereafter.

The circuit arrangement shown in FIG. 1 also has a logic network 22 which is connected via a second connection 23, by means of which a switching signal is supplied, with the trigger circuit 10 and via a third connection 24 with the controllable amplifier 5. Like the trigger circuit 19, the logic network 22 also finds itself controlled, when the circuit arrangement is being turned on, by the switching signal in a first stage in which by way of the third connection 24 it blocks the controllable amplifier 5 with a blocking signal in such a way that no beam currents controlled by the picture signal can yet flow in the picture tube 9. Thus the picture tube 9 is blanked; no picture is displayed yet.
When picture tube 9 is turned on, the hot cathode 8 is still cold so that no beam current can flow anyhow. The hot cathode 8 is then heated up and, after a certain time, begins gradually to emit electrons as the result of which a cathode ray and therefore a beam current can form. However, during the heating up of the hot cathode 8, and because the cut-off point control has not yet responded, this would be undefined and is therefore suppressed by the controllable amplifier 5. Only in time intervals which are provided immediately subsequent to flybacks of the cathode rays into an initial position at the changeover from the display of one image to that of a subsequent image, but even before the start of the display of the subsequent image, the controllable amplifier 5 delivers a voltage in the form of an auxiliary pulse for a short time at its output 6, and when the hot cathode 8 in the picture tube 9 is heated up sufficiently, this voltage produces a beam current. The time interval for the delivery of this voltage is selected in such a way that a cathode ray produced by its does not produce a visible image in the picture tube 9, and coincides for example with the sampling interval.

The measuring stage 7 measures the short-time cathode current produced in the manner described and, at its measuring signal output 10, delivers a corresponding measuring signal which is passed via measuring signal output 20 to the trigger circuit 19. If the measuring signal exceeds a definite preset threshold value, the trigger circuit 19 is switched into a second state in which it releases the comparator arrangement 12 via the first connection 12 and, by means of the second connection 23, uses the switching signal to also bring the logic network 22 into a second state. The comparator arrangement 12 now evaluates the measuring signal supplied to it via the measuring signal input 11, i.e. it forms the control signal as the difference between the measuring signal and the reference signal supplied via the reference signal input 13. The control signal is transferred via the control signal output 14 and the input 15 into the control signal memory 16. It is subsequently fed via the output 17 of the control signal memory 16 to the second input 18 of the combinatorial stage 2 and is there combined with the picture signal at the first input 1, e.g. is superimposed on it by addition. This superimposed picture signal is fed to the picture signal input 4 of the controllable amplifier 5 via the output 3 of the combinatorial stage 2.
In the second state of the logic network 22 the controllable amplifier 5 is switched via the third connection 24 by the blocking signal in such a way that the picture signal controls the beam currents only during the sampling intervals and that, for the rest, no image appears yet in the picture tube. The cut-off point control now gebins to respond, i.e. the value of the control signal is changed by the control loop comprising the combinatorial stage 2, the controllable amplifier 5, the measuring stage 7, the comparator arrangement 12 and the control signal memory 16 until such time as the beam current in the picture tube 9 at the blocking point or at a fixed level with respect to it is adjusted to a value preset by the reference signal. For this purpose the sampling interval, in which the picture signal controls the beam current via the controllable amplifier 5 is selected in such a way that within it the picture signal just assumes a value corresponding to the cut-off point or to a fixed level with respect to it.

During the response of the cut-off point control the control signal fed to the control signal memory 16 changes continuously. Between the control signal output 14 of the comparator arrangement 12 and the input 15 of the control signal memory 16 is inserted a changed detection arrangement 25 which detects the variations of the control signal. When the cut-off point control has responded, i.e. the control signal has assumed a constant value, the change detection arrangement 25 delivers a change signal at an output 26 which indicates that the steady stage of the cut-off point control is achieved and the said signal is fed to a change signal input 27 of the logic network 22. The logic network then switches into a third state in which via the third connection 24 it enables the controllable amplifier 5 in such a way that the beam currents are now controlled without restriction by the picture signal. Thus a correctly represented picture appears in the picture tube 9.
A shadow-like representation of individual constituents of the circuit arrangement in FIG. 1 is used to indicate a modification by which this circuit arrangement is equipped for the representation of color pictures in the picture tube 9. For example, three color signals are fed in this case as the picture signal via the input 1 to the combinatorial stage 2. Accordingly, the input 1 is shown in triplicate, and the combinatorial stage 2 has a logic element, e.g. an adder, for example of these color signals. The controllable amplifier 5 now has three amplifier stages, one for each of the color signals, and the picture tube now contains three hot cathodes 8 instead of one so that three independent cathode rays are available for the three color signals.
However, to simplify the circuit arrangement and to save on components, only one measuring stage 7 is provided which measures all three beam currents successively. Also, the comparator arrangement 12 forms part control signals from the successively arriving part measuring signals for the individual beam currents with the reference signal, and these part control signals are allocated to the individual color signals and passed on to three storage units which are contained in the control signal memory 16. From there, the part control signals are sent via the second input 18 of the combinatorial stage 2 to the assigned logic elements.
The circuit arrangement thus forms three independently acting control loops for the cut-off point control of the individual color signals, in which case only the measuring stage 7 and to some extent at least the comparator arrangement 12 are common to these control loops.
The change detection arrangement 25 now has three change detectors each of which detects the changes with time of the part control signals relating to a color signal. Then via the output 26 each of these change detectors delivers a part change signal to the change signal input 27 of the logic network 22. These part change signals occur independently of one another when the relevent control loop has responded. The logic network 22 evaluates all three part change signals and does not switch into its third stage until all part change signals indicate a steady state of the control loops. Only then, in fact, is it ensured that all the color signals from the beam currents controlled by them are correctly reproduced in the picture tube, and thus no distortions of the displayed image, especially no color purity errors, occur. The color picture displayed then immediately has the correct brightness and color on its appearance when the picture tube is turned on.


FIG. 2 shows a somewhat more detailed block circuit diagram of an embodiment of a circuit arrangement equipped for the processing of a picture signal containing three colour signals. Three color signals for the representation of the colors red, green and blue are fed to this circuit arrangement via three input terminals 101, 102, 103. A red color signal is fed via the first input terminal 101 to a first adder 201, a green colour signal is fed via the second input terminal to a second adder 202, and a blue colour signal is fed via the third input terminal 103 to a third adder 203. From outputs 301, 302 and 303 of the adders 201, 202, 203 the color signals are fed to amplifier stages 501, 502 and 503 respectively. Each of the amplifier stages contains a switchable amplifier 511, 512 and 513, an output amplifier 521, 522 and 523 as well as a measuring transistor 531, 532 and 533 respectively. The emitters of these measuring transistors 531, 532, 533 are each connected to a hot cathode 801, 802, 803 of the picture tube 9 and deliver the cathode currents, whereas the collectors of measuring transistors 521, 532, 533 are connected to one another and to a first terminal 701 of a measuring resistor 702 the second terminal of which 703 is connected to earth. The current gain of the measuring transistors 531, 532 and 533 is so great that their collector currents coincide almost with the cathode currents. By measuring the voltage drop produced by the cathode currents at the measuring resistor 802 it is then possible to measure the cathode currents and therefore the beam currents in the picture tube 9 with great accuracy.
The falling voltage at the measuring resistor 702 is fed as a measuring signal to an input 121 of a buffer amplifier 120 with a gain factor of one, at the output 122 of which the unchanged measuring signal is therefore available at low impedance. From there it is fed to a first terminal 131 of a reference voltage source 130 which is connected with its second terminal 132 to inverting inputs 111, 112 and 113 of three differential amplifiers 123, 124, 125 respectively. The differential amplifiers 123, 124, 125 also each have a non-inverting input 114, 115, and 116 respectively. These are connected to each other at a junction 117, to earth via a leakage current storage capacitor 126 and to the output 122 of the buffer amplifier 120 via decoupling resistor 118 and a leakage current sampling switch 119. In addition, the input 121 of the buffer amplifier 120 can be connected to earth via a short-circuiting switch 127.
From outputs 141, 142, and 143 respectively of the differential amplifiers 123, 124 and 125, part control signals relating to the individual color signals are fed in the form of electrical voltages (or, in some cases, charge-reversing currents) via control signal sampling switches 154, 155 and 156, in the one instance, to first terminals 151, 152 and 153 respectively of control signal storage capacitors 161, 162, 163 which form the storage units of the control signal memory 16 and store inside them charges corresponding to these voltages (or formed by the charge-reversing currents). In the other instance, the part control signals are fed to second inputs 181, 182 and 183 of the first, second or third adders 201, 202, 203 respectively and are added therein to the color signals from the first, second or third input terminals 101, 102 or 103 respectively.

The operation of the comparator arrangement 12 which consists mainly of the buffer amplifier 120, the reference voltage source 130 and differential amplifiers 123, 124, 125 will be explained below with the aid of the pulse diagrams in FIG. 3. FIG. 3a shows a horizontal blanking signal for a television signal which, as the picture signal, controls the beam currents in the picture tube 9. In this diagram, H represents horizontal blanking pulses which follow one another in the picture signal at the time interval of one line duration and by means of which the beam currents are switched off during line flyback between the display of the individual picture lines in the picture tube. FIG. 3b shows a vertical blanking pulse V by means of which the beam currents are switched off during the change ober from the display of one picture to the display of the next picture. FIG. 3c shows a measuring signal control pulse VH which is formed from a vertical blanking pulse lengthened by three line duration.
The short-circuiting switch 127 is now controlled in such a way that it is non-conducting only throughout the duration of the measuring signal control pulse VH and during the remaining time short-circuits the input 121 of the buffer amplifier 120 to earth. This means that a measuring signal only reaches the comparator arrangement 12 during frame change so that the parts of the picture signal which control the beam currents producing the picture in the picture tube exert no influence on comparator arrangement 12 and therefore on the blocking point control.

Throughout the duration of the measuring signal control pulse VH, the measuring signal from output 122, reduced by a reference voltage issued by the reference voltage source 130 between its first 131 and its second terminal 132, is present at the inverting inputs 111, 112, 113 of differential amplifiers 123, 124, 125. If the differential amplifiers 123, 124, 125 were not present, this difference would be fed directly as part control signals to the control signal storage capacitors 161, 162, 162. The differential amplifiers 123, 124, 125 amplify the difference and thus form the control amplifiers of the control loops.
The comparator arrangement 12 further contains a device for compensation of the influence of any leakage currents occurring in the picture tube 9. For this purpose, a voltage to which the leakage current storage capacitor 126 is charged is fed to the non-inverting inputs 114, 115, 116 of the three differential amplifiers 123, 124 and 125. The charging is performed by the measuring signal from output 122 of the buffer amplifier 120 via the decoupling resistor 118 and the leakage current sampling switch 119 which is closed only within the period of the vertical blanking pulse V, and in certain cases only during part of the latter. Within this time the beam currents are, in fact, totally switched off by the picture signal so that in certain cases only a leakage current flows through the measuring resistor 702. Consequently, throughout the duration of the vertical blanking pulse V the measuring signal corresponds to this leakage current. Because the leakage current also flows during the remaining time, even outside the duration of the vertical blanking pulse the measuring signal contains a component originating from the leakage current which therefore is also contained in the voltage fed to the inverting inputs 111, 112, 113 of differential amplifiers 123, 124, 125 and is subtracted out in the differential amplifiers 123, 124, 125.
The part control signal is fed from output 141 of differential amplifier 123 by the first control signal sampling switch 154 to the first terminal 151 of the first control signal storage capacitor 161 during the period of a storage pulse L1 and is stored in the said capacitor. Similarly, the part control signal from output 143 of differential amplifier 125 is fed to the third control signal storage capacitor 163 during the period of a storage pulse L2 and the part control signal from output 142 of differential amplifier 124 is fed to the second control signal storage capacitor 162 during a storage pulse L3. The storage pulses L1, L2 and L3 are illustrated in FIGS. 3d, e and f. They lie in sequence in one of the three line periods by which the measuring signal control pulse VH is longer than the vertical blanking pulse V. These three line periods form the sampling interval for the measuring signal or the part measuring signals, as the case may be. During the remaining periods the outputs, 141, 152, 143 of the differential amplifiers 123, 124, 125 are isolated from the control signal storage capacitors 161, 162, 163 so that no interference can be transmitted from there and any distortion of the stored part control signals caused thereby is eliminated. For the duration of storage pulses L1, L2 and L3 the color signals at the input terminals 101, 102, 103 are at their reference level i.e. in the present embodiment at a level, corresponding to the blocking point or at a fixed level with respect to it so that the control loops can adjust to this level.

The switchable amplifiers 511, 512, and 513 each receive at each input 241, 242, 243 a blanking signal BL1, BL2, BL3 respectively, the curves of which are shown in FIGS. 3g, h, i. These blanking signals interrupt the supply of the color signals during line flybacks and frame change, i.e. during the period of the measuring signal control pulse VH, and thus the beam currents in these time intervals are switched off. Naturally, the red color signal is let through during the first line period after the end of the vertical blanking pulse V, the blue color signal during the second line period after the end of the vertical blanking pulse V and the green color signal during the third line period after the end of the vertical blanking pulse V by the switchable amplifiers 511, 512, 513 respectively so that they can control the beam currents. Blanking signals BL1, BL2 and BL3 also provide for interruptions in the frame change blanking pulse, which corresponds to the measuring signal control pulse, in the corresponding time intervals. In these time intervals the beam currents are measured and part control signals are determined from the part measuring signals and stored in the control signal storage capacitors 161, 162, 163.

The circuit arrangement shown in FIG. 2 further contains a trigger circuit 19 to which a supply voltage is fed via a supply terminal 190. Via a reset input 191 a voltage is also supplied to the trigger circuit 19 from a third terminal 133 of the reference voltage source 130. When the circuit arrangement is turned on, this voltage is designed so as to be delayed with respect to the supply voltage so that when the circuit arrangement is brought into operation the interplay of the two voltages produces a switch-on reset signal such that a low-value voltage pulse occurs at the reset input 191 during turn on, which means that the trigger circuit 19 is set in its first state. The reset input 191 can also be connected to another circuit of any configuration which generates a switch-on reset signal when the picture tube is turned on.
The trigger circuit 19 is further connected via a second connection 23 to a logic network 22 which, when the circuit arrangement is turned on, is also set into a first state via the second connection 23. In this first state the logic network 22 delivers a blocking signal at a blocking output 240 which is fed to the three switchable amplifiers 511, 512, 513. By this means the supply of the color signals to the output amplifiers 521, 522, 523 is interrupted completely so that no beam currents can be generated by these. No picture is therefore displayed.

An insertion signal EL which extends over the three line periods by which the measuring signal control pulse VH is longer than the vertical blanking pulse V, i.e. over the sampling interval, is also fed via a line 233 to the trigger circuit 19 and the logic network 22. As long as the trigger circuit 19 is in its first state, this insertion pulse EL is issued via a control output 192 from the trigger circuit 19 and fed to the pulse generator 244. During the period of the insertion pulse EL this generator produces a voltage pulse of a definite magnitude and passes this to output amplfiiers 521, 522, 523 as an auxiliary pulse via switching diodes 245, 246, 247. By this means the beam currents are switched on for a short time so as to receive a measuring signal despite the disconnected color signals as soon as at least one of the hot cathodes 801, 802, 803 delivers a beam current.
In its first state the trigger circuit 19 also delivers a signal via a control line 211, and this signal is used to switch the outputs 141, 142, 143 of the differential amplifiers 123, 124, 125 to earth potential or practically to earth potential. This suppresses effects of voltages at the inputs 111 to 116 of the differential amplifiers 123, 124, 125, especially effects of the reference voltage source 130 which may in some cases initiate incorrect charging of the control signal storage capacitors 161, 162, 163.
The measuring signal produced by means of the pulse generator 244 at the input 121 of the buffer amplifier 120 is also fed to the trigger circuit 19 via a measuring signal input 20. If it exceeds a preset threshold value, the trigger circuit 19 switched into its second state. The logic network 22 is then also switched into its second state via the second connection 23. The differential amplifiers 123, 124, 125, too, are triggered by the signal along the control line 211 into issuing a control signal defined by the difference in the voltages at its inputs 111 to 116. The pulse generator 244 is blocked by the control output 192. The blocking signal issued from the blocking output 240 of the logic network 22 now turns on the switchable amplifiers 511, 512, 513 in the time intervals defined by the storage pulses L1, L2, L3 in such a way that in these time intervals the color signals can produce beam currents to form a measuring signal by which the control loops respond. However, the display of the picture is still suppressed. The control signal storage capacitors 161, 162, 163 are charged up in this process. In the leads to the first terminals 151, 152, 153 there are change detectors 251, 252, 253 which detect the changes of the charging currents of the control signal storage capacitors 161, 162, 163 and at their outputs 261, 262, 263 in each case deliver a part change signal when the charging current of the control signal storage capacitor in question has decayed and thus the relevant control loop has responded. The part change signals are fed to three terminals 271, 272, 273 of the change signal input 27 of the logic network 22.
When part change signals are present from all change detectors 251, 252, 253, when therefore all control loops have responded, the logic network 22 switches from its second to its third state. The blocking signal from the blocking output 240 is now completely disconnected such that the switchable amplifiers 511, 512, 513 are now switched only by the blanking signals BL1, BL2, BL3. The colour signals are then switched through to the output amplifiers 521, 522, 523 and the picture is displayed in the picture tube.

FIG. 4 shows an embodiment for a trigger circuit 19 and a logic network 22 of the circuit arrangements as shown in FIGS. 1 or 2. The trigger circuit 19 contains a flip-flop circuit formed from two NAND-gates 194, 195 to which the switch-on reset signal, by which the trigger circuit 19 is returned to its first stage, is fed via the reset input 191. All the elements of the circuit arrangement in FIG. 4 are shown in positive logic. Thus, a short-time low voltage at the reset input 191 immediately after the circuit arrangement is started up is used to set the flip-flop circuit 194, 195 in such a way that a high voltage occurs at the output of the second NAND gate 194 and a low voltage at the output of the second NAND gate 195. The low voltage at the output of the second NAND gate 195 blocks differential amplifiers 123, 124, 125 via the control line 211 in the manner described.
The insertion pulse EL is fed via the line 233 to the trigger circuit 19, is combined via an AND gate 196 with the signal from the output of the first NAND gate 194 and is delivered at the control output 192 for the purpose of controlling the pulse generator 244.
The signals from the outputs of the NAND-gates 194, 195 are fed via a first line 231 and a second line 232 of the second connection 23 as a switching signal to the logic network 22. The first line 231 is connected to reset inputs R of three part change signal memories 221, 222, 223 in the form of bistable flip-flop circuits which when the circuit arrangement is started up are reset via the first line 231 in such a way that they carry a low voltage at their outputs Q. The second line 232 of the second connection 23 leads via three AND gates 224, 225, 226 to setting inputs S of the three part change signal memories 221, 222, 223. By means of the AND gates 224, 225, 226 the signal on the second line 232 of the second connection 23 is combined each time with one of the part change signals supplied via the terminals 271, 272, 273. The signals from the outputs Q of the part change signal memories 221, 222, 223 are combined by means of a collecting gate 227 in the form of an NAND gate and are held ready at its output 228.
The measuring signal is fed to the trigger circuit 19 via the measuring signal input 20 and passed to a first input 197 of a threshold detector 198 to which at a second input a threshold value, in the form of a threshold voltage for example, produced by a threshold generator 199 is also supplied. When the voltage at the first input 197 of the threshold detector 198 is smaller than the voltage delivered by the threshold generator 199, the threshold detector 198 delivers a high voltage at its output 200. When, on the other hand, the voltage at the first input 197 is greater than the voltage of the threshold generator 199, the voltage at the output 200 jumps to a low value. This voltage is supplied as the setting signal of the flip-flop circuit 194, 195, reverses the latter and thereby switches the trigger circuit 19 into its second state when the voltage at the first input 197 exceeds the voltage of the threshold generator 199.
Between the output 200 and the flip-flop circuit 194, 195 in the circuit arrangement shown in FIG. 4 there is inserted an inquiry gate 181 in the form of an OR gate to which an inquiry pulse is fed via an inquiry input 193 of the trigger circuit 19. This ensures that the flip-flop circuit 194, 195 is switched over only at a time fixed by the inquiry pulse--in the present case a negative voltage pulse--and not at any other times due to disturbances. As such an inquiry pulse it is possible to use, for example, a pulse which occurs in the second line period after the end of the vertical blanking pulse V, i.e. one which largely corresponds to the storage pulse L2.
After the switching over of the flip-flop circuit 194, 195 corresponding to the setting of the trigger circuit 19 into the second state, appropriately modified signals are supplied via the control line 211 and the output 192 for the purpose of controlling the pulse generator 244 and the differential amplifiers 123, 124, 125. Modified voltages also appear on the lines 231, 232 of the second connection 23, and these voltages release the part change signal memories 221, 222, 223 such that they can each be set when the part change signals reach the terminals 271, 272, 273.
In certain cases, a further flip-flop circuit 234 is inserted in the lines 231, 232 to delay the signals passing along these lines; this is reset via the first line 231 when the circuit arrangement is started up and thus it also resets the part change signal memories 221, 222, 223. However, after the trigger circuit 19 is switched into the second state the further flip-flop circuit 234 is not set via the second line 232 of the second connection 23 until a release pulse arrives via a release input 235 and another AND gate 236, for example a period of approximately the interval of two vertical blanking pulses V after the switching of the trigger circuit 19 into the second state. In this way it is possible to bridge a period of time in which no defined signal values are present at the terminals 271, 272, 273.
The signal at the output 228 of the collecting gate 227 changes its state when the last of the three part change signals has also arrived and has set the last of the three part change signal memories. The signal is then combined via a gate arrangement 229 of two NAND gates and one AND gate with the insertion pulse EL of line 223 and with the signal on the second line 232 of the second connection 23 or from the output Q of the further flip-flop circuit 234 to the blocking signal delivered at the blocking output 24 which is fed to the switchable amplifiers 511, 512, 513.
FIGS. 31, m, n show the combinations of the blocking signal with the blanking signals BL1, BL2, and BL3 at the blanking inputs 241, 242, 243 of the switchable amplifiers 511, 512, 513 in the form of logic AND operations. The dot-dash lines show resulting insertion signals A1, A2, A3 formed by these operations after the starting up of the circuit arrangement and before the occurrence of a beam current, i.e. in the first state of the logic network 22. Here the resulting insertion signals A1, A2, A3 are constant at low level. The dash curves show the resulting insertion signals A1, A2, A3 after the appearance of a beam current and before the steady state of the cut-off point control is reached, i.e. in the second state of the logic network 22, while the continuous curves represent the resulting insertion signals A1, A2, A3 in the steady state of the cut-off point control, i.e. in the third state of logic network 22. The dash curves have similar shapes to storage pulses L1, L2, L3, whereas the continuous curves correspond in shape to the inverses of the blanking signals BL1, BL2, BL3. In this case a high level of the resulting insertion signals A1, A2 or A3 means that the switchable amplifier 511, 512 or 513 feeds the colour signal to the relevant output amplifier 521, 522 or 523 respectively, whereas a low level in the resulting insertion signal A1, A2 or A3 means that the relevant switchable amplifier 511, 512 or 513 is blocked for the color signal.
The circuit arrangement described is designed in such a way that the trigger circuit 19 remains in its second state and logic network 22 remains in its third state even if charging currents reappear at the difference signal storage cpacitors 161, 162, 163 due to disturbances during the operation of the circuit arrangement. The cutoff point control then makes readjustments without the displayed picture being disturbed.
In the circuit arrangement shown in FIG. 2, the green color signal can also be let through during the second line period after the end of the vertical blanking pulse V and the blue color signal during the third line period after the end of the vertical blanking pulse V by the switchable amplifiers 511, 512, 513 for the purpose of controlling the beam currents. The storage pulses L2 and L3 at the control signal sampling switches 155 and 156 and the second and third blanking signals BL2 and BL3 at the blanking inputs 242 and 243 are then to be interchanged. The resulting insertion signals A2 and A3 as shown in FIGS. 3m and n are also interchanged then accordingly.
In FIG. 2 a dashed line is used to indicate which components of the circuit arrangement can be combined advantageously to form an integrated circuit. The first terminals 151, 152, 153 of the difference signal storage capacitors 161, 162, 163, one terminal 128 of leakage current storage capacitor 126, three terminals 524, 525, 526 in the leads to the output amplifiers 521, 522, 523 as well as a line connection 704 between the first terminal 701 of the measuring resistor 702 and the input 121 of the buffer amplifier 120 will then form the connecting contacts of this integrated circuit

-----------------------------------------------------



TDA1180P TV HORIZONTAL PROCESSOR
DESCRIPTION
The TDA1180P is a horizontal processor circuit for
b.w. and colour monitors. It is a monolithic integrated
circuit encapsulated in 16-lead dual in-line
plastic package.

APPLICATION INFORMATION
Pin 1 - Positive supply
The operating supply voltage of the device ranges
from 10V to 13.2V
Pin 2 and 3 - Output
The outputs of TDA1180P are suitable for driving
transistor output stages, they deliver positive pulse
at Pin 3 and negative pulse at Pin 2.
The negative pulse is used for direct driving of the
output stage, while positive pulse is useful when a
driver stage is required.
The rise and fall times of the output pulses are
about 150 ns so that interference due to radiation
are avoided.
Furthermore the output stages are internally protected
against short circuit.
Pin 4 - Protection circuit input
By connecting Pin 4 of the IC to earth the output
pulses at Pin 2 and 3 are shut off ; this function has
been introduced to produced to protect the final
stages from overloads.
The same pulses are also shut off when the supply
voltage falls below 4V.
Pin 5 - Phase shifter filter
To compensate for the delay introduced by the line
final stages, the flyback pulses to Pin 6 and the
oscillator waveform are compared in the oscillatorflyback
pulse phase comparator.
The result of the comparison is a control current
which, after it has been filtered by the external
capacitor connected to Pin 5, is sent to a phase
shifter which adequately regulates the phase of the
output pulses.
The maximum phase shift allowed is: td = tp - tf
where tf is the flyback pulse duration.
Pin 5 has high input and output resistance (current
generator).
Pin 6 - Flyback input
The flyback pulse drives the high impedance input
through a resistor in order to limit the input current
to suitable maximum values.
The flyback input pulses are processed by a double
threshold circuit; this generates the blanking pulses
by sensing low level flyback voltage and the pulses
to drive the phase comparator by sensing high level
flyback voltage, therefore phase jitter caused by
ringing normally associated with the flyback pulse,
is avoided.
Pin 7 - Key and blanking pulse output
The key pulse for taking out the burst from the
chrominance signal is generated from the oscillator
ramp and has therefore a fixed phase position with
respect to the sync.
The key pulse is then added internally to the blanking
pulse obtained by correctly forming the flyback
pulse present at Pin 6.
The sum of the two signals (sandcastle pulse) is
available on low impedance at output Pin 7.

Pin 8 and 9 - Sync separators inputs
The video signal is applied by means of two distinct
biasing networks to pins 8 and 9 of the IC and
therefore to the respective vertical and horizontal
sync separators.
The latter take the sync pulses out of the video
signal and make them available to the rest of the
circuit for further processing.

Pin 10 - Vertical sync output
The vertical sync pulse, obtained by internal integration
of the synchronizing signal, is available at
this pin.
The output impedance is typically 10kW and the
lowest amplitude without load is 11V.
Pin 11 - Coincidence detector
From the oscillator waveform a gate pulse 7 ms
wide is taken whose phase position is centered on
the horizontal synchronism.
The gate pulse not only controls a logic block which
permits the sync to reach the oscillator-sync phase
comparator only for as long as its duration, but also
allows the latching and de-latching conditions of
the oscillator to be established.This function is
obtained by a coincidence detector which compares
the phase of the gate pulses with that of the
sync.
When the two signals are not accurately aligned in
time it means that the oscillator is not synchronized.
In this case the detector acts on the logic block to
eliminate its filtering effect and on the time constant
switching block to establish a high impedance on
Pin 12 (small time constant of low-pass filter).
This latter block also acts on the oscillator-sync
phase detector to increase its sensitivity and with it
the loop gain of the synchronizing system.
In this conditions the phase lock has low noise
immunity (wide equivalent noise bandwidth) and
rapid pull-in time which allows fairly short synchronization
times.
Once locking has taken place the coincidence detector
enables the logic block, causes a low impedance
on Pin 12 and reduces the sensitivity of the
phase comparator.
In these conditions the phase lock has high noise
immunity ( narrow equivalent noise bandwidth) due
to the complete elimination of interference which
occurs during the scanning period and the greater
inertia with which the oscillator can change its
frequency.
To optimize the behaviour of the IC if a video
recorder is used, the state of the detector can be
forced by connecting Pin 11 to earth or to + VS. The
characteristics of the phase lock thus correspond
to the lack of synchronization.
Pin 12 - Time constant switch, (see Pin 11)
Pin 13 - Control current output
The oscillator is synchronized by comparing the
phase of its waveform with that of the sync pulses
in the oscillator-sync phase comparator and sending
its output current I13 (proportional to the phase
difference between the two signals) to Pin 15 of the
oscillator after it has been filtered properly with an
external low-pass circuit.
The time constant of the filter can be switched
between two values according to the impedance
presented by Pin 12.
The voltage limiter at the output of the phase
comparator limits the voltage excursion on Pin 13
and therefore the frequency range in which the
oscillator remains held-in.
The output resistance of Pin 13 is:
l low when V13 > 4.3 or V13 < 1.6V
l high when 1.6V < V13 < 4.3V
To prevent the vertical sync from reaching the
oscillator-sync phase comparator along with the
horizontal sync,a signal which inhibits the phase
detector during the vertical interval is taken from
the vertical output stage; inhibition remain even if
the video signal is not present.
The free running frequenc of the oscillator is determined
by the values of the capacitor and of the
resistor connected to Pins 14 and 15 respectively.
To generate the line frequency output pulses, two
theresholds are fixed along the fall ramp of the
triangular waveform of the oscillator.
Pin14 - Oscillator (see Pin 13)
Pin 15 - Oscillator control current input (see
Pin 13)
Pin 16 - Ground



TDA2541 IF AMPLIFIER WITH DEMODULATOR AND AFC

.SUPPLYVOLTAGE : 12V TYP .SUPPLYCURRENT : 50mATYP .I.F. INPUT VOLTAGE SENSITIVITY AT
F = 38.9MHz : 85mVRMS TYP .VIDEO OUTPUT VOLTAGE (white at 10% of
top synchro) : 2.7VPP TYP .I.F. VOLTAGE GAIN CONTROL RANGE :
64dB TYP .SIGNAL TO NOISE RATIO AT VI = 10mV :
58dB TYP .A.F.C. OUTPUT VOLTAGE SWING FOR
Df = 100kHz : 10V TYP
DESCRIPTION
The TDA2540 and 2541 are IF amplifier and A.M.
demodulator circuits for colour and black and white
television receivers using PNP or NPN tuners. They
are intended for reception of negative or positive
modulation CCIR standard.
They incorporate the following functions : .Gain controlled amplifier .Synchronous demodulator .White spot inverter .Video preamplifier with noise protection .Switchable AFC .AGC with noise gating .Tuner AGC output (NPN tuner for 2540)-(PNP
tuner for 2541) .VCR switch for video output inhibition (VCR
play back).


TDA1170 vertical deflection FRAME DEFLECTION INTEGRATED CIRCUITGENERAL DESCRIPTION f The TDA1170 and TDA1270 are monolithic integrated
circuits designed for use in TV vertical deflection systems. They are manufactured using
the Fairchild Planar* process.
Both devices are supplied in the 12-pin plastic power package with the heat sink fins bent
for insertion into the printed circuit board.
The TDA1170 is designed primarily for large and small screen black and white TV
receivers and industrial TV monitors. The TDA1270 is designed primarily for driving
complementary vertical deflection output stages in color TV receivers and industrial
monitors.

APPLICATION INFORMATION (TDA1170)
The vertical oscillator is directly synchronized by the sync pulses (positive or negative); therefore its free
running frequency must be lower than the sync frequency. The use of current feedback causes the yoke
current to be independent of yoke resistance variations due to thermal effects, Therefore no thermistor is
required in series with the yoke. The flyback generator applies a voltage, about twice the supply voltage, to
the yoke. This produces a short flyback time together with a high useful power to dissipated power
ratio.






MIVAR  14C1V  CHASSIS TV2697 + TV2633  MIVAR POWER SUPPLY COMBINED WITH BU208A TRANSISTOR HORIZONTAL DEFLECTION CIRCUIT, EXPLANATION AND CONCEPT VIEW.



A combination deflection circuit and switching mode power supply uses only a single switching element. Across certain diodes in this circuit is a stable voltage. A capacitor and a transformer primary are series coupled to each other and together parallel coupled across at least one of the diodes. A rectifier is coupled to the transformer secondary to provide power to other portions of a television set.








1. A line deflection circuit for generating from a direct voltage source a sawtooth current flowing through a deflection coil, said circuit comprising a parallel resonant circuit comprising said coil, a trace capacitor coupled to said coil, and a retrace capacitor coupled to said coil; a first diode coupled to said retrace capacitor, the deflection current flowing during a first part of the trace period through said first diode and during a second part of the trace period through a controllable switch, energy being applied from said direct voltage source during the trace period to a first winding arranged between said direct voltage source and the switch, and being applied through a second diode conducting during the retrace period from a second winding to the parallel resonant circuit which is connected to the switch through a third diode conducting during the second part of the trace period, at least one of the second and third diodes being shunted by the series arrangement of a capacitor and a primary winding of a current supply transformer, and means for rectifying coupled to said transformer for the direct current supply to other stages of the device. 2. A circuit as claimed in claim 1 wherein said switch comprises a transistor. 3. A circuit for generating from a direct voltage source a sawtooth current having trace and retrace periods through a deflection coil, said circuit comprising a trace capacitor, means for coupling said trace capacitor to said coil, a retrace capacitor coupled to said trace capacitor, diode coupled to said retrace capacitor, a first diode means coupled to said retrace capacitor for conveying said current during a first part of said trace period, a first winding having a first end means for coupling to said source and a second end, a controllable switch means coupled to said second end for conveying said current during a second part of said trace period, a second winding, a second diode means coupled between said first diode and said second winding for conducting during said retrace period, a third diode means coupled between said first diode and said switch for conducting during said second part of said trace period, and means for supplying direct current power comprising a transformer having primary and secondary windings, a capacitor series coupled to said primary, said primary and capacitor being parallel coupled to at least one of said second and third diodes, and a rectifier coupled to said secondary. 4. A circuit as claimed in claim 3 wherein said switch comprises a transistor.
Description:
The invention relates to a line deflection circuit for a device comprising a cathode-ray tube particularly a television receiver display tube, for generating a sawtooth current flowing through a deflection coil in which the deflection coil constitutes part of a parallel resonant circuit comprising also a trace capacitor, a retrace capacitor and a first diode, the deflection current flowing during a first part of the trace period through said first diode and during a second part of the trace period through a controllable switch, for example, a transistor, energy being applied from a direct voltage source during the trace period to a first winding arranged between said direct voltage source and the switch, and being applied through a second diode conducting during the retrace period from a second winding to the parallel resonant circuit which is connected to the switch through a third diode conducting during the second part of the trace period.

Such a circuit arrangement is known from "IEEE Transaction on Broadcast and Television Receivers", August 1972, vol. BTR-18, No. 3, pages 177 to 182. The known circuit arrangement is the combination of a transistorized line deflection stage for a television receiver and a stabilised switch mode power supply, whereby one single switching element, the above mentioned transistor is both the switching transistor and the line deflection transistor.

An object of the invention was to further develop this circuit arrangement. It was found that an alternating voltage is present at the above mentioned second and third diode, which voltage is stabilized. The object according to the invention was to utilize this available and unilaterally stabilized rectangular voltage in a particularly advantageous manner.

This object is solved in that in a line deflection circuit of the kind described in the preamble the second and/or third diode is shunted by the series arrangement of a capacitor and a primary winding of a current supply transformer serving via rectifying for the direct current supply to other stages of the device.

An embodiment of the invention is shown in the drawings and will be further described hereinafter.

FIG. 1 shows the circuit improved according to this invention.

FIG. 2 shows different voltage variations as a function of time.

For the description of FIG. 1 the description of the Figures of the previously cited known circuit may be essentially used as a reference. A transformer is denoted by T1, a primary winding is L1; it is connected through a coupling capacitor CK to a secondary winding L2. A direct voltage source is UB. Furthermore a winding L3 is provided on the transformer secondary side which may serve for the high voltage generation UH through the diode Db.

The switching transistor is TR; rectangular pulses with the line frequency and originating from a driver stage (not represented) are applied to this transistor. The entire circuit arrangement thus serves for generating a sawtooth current flowing through a deflection coil L. The deflection coil L is part of a parallel resonant circuit consisting of a retrace capacitor C2, the deflection coil L itself and a trace capacitor C3.

In the operative condition a first diode D2 which is parallel connected to the said resonant circuit conducts during a first part of the trace period and conveys the negative part of the deflection current I 2 during the period from t1 to t3 (compare FIG. 2d). During this period the switching transistor TR is separated from the deflection circuit consisting of D2, L, C2, C3 by a third diode Dd biassed in the blocking direction.

At the instant t2 which is adjustable via the width of the rectangular pulses (compare FIG. 2f) at the base of TR, TR is rendered conducting. As a result a current can flow through L1 and TR which stores until the switch-off instant t4 the energy required for operating the circuit in L1. This energy is applied to the deflection circuit at the initiation of the retrace period t4 so as to compensate for losses. This energy storage is ended at the instant t1 of the new period.

Meanwhile the zero crossing of the deflection current occurs at instant t3. D2 is blocked. Due to the polarity change of the current I L the third diode Dd becomes conducting and the deflection current may be taken over by the switching transistor TR. This current is superimposed uninterfered on the part of the collector current originating from the power supply function of TR.

Thus the deflection function of the circuit in addition to the power supply function is ensured. This function may be influenced by shifting the instant t2. The limits of the control range are at t1 and t3. By comparison, for example, of the voltage UA over the diode D2 in the retrace period with a reference voltage a control magnitude for t2 can be derived. A stabilisation of the deflection in case of mains voltage and beam current fluctuations is then possible.

It is often essential to provide further stages in the television display apparatus with a stabilized voltage. Conventionally such supply voltages are obtained by trace rectification on an auxiliary winding of the line transformer. In this circuit this simple possibility is not given due to the connection with the power supply function. As can be seen in FIG. 2a the secondary voltage US consists of a rectangular voltage on which the flyback pulse of the deflection circuit is superimposed. When the trace part of US is rectified no stabilized direct voltage can be obtained due to the duty cycle variations caused by the control since the value of the voltage US between the instants t 2 and t 4 depends on that of the voltage UB.

A flyback rectification is feasible in this case. However, due to the small conduction angle an inadmissibly high internal resistance of the obtained supply voltage is to be taken into account.

According to the invention a rectangular voltage present alternatively across the diodes D1 and D2, respectively is used. These voltages do not contain a flyback pulse FIG. 2c shows the voltage variation UN on the secondary side L5 of a transformer T2 introduced for potential separation. A primary winding L 4 thereof is arranged in series with a capacitor C 4 and this series arrangement shunts the diode D1. The capacitor C 4 prevents a dc short circuit of the diode D1 by the winding L 4 and has a capacitance which is large enough for preventing an influence upon the variation of UN. The voltage across the capacitor C 4 is thus equal to the dc-component of the voltage across the capacitor C 3 , which component is stabilised since the voltage UA is. The voltage across the winding L 4 is equal to the difference between that across the diode D1 and that across the capacitor C 4 , the first mentioned voltage being equal to U A -U S . The voltage UN across the winding LS, which winding has the indicated winding sense, has the variation shown in FIg. 2c and between the instants t o and t 2 it is equal to the stabilised dc-component of the voltage present across the capacitor C 3 . The voltage UN is rectified with the aid of a diode DN and smoothed with the aid of a capacitor CN. The rectified voltage UL is applied to the parts of the apparatus using a low voltage which in this case are represented by a load resistor RL.

DN must have such a polarity that it conveys current during the time t o -t 2 . Then the rectified voltage is stabilised to the same extent as the deflection voltage. The conduction angle is large so that the internal impedance of the voltage source is low. The primary side L4 of the transformer T2 is connected to D1 as is shown in FIG. 1. D1 and DN are then conducting simultaneously so that the internal resistance of UN is further reduced. In the same manner the series arrangement of L4 and C4 in parallel with Dd is alternatively possible.

The transformer T2 may be formed with a relatively small core due to the high operating frequency. On account of the switching properties (Dd and D1 alternately conducting) the rectangular voltage cannot become larger than the direct voltage on CK (corresponds to the voltage UB). Overvoltages as a result of for example picture tube flash-overs are thus prevented.



MIVAR  14C1V  CHASSIS TV2697 + TV2633  Circuit arrangement for generating a sawtooth deflection current through a line deflection coil:
1. Circuit arrangement for generating a sawtooth deflection current flowing through a line deflection coil in an image display apparatus, which circuit arrangement comprises a deflection network including trace and retrace capacitor means coupling to said coil, and a first diode coupled to said retrace capacitor through which the deflection current flows during part of the trace interval, means for conveying the deflection current during the remainder of the trace interval including a second diode and a controllable switch coupled to said diode, said switch and second diode together being coupled in parallel with the first diode, the circuit arrangement further comprising an inductive element coupled to the switch, a third diode coupled to the deflection network and to said inductive element, a transformer having a core of a magnetic material and a winding, and a capacitor coupled to said winding and to the deflection network, characterized in that the inductive element is coupled via the third diode to the series combination of the above-mentioned series capacitor and part of the transformer winding less than all of said winding.

2. Circuit arrangement as claimed in claim 1, in which the inductive element comprises a winding, characterized in that the winding of the inductive element is wound on the transformer core.

3. Circuit arrangement as claimed in claim 1, characterized in that a first capacitor is coupled in parallel with the said part of the transformer winding and a second capacitor is coupled in parallel with the remainder of the winding, the ratio between the reactances of the said capacitors being equal to the ratio between the number of turns of the said parts of the winding.

4. Circuit arrangement as claimed in claim 1 in which the inductive element has a primary winding and a secondary winding which are coupled with one another, characterized in that the ratio of the number of turns of the secondary winding to that of the primary winding is substantially equal to ##EQU19## where m is the ratio of the turns number of the part of the transformer winding between the connection to the third diode and the series capacitor to the turns number of the entire winding, α is the ratio of the amplitude of the retrace voltage to the trace voltage, and δmax is the value of that ratio of the conduction time of the switch to the line period which is associated with the maximum value of a voltage supply source which supplies energy to the circuit arrangement.

5. A circuit arrangement as claimed in claim 1 wherein said core has two limbs, a tapped transformer winding and at least one high-voltage winding wound on one limb, a primary winding and a secondary winding wound on the other limb, the ratio of the number of turns of the secondary winding to that of the primary winding being greater than the ratio of the number of turns of the part of the transformer winding between the tapping and an end adapted to be connected to a series capacitor to the number of turns of the entire winding and being less than 1.


Description:
The invention relates to a circuit arrangement for generating a sawtooth deflection current through a line deflection coil in an image display apparatus, which circuit arrangement comprises a deflection network including the deflection coil, a trace capacitor and a retrace capacitor and a first diode through which the deflection current flows during part of the trace interval whilst during the remainder of the trace interval this current flows through a second diode and a controllable switch, which switch and which second diode are connected in parallel with the first diode, the circuit arrangement further comprising an inductive element which is connected to the switch and is coupled to the deflection network via a third diode, and a transformer which has a core of a magnetic material and a winding of which is coupled, in series with a capacitor, to the deflection network.
Such a circuit arrangement is described in "IEEE Transactions on Broadcast and Television Receivers," August 1972, volume BTR-18, Nr. 3, pages 177 to 182, and is a combination of a line deflection circuit and a switched-mode supply voltage stabilizing circuit, the controllable switch being used to perform both the said functions. This known circuit arrangement has the advantage that it can be fed with an unstabilised supply voltage and is capable of supplying a satisfactorily stabilized deflection current, a stabilized high voltage and, if desired, auxiliary voltages, the stabilization being obtained by control of the conduction time of the swtich.
When such a circuit arrangement is to be designed, amongst other problems the three following ones arise. Firstly care must be taken to ensure that the maximum voltage set up across the switch (a transistor) during the retrace interval does not exceed the permissible limit value for this element. Secondly the variation of the conduction time of the transistor must be capable of accommodating the supply voltage variations to be expected. Thirdly the (stabilized) trace capacitor voltage applied to the deflection coil during the trace interval must be selectable at will, for with a given deflection coil this voltage determines the intensity of the deflection current produced.
The said problems are not independent of one another. If, for example, the trace voltage is low, the maximum collector voltage of the transistor also is low; it may be further reduced by making the conduction time of the transistor as short as possible. It will therefore be clear that several degrees of freedom are required. One degree of freedom is available to a certain extent, namely the transformation ratio between two windings of the inductive element, one winding being connected between a terminal of the supply voltage source and the junction point of the collector and the second diode, whilst the other winding, which is coupled to the first one, is connected to the third diode, for the choice of the said ratio enables a freer choice of the trace voltage. However, the two other problems, specifically that of maximum collector voltage, are not solved thereby.
It is an object of the present invention to provide a circuit arrangement having one more degree of freedom, permitting the maximum permissible collector voltage to be freely determined, and for this purpose the circuit arrangement according to the invention is characterized in that the inductive element is connected via the third diode to the series combination of the abovementioned series capacitor and part of the transformer winding.
The introduction of a new parameter not only enables the maximum collector voltage to be reduced without the trace voltage being affected but also proves to enable a larger range of supply voltage variations to be accommodated. Hence, the step according to the invention permits of designing a circuit arrangement in which conflicting requirements can simultaneously be satisfied.
In a possible embodiment in which the inductive element has a winding the circuit arrangement is characterized in that the winding of the inductive element is wound on the transformer core.
Embodiments of the invention will now be described, by way of example, with reference to the accompanying diagrammatic drawings, in which
FIG. 1 is a circuit diagram showing schematically the basic elements of an embodiment of the circuit arrangement according to the invention,
FIG. 2 shows waveforms of voltages produced in said embodiment,
FIGS. 3a and 3b show graphs which may be used in the selection of the parameters, and
FIG. 4 is a circuit diagram of a modified part of the circuit arrangement of FIG. 1.
The circuit arrangement shown in FIG. 1 includes a driver stage Dr to which signals from a line oscillator, not shown, are applied and which delivers switching pulses to the base of a switching transistor Tr. One end of a primary winding L 1 of a transformer T 1 is connected to the collector of the transistor Tr, which is of the n-p-n type, the other end of the winding L 1 being connected to the positive terminal of a direct-voltage source B to the negative terminal of which the emitter of the transistor Tr is connected. This negative terminal may be connected to the earth of the circuit arrangement.
A trace capacitor C t is connected in series with a line deflection coil L y of the image display apparatus, not shown further, of which the circuit arrangement of FIG. 1 forms part, the resulting series combination being shunted by a diode D 1 having the conductive direction shown and by a retrace capacitor C r . The capacitor C r may alternatively be connected in parallel with the coil L y . The said four elements represent the schematic circuit diagram including the basic elements of the deflection section only. This section may, for example, in known manner be provided with one or more transformers for mutual coupling of the elements, with devices for centering and linearity correction and the like.
A secondary winding L 2 of the transformer T 1 is connected to the anode of a diode D 3 , and the anode of a diode D 2 is connected to the junction point A of the elements D 1 , C r and L y . The cathode of the diode D 2 is connected to the collector of the transistor T r whilst the cathode of the diode D 3 is connected to a tapping Q on a winding L 3 of a transformer T 2 . One end of the winding L 3 is connected to the point A, the other end being connected to earth via a capacitor C 1 . The core of the transformer T 2 carries further windings across which voltages are produced which serve as supply voltages for other components of the image display apparatus. FIG. 1 shows one of said windings, the windings L 4 , which by means of a rectifier D 4 produces a positive direct voltage across a smoothing capacitance C 2 . One of said windings, for example the winding L 4 , is the high voltage winding, so that the voltage set up across the capacitor C 2 is the high voltage for the final accelerating anode of the display tube (not shown). The free ends of the windings L 2 and L 4 are connected to earth, and the winding senses of the windings shown are indicated in the Figure by polarity dots.
The operation of the circuit arrangement is similar to that described in the abovementioned paper and may be summarized as follows. During a first part of the line trace interval the diode D 1 is conducting. The voltage across the capacitor C t is applied to the deflection coil L y through which a sawtooth deflection current i y flows. At a given instant the transistor TR becomes conducting. When in about the middle of the trace interval the current i y reverses direction the diode D 1 is cut off, so that the current i y then flows through the diode D 2 and the transistor Tr. At the end of the trace interval the transistor Tr is cut off. As a result an oscillation, the retrace pulse, is produced across the capacitor C r whilst the energy derived from the source B and stored in the winding L 1 causes a current to flow through the diode D 3 . When the voltage across the capacitor C r has become zero again, the diode D 1 becomes conducting: this is the beginning of a new trace interval. The diode D 3 remains conducting until the transistor Tr is rendered conducting, the energy stored in the winding L 2 being transferred to the winding L 1 . Stabilisation is provided, for example, by feeding back the voltage across the capacitor C t to the driver circuit Dr, in which a comparison stage and a modulator ensure that the conduction time of the transistor Tr is varied so that the said voltage and hence the amplitude of the deflection current remain constant. Compared with the known case in which the cathode of the diode D 3 is connected to the point A instead of to the tapping Q operation is different, the difference being as follows. In the known case the current passed by the diode D 3 flows to earth via the diode D 1 during the first part of the trace interval. In the arrangement shown in FIG. 1, during this same part energy is stored in the series combination L 3 , C 1 . The voltage v A across the capacitor C r , the voltage v c at the collector of the transistor T r and the voltage v 1 across the winding L 1 are plotted against time in FIGS. 2 a, 2b and 2c respectively. The symbol T indicates the line period, τ 1 indicates the retrace interval, τ 2 that part of the period T in which the transistor Tr is non-conducting, and τ 3 = δ T indicates the part of the period T in which this transistor is conducting. The number δ is the ratio between the time τ 3 and the period T.
The voltage v A consists of the retrace pulse of amplitude V during the time τ 1 and is zero during the time τ 2 . At the instant at which the transistor Tr is rendered conducting, i.e. the instant of transition t 1 between τ 2 and τ 3 , the voltage v C becomes substantially zero. Thus the volage V B of the source B is set up across the winding L 1 .
In the circuit arrangement of FIG. 1 two ratios are significant, namely the transformation ratio between the windings L 1 and L 2 , i.e. the ratio between the number of turns of the winding L 1 and that of the winding L 2 , which is equal to 1 : p, and the ratio of the turns number of the entire winding L 3 and that of the part of this winding between the tapping Q and the end connected to the capacitor C 1 , which ratio is 1 : m. First it will be assumed that the points Q and A coincide (m = 1).
During the time τ 3 the voltage cross the winding L 2 is equal to -pV B . During the time τ 1 the voltage v c is equal to V/p + V B . Let V o be the direct voltage across the capacitor C t , if the capacitance of this capacitor is large enough, or the direct voltage component of the voltage across this capacitor, if it has a comparatively small capacitance for the purpose of the S correction; in either case it is equal to the mean value of the voltage v A , for no direct-voltage component can be set up across the coil L y . The capacitor C 1 has a large capacitance, so that a direct voltage equal to V o is set up across it. The following equation applies: ##EQU1##
The mean value of the voltage across the winding L 3 also is zero, so that the equation applies: ##EQU2## In this formula the integral can be substituted, Yielding V o T = pV B . τ 3 , that is; V o = pδ. V B (1)
At given values of the ratios δ and p the diode D 2 will conduct during the time τ 1 . Because during this time the diode D 3 is conducting, the windings L 1 and L 2 will be short-circuited by the diodes D 2 and D 3 , causing the retrace pulse across the capacitor C r to be clipped and the deflection current to be distorted. U.S. Pat. Application No. 443,863 filed Feb. 19, 1974 describes steps for avoiding such an effect, for example by including in series with the diode D 2 a transistor which is cut off during the time τ 1 . A capacitor C 3 is connected between the ends of the windings L 1 and L 2 or between tappings thereon for the purpose of preventing the occurrence of parasitic oscillations which may be produced by the leakage inductance between the said windings in a manner such that no line-frequency voltage is set up across the capacitor C 3 . FIG. 1 shows the case where p <1.
The maximum value of the collector voltage v c of the transistor is equal to ##EQU3## where α is the ratio V/V o which depends upon the retrace ratio Z = τ1/T. The maximum value of V c is obtained when V B has its maximum value V B max, for which δ has the value δ min , for from the relationship (1) it follows that δ and V B are inversely proportional to one another because the voltage V o is maintained constant.
The voltage V o can be chosen by choosing the ratio p, so that the deflection current y is determined for a given deflection coil L y . However, from the above it follows that the maximum value of the voltage V c , which is highly critical for the transistor, is not controllable. Moreover, the relationship (1) can be written:
V o = p δ min . V B max = p δ max . V B min, where V B min is the minimum value of V B for which δ = δ max , and from which follows: ##EQU4## The ratio δ min has its minimum value δ 1 if the instant t 1 coincides with the middle of the trace interval, and δ max has its maximum value δ 2 if the instant t 1 coincides with the beginning t o of the trace interval. Hence the above ratio cannot exceed 2, so that the arrangement cannot accommodate larger variations of the voltage V B .
According to the invention the points A and Q do not coincide. The voltage across the winding L 3 is equal to v A - V o so that the voltage v Q in the point Q is equal to v Q = V o + m(v A - V o ) = mv A + (1 - m) V o . With the aid of the waveform of the voltage v A of FIG. 2a the waveform of the voltage v 1 across the winding L 1 between the positive terminal of the source B and the collector of the transistor Tr can be plotted (FIG. 2c), allowing for the fact that the diode D 3 is conducting during the times τ 1 and τ 2 .
Thus we have: ##EQU5## during time τ 3 : v 1 = - V B . Writing the condition for the mean value of the voltage v 1 being zero after some calculations yields. ##EQU6## The maximum value of the collector voltage v c is ##EQU7## from which follows: ##EQU8## after substitution of the formula (2). It can be shown that this function steadily decreases with decrease of the ratio m. It is plotted in FIG. 3a for z = 0.2, from which follows α ≉ π/2z ≉ 7,8, and with δ min = δ 1 = 1/2 (1 - z) = 0.4. The Figure shows that by making m less than 1 a reduction of the maximum collector voltage is obtained and that this result is independent of the ratio p.
From the formula (2) the following relationship can be derived: ##EQU9## ##EQU10## This function also is independent of the ratio p and it increases as m decreases. It is plotted in FIG. 3b for δ min = δ 1 = 0.4 and δ max = δ 2 = 0.8 (Z = 0.2), so that the entire δ range is used, whilst the Figure shows that a larger range of supply voltage variations can be accommodated, for when m is less than 1 the ratio V B max /V B min exceeds 2.
Similarly to the preceding case, the voltage V o can be determined by the choice of the ratio p. If the means described in the abovementioned U.S. Pat. Application No. 443,863 are to be dispensed with, it is found that an upper limit can be set to p. The diode D 2 will just be conducting during the time δ 1 if the lowest value of the voltage V c which is found in practice, that is ##EQU11## is equal to the voltage V. In the above expression, according to the formula (2), ##EQU12## from which we can derive: ##EQU13##
The above will be explained by means of two numerical examples. If the voltage V B can vary between 230 volts and 345 volts (with a mains voltage of 220 volts) V B max /V B min is less than 2, so this does not provide difficulty. If the transistor Tr is not capable of withstanding a voltage exceeding 1200 volts, it will be seen from FIG. 3a that m = 0.64. From the formula (2) it follows that ##EQU14## with δ min = δ 1 and ##EQU15## so that δ max = 0.56 < δ 2 . The formula (5) yields: ##EQU16## so that V o = 0.87 times 161 = 140 volts.

If now the voltage V B can vary between 115 volts and 345 volts (the mains voltage is 110 volts or 220 volts), then V B max /V B min = 3. FIG. 3b shows that m = 0.38, for which FIG. 3a yields V c max = 2.9 times 345 = 1000 volts. Formula (2) yields: ##EQU17## whilst ##EQU18## so that V o = 0.54 times 183 volts = 99 volts. Because m cannot be increased, a higher V o if desired requires p to exceed 0.54, and hence the step according to the abovementiond Patent Application must be used.
Similarly to what is the case in U.S. Pat. Application No. 473,771, filed June 1, 1973, the cores of the transformers T 1 and T 2 of FIG. 1 may be one and the same core, that is to say the windings L 1 , L 2 and the winding L 3 may be coupled to one another in spite of the fact that voltages of different waveforms are set up across the said windings. This is possible because the said voltage waveforms are not affected by the coupling, since the voltages V o and V B are "hard," that is to say they are externally impressed, and hence are not affected by the coupling. The currents flowing through the windings, however, are affected. In the lastmentioned Patent Application it is shown that the operation of the circuit arrangement is not adversely affected thereby, but on the contrary important advantages are obtained. It should be mentioned that instead of the tapping Q an additional winding may be wound on the same core as the winding L 3 , which additional winding has a smaller number of turns than the winding L 3 and is included between the cathode of the diode D 3 and the junction point of L 3 and the capacitor C 1 .
Formula (5) shows that the ratio m should not be excessively small, because in this case the ratio p also is small, with the result that large currents flow on the secondary side of the transformer T 1 . In addition, large currents then will flow through the leakage inductance of the said transformer, which gives rise to ringing at the instant t 1 . Furthermore difficulties will arise in designing the abovementioned embodiment using a single transformer. If for these reasons the formula (5) is not complied with, that is to say if p is made greater than the preferred value p max , the steps according to the abovementioned U.S. Pat. Application No. 443,863 have to be employed. This requires an additional transistor, which is expensive, or an additional diode, which does not prevent the production of a high V c max, whilst it was the very purpose of using a low m to obtain a low V c max.
In practice there is a leakage inductance between the two parts of the winding L 3 . In FIG. 4, which shows only part of the circuit arrangement, this leakage inductance is shown as an inductance L 5 between the point Q and an imaginary tapping Q' on the winding L 3 . The inductance L 5 prevents abrupt current transistions which in conjunction with the stray capacitances may give rise to ringing. This can be avoided by connecting a capacitor C 4 between points A and Q and a capacitor C 5 between the point Q and the junction point of the winding L 3 and the capacitor C 1 . If the ratio between the reactances of C 4 and C 5 is equal to that between the numbers of turns of the upper and lower parts of the winding L 3 , no alternating voltage is set up across the inductance L 5 so that no ringing can occur. The parallel connection of the capacitor C r and of the network C 4 , C 5 together with the inductive components of the circuit arrangement results in a resonant frequency the period of which is about equal to twice the time τ 1 .
Hereinbefore it has been assumed that the capacitance of the capacitor C 1 is sufficiently large to enable the voltage across it to be regarded as constant (= V o ). It should be mentioned that this is necessary only if one or more of the auxiliary voltages produced by means of windings of the transformer T 2 are obtained by means of trace rectification.

 MIVAR  14C1V  CHASSIS TV2697 + TV2633  PLL MICROCOMPUTER Frequency synthesizer tuning system for television receivers:MIVAR RT17A-99

" A method for tuning a television receiver having automatic frequency control to the carrier frequency of a selected broadcast channel with an associated channel number including generating a variable frequency signal by means of a local oscillator, generating a reference frequency signal by means of a reference oscillator, and generating a local oscillator correction signal for matching an intermediate frequency signal derived from said local oscillator signal and the carrier frequency signal with a predetermined nominal intermediate frequency signal, said method being characterized by the use of a microcomputer and comprising:
generating binary signals representing first and second digital tune words, said digital tune words representing a selected channel;
storing said first and second digital tune words in a first data memory in said microcomputer;
reading said first and second digital tune words from said first memory and generating a divided-down local oscillator frequency by the use of said first digital tune word and a divided-down reference oscillator frequency by the use of said second digital tune word;
comparing said divided-down local oscillator and reference frequencies and generating a control signal representative of the difference in frequency of said divided-down local oscillator and reference frequencies;
coupling said control signal to said local oscillator for causing it to be locked to the frequency of said received carrier signal;
mixing the local oscillator frequency signal and the carrier frequency signal to generate an intermediate frequency signal;
comparing said intermediate frequency signal with said predetermined nominal intermediate frequency signal and providing a tuning voltage to said microcomputer, said tuning voltage being indicative of the magnitude and direction of a tuning error between said intermediate frequency signal and said predetermined nominal intermediate frequency signal;
incrementally adjusting the reference oscillator frequency by means of a tuning signal provided to said reference oscillator by said microcomputer in response to said tuning voltage;
detecting when the incrementally changing, divided-down reference oscillator frequency causes the intermediate frequency signal to pass said predetermined nominal intermediate frequency signal; and
incrementally stepping the divided-down reference oscillator frequency back a predetermined number of steps following the passage of said predetermined nominal intermediate frequency signal by said intermediate frequency signal in tuning said television receiver to the selected channel.
"

A television tuning system employs a frequency synthesizer system for establishing the tuning of the receiver. A programmable frequency divider counter is connected between the output of a reference oscillator and a phase comparator to which the output of the local oscillator in the tuner also is applied. The phase comparator output provides a tuning voltage for controlling the tuning of the local oscillator. A microprocessor is used to control the count of the programmable frequency divider and initially to set a count corresponding to the selected channel in a counter connected between the output of the local oscillator and the phase comparator. The tuning consists of three discrete time periods. First, a settling time to allow channel change transients to settle; second, a short period of forced search at a relatively rapid rate to insure proper tuning; and third, a slower rate of step-by-step correction to accomodate for station drift and the like during reception. This third time period is initiated either by the passage of a fixed length of time following the start of the forced search period or by sensing a preestablished number of changes of state in the output of the frequency discriminator during the forced/search period.


1. A tuning system for the tuner of a television receiver capable of receiving a composite television signal and including frequency discriminator (AFT) circuit means, said system including in combination:
a reference oscillator providing a reference signal at a predetermined frequency;
a local oscillator in the tuner providing a variable output frequency in response to the application of a control signal thereto;
a programmable frequency divider means having first and second inputs coupled respectively to the output of said reference oscillator and said local oscillator for producing signals on first and second outputs having frequencies which are a programmable fraction of the frequency of the signals applied to the inputs thereto;
phase comparator means having one input coupled with the first output of said programmable frequency divider means and having another input coupled with the second output of said programmable frequency divider means for developing a control signal and applying such control signal to said local oscillator for controlling the output frequency thereof;
counter circuit means coupled with said programmable frequency divider means for initially setting said divider means to a predetermined division ratio and operating to change the programmable fraction of division thereof in accordance with changes in the count in said counter circuit means;
control circuit means coupled with the output of said frequency discriminator means and further coupled with said counter circuit means for causing said counter circuit means to count at a first rate in a predetermined direction determined by the state of the output signal from said discriminator means in the absence of a predetermined signal output from said frequency discriminator means until a predetermined maximum count is attained, thereupon resetting said counter circuit means to a count which is a predetermined amount less than said maximum predetermined count and continuing to count at said first rate in the same predetermined direction from said new count to continuously change the programmable fraction of said frequency divider means in accordance with the state of operation of said counter circuit means, said control means operating in response to said predetermined signal output from the frequency discriminator means for terminating operation of said counter circuit means; and
further means for terminating operation of said counter circuit means at said first rate and causing operation thereof at a second slower rate.
2. The combination according to claim 1 wherein said further means includes timing means initiated into operation simultaneously with the setting of said divider means to a predetermined division ratio, and after a predetermined time interval said timing means producing an output signal applied to said counter circuit means to cause operation thereof to take place at said second slower rate. 3. The combination according to claim 1 wherein said counter circuit means includes a reversible digital counter coupled with said programmable frequency divider, means and said control circuit means causes said counter circuit means to count in said predetermined direction when the output of said frequency discriminator is of a first state and to count in the opposite direction when the output of said frequency discriminator is of second state; and said further means comprises means coupled with the output of said frequency discriminator and with said counter circuit means to take place at said second slower rate in response to a predetermined number of changes of state of frequency discriminator. 4. The combination according to claim 3 further including means responsive to the selection of a new channel in said television receiver for resetting said further means to an initial condition of operation. 5. The combination according to claim 4 wherein said further means comprises a search termination counter means operative to provide an output signal applied to said counter circuit means in response to a count thereby of a predetermined number of changes of state of said frequency discriminator to cause said counter circuit means to be operated at said second slower rate.
Description:
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
Both of the above mentioned patents are directed to frequency synthesizer tuning systems for use with television receivers to enable operation of the receivers with minimal viewer fine tuning adjustments. By the utilization of the frequency synthesizer tuning systems of these patents, the fine tuning adjustment which is necessary with conventional types of television receiver tuning systems has been substantially eliminated. The system employed in the '953 patent permits utilization of a frequency synthesizer tuning system which correctly tunes to a desired television station or channel even if the transmitted signals from that station are not precisely maintained at the proper frequencies. The '535 patent is directed to a signal seek tuning system adaptation of the frequency synthesizer tuning system of the '953 patent which still permits implementation of all of the desired wide-band pull in range of the frequency synthesizer system of the '953 patent.
The systems of the foregoing patents operate effectively to correct automatically for frequency offsets in a frequency synthesizer tuning system without affecting the operation of the conventional frequency synthesizer used in the system. The systems of these patents are in widespread use commercially and permit direct selection, with automatic fine tuning adjustment, of any desired VHF channel which the viewer wishes to observe. In addition, the signal seek adaptation disclosed in the '535 patent couples all of the advantages of the frequency synthesizer tuning system of the '953 patent with the desirability of providing bidirectional signal seek operation.
While the systems disclosed in the foregoing patents operate in a highly satisfactory manner to accomplish the desired results of accurate tuning without the necessity of fine tuning adjustments, the circuitry for accomplishing the desired results is somewhat complex. It is desirable to reduce the circuit complexity and the number of signal detectors for accomplishing these results without compromising the accuracy of operation of the system.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
Accordingly, it is an object of this invention to provide an improved tuning system for a television receiver.
It is an additional object of this invention to provide an improved frequency synthesizer tuning system for a television receiver.
It is another object of this invention to provide an improved frequency synthesizer tuning system for a television receiver which includes a provision for adjusting the synthesizer loop for frequency offsets in the received signal with a minimum number of signal detectors.
It is a further object of this invention to tune the local RF oscillator of a television receiver to the correct frequency for a selected channel with a frequency synthesizer tuning system, and automatically to change the reference frequency of the synthesizer system, or adjust the count of a programmable divider that produces a signal that divides the frequency of the local oscillator of the tuner, if the AFT signal produced by the AFT frequency discriminator of the receiver is outside a predetermined range corresponding to correct tuning.
It is still another object of this invention to provide an improved frequency synthesizer tuning system for a television receiver which operates to adjust the synthesizer loop for frequency offsets in the received signal over a relatively wide pull in range in response to the output of the receiver frequency discriminator by changing the division ratio of a programmable frequency divider in the reference oscillator leg or local oscillator leg of the synthesizer loop at a first relatively high rate from an initial nominal value to a pre-established maximum in one direction, and then resetting the division ratio to a second nominal value once the maximum is reached and continuing to incrementally change the division ratio in the same direction from the second nominal value until a properly tuned condition is indicated by the output of the receiver AFT frequency discriminator, followed by control at a lower rate of operation to maintain tuning during transmitting station drifts.
In accordance with a preferred embodiment of this invention, the frequency synthesizer tuning system for a television receiver includes a stable reference oscillator and a voltage controlled local oscillator in the tuner. A programmable frequency divider is connected between the output of the reference oscillator and one input to a phase comparator, the other input of which is supplied by the output of the local oscillator. The output of the phase comparator then comprises a control signal which is supplied to the local oscillator to control the frequency of its operation.
A counter circuit is connected to the programmable frequency divider for initially setting the divider to a predetermined division ratio upon selection of a desired channel by the viewer. The counter then operates to change the programmable fraction of the division ratio at a first relatively high rate in a direction controlled by the output from the receiver picture carrier discriminator in the absence of a predetermined signal output derived from the discriminator. A control means causes the counter circuit to count in this direction until it is determined that a station is tuned or a predetermined maximum count is attained if no station is correctly tuned, thereupon resetting the counter circuit to a count which is a predetermined amount less than the maximum predetermined count. Counting is continued in the same predetermined direction from the new lesser count to continuously change the programmable fraction of the frequency divider in accordance with the state of operation of the counter.
The high rate operation of the counter is terminated by the control means in response to a predetermined signal from the output of the discriminator, indicating that a station is correctly tuned, or after a fixed time-out interval; so that the system automatically adjusts for frequency offsets of the received signal which otherwise would cause the station to be mistuned if a conventional frequency synthesizer tuning system were used. After termination of the high rate operation of the counter, it is switched to a lower rate operation for maintaining tuning during transmitting station drifts.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
FIG. 1 is a block diagram of a television receiver employing a preferred embodiment of the invention;
FIG. 2 is a detailed block diagram of a portion of the circuit of the preferred embodiment shown in FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a detailed circuit diagram of a portion of a circuit shown in FIG. 1;
FIG. 4 is a flow chart of the control sequence of operation of the circuit shown in FIG. 1 and 2; and
FIG. 5 shows a waveform and time/frequency chart, respectively, useful in explaining the operation of the circuit shown in FIGS. 1, 2 and 3.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION
Referring now to the drawings, the same reference numbers are used throughout the several figures to designate the same or similar components.
FIG. 1 is a block diagram of a television receiver, which may be a black and white or color television receiver. Most of the circuitry of this receiver is conventional, and for that reason it has not been shown in FIG. 1. Added to the conventional television receiver circuitry of FIG. 1, however, is a frequency synthesizer tuning system, in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the invention, which is capable of automatically changing the reference frequency when a frequency offset exists in the received signal for a particular channel.
Transmitted composite television signals, either received over the air or distributed by means of a master antenna TV distribution system, are received by an antenna 10 or on antenna input terminals to the receiver. As is well known, these composite signals include picture and sound carrier components and synchronizing signal components, with the composite signal applied to an RF and tuner stage 11 of the receiver. The stage 11 includes the conventional RF amplifiers and tuner sections of the receiver, including a VHF oscillator section and a UHF oscillator section. Preferably, the UHF and VHF oscillators are voltage controlled oscillators, the freuency of operation of which are varied in response to a tuning voltage applied to them to effect the desired tuning of the receiver.
The output of the RF and tuner stages 11 is applied to the remainder of the television receiver 14, which includes the IF amplifier stages for supplying conventional picture (video) and sound IF signals to the video and sound processing stages of the receiver 14. The circuitry of the receiver 14 may be of any conventional type used to separate, amplify and otherwise process the signals for application to a cathode ray tube 16 and to a loudspeaker 17 which reproduce the picture and sound components, respectively, of the received signal.
The receiver 14 also includes a conventional AFT or automatic fine tuning discriminator circuit and additionally may include a synch separator circuit for producing an output in response to the presence of vertical synchronizatin pulses, a picture carrier detection circuit, and an automatic gain control (AGC) amplifier. Outputs representative of these sensor components are shown as being coupled over a group of lead 20 to sensory circuitry 22, which in turn couples outputs representative of the operation of these various sensor circuits to a microprocessor unit 23 for controlling the operation of the microprocessor unit.
The microprocessor unit 23 is utilized in the system of FIG. 1 for controlling the operation of a frequency synthesizer tuning system capable of automatic offset correction. When the viewer desires to select a new channel, he enters the desired channel number into a channel selection keyboard 25. There are a number of different keyboards which may be employed to accomplish this function, and the particular design is not important to this invention. The channel selector keyboard 25 also may include switches or keys for initiating a signal seek function in either the "up" or "down" direction.
Information represented by the selection of channel numbers on the keyboard 25 is supplied to the microprocessor unit 23 which provides output signals over a corresponding set of leads 27 to the tuners (local oscillators) 11 to effect the appropriate band switching control for the tuners 11 in accordance with the particular channel which has been selected. In addition, the keyboard 25, operating through the microprocessor unit 23, provides output signals which operate a channel number display 29 to provide an appropriate display of the selected channel number to the viewer.
The microprocessor M3870 unit 23 also processes the signals which are used to operate the channel number display 29 through a multiplexing circuit operation to decode the selected channel number into a parallel encoded signal. This signal is applied to corresponding inputs of the count-down counter or programmable frequency divider 31 to cause the division number of the divider 31 to relate to the divided down frequency of the tuner local oscillators connected to the input of the divider 31 through a prescaler divider circuit 32 to the frequency of the reference oscillator 34. Thus, the division number or division ratio of the local oscillator frequency obtained from the output of the programmable divider 31 is appropriately related to the frequency of the reference crystal oscillator 34.
The output of the oscillator 34 also is applied through a countdown circuit or programmable frequency divider 35. Conventional frequency synthesizer techniques are employed; and the microprocessor unit 23 automatically compensates, through appropriate code converter circuitry, for the non-uniform channel spacing of the television signals. It has been found most convenient to cause the programmable frequency divider 31 to divide by numbers corresponding directly to the oscillator frequency of the selected channel, for example, 101, 107, 113 . . . up to 931.
In accordance with the time division multiplex operation of the microprocessor 23, the count of the programmable frequency divider 35 initially is adjusted to a fixed count by the application of appropriate output signals from the microprocessor unit 23 to a point selected to be at or near the mid-point of the operating range of the programmable frequency divider 35. Thus, the output of the divider 35 is a stable reference frequency (because the input is from the reference crystal oscillator 34) which is used to establish initially and to maintain tuning of the receiver to the selected channel.
The output of the programmable divider 35 is applied to one of two inputs of a phase comparator circuit 37. The other input to the phase comparator circuit 37 is supplied from the selected one of the VHF or UHF oscillators in the tuner stages 11 through the programmable frequency divider 31. The phase comparator circuit 37 operates in a conventional manner to supply a DC tuning control signal through a phase locked loop filter circuit 39 and over a lead 40 to the oscillators in the tuner system 11 to change and maintain their operating frequency.
With the exception of the use of the microprocessor unit 23, the operation of the system which has been described thus far is that of a relatively conventional frequency synthesizer system incorporated into a television receiver. This system is similar to the system of the '953 patent. As in the system of that patent, the system shown in FIG. 1, when the transmitted station or station received on a master antenna distribution system provides the station or channel signals at the proper frequency, operates as a relatively conventional frequency synthesizer system. If, however, there is a frequency offset in the received signal to cause the carrier of the received signal to be displaced from the frequency which it should have to some other frequency, it is possible that the system would give the appearance of mistuning to the received station. The microprocessor 23, operating in conjunction with the sensory circuitry 22, is employed in conjunction with the countdown or programmable frequency divider circuit 35 to eliminate this disadvantage and still retain the advantages of frequency synthesizer tuning.
Reference now should be made to FIG. 2 which shows details of the interface between the keyboard 25, the microprocessor unit 23, and the circuitry used in the frequency synthesizer portions of the system. A commercially available microprocessor which has been used for the microprocessor 23, and which forms the basis for the diagramatic representation of the microprocessor in FIG. 2, is the Matsushita Electronics Corporation MN1402 four-bit single-chip microcomputer. This microcomputer has two, four-bit parallel input ports labeled "A" and "B". In addition, three output ports, a five-bit output port "C" and two four-bit output ports "D" and "E" are provided. The internal configuration of the microcomputer 23 includes an arithmetic logic unit (ALU), a read only memory (ROM) for storing instructions and constants, and a random access memory (RAM) used for data memory, arranged into four files, each file containing 16 four-bit words. These words are selected by X and Y registers and this memory is used, for example, for timers, counters, etc., and also is used to hold intermediate results. To facilitate an understanding of the operation of the system, a portion of this memory is shown in FIG. 2 as a clock 81 and a reversible counter 82 connected between the "B" input port and the "D" output port. The microcomputer 23 is programmed to permit it to operate in conjunction with the remainder of the circuits shown in FIG. 2. The programming techniques are standard, and the microcomputer 23 itself is a standard commercially available circuit component.
There are several system parameters that must be selected in the operation of the system shown in FIG. 2. The selection of the nominal frequency of the two signals that feed the phase comparator circuit 37 is an example. Channel selection is provided by changing the frequency division ratio of the selector counter 31 which divides the local oscillator signal after this signal is passed through a prescaler circuit 32 and a divide-by-two divider circuit 41. The nominal frequency from the programmable frequency divider 31 (selector counter) is selected so that the local oscillator (tuner) 11 can be set exactly on frequency for all channels.
Since the frequency divider 31 is able to divide only by integer numbers, one distinct frequency possibility in the range of one KHz is obtained, another in the range of two KHz, etc. A choice must be made as to which of these values is optimum. Each value yields the nominal frequency of all of the 82 channels by simply multiplying by an appropriate integer for each channel. To simplify the phase locked loop filtering problem by the filter 39, it is desirable that the frequencies of the signals supplied to the phase comparator 37 are as high as possible. This permits rapid acquisition of a new channel along with a very clean DC control signal to adjust the local oscillator. A trade-off for this, however, must be made to permit fine tunning adjustment of the local oscillator automatically to correctly tune in stations which are off their assigned frequency, or to manually provide this feature, if desired. The two-speed operation of the system in accordance with the present invention allows a better trade-off to be made by allowing rapid acquisition and then a slower speed for precise tuning.
A compromise solution which is utilized in the circuit of FIG. 2 is to cause the frequency division chain from the local oscillator 11 in the tuner to the phase comparator 37 to be composed of the fixed divide-by-256 prescaler 32, and a fixed divide-by-4 division, which is accomplished by the divider 41 at the input of the counter 31 and a second divider 42 at the output of the counter 31. The variable frequency divider counter 31 then is loaded by means of three latch circuits 44, 45 and 46 at an appropriate time by the time division multiplex operation of the microcomputer 23 and a number that programs the programmable frequency divider counter 31 to divide by the numerical value of the frequency of the local oscillator in MHz for the channel selected. For example, if the receiver is to be tuned to channel 2, which has a nominal local oscillator frequency of 101 MHz, the programmable frequency divider 31 is set to divide by 101. If the receiver is to be tuned to channel 83, which has a nominal local oscillator frequency of 931 MHz, the programmable frequency divider 31 is set to divide by 931. In both cases, the variable divider 31 produces a 1 MHz signal. However, because of the fixed divide-by-256 and the two fixed divide-by-two dividers in series with the programmable divider 31, an output frequency of 976.5625 Hz is supplied from the output of the divider 42 to the upper input of the phase comparator 37.
The division ratio of the selector counter 31 is established by appropriate output signals from the latch circuits 44, 45 and 46, as mentioned above. The initial operation for changing, or maintaining, the division ratio of the divider 31 is established by an entry of the two digits of the selected channel number in the keyboard 25. The microcomputer 23 operates as a time division multiplex system for continuously monitoring the input ports and the output ports to control the operation of the remainder of the system. The selection of the two digits of the desired channel number is affected by a time division multiplex iscanning of the outputs of the D output port of microcomputer 23 and providing that information at the A input port. From here the information is translated again to the D output ports to the appropriate drivers of the channel number display circuit 29 and to the latches 44, 45 and 46, and to a pair of similar four bit latches 49 and 50 which control the divider ratio of the counter 35.
Although the D output ports of the microcomputer 23 are connected in common to all of these various portions of the circuit, the selection of which of the latches are enabled to respond to the particular output signals appearing on the D output ports at any given time is effected through the C and E output ports of the microcomputer 23 in a time division multiplex fashion. A decoder circuit 52, connected to the lowermost three outputs of the E output port of the microcomputer 23, is used to apply unique decoding signals at different times in the time division multiplex sequence of operation of the microcomputer 23 to the five latch circuits 44, 45, 46, 49 and 50, respectively. At any given time in the sequence, only one of these latch circuits is enabled for operation. A latch load signal is applied from the upper output (EO3) at each cycle of operation of the signals appearing on the E output port to set the latch circuit which is enabled by the output of the decoding circuit 52 with the data appearing on the other inputs to the latch circuit. This data simultaneously appears on the four outputs of the D output port of the microcomputer 23.
Thus, in rapid sequence, the latch circuits 44, 45 and 46 are set to store the division number corresponding to the selected channel entered onto the keyboard 25, and the latch circuits 49 and 50 are each operated to set the programmable divider reference counter 35 to a center or nominal count, which is always the same upon the selection of a new channel on the keyboard 25. Similarly, the two right-hand outputs of the C output port (CO6 and CO5) enter the two digits of the selected channel number in the drivers of the display circuit 29 at the proper time in the binary encoded sequence when these digits appear on the four-bit binary encoded representation of the D output port. This results in a visual display of the channel number selected.
In addition to the selection of a channel number directly by the keyboard 25, the keyboard also may include an additional switch 56, which is scanned in the time division multiplex sequence to determine if the receiver is placed in a "seek" mode of operation (when the signal seek capability is incorporated into such a receiver). Operating in conjunction with the signal seek switch 56 are a pair of "up" and "down" seek direction input switches shown with a graphic representation of the seek directions on the keyboard 25. A further provision is provided by two keys labeled "U" and "D", which are used for "manual" fine tuning of the receiver in the "up" or "down" directions depending upon which of the two keys U or D has been operated. The keyboard 25 includes one additional switch 58 which may be used to disable the automatic fine tuning (AFT) portion of the circuit by rendering the microcomputer insensitive to the signal output from the AFT circuit, in a manner described more fully subsequently.
As is apparent from the foregoing, the microcomputer 23 provides the intelligence, decision making, and control for the system operation. It is a complete self contained computer. The decisions or signal inputs upon which the microcomputer 23 bases its operation include, in addition to the inputs from the keyboard 25, inputs on sensory inputs into the B input port and into the SNS1 and SNS0 inputs as shown in FIG. 2. These input signals are used to provide an indication to the microcomputer 23 of the presence or absence of a received signal; and if the presence of such a signal is indicated, the inputs provide a further indication of the accuracy of the tuning of the receiver to that signal. If the system is being operated solely in a manual mode of operation (AFT switch 58 open), the microcomputer 23 disregards all of this sensory information and tunes to the frequency allocation of the channel selected in the manner described above. The system will stay tuned to this condition, operating as a conventional frequency synthesizer, whether or not a station is present in the received signal.
When the system is placed in its automatic mode of operation (similar to the mode of operation of the above mentioned '953 patent), the counter 82, integrally formed as part of the microcomputer 23, continuously adds or subtracts one number at a time from the nominal value or programmable division fraction entered into the programmable frequency divider 35 at the outset of each new channel number selection when frequency offset (mistuning) is present. The counter 82 is driven at a relatively high counting rate by clock pulses from the clock 81 during this initial or forced search mode of operation. Thus, automatic offset correction is provided for any channel which is off its assigned frequency. The offset correction automatically adjusts the frequency of the local oscillator by changing the division ratio of the signal from the reference oscillator 35 applied to the lower input of the phase comparator 37. By doing this, the output of the phase comparator 37 applied to the local oscillator 11 varies to cause the oscillator to be tuned in the proper direction to compensate for the transmitting station mistuning.
When the system is operating in its automatic mode of operation, the microcomputer 23 responds to the sensor information applied to it on its B input ports and on the S1 input port shown in FIG. 2. These inputs are obtained from the various outputs of the operational amplifiers shown connected to the corresponding input ports in the detailed circuit of FIG. 3. Depending upon whether the receiver is provided with a signal seek feature or not, one or more of the sensory inputs of the circuit of FIG. 3 are used. The system shown in the drawings has a capability of correcting for frequency offsets larger than 1.5 MHz on channels 2 and 7 and approximately 2 MHz on channels 6 and 13. The remainder of the channels have a range between these two values.
If the receiver is not tuned properly, the micromputer 23 executes the localized search of the tuning range mentioned above. Since there is a necessary settling down time for the tuning of a television receiver immediately following selection of a new channel, a time interval of 250 milliseconds has been selected to prevent any localized search or offset frequency correction until the expiration of this "settling down" time period. If, at the end of this 250 millisecond time interval, a properly tuned station is present, this is indicated by the sensory outputs from the television receiver and no localized search is effected to change the division ratio or programmable divider count in the reference counter 35 for a system that also has signal seek.
A system with no signal seek capability is described later that requires less sensory input but which uses a time period where a forced search is required directly after the settling time interval.
Upon termination of the 250 millisecond settling down period, the microcomputer 23 is rendered responsive to the sensory input signals on its sensory input signal ports. In the simplest form, only the output of the frequency discriminator 60 (FIG. 3) applied to three comparators 61, 62 and 63 is used to provide the necessary tuning information to the microcomputer 23. The outputs of these comparators are applied to the B12 and B11 inputs of the microcomputer.
The comparator 61 simply is a conventional comparator for determining whether or not the output of the frequency discriminator is positive or negative, as indicated in the upper waveform of FIG. 5. The comparators 62 and 63 are each adjusted with appropriate reference input levels to provide a narrow window centered about the center tuning frequency (fc) of the receiver. If the tuning of the receiver, as indicated by the output of the frequency discriminator 60, is outside this window on either side of the central axis shown in FIG. 5, one output condition is indicated on the input terminal B11 of the microcomputer. Only when the tuning frequency is within the tuning window, indicative of a properly tuned receiver, is the appropriate input applied to the microcomputer input terminal B11. This input overrides any other input that may be present on the input terminal B12 and is indicative of a properly tuned receiver. The input from the frequency discriminator 60, as applied to the microcomputer on its input port B12, is used to determine the direction of operation of the counter 82 of the microcomputer for the localized search count signals applied to the latch circuits 49 and 50 to change the count of the reference programmable divider counter 35 on a step-by-step basis.
The lower graph of FIG. 5 plots the relative frequency of the local oscillator 11 to the received signal frequency with respect to time. The various arrows are used to indicate the manner of operation of the counter 82 in the microcomputer 23 in conjunction with the reference counter 35 for adjusting for any mistuning conditions which may exist after the initial station selection has been effected in the manner described above.
If the receiver is properly tuned, the outputs from the comparators 62 and 63 of FIG. 3 which are combined together and applied to the input port B11 of the microcomputer 23, provide an indication that the tuning is within the properly tuned center frequency window. As a consequence, no further operation of the microcomputer to change any of the outputs applied to the latch circuits 49 and 50 for the duration of this condition is effected. On the other hand, if the receiver is mistuned on either side of the proper tuning frequency, the various operating characteristics shown in FIG. 5 are effected.
Assume initially that the receiver is capable of making tuning adjustments over a range of fc plus Δf to fc minus Δf, as indicated in the top waveform of FIG. 5. Three specific examples of mistuning will then be considered. Initially, assume that the local oscillator is mistuned relative to the received signal to a frequency f1 as shown in the lower graph of FIG. 5. In this condition, the outout of the frequency discriminator 60 is positive since this signal frequency lies to the lefthand side of the center or properly tuned region of operation of the discriminator. Under this condition of the operation, the input signal applied to the sensor port B12 of the microcomputer 23 is such that the microcomputer counter 82 is caused to advance in a positive direction to change the programmable division ratio or count of the reference counter 35 in a manner to force the output of the phase comparator 37 to adjust the frequency of the local oscillator until the proper tuning indicated at point B in the lower graph of FIG. 5 is reached. The time interval for accomplishing this result is measured from the upper end of the arrow representative of the frequency f1 to the point B.
Now assume that the receiver mistuning is to a frequency f2 which as shown in FIG. 5 as located on the righthand-side of the center axis fc. In this condition, the discriminator output is negative. This is reflected in the output of the comparator 61 applied to the input port B12 of the microcomputer 23. The polarity of this signal is identified by the microcomputer 23 to cause the counter 82 in it to operate in the reverse direction. As this count is applied on a step-by-step basis through the latch circuits 49 and 50 to the reference counter 35, the division ratio or count of the reference counter (divider) 35 is changed. As a result, the reference oscillator signal applied to the phase comparator 37 causes the phase comparator 37 output to drive the local oscillator frequency in a direction opposite to that considered in the first example. This is shown by the vector interconnecting the top of the arrow representative of f2 to point A on the time/frequency graph of FIG. 5.
As discussed in the general discussion above, whenever the tuning frequency reaches the narrow window on either side of fc, the outputs of the comparators 62 and 63 provide the necessary indication on the sensory input port terminal B11 to cause termination of the operation of the counter 82 in the microcomputer 23. Then the reference counter 35 remains set to the count attained just prior to the appearance of this input signal on the input port B11 of the microcomputer 23.
A third mistuning condition can exist, and ordinarily this condition results in an ambiguity which cannot be corrected simply by responding to the signal polarity at the output of the frequency discriminator. This is indicated by the mistuned condition where the difference between the local oscillator frequency f3 and the transmitter frequency is such that the signal f3 lies in the range to the right of the negative portion of the discriminator output shown in the upper waveform of FIG. 5. In this condition, the associated sound causes the discriminator output to be positive; so that the television receiver normally would attempt to tune toward the next adjacent channel and away from the properly tuned center frequency of the channel which is desired. The output of the discriminator 60 in this situation is the same as it was in the first example considered for frequency f1; so that the counter 82 of the microprocessor 23 operates to change the count in the reference counter 35 in a manner to cause the local oscillator frequency to go higher toward a frequency f3 +Δf, as shown in FIG. 5.
A predetermined number of counts of the counter 82 in the microcomputer 23 are necessary for the microcomputer to count through the frequency range Δf, and this range is selected to be within the pull in or operating range of the system. Once this count has been attained, the microcomputer counter 82 immediately is reset back to a count which corresponds to a frequency 2 Δf lower than the frequency attained by the maximum count. This is indicated in FIG. 5 by the frequency f3-Δf. Because the microcomputer counter 82 is limited to counting a number of counts equal to Δf, this new frequency now is on the lefthand side of the center line fc, shown in both waveforms of FIG. 5. This places the local oscillator frequency at a point such that the frequency discriminator output is the positive output shown on the lefthand-side of the upper waveform of FIG. 5. Counting continues in the same direction as previously. This time, however, it is in a proper direction to bring about correct tuning; and when the center frequency is reached, the output of the comparators 62 and 63 cause the microcomputer 23 to stop its count. The proper tuning point attained is indicated at point C on the graph of the lower part of FIG. 5.
Because the counter 82 of the microcomputer is limited to a maximum count equivalent to Δf above its initial count and thereupon is reset to a new count equivalent to 2 Δf lower than the maximum count, it is not necessary to utilize any other sensory inputs in order to properly tune the receiver over a wide pull in range (as much as plus or minus 2 MHz). Only the output of the conventional frequency discriminator 60 is used to provide the necessary sensory inputs.
The counter 82 of the microcomputer 23 is operated by the clock 81 during the foregoing sequence of operation, immediately following the selection of a new channel by the operation of the keyboard 25, at a fast or high speed operation. Typically, the counter steps are 10 milliseconds per step; so that there are no initial visual effects which can be noticed by an observer of the television screen of the receiver being tuned. The maximum forced search period is approximately 900 milliseconds in duration. At the end of this time interval, a timer in the microcomputer 23 causes a signal to be applied through the outputs of the E output port to the decoder circuit 52 indicative of the completion of this time interval. The decoder 52 then applies a pulse on an output lead connected to the B13 input of the B input port of the microcomputer 23. This pulse is sensed by the microcomputer 23 and is applied to the clock 81 to change the clock rate to a much slower rate, approximately one-third (1/3) or one-fourth (1/4) the rate used previously during the forced search mode of operation. This then permits the system to accomodate station drifts which normally occur at a very slow rate during the transmission and reception of a television signal. As a consequence, it is possible to use more filtering in the filter 39 on the tuning line (FIG. 1) and employ a smaller frequency window for the channel verification sensed by the circuitry shown in FIG. 3. The result is a more precise tuning from the receiver than is otherwise possible if only a high speed operation of the clock 81 is utilized.
When the channel once again is changed by operation of the keys in the keyboard 25 or operation of the channel selection circuitry from a remote control unit, this new channel input is sensed by the microcomputer 23 from the signals applied to the A input port and the clock 81 is reset to its fast time or the forced search mode of operation; and the process resumes.
Instead of employing an additional decoding function in the decoder 52, a separate decoder also could be connected to the outputs of the D output ports to feed back the signal to the B13 input terminal of the B input port of the microcomputer 23. The operation of the system to change the rate or frequency of the pulses applied by the clock 81 to the counter 82 otherwise is the same as described above.
Although applicant has found that it is preferable to correct for mistuning or frequency offsets by adjusting the count or division ratio of the counter 35, such offset adjustments also could be effected by adjusting the count in the counter 31 in the local oscillator signal line. The operation in such a case is the same as described above for adjusting the count in the counter 35.
If the receiver is to be used with an automatic signal seek mode of operation, however, additional sensory inputs are necessary. These inputs operate in conjunction with the output of the frequency discriminator 60. The operation of the microcomputer 23 in controlling the count of the reference programmable frequency counter divider 35 is the same as described above. The additional sensory inputs simply are used in conjunction with the outputs of the comparators 62 and 63 to signal the microcomputer 23 to assure that tuning is to a picture channel rather than an adjacent sound channel. This is accomplished by utilizing the output of the synchronizing signal separator 65 which is applied to a comparator 67 to produce an output signal to the SNS1 sensory input of the microcomputer 23 only when vertical synchronizing signal components are present.
In addition, the output of a picture carrier detector 69 is applied to the input of a comparator 70 to produce an output to the B10 sensory input of the microcomputer 23. If the picture carrier detector 69 is producing an output indicative of the presence of a carrier, but no output is being obtained from the vertical synch separator 65 at the same time, the system is mistuned to a sound carrier and the microcomputer 23 is permitted to continue its localized search until a properly tuned station is found. Only when there is coincidence of signals from the picture carrier detector 69, the synch signal separator 65, and the automatic frequency discriminator window as determined by the comparators 62 and 63, is the microcomputer operation terminated to indicate that a properly tuned channel is present.
Further insurance of tuning the receiver only to a strong signal also can be provided by the addition of an AGC amplifier 72. This is connected to a comparator 74 coupled to the B10 input port along with the output of the picture carrier detector comparator 70. When the AGC amplifier 72 is used as a sensory input, the microcomputer operation, when the system is used in a signal seek mode, is only terminated to indicate reception of a valid signal when that signal is strong enough to produce the desired output from the comparator 74. The signal level which is acceptable is set by a potentiometer 75.
It should be noted that when the system is operated in a signal seek mode, the sensory inputs must indicate the reception of a properly tuned signal within a pre-established time period. If no signal is sensed by the various sensory input circuits operating in conjunction with one another as described above, the microcomputer 23 automatically steps to the next channel number and repeats the sequence of operation described above. This is when it is placed in its signal seek mode of operation. If signal seek is not employed, the additional sensory circuits 65, 69 and 72 are not necessary, and the inputs to the microcomputer which are provided from these sensory circuits are not utilized. The sensory signal input which is used both for a receiver without a signal seek capability of operation and for a receiver which has a signal seek mode of operation in it, is the output of the frequency discriminator 60 operating in conjunction with the comparators 61, 62 and 63 as described above.
As indicated above, the wideband method of tuning precisely to an incoming signal that is at the wrong frequency described here only needs the frequency discriminator sensory information. The method that uses the additional sensors described above is needed to make this system operate compatibly with signal seek but it is not restricted to seek operation.
For a system that does not use signal seek operation, only the frequency discriminator sensory input is required for proper operation. The discriminator 60 is used for both fine tuning direction information and to produce a frequency window to indicate the presence of a correctly tuned station (channel verification). Initially, after a channel change, there is a 250 millisecond settling time, the same as the operation described above with compatible seek. After that, however, comes a period of time where a forced localized search is produced by the microcomputer 23. The forced search is needed to insure that the system will correctly tune to stations that initially may be tuned to the undesired zero voltage crossover in the right half of the upper curve of FIG. 5. Such signals may be within the frequency window of the discriminator 60; and if a search is not forced, this system will not correctly tune. The compatible seek system described previously correctly tunes the local oscillator without a forced search, because the picture carrier detector and vertical detector do not give an output for this situation and the system automatically goes into its search mode of operation. However, the non-seek system does not have a picture carrier sensor input and must be forced to search for an initial period of time sufficient to allow the system to tune up to its maximum frequency and then reset (loop) back to a frequency of 2 Δf lower. Then it is tuned to the positive left half portion of the discriminator curve (FIG. 5) and the frequency window created by the discriminator 60 is sufficient to insure proper tuning. If the discriminator output produced by the desired incoming signal created an initial situation that produces the correct tuning direction information, i.e., in the left half of the curve of FIG. 5, or in the right half portion that gives the correct direction and

frequency window information, the forced search would not be needed. However, the forced search will produce a correct tuning situation anyway. In these cases, the tuning either is correct to begin with or correct tuning is reached quickly. Then, even though the forced search is active, it simply alternates up and down through the correct tuning point because each time the receiver is tuned a little high in frequency, it produces a negative output from the discriminator 60; and the tuning direction signal causes the system to tune down in frequency.

Then, a positive discriminator output is produced, and the system tunes up in frequency. This continues until the forced search is removed by time-out of the microcomputer 23 (a fraction of a second). At such time, the receiver is correctly tuned by the frequency window of the discriminator to be very near fc. The system cannot tune to the undesired discriminator crossover shown in the right half portion of FIG. 5 because the polarity of the tuning direction signal always causes it to tune away from that point.
The fast time or forced search operation of the system can be terminated in a different way other than the preestablished time-out period described above in conjunction with the operation of the circuit shown in FIG. 2. Generally, it is desirable to build into the system (or program into the system by means of software) such a maximum time-out period to effect the operation which has been described above to terminate the search and cause the clock 81 thereafter to operate in a low speed mode of operation. Termination also can be accomplished by sensing the number of changes in the direction sensor input applied to the B12 terminal of the B input port to cause the search to be terminated when this direction changes three times (or more). By doing this, any flicker that might be observed on the screen of the television receiver is minimized, since the forced search still takes place at the high rate of application of clock pulses from the clock 81 to the counter 82 in the same manner described above.
Termination of the search, however, also may be effected by means of a search terminate counter 78 (FIG. 3), which is advanced by pulses applied to it each time the output of the comparator 61 changes its sign (indicative of a change in direction for the counter 82) as applied to it through the B12 input port, as described earlier. After three of these changes, or some other number if desired, an output pulse is obtained from the search terminate counter 78 and is applied to the SNS0 input of the microcomputer 23. This causes the operation of the clock 81 to be switched to its low speed mode of operation to terminate the fast or "forced search" mode of operation. The next time a new channel number is entered on the keyboard 25, a reset pulse is applied to the search terminate counter 78 to reset it to its original or zero count, thereby readying it for another sequence of operation. It is apparent that the search terminate counter 78 may not always be operated to terminate the count, since the time-out interval which is sensed by the decode circuit 52 and applied to the B13 input port of the microcomputer 23 may occur before there are three changes of direction of the search. In any event, the next time a new channel number is entered into the keyboard 25, the search terminate counter 78 is reset; so that it is irrelevant whether this counter reaches a full count or not to effect the termination of the forced search operation of the system.
FIG. 4 shows the control sequence of the system which is stored in the ROM (Read Only Memory) of the microcomputer 23. The microcomputer 23 operates by always running through the flow sequence, via loops L1, L2 and L3. Loop L1 corresponds to a new channel selection by two digit number entry. Loop L2 corresponds to channel number increment or decrement by an up or down key operation, respectively, or by seek operation. Loop L3 corresponds to fine tuning, either manual or automatic. To obtain exact timing for system control, the microcomputer 23 receives a standard timing pulse from the output of the reference counter 35 divided in a divide-by-five counter 80 and applied to the A13 input port of the microcomputer 23. The control functions which are programmed into the microcomputer 23, as indicated in the flow chart of FIG. 4, are outlined in the following paragraphs.
Channel Number Correction: An invalid two digit channel number entry (0, 1, 84, 99) is corrected. When the operation of the receiver is in the signal seek mode, the next channel up from 83 is channel 2, and the next lower channel from channel 2 is 83.
PLL Control I: For a given channel number, a corresponding binary code for the PLL selector counter 31 is derived as described previously. For UHF channels, the local oscillator frequency separation between two adjacent channels is 6 MHz and the code for PLL is generated by the microcomputer 23 through means of a simple calculation. This code then is transferred from the microcomputer 23 to the latches 44, 45 and 46 as described previously.
PLL Control II: This routine of the microcomputer 23 is used to transfer the fine tuning data to the latches 49 and 50 which control the count of the reference counter 35 in the PLL circuit.
Channel Number Display: The channel number is transferred from the microcomputer 23 to the driver latches of the display driver circuit 29.
Key Input Detection: The keyboard is arranged as the matrix circuit shown in FIG. 2. ROM programming for scanning and acknowledging a keyboard entry only after successive indications provides protection against false entry due to contact bounce. The four data output lines of the D output port of the microcomputer 23 are used to transfer data to the phase lock loop section of the circuit and to the display circuit 29, as well as for scanning the keyboard matrix circuit.
Time Count: The microcomputer 23 receives a basic timing pulse of approximately 200 Hz from the output of the divider 80 and performs various controls for each timing pulse. By way of example, sensing for the vertical synch input (when the system is used with a signal seek capability) on the input port SNS1 takes place every 2.5 milliseconds. Automatic seek timing is selected to be 133 milliseconds for UHF channels. All of these timing pulses are derived from the basic synchronization timing pulse applied to the microcomputer on the A13 input port from the output of the divider 80. Various other timing values used in the microcomputer to properly time multiplex sequence the operation are derived from this basic timing pulse.
Sensor Input Detection: As described previously, the output of the comparators shown in FIG. 3 reflect the status of the tuning of the television receiver. If no signal seek mode of operation is used, only the frequency discriminator or AFT discriminator 60 is necessary. When a system is being used in a signal seek mode, a proper television signal receipt is indicated by the presence of a vertical synch signal at the output of the synch signal separator 65 and corresponding outputs are applied to the input leads B10 and B11 (high level input signals) indicative of tuning to the "correct tuned" frequency discriminator window and reception of a picture carrier. As stated previously, the signal present on the B12 input lead is used to determine the direction of tuning when the receiver is operated in its automatic mode.
Mode Detection: The status of the seek and automatic/manual (A/M) switches are detected. If the A/M switch (not shown) is in its automatic position, automatic seek and offset correction are active. If only the seek switch is on, only seek is performed. If the A/M switch is in manual, manual fine tuning (MFT) is active.
Automatic Mode: If the TV receiver is not properly tuned for VHF channels in automatic, the local oscillator frequency is shifted automatically toward proper tuning. The fine tuning data is generated in the microcomputer 23 and is transferred to the latches 49 and 50 for the reference counter 35 in the PLL circuit.
Manual Fine Tuning (MFT) Control: The local oscillator frequency is shifted by pushing the fine tuning up (U) or down (D) pushbutton or switch. This MFT control can be applied to VHF channels as well as to UHF channels.
Channel Up/Down: When a channel up (upward pointing arrow) or down (downward pointing arrow) key closure in the keyboard 25 is detected, or upon a direct access to an unused channel, this routine is activated and the system will advance to the next channel in the selected direction.
The foregoing embodiment of the invention which has been described above and which is illustrated in the drawings is to be considered illustrative of the invention, which is not limited to the specific embodiment selected for this purpose. For example, hard-wired logic could be used to achieve the various circuit operations which are accomplished by the microcomputer 23 in conjunction with the other portions of the system. The relative ease of programming and debugging the microcomputer 23, however, make it much simpler to implement the system operation with the microcomputer than with hard-wired logic. With respect to the sensor circuit inputs to the system, an added degree of operating assurance can be provided by the addition of a sound carrier sensor in addition to the picture carrier sensor shown in FIG. 3. If this feature is desired, the output of the comparator for the sound carrier is combined with the outputs of the comparators 70 and 74 at the input terminal B10 of the B input port of the microcomputer 23. Because of the manner of the circut operation which has been described previously, however, the addition of a sound carrier detector to the system is not considered necessary, even for a system operating in the signal seek mode of operation. This is in contrast to conventional television receivers having a signal seek operation, in which detection of the sound carrier generally is a necessity to insure that mistuning of the receiver to an adjacent sound carrier does not take place.



No comments:

Post a Comment

The most important thing to remember about the Comment Rules is this:
The determination of whether any comment is in compliance is at the sole discretion of this blog’s owner.

Comments on this blog may be blocked or deleted at any time.
Fair people are getting fair reply. Spam and useless crap and filthy comments / scrapers / observations goes all directly to My Private HELL without even appearing in public !!!

The fact that a comment is permitted in no way constitutes an endorsement of any view expressed, fact alleged, or link provided in that comment by the administrator of this site.
This means that there may be a delay between the submission and the eventual appearance of your comment.

Requiring blog comments to obey well-defined rules does not infringe on the free speech of commenters.

Resisting the tide of post-modernity may be difficult, but I will attempt it anyway.

Your choice.........Live or DIE.
That indeed is where your liberty lies.