Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

In Brief: On this site you will find pictures and information about some of the electronic, electrical and electrotechnical Obsolete technology relics that the Frank Sharp Private museum has accumulated over the years .
Premise: There are lots of vintage electrical and electronic items that have not survived well or even completely disappeared and forgotten.

Or are not being collected nowadays in proportion to their significance or prevalence in their heyday, this is bad and the main part of the death land. The heavy, ugly sarcophagus; models with few endearing qualities, devices that have some over-riding disadvantage to ownership such as heavy weight,toxicity or inflated value when dismantled, tend to be under-represented by all but the most comprehensive collections and museums. They get relegated to the bottom of the wants list, derided as 'more trouble than they are worth', or just forgotten entirely. As a result, I started to notice gaps in the current representation of the history of electronic and electrical technology to the interested member of the public.

Following this idea around a bit, convinced me that a collection of the peculiar alone could not hope to survive on its own merits, but a museum that gave equal display space to the popular and the unpopular, would bring things to the attention of the average person that he has previously passed by or been shielded from. It's a matter of culture. From this, the Obsolete Technology Tellye Web Museum concept developed and all my other things too. It's an open platform for all electrical Electronic TV technology to have its few, but NOT last, moments of fame in a working, hand-on environment. We'll never own Colossus or Faraday's first transformer, but I can show things that you can't see at the Science Museum, and let you play with things that the Smithsonian can't allow people to touch, because my remit is different.

There was a society once that was the polar opposite of our disposable, junk society. A whole nation was built on the idea of placing quality before quantity in all things. The goal was not “more and newer,” but “better and higher" .This attitude was reflected not only in the manufacturing of material goods, but also in the realms of art and architecture, as well as in the social fabric of everyday life. The goal was for each new cohort of children to stand on a higher level than the preceding cohort: they were to be healthier, stronger, more intelligent, and more vibrant in every way.

The society that prioritized human, social and material quality is a Winner. Truly, it is the high point of all Western civilization. Consequently, its defeat meant the defeat of civilization itself.

Today, the West is headed for the abyss. For the ultimate fate of our disposable society is for that society itself to be disposed of. And this will happen sooner, rather than later.

OLD, but ORIGINAL, Well made, Funny, Not remotely controlled............. and not Made in CHINA.

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Note that if you don't find what you searched for, try it after a period of time; the site is a never ending job !

Every CRT Television saved let revive knowledge, thoughts, moments of the past life which will never return again.........

Many contemporary "televisions" (more correctly named as displays) would not have this level of staying power, many would ware out or require major services within just five years or less and of course, there is that perennial bug bear of planned obsolescence where components are deliberately designed to fail and, or manufactured with limited edition specificities..... and without considering........picture......sound........quality........
..............The bitterness of poor quality is remembered long after the sweetness of todays funny gadgets low price has faded from memory........ . . . . . .....
Don't forget the past, the end of the world is upon us! Pretty soon it will all turn to dust!

Have big FUN ! !
©2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 Frank Sharp - You do not have permission to copy photos and words from this blog, and any content may be never used it for auctions or commercial purposes, however feel free to post anything you see here with a courtesy link back, btw a link to the original post here , is mandatory.
All sets and apparates appearing here are property of Engineer Frank Sharp. NOTHING HERE IS FOR SALE !
All posts are presented here for informative, historical and educative purposes as applicable within Fair Use.

Tuesday, May 17, 2011


One of the first PRANDONI B/W television chassis fully transistorized and with implementation of ASIC ICs ..

The chassis is awesome divided in 2 main panels carrying the power and deflection+EHT and all signal processing part on the left side.

Furthermore the chassis is manis isolated and it's running with low voltages via a transformer for this scope.

Based mainly on TCA311 AND TBA311A17 AND TBA120S (SOUND IF) and many discretes.


- The tuner is directly applicated on the front tuning keyboard assy's.

- The EHT Output is realized with a selenium rectifier.

The EHT selenium rectifier which is a Specially designed selenium rectifiers were once widely used as EHT rectifiers in television sets and photocopiers. A layer of selenium was applied to a sheet of soft iron foil, and thousands of tiny discs (typically 2mm diameter) were punched out of this and assembled as "stacks" inside ceramic tubes. Rectifiers capable of supplying tens of thousands of volts could be made this way. Their internal resistance was extremely high, but most EHT applications only required a few hundred microamps at most, so this was not normally an issue. With the development of inexpensive high voltage silicon rectifiers, this technology has fallen into disuse.


The TBA 311 is a monolithic integrated circuit in a 16-lead clual in-line or quad in—Iine
plastic package. It is intended for use as signal processing circuit for black and
white and colour television sets.
The circuit is designed for receivers equipped with tubes or transistors in the deflection
and video output stages, and with PNP or NPN transistors in the tuner and NPN in
the IF amplifier.
Only signals with the negative modulation can be handled by the circuit. The circuit
is protected against short circuit between video output and GND. The TBA 311 includes:


All circuits were made by:

SGS is Società Generale Semiconduttori - Aquila Tubi E Semiconduttori (SGS-ATES, "Semiconductor General Society - Tubes and Semiconductors Aquila"), later SGS Microelettronica, a former Italian company now merged into STMicroelectronics
SGS Microelettronica and Thomson Semiconducteurs were both long-established semiconductor companies. SGS Microelettronica originated in 1972 from a previous merger of two companies:
  • ATES (Aquila Tubi e Semiconduttori), a vacuum tube and semiconductor maker headquartered in the Abruzzese city of l'Aquila, who in 1961 changed its name into Azienda Tecnica ed Elettronica del Sud and relocated its manufacturing plant in the outskirts of the Sicilian city of Catania
  • Società Generale Semiconduttori (founded in 1957 by Adriano Olivetti).

Power supply is realized with mains transformer and Linear transistorized power supply stabilizer, A DC power supply apparatus includes a rectifier circuit which rectifies an input commercial AC voltage. The rectifier output voltage is smoothed in a smoothing capacitor. Voltage stabilization is provided in the stabilizing circuits by the use of Zener diode circuits to provide biasing to control the collector-emitter paths of respective transistors.A linear regulator circuit according to an embodiment of the present invention has an input node receiving an unregulated voltage and an output node providing a regulated voltage. The linear regulator circuit includes a voltage regulator, a bias circuit, and a current control device.

In one embodiment, the current control device is implemented as an NPN bipolar junction transistor (BJT) having a collector electrode forming the input node of the linear regulator circuit, an emitter electrode coupled to the input of the voltage regulator, and a base electrode coupled to the second terminal of the bias circuit. A first capacitor may be coupled between the input and reference terminals of the voltage regulator and a second capacitor may be coupled between the output and reference terminals of the voltage regulator. The voltage regulator may be implemented as known to those skilled in the art, such as an LDO or non-LDO 3-terminal regulator or the like.
The bias circuit may include a bias device and a current source. The bias device has a first terminal coupled to the output terminal of the voltage regulator and a second terminal coupled to the control electrode of the current control device. The current source has an input coupled to the first current electrode of the current control device and an output coupled to the second terminal of the bias device. A capacitor may be coupled between the first and second terminals of the bias device.
In the bias device and current source embodiment, the bias device may be implemented as a Zener diode, one or more diodes coupled in series, at least one light emitting diode, or any other bias device which develops sufficient voltage while receiving current from the current source. The current source may be implemented with a PNP BJT having its collector electrode coupled to the second terminal of the bias device, at least one first resistor having a first end coupled to the emitter electrode of the PNP BJT and a second end, a Zener diode and a second resistor. The Zener diode has an anode coupled to the base electrode of the PNP BJT and a cathode coupled to the second end of the first resistor. The second resistor has a first end coupled to the anode of the Zener diode and a second end coupled to the reference terminal of the voltage regulator. A second Zener diode may be included having an anode coupled to the cathode of the first Zener diode and a cathode coupled to the first current electrode of the current control device.
A circuit is disclosed for improving operation of a linear regulator, having an input terminal, an output terminal, and a reference terminal. The circuit includes an input node, a transistor, a bias circuit, and first and second capacitors. The transistor has a first current electrode coupled to the input node, a second current electrode for coupling to the input terminal of the linear regulator, and a control electrode. The bias circuit has a first terminal for coupling to the output terminal of the linear regulator and a second terminal coupled to the control electrode of the transistor. The first capacitor is for coupling between the input and reference terminals of the linear regulator, and the second capacitor is for coupling between the output and reference terminals of the linear regulator. The bias circuit develops a voltage sufficient to drive the control terminal of the transistor and to operate the linear regulator. The bias circuit may be a battery, a bias device and a current source, a floating power supply, a charge pump, or any combination thereof. The transistor may be implemented as a BJT or FET or any other suitable current controlled device.


A unidirectional conductive device is coupled from a base terminal to a collector terminal of a horizontal deflection output transistor in a television receiver and poled in a direction to prevent the transistor from saturating when it is driven into its conductive state during a portion of each deflection cycle. Biasing means is coupled to the diode to preselect the desired operating voltage of the transistor during its conduction period.

1. In a television receiver, a deflection circuit comprising: 2. A circuit as defined in claim 1 wherein said transformer is an auto-transformer and said second terminal is intermediate said first and 3. In a television receiver, a deflection circuit comprising:
The present invention relates to transistorized deflection circuits utilized in television receivers.

In present day transistor deflection circuits, for example, those used in the horizontal output stage of a television receiver; the output transistor is normally operated in a switching mode, that is, the transistor is driven into saturation during a trace interval of each deflection cycle and driven out of conduction during the retrace portion of each deflection cycle. By operating the transistor in its saturation region, average power losses are minimized. With saturated operation, however, the accumulation of minority carriers in the base region will effect a continuation in the flow of collector current after the trace interval during the initial portion of the retrace interval while the transistor is being driven into its non-conducting state. In addition to causing this undesirable delay time in turning off the transistor, losses occurring during this period may be localized in small areas commonly referred to as "hot spots." These losses are characterized in being regenerative and tend to cause second breakdown of the device. This effect is explained in greater detail in a paper authored by the present inventor and entitled "Thermal Regeneration in Power Dissipating Elements" which appeared in "The Electronic Engineer" publication in the January 1967 issue. Although operating the horizontal output transistor in its saturated region may reduce the average power dissipated in this device during its conduction interval, it increases the possibility of second breakdown during the turn-off time. With the advent of high voltage (1,500 volts) transistors, it is possible to develop the necessary output energy utilizing one of these transistors which can be operated in a non-saturated mode. The circuit of the present invention insures that the deflection output transistor will not be driven into saturation.

Certain low power transistor switching circuits, such as employed in computer applications, have utilized diodes in conjunction with resistive biasing means coupled between the base and collector terminals to prevent the transistor from saturating and thereby increase the maximum switching frequency of the circuit by reducing the turn-off time of the device.

In the solid state deflection art, however, it is desirable to reduce the turn-off time of the device not to increase the frequency of operation of the circuit, but rather to prevent second breakdown of the device as the relatively large inductive voltage pulse appears during the initial portion of the flyback interval, when current flowing through the deflection winding is interrupted to initiate the retrace portion of each deflection cycle.

The non-saturated operation of the deflection output transistor is achieved in circuits embodying the present invention by automatically holding the collector voltage above the saturation level by shunting excess base drive from the base to emitter junction into the collector circuit. Prior transistor deflection systems employ only the saturated operation of the deflection output device.

Circuits embodying the present invention include a deflection output transistor having a diode coupled between its base and collector terminals and poled to prevent the transistor from being driven into saturation during its conduction period of each deflection cycle.

The invention can be more fully understood by referring to the drawings together with the description below and the accompanying claims.

In the drawings:

FIG. 1 illustrates in block and schematic diagram form, a television receiver including a solid state deflection output stage embodying the present invention;

FIG. 2a is a waveform diagram of the voltage present at the collector terminal 55c of transistor 55 in FIG. 1;

FIG. 2b shows the drive current to terminal A in FIG. 1;

FIG. 2c is a waveform diagram of the current in diode 56 in FIG. 1;

FIG. 2d is a waveform diagram of the base current flowing in transistor 55 of FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of an alternative embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 4a is a waveform diagram of the voltage appearing at the terminal 366 in FIG. 3;

FIG. 4b is a waveform diagram of the drive current to terminal A in FIG. 3;

FIG. 4c is a waveform diagram of the current in diode 356 in FIG. 3; and

FIG. 4d is a waveform diagram of the base drive current to transistor 355 in FIG. 3.

Referring specifically to FIG. 1, an antenna 10 receives television signals and couples these signals to a tuner 12 which selects the desired radio frequency signals of a predetermined broadcast channel, amplifies these signals, and converts the amplified radio frequency signals to a lower intermediate frequency (I.F.). The tuner 12 is coupled to an I.F. amplifier 14 which amplifies the intermediate frequency signals. The I.F. amplifier 14 is coupled to a video detector 16 which derives video information from the I.F. signals. The video detector 16 is coupled to a video driver stage 18 which amplifies the video signals. The video driver stage 18 is coupled to a video output stage 20, an automatic gain control stage 25 and a synchronizing separator stage 42. An output signal from video driver stage 18 may also be coupled to a sound channel (not shown) to reproduce the audio portion of the transmitted television program. The video output stage 20 couples amplified video information to a control element, such as a cathode 28, of a kinescope 30.

The automatic gain control stage 25 operates in a conventional manner to provide gain control signals which are applied to a radio frequency amplifier included in tuner 12 and to the I.F. amplifier 14. Sync separator 42 separates the synchronization information from the video information and also separates the horizontal synchronizing information for the vertical synchronizing information. The vertical synchronizing pulses derived from sync separator 42 are applied to the vertical deflection system 44 which provides the required deflection current to a vertical deflection winding 43 associated with kinescope 30 by means of the interconnection Y--Y. The horizontal synchronizing pulses from sync separator 42 are applied to an automatic frequency control detector 45 which serves to synchronize a horizontal oscillator 46 with the horizontal synchronizing pulses. The horizontal oscillator stage 46 is coupled to a horizontal driver stage 48 which develops the required drive signal and may be coupled by means of an output transformer in stage 48 (not shown) to a transistorized horizontal output stage 50. The transformer secondary, coupled to terminal A, provides a direct current path for the drive current.

The horizontal output stage 50 includes an output transistor 55 having a base, a collector and an emitter terminal 55b, 55c and 55e, respectively. A resistor 52 and a capacitor 53 are coupled in parallel between the horizontal driver stage 48 and the base terminal 55b of transistor 55.

The output stage includes a unidirectional conductive device such as a diode 56 coupled between the base and collector terminals 55b and 55c of transistor 55. Stage 50 also includes a damper diode 57 coupled across transistor 55, a retrace capacitor 58 coupled across transistor 55 and the series combination of a horizontal deflection winding 59 and an S-shaping capacitor 60 also coupled across transistor 55. Output stage 50 also includes a flyback transformer 61 with a primary winding 61p coupled from a source of operating potential (B+) to the collector terminal 55c of transistor 55. A secondary winding 61s on transformer 61 develops high voltage pulses which are coupled to a high voltage rectifier 63 to provide the ultor voltage for application to a terminal 32 on kinescope 30. Flyback transformer 61 may also include additional windings (not shown) for providing, for example, keying pulses to the AGC stage 25.

The output stage 50 in FIG. 1 is a conventional shunt fed trace driven circuit with the exception of the diode 56 and the bias network including resistor 52 and capacitor 53. Beginning at the center of the trace interval of the deflection cycle, the yoke current is zero and capacitor 60 has a maximum charge. The drive signal applied to the base terminal 55b of transistor 55 turns this device on, thereby completing the conduction path for yoke current which includes capacitor 60, yoke 59 and the collector to emitter current path through transistor 55. During this portion of scan the yoke current is supplied by the charge on capacitor 60 and increases to a maximum value in one direction at which time scan retrace is initiated by driving transistor 55 out of conduction by applying an appropriate signal from the driver stage 48 to the base 55b of transistor 55. During the latter portion of the trace interval when the magnitude of the yoke current is increasing, the output transistor of prior circuits is normally driven into saturation and is in this conduction state at the instant retrace is initiated. During the first portion of retrace, the yoke current is at a maximum and resonates with the retrace capacitor 58 by charging capacitor 58 in a polarity to reverse bias the damper diode 57. As the yoke current decreases to zero, capacitor 58 has a maximum charge impressed upon it; and during the second portion of retrace, the capacitor (58) drives current through the yoke in a reverse direction until it is discharged and the voltage across it reverses sufficiently to forward bias damper diode 57. Diode 57 then conducts during this first portion of trace to complete the current path for yoke current which is, at this instant, at a maximum value in a direction in yoke 59 to charge capacitor 60 and is increasing toward zero. At the mid-point of trace the yoke current has reached zero and the cycle is completed by driving transistor 55 into conduction once again.

Turning now to the operation of the circuitry of FIG. 1 including the present invention, reference is made to the waveform diagrams of FIG. 2. The initial portion of trace is represented in FIG. 2 by the time period between t 0 and t 1 in the figure. It is recalled that during this period damper diode 57 is conducting. The voltage at collector terminal 55c of transistor 55 is represented by the voltage waveform (V c ) in FIG. 2a and is equal to the forward voltage drop across diode 57 which is of the order of -0.7 volts. At some non-critical time before t 1 , the horizontal driver 48 provides a drive current (I A ), as is shown in FIG. 2b. This current flows through diode 56 as is illustrated in FIG. 2c, since the diode is forward biased. [The cathode of diode 56 is at the same voltage as collector terminal 55c (-0.07 volts) and the drive current produces a positive voltage at point A which is at the anode of diode 56.] As time t 1 (the center of trace) is reached, damper diode 57 turns off allowing the collector voltage on transistor 55 to increase as shown in FIG. 2a. At the same time, a portion of the drive current flowing into terminal A is conducted by the now forward biased base to emitter junction of transistor 55 as is illustrated by the waveform of FIG. 2d. Transistor 55 is now conducting the increasing yoke current during the latter portion of scan represented by the period from t 1 to t 2 in FIG. 2. As the magnitude of the yoke current increases during the t 1 to t 2 interval, the base current in transistor 55 increases as shown in FIG. 2d. Diode 56 conducts as illustrated in FIG. 2c to shunt the remaining portion of the applied drive current at terminal A. It is noted that the sum of the currents shown in FIGS. 2c and 2d will equal the current shown in FIG. 2b. The values of resistor 52 and capacitor 53 can be selected to hold the transistor collector voltage at a preselected value sufficient to prevent saturation of the transistor 55. If, for example, the voltage across capacitor 53 is 5.3 volts, the voltage at terminal A with respect to ground will be approximately 6 volts (5.3 volts plus the forward voltage drop across the base-emitter junction of transistor 55). The collector voltage will then be approximately equal to the voltage at terminal A less the forward voltage drop across diode 56. It is desirable to choose values of resistor 52 and capacitor 53 to operate transistor 55 near but not into the saturation region of conduction during the latter portion of each trace interval.

At time t 2 retrace is initiated by applying a relatively large negative drive signal as shown in FIG. 2b to the base terminal of transistor 55. During the retrace interval (t 2 to t 0 in FIG. 2), the collector voltage increases in a typical manner as illustrated in FIG. 2a. At time t 0 the cycle is again repeated.

The circuit modification illustrated in FIG. 3 is another embodiment of the invention which reduces the change in voltage applied to the yoke 59 of FIG. 1 at time t 1 . As shown in FIG. 2a, when diode 57 turns off and transistor 55 conducts, the voltage at the collector terminal 55c of transistor 55 changes by as much, for example, as 6 volts. This voltage change, which is coupled to the yoke 59, will vary the rate of change of yoke current during the center of trace and may, in certain circuits, cause an undesirable non-linearity in the scanning rate. As FIG. 4a illustrates, the circuit of FIG. 3 reduces this change in voltage at the mid-point of trace (t 1 ).

Referring to FIG. 3, the circuit elements which correspond to those of FIG. 1 are prefaced by the numeral 3. In explaining FIG. 3, it is helpful to refer to the waveform diagrams of FIG. 4. Transformer 364 in FIG. 3 is a tightly coupled auto-transformer wherein the tap point 365 may be, for example, at the 5 percent point on the transformer. That is, the segment between terminals 365 and 366 contain 5 percent of the total number of windings on transformer 364. Transformer 364 may also include a secondary winding such as the high voltage winding which is not shown in the figure. In operation, as drive current is applied at sometime prior to t 1 as is shown in FIG. 4b, damper diode 357 is conducting and the voltage at terminal 366 is therefore at approximately -0.7 volts. Drive current flowing into terminal A as represented in FIG. 4b will be conducted by diode 356 during this interval as indicated by the diode current waveform in FIG. 4c. At the middle portion of trace (t 1 ), the damper diode turns off and voltage at terminal 366 is thereby allowed to go slightly positive (less than 0.7 volts). The collector voltage of transistor 355 is held at a value of approximately 5 volts (assuming, for example, the B+ voltage is equal to 100 volts and the collector is coupled to the tap 365 on transformer 364 at a 5 percent point). At this instant, the base to emitter junction will be forward biased and transistor 355 conducts. It is seen that the anode voltage of diode 356 is at approximately +0.7 volts and its cathode which is coupled to terminal 366 is at a less positive voltage. Diode 356 begins to conduct during the latter portion of trace as illustrated by the current waveform diagram shown in FIG. 4c.

During the latter portion of trace, the transistor tends to saturate and the collector voltage at terminal 355c tends to decrease. As this occurs, more current will flow from the B+ terminal through the upper portion of transformer 364. Due to the relatively tight coupling of the segments of transformer 364, terminal 366 experiences a decrease in voltage which controls the forward bias applied to diode 356 to shunt sufficient drive current to hold the transistor 355 out of saturation. The collector voltage of transistor 355 is thus held at some preselected value depending on the location of tap point 365 on transformer 364. Since transformer 364 is utilized, terminal 366 will remain at a low voltage during the latter portion of trace as shown in FIG. 4a, and diode 356 will be forward biased during the application of a positive drive signal to terminal A. As before, the base drive current will increase and diode 356 conduction will decrease generally as shown in FIGS. 4c and 4d during the latter portion of trace. At time t 2 in FIG. 4, a negative drive pulse is applied to the circuit which initiates the retrace interval of the deflection cycle.

Although the specific embodiments of the invention are illustrated in the horizontal deflection output stage of a black and white television receiver, the invention has equal applicability to other deflection systems and may be utilized in a color television receiver.

- The EHT Output is realized with a selenium rectifier.

How AFC Circuit Works in B/W Analog Television Receiver:

Push-Button tuning on u.h.f. while being very convenient often leaves a margin of mistuning, especially after some wear and tear has occurred on the mechanism. Even dial tuning can lead to errors due to the difficulty many people experience in judging the correct point. Oscillator drift due to temperature changes can also cause mistuning. Automatic frequency control (a.f.c.) will correct all these faults. The vision carrier when the set is correctly tuned on u.h.f. is at 39.5MHz as it passes down the i.f. strip. Thus if at the end of the i.f. strip a discriminator tuned circuit is incorporated centred on 39.5MHz the discriminator output will be zero at 39.5MHz and will move positively' one side of 39.5MHz and negatively the other as the tuning drifts. This response is shown in Fig. 1.

If the tuning is not correct then the discriminator output is not zero and if this output is applied to change the reverse bias on a tuning diode mounted in the oscillator section of the u.h.f. tuner it will correct most of the error. Tuning, varicap or varactor diodes-to give them a few of their names-are junction diodes normally operated with reverse bias but not sufficient to bias them into the breakdown region in which zener diodes operate. The greater the reverse bias the lower their capacitance: a typical curve, for the PHILIPS BB105 or STC BA141 tuning diode, is shown in Fig. 2. All diodes exhibit this basic type of characteristic but special diodes have to be used for u.h.f. because they must not introduce any excessive loss into the tuned circuits they control. In other words, just as a coil has to have a good Q so does a varicap diode. Normally, we don't worry about the Q of a capacitor as it is usually very good. However, a tuning diode is not a true capacitor. It has, for example, leakage current so the Q of the diode is a factor which has to be considered. The diode manufacturer however will have considered these points and if you buy a diode specified for u.h.f. use you will have no trouble. These points have been mentioned to clear up any misunderstandings and to show why any old diode won't do.

Basic AFC System
To return to our TV set, if the oscillator frequency is too high then the vision carrier frequency will also be too high and in the simple arrangement shown in Fig. 3 the discriminator will give a negative signal to decrease the bias on the tuning diode thus increasing its capacitance and in turn reducing the oscillator frequency and correcting the error. Note that in this diagram the reverse bias on the diode is applied to its cathode. It is therefore positive with respect to ground so that a negative signal from the discriminator will reduce the positive voltage on the diode thus reducing its bias and increasing its capacitance. In this arrangement the diode is biased somewhere near the mid point of its characteristic by the positive d.c. bias fed into one side of the discriminator. The discriminator thus adds to or subtracts from this d.c. bias.

AFC Loop Gain:
The amount by which the error is reduced depends on the gain of the circuit. An estimate of the gain required must first be made by guessing how much error is likely to be given by your push -buttons or hand tuning: 1MHz would be an outside figure as a tuning error of that magnitude would produce a very bad picture of low definition in one direction and badly broken up in the other. This error should be reduced to about 100kHz to be really unnoticeable, indicating a required gain of ten. In fitting a.f.c. to an existing set some measure- ments should be done as an experiment before finally deciding on the circuit gain. The first thing to do is  to add the suggested discriminator to the i.f. strip. As the circuit (Fig. 4) shows a Foster -Seeley type discriminator is used and with the coils specified and the driver circuit shown it should give ±4V for 0.5MHz input variation.

EXAMPLE of Circuit Description:
The driver stage Tr1 takes a small sample signal from the i.f. strip but this should be large enough to drive Tr1 into saturation. That is to say Tr1 is a limiter stage so that the signal amplitude applied to the discriminator coil L2 stays constant over the normal range of signal levels. Trl is biased at approximately 7mA which, according to the original report ("Simple a.f.c. system for 625 -line TV receivers" by P. Bissmire, PHILIPS Technical Communications, March, 1970), gives the best limiting performance. C1, R14 and R3 damp the stage to prevent oscillation. C2 decouples the power feed and should be close to the circuit. The coil former and can are the normal ones used for TV sets and so should be easily obtainable: the former diameter is 5mm. and length 40mm. and winding details are given in Fig. 5.

The invention being thus described, it will be obvious that the same may be varied in many ways. Such variations are not to be regarded as a departure from the spirit and scope of the invention, and all such modifications as would be obvious to one skilled in the art are intended to be included within the scope of the developed apparates both tubes or transistors.

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