Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

In Brief: On this site you will find pictures and information about some of the electronic, electrical and electrotechnical Obsolete technology relics that the Frank Sharp Private museum has accumulated over the years .
Premise: There are lots of vintage electrical and electronic items that have not survived well or even completely disappeared and forgotten.

Or are not being collected nowadays in proportion to their significance or prevalence in their heyday, this is bad and the main part of the death land. The heavy, ugly sarcophagus; models with few endearing qualities, devices that have some over-riding disadvantage to ownership such as heavy weight,toxicity or inflated value when dismantled, tend to be under-represented by all but the most comprehensive collections and museums. They get relegated to the bottom of the wants list, derided as 'more trouble than they are worth', or just forgotten entirely. As a result, I started to notice gaps in the current representation of the history of electronic and electrical technology to the interested member of the public.

Following this idea around a bit, convinced me that a collection of the peculiar alone could not hope to survive on its own merits, but a museum that gave equal display space to the popular and the unpopular, would bring things to the attention of the average person that he has previously passed by or been shielded from. It's a matter of culture. From this, the Obsolete Technology Tellye Web Museum concept developed and all my other things too. It's an open platform for all electrical Electronic TV technology to have its few, but NOT last, moments of fame in a working, hand-on environment. We'll never own Colossus or Faraday's first transformer, but I can show things that you can't see at the Science Museum, and let you play with things that the Smithsonian can't allow people to touch, because my remit is different.

There was a society once that was the polar opposite of our disposable, junk society. A whole nation was built on the idea of placing quality before quantity in all things. The goal was not “more and newer,” but “better and higher" .This attitude was reflected not only in the manufacturing of material goods, but also in the realms of art and architecture, as well as in the social fabric of everyday life. The goal was for each new cohort of children to stand on a higher level than the preceding cohort: they were to be healthier, stronger, more intelligent, and more vibrant in every way.

The society that prioritized human, social and material quality is a Winner. Truly, it is the high point of all Western civilization. Consequently, its defeat meant the defeat of civilization itself.

Today, the West is headed for the abyss. For the ultimate fate of our disposable society is for that society itself to be disposed of. And this will happen sooner, rather than later.

OLD, but ORIGINAL, Well made, Funny, Not remotely controlled............. and not Made in CHINA.

How to use the site:
- If you landed here via any Search Engine, you will get what you searched for and you can search more using the search this blog feature provided by Google. You can visit more posts scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year,
or you can click on the main photo-page to start from the main page. Doing so it starts from the most recent post to the older post simple clicking on the Older Post button on the bottom of each page after reading , post after post.

You can even visit all posts, time to time, when reaching the bottom end of each page and click on the Older Post button.

- If you arrived here at the main page via bookmark you can visit all the site scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year pointing were you want , or more simple You can even visit all blog posts, from newer to older, clicking at the end of each bottom page on the Older Post button.
So you can see all the blog/site content surfing all pages in it.

- The search this blog feature provided by Google is a real search engine. If you're pointing particular things it will search IT for you; or you can place a brand name in the search query at your choice and visit all results page by page. It's useful since the content of the site is very large.

Note that if you don't find what you searched for, try it after a period of time; the site is a never ending job !

Every CRT Television saved let revive knowledge, thoughts, moments of the past life which will never return again.........

Many contemporary "televisions" (more correctly named as displays) would not have this level of staying power, many would ware out or require major services within just five years or less and of course, there is that perennial bug bear of planned obsolescence where components are deliberately designed to fail and, or manufactured with limited edition specificities..... and without considering........picture......sound........quality........
..............The bitterness of poor quality is remembered long after the sweetness of todays funny gadgets low price has faded from memory........ . . . . . .....
Don't forget the past, the end of the world is upon us! Pretty soon it will all turn to dust!

Have big FUN ! !
©2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 Frank Sharp - You do not have permission to copy photos and words from this blog, and any content may be never used it for auctions or commercial purposes, however feel free to post anything you see here with a courtesy link back, btw a link to the original post here , is mandatory.
All sets and apparates appearing here are property of Engineer Frank Sharp. NOTHING HERE IS FOR SALE !
All posts are presented here for informative, historical and educative purposes as applicable within Fair Use.

Saturday, November 3, 2012


The television receiver has an alphanumeric display  which appears on the picture tube screen, to give the user data on the tuned channel number, colour settings and other operating data. The digital processor which generates the characters for display also controls the channel setting, etc., under the control of a digital remote control unit . The processor  has an associated memory circuit  for permanente tuning back up. The control of the capacitance diode tuner  is achieved by the processor  altering the dividing factor of a feedback loop to a phase/frequency comparator . The other input to the comparator is a divided frequency from a quartz oscillator.The present invention concerns a television system with apparatus for controlling a relatively large number of functions and characteristics with only a relatively small number of control devices.

Television receivers have a relatively large number of functions that are controllable by the user. Typically, these include turning the receiver on and off, selecting channels, setting the volume level and adjusting certain picture characteristics such as brightness, contrast sharpness (sometimes called "peaking"), color level (or saturation) and color tint (or hue) and in television receivers with stereo sound provisions, adjusting certain audio characters such as balance, treble and bass. In addition, with the increased use of digital signal processing and microprocessors, a large number of other control functions have become economically practical. Often a control device is provided for each function or characteristic.

In the case of television receivers with analog signal processing systems, potentiometers are provided for adjusting respective picture and audio characteristics in both increasing and decreasing senses. However, in television receivers with digital signal processing systems it is anticipated that each of these potentiometers may be replaced by two pushbutton switches for digitally causing the respective characteristic to be increased or decreased. Therefore it is anticipated that a digital television receiver will require even more control devices than a comparable analog receiver.

It is desirable for cost and for human engineering reasons to limit the number of user operable control devices. Thus, there has been the desire to provide control apparatus for controlling a large number of functions and characteristics of a television receiver with only a few control devices.

In the past, attempts to make multiple use of switches for controlling various functions in order to limit the number of control devices have been confusing to users. Thus, there exists a need for plural-function and characteristic control apparatus in which multiple use is made of control devices with little or no confusion to users.

In accordance with a feature of the present invention, in a television system, a programming switch and a plurality of switches identified by respective symbols such as numbers, the latter being normally used for channel or television signal source selection, are used to select various functions of a receiver for control. When the programming switch is operated by a user, a character generator produces signals for displaying a list or menu of various receiver control functions, such as the controlling of the picture and audio responses on an image reproducing device associated with the television system. In the menu, each one of the functions is identified by one of the symbols associated with the signal source selection switches. Thereafter, a particular one of the functions displayed on the menu can be selected for control by operation of the corresponding signal source selection switch.

In accordance with another aspect of the invention, after a particular function has been selected for control, a list or menu of characteristics of the selected function, such as brightness, contrast, sharpness, color level and color tint characteristics of the picture response is caused to be displayed. In the menu, each of the functions is identified by one of the symbols associated with the signal source selection switches. Thereafter, a particular one of the characteristics displayed on the menu can be selected for adjustment by operation of the corresponding signal source selection switch. After a characteristic has been selected for control, positive and negative sense adjustment switches common to all the characteristics can be operated to adjust the selected characteristic.

The SAMSUNG MOD:CZ-6844W DIGITAL Colour television receiver or set , is known in which the majority of signal processing that takes place therein is carried out digitally. That is, a video or television signal is received in a conventional fashion using a known analog tuning circuit and then, following the tuning operation, the received analog television signal is converted into a digital signal and digitally processed before subsequently being converted back to an analog signal for display on a colour cathode ray tube.
In a conventional television receiver, all signals are analog-processed. Analog signal processing, however, has the problems at the video stage and thereafter. These problems stem from the general drawbacks of analog signal processing with regard to time-base operation, specifically, incomplete Y/C separation (which causes cross color and dot interference), various types of problems resulting in low picture quality, and low precision of synchronization. Furthermore, from the viewpoints of cost and ease of manufacturing the analog circuit, a hybrid configuration must be employed even if the main circuit comprises an IC. In addition to these disadvantages, many adjustments must be performed.

In order to solve the above problems, it is proposed to process all signals in a digital form from the video stage to the chrominance signal demodulation stage. In such a digital television receiver, various improvements in picture quality should result due to the advantages of digital signal processing.
Therefore digital television signal processing system introduced in 1984 by the Worldwide Semiconductor Group (Freiburg, West Germany) of International Telephone and Telegraph Corporation is described in an ITT Corporation publication titled "VLSI Digital TV System--DIGIT 2000." In that system color video signals, after being processed in digital (binary) form, are converted to analog form by means of digital-to-analog converters before being coupled to an image displaying kinescope. The analog color video signals are coupled to the kinescope via analog buffer amplifiers and video output kinescope driver amplifiers which provide video output signals at a high level suitable for driving intensity control electrodes of the kinescope.

The entire video processing and controlling for a color TV has been developed on a single chip in 0.8µ CMOS
technology. Modular design and submicron technology allow the economic integration of features in all classes
of TV sets.

Open architecture is the key word to the new DSP generation. Flexible standard building blocks have been defined that offer continuity and transparency of the entire system.
One IC contains the entire video and deflection processing and builds the heart of a modern color TV. Its performance and complexity allow the user to standardize his product development. Hardware and software appli-
cations can profit from the modularity as well as manufacturing, system support or maintenance. The main
features are:

– low cost, high performance
– all digital video processing
– multi-standard color decoder PAL/NTSC/SECAM
– 3 composite, 1 S–VHS input
– integrated high-quality AD/DA converters
– sync and deflection processing
– luminance and chrominance features, e.g.
peaking, color transient improvement
– programmable RGB matrix
– various digital interfaces
– embedded RISC controller (80 MIPS)
– one crystal, few external components
– single power supply 5 V
– 0.8µ CMOS Technology
– 68-pin PLCC or 64-pin Shrink DIL Package

Present-day, so-called digital television receivers generally contain at least two A/D converters ("analog-to-digital converters"). One of the A/D converters serves to convert the video signal from analog to digital form and is commonly located after the so-called sound trap, which keeps the sound-carrier signal out of the remaining signal. This first A/D converter is operated with a sampling signal whose frequency is usually four times the chrominance subcarrier frequency. Typically, this first A/D converter is a flash converter.
The second A/D converter is located at the beginning of the audio channel and, unlike the first-mentioned A/D converter, is generally a delta-sigma converter.

 During the further development and refinement of the current principle of a digital television receiver, it has turned out that each of the various current television standards, and also expected future television standards, require suitably designed subcircuits which lead to a great number of different types of integrated circuits. This is disadvantageous, particularly with regard to the mass production of integrated circuits.
It is, therefore, the object of the invention as claimed to provide a circuit principle for television receiving sections having at least one interface between the analog signal processing circuitry and the digital signal-processing circuitry which permits considerably simpler adaptation to different television standards and reduces the number of A/D converters required.
The main idea underlying the invention is to use a single A/D converter already at the output of the intermediate-frequency stage (i.e., where the signal, still in its analog format, lies in a frequency range between about 30 MHz and 40 MHz). The clock signal of this A/D converter has a frequency approximately equal to twice the bandwidth of the received signal (e.g., a frequency of about 20 MHz). After this A/D converter, the received signal is divided into a video-information-processing channel ("the video channel"), and an audio-information processing channel ("the audio channel"). Compared to the conventional solution described above, the need for the separate audio-channel A/D converter is eliminated, so that in a currently marketable system, a complete integrated circuit is saved.

Furthermore it adds for first time a  digital sound processor for processing multistandard sound signals which are fed as analog or digital signals from at least one source to the sound processor at baseband or higher frequencies.
Such sound processors are suitable for processing sound signals of various transmission standards for entertainment electronics, such as sound signals of different television standards, satellite receivers, video recorders, radios with traffic information message decoders, etc., but also sound signals which are generated by means of specific personal computer sound cards. Via control inputs, the processing in the digital sound processor is adapted to the respective transmission standard or sound source, and via internal processors, the desired sound impression (treble, bass, volume, stereo effect, etc.) is adjusted.
One example of such a digital sound processor is the MSP 3410D Multistandard Sound Processor of Micronas Intermetall, a commercially available module used in entertainment electronics equipment. A detailed description of this flexible sound processor can be found, for example, in the relevant data sheet, Edition Jan. 15, 1998, Order No. 6251-422-3PD.

A SCART Connector (which stands for Syndicat des Constructeurs d'Appareils Radiorécepteurs et Téléviseurs) is a standard for connecting audio-visual equipment together. The official standard for SCART is CENELEC document number EN 50049-1. SCART is also known as Péritel (especially in France) and Euroconnector but the name SCART will be used exclusively herein. The standard defines a 21-pin connector (herein after a SCART connector) for carrying analog television signals. Various pieces of equipment may be connected by cables having a plug fitting the SCART connectors. Television apparatuses commonly include one or more SCART connectors.
Although a SCART connector is bidirectional, the present invention is concerned with the use of a SCART connector as an input connector for receiving signals into a television apparatus. A SCART connector can receive input television signals either in an RGB format in which the red, green and blue signals are received on Pins 15, 11 and 7, respectively, or alternatively in an S-Video format in which the luminance (Y) and chroma (C) signals are received on Pins 20 and 15. As a result of the common usage of Pin 15 in accordance with the SCART standard, a SCART connector cannot receive input television signals in an RGB format and in an S-Video format at the same time.
Consequently many commercially available television apparatuses include a separate SCART connectors each dedicated to receive input television signals in one of an RGB format and an S-Video format. This limits the functionality of the SCART connectors. In practical terms, the number of SCART connectors which can be provided on a television apparatus is limited by cost and space considerations. However, different users wish the input a wide range of different combinations of formats of television signals, depending on the equipment they personally own and use. However, the provision of SCART connectors dedicated to input television signals in one of an RGB format and an S-Video format limits the overall connectivity of the television apparatus. Furthermore, for many users the different RGB format and S-Video format are confusing. Some users may not understand or may mistake the format of a television signal being supplied on a given cable from a given piece of equipment. This can result in the supply of input television signals of an inappropriate format for the SCART connector concerned.
This kind of connector is todays obsoleted !
This tv :

1- Was SAMSUNG's model featuring fist time the ITT/MICRONAS DIGIT3000 CHIPSET for video and audio signal processing with the CHASSIS KS3A.

2- Was SAMSUNG's Model with a "SLIM LINE" cabinet format, thinner than a traditional CRT Tv.

These models were fabricated in many formats even highly bigger types and FLAT TUBE types, and they weren't expensive like other brands like PANASONICs but........... quality rules anyway..........& Price too..............

3- The set here shown is featuring a THOMSON CRT TUBE instead of a SAMSUNG.

Colour television receivers or sets are known in which the majority of signal processing that takes place therein is carried out digitally. That is, a video or television signal is received in a conventional fashion using a known analog tuning circuit and then, following the tuning operation, the received analog television signal is converted into a digital signal and digitally processed before subsequently being converted back to an analog signal for display on a colour cathode ray tube.

 (This is another example of how throw away a NEW little time used perfectly running television  to buy a perfect surf table (AKA LCD) to be more modern, burn money, ...............feel better................(!!!!!!!!!!)

One more comment about digital in 2000..............

Over the years we have learnt that one of the most important things in video/ TV technology is selecting the best system to use. We have also seen how difficult this can be. Prior to the start of the colour TV era in Europe there was an great to-do about the best system to adopt. The US NTSC system seemed an obvious choice to start with. It had been proved in use, and refine- ments had been devised. But alternative, better solutions were proposed - PAL and Secam. PAL proved to be a great success, in fact a good choice. 
The French Secam system seems to have worked just as well. Apart from the video tape battles of the Seventies, the next really big debate concerned digital TV. When it came to digital terrestrial TV (DTT), Europe and the USA again adopted different standards. 

One major difference is the modulation system used for transmission. Coded orthogonal frequency   division multiplexing (COFDM) was selected for the European DVB system, while in the USA a system called 8VSB was adopted. COFDM uses quadrature amplitude modulation of a number of orthogonal carriers that are spread across the channel bandwidth. Because of their number, each carrier has a relatively low bit rate. 
The main advantage of the system is its excellent behaviour under multipath reception conditions. 8VSB represents a rather older,  pre phase modulation technoogy: eight  state amplitude modulation of a single carrier, with a vestigial sideband. The decision on the US system was assigned to the Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC), reporting to the FCC. The system it proposed was approved by the FCC on December 26th, 1996. The curious date might suggest that there had been a certain amount of politicking. In fact there had been an almighty row between the TV and computer industries about the video standard to adopt, the two fearing that one or other would gain an advantage as the technologies converged. It was 'resolved' by adopting a sort of   "open standard"  we are talking about resolution and scanning standards here - the idea apparently being that the technology would somehow sort itself out.

 There seems to have been rather less concern about the modulation standard. 8VSB was adopted because it was assumed to be able to provide a larger service area than the alternatives, including COFDM, for a given transmitter power. Well, the USA is a very large place! But the US TV industry, or at least some parts of it, is now having second thoughts. Once the FCC had made its decision, there was pressure to get on with digital TV. In early 1998 there were announce- ments about the start of transmissions and broadcasters assured the FCC that DTT would be available in the ten areas of greatest population concentration by May 1999. Rapid advances were expected, with an anticipated analogue TV switch -off in 2006. So far however things have not gone like that. At the end of 1999 some seventy DTI' transmitters were in operation, but Consumer Electronics Manufacturers Association estimates suggest that only some 50,000 sets and 5,000 STBs had been sold.

 There have been many reports of technical problems, in particular with reception in urban and hilly areas and the use of indoor aerials, also with video/audio sync and other matters. Poor reception with indoor aerials in urban conditions is of particular concern: that's how much of the population receives its TV. The UK was the first European country to start DTI', in late 1998 - at much the same time as in the USA. The contrast is striking. ONdigital had signed up well over 500,000 subscribers by the end of 1999, a much higher proportion of viewers than in the USA. Free STBs have played a part of course, but it's notable that DTT 's reception in the UK has been relatively hassle -free. In making this comparison it should also be remembered that the main aim of DTT technology differs in Europe and the USA. 

The main concern in Europe has been to provide additional channels. In the USA it has been to move to HDTV, in particular to provide a successor the NTSC system. There have been plenty of channels in the USA for many a year. For example the DirecTV satellite service started in mid 1994 and offers some 200 channels. Internationally, various countries have been comparing the US and European digital systems. They have overwhelmingly come down in favour of the DVB system. There have been some very damaging assessments of the ATSC standard. The present concern in the US TV industry results from this poor domestic take up and lack of international success. Did the FCC make a boob, in particular in the choice of 8VSB? Following compara- tive tests carried out by Sinclair Broadcasting Group Inc., the company has petitioned the FCC to adopt COFDM as an option in the ATSC standard. Not only did its tests confirm poor reception with indoor aerials: they also established that the greater coverage predicted for 8VSB failed to materialise in practice. Could the USA have two DTT transmission standards? It seems unlikely. It would involve dual standard receivers and non  standardisation of transmitters. In the all important business of system selection, it looks as if the FCC got it wrong.
              ....................................   It is obviously wasteful to duplicate terrestrial TV transmissions in analogue and digital form. Sooner or later transmissions will all be digital, since this is a more efficient use of spectrum space. The question is when? It would suit some to switch off the analogue transmitters as soon as possible. 2006 has been suggested as a time to start, with ana- logue transmissions finally ending in 2010. All very neat and tidy. Whether it will work out in that way is another matter. Strong doubts are already beginning to be aired. 
 The government has, quite properly, laid down conditions to be met before the switch off occurs. Basically that the digital signal coverage should equal that achieved for analogue TV, currently 99.4 per cent of the population, and that digital receiving equipment should be available at an affordable price. The real problem is that there is a difference between a coverage of 99.4 per cent and 99.4 per cent of the population actually having digital receiving equipment. Why should those who are interested in only free - to -air channels go out and buy/rent a digital receiver? It is already becoming evident that this represents a fair chunk of the population. 
The ITC has warned the government that the 2006-2010 timetable is in jeopardy. Peter Rogers, the ITC's chief executive, has said "we need to persuade people only interested in watching free -to -air television to switch to digital. "
Unless we do, there will be no switch - over." Well not quite, because the analogue receivers will eventually wear out and have to be replaced. But that could take a long, long time. Meanwhile many people will expect to be able to continue to watch their usual TV fare using their existing analogue receivers. 

Research carried out by Culture Secretary Chris Smith's department has established that between forty and fifty per cent of the population expects the BBC licence to cover their TV viewing, which means what they get at present in analogue form. A substantial percentage of the population simply isn't interested in going digital. In fact take up of integrated receiver -decoders, as opposed to the free digital set -top boxes, has so far been very slow. 
Of five million TV sets sold in the UK year 1999 , only 10,000 were digital. There are important factors apart from overall coverage and how many people have sets. There is the extension of coverage, which becomes more difficult to achieve eco- nomically as the number of those not covered decreases. There is the problem of reception quality. And there is the question of domestic arrangements and convenience. Extending coverage to the last ten fifteen per cent of the population by means of conventional terrestrial transmitters will be expensive. Mr Smith's department seems to have conceded that other methods of signal delivery may have to be adopted - by satellite, by microwave links or by cable. The latter has of course never been economic where few households are involved. 
The frequency planners have been trying to find ways of increasing coverage even to well populated areas. There are so many areas where problems of one sort or another make the provision of DTT difficult. Satellite TV is the obvious solution. 
The time may well come when it is wondered why anyone bothered with DTT. Signal quality is becoming an increasingly important factor as the digital roll out continues. In areas where the signal is marginal, viewers could experience the extreme irritation of picture break up or complete loss like even todays. This is quite apart from the actual quality of the channel, which depends on the number of bits per second used. There is a maximum number of bits per multiplex, the total being shared by several channels. The fewer the bits, the poorer the picture in terms of definition and rendering. 

There have already been complaints about poor quality. The question of domestic arrangements is one that has not so far received adequate public attention. Most households 2000 nowadays don't have just one TV set that the family watches. They have a main one, probably, almost certainly one or more VCRs, and several other sets around the house to serve various purposes. What 'the percentage of households that have digital TV' should really mean is the percentage willing to replace all this equipment. It will be expensive, and people would not be happy if they were told to throw away their other equipment when they get a single nice new all  singing all dancing widescreen digital TV set. It fact there would be uproar. The move from analogue to digital is not like that from 405 to 625 lines, which went fairly smoothly.

In those days few people had video equipment or a multitude of sets. The transition to digital is not going to be smooth, and the suggestion of a switch off during 2006-2010 already looks totally unrealistic. Unless the government subsidises or gives away digital TV sets - and why should it? - people will expect their existing equipment to continue to be usable.  

So it's likely that analogue TV will be with us for many years yet. But that would be the end of analogue too. 



Samsung's History

From its inception as a small export business in Taegu, Korea, Samsung has grown to become one of the world's leading electronics companies, specializing in digital appliances and media, semiconductors, memory, and system integration. Today Samsung's innovative and top quality products and processes are world recognized. This timeline captures the major milestones in Samsung's history, showing how the company expanded its product lines and reach, grew its revenue and market share, and has followed its mission of making life better for consumers around the world. 

Samsung Group  is a South Korean multinational conglomerate company headquartered in Samsung Town, Seoul. It comprises numerous subsidiaries and affiliated businesses, most of them united under the Samsung brand, and is the largest South Korean chaebol.

Notable Samsung industrial subsidiaries include Samsung Electronics (the world's largest information technology company measured by 2011 revenues), Samsung Heavy Industries (the world's second-largest shipbuilder measured by 2010 revenues), Samsung Engineering and Samsung C&T (respectively the world's 35th- and 72nd-largest construction companies), and Samsung Techwin (a weapons technology and optoelectronics manufacturer). Other notable subsidiaries include Samsung Life Insurance (the world's 14th-largest life insurance company), Samsung Everland (operator of Everland Resort, the oldest theme park in South Korea) and Cheil Worldwide (the world's 19th-largest advertising agency measured by 2010 revenues).

Samsung produces around a fifth of South Korea's total exports and its revenues are larger than many countries' GDP; in 2006, it would have been the world's 35th-largest economy. The company has a powerful influence on South Korea's economic development, politics, media and culture, and has been a major driving force behind the "Miracle on the Han River".

According to the founder of Samsung Group, the meaning of the Korean hanja word Samsung  is "tristar" or "three stars". The word "three" represents something "big, numerous and powerful"; the "stars" mean eternity.

1938 to 1970
The headquarters of Samsung Sanghoe in Daegu in the late 1930s

In 1938, Lee Byung-chull (1910–1987) of a large landowning family in the Uiryeong county came to the nearby Daegu city and founded Samsung Sanghoe , a small trading company with forty employees located in Su-dong (now Ingyo-dong). It dealt in groceries produced in and around the city and produced its own noodles. The company prospered and Lee moved its head office to Seoul in 1947. When the Korean War broke out, however, he was forced to leave Seoul and started a sugar refinery in Busan named Cheil Jedang. After the war, in 1954, Lee founded Cheil Mojik and built the plant in Chimsan-dong, Daegu. It was the largest woollen mill ever in the country and the company took on the aspect of a major company.

Samsung diversified into many areas and Lee sought to establish Samsung as an industry leader in a wide range of enterprises, moving into businesses such as insurance, securities, and retail. Lee placed great importance on industrialization, and focused his economic development strategy on a handful of large domestic conglomerates, protecting them from competition and assisting them financially.

In 1948, Cho Hong-jai (the Hyosung group’s founder) jointly invested in a new company called Samsung Mulsan Gongsa , or the Samsung Trading Corporation, with the Samsung Group founder Lee Byung-chull. The trading firm grew to become the present-day Samsung C&T Corporation. But after some years Cho and Lee separated due to differences in management between them. He wanted to get up to a 30% group share. After settlement, Samsung Group was separated into Samsung Group and Hyosung Group, Hankook Tire, and others.

In the late 1960s, Samsung Group entered into the electronics industry. It formed several electronics-related divisions, such as Samsung Electronics Devices Co., Samsung Electro-Mechanics Co., Samsung Corning Co., and Samsung Semiconductor & Telecommunications Co., and made the facility in Suwon. Its first product was a black-and-white television set.
1970 to 1990
The SPC-1000, introduced in 1982, was Samsung's first personal computer (Korean market only) and uses an audio cassette tape to load and save data - the floppy drive was optional

In 1980, Samsung acquired the Gumi-based Hanguk Jeonja Tongsin and entered the telecommunications hardware industry. Its early products were switchboards. The facility were developed into the telephone and fax manufacturing systems and became the centre of Samsung's mobile phone manufacturing. They have produced over 800 million mobile phones to date.[20] The company grouped them together under Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. in the 1980s.

After the founder's death in 1987, Samsung Group was separated into four business groups - Samsung Group, Shinsegae Group, CJ Group and Hansol Group. Shinsegae (discount store, department store) was originally part of Samsung Group, separated in the 1990s from the Samsung Group along with CJ Group (Food/Chemicals/Entertainment/logistics) and the Hansol Group (Paper/Telecom). Today these separated groups are independent and they are not part of or connected to the Samsung Group. One Hansol Group representative said, "Only people ignorant of the laws governing the business world could believe something so absurd," adding, "When Hansol separated from the Samsung Group in 1991, it severed all payment guarantees and share-holding ties with Samsung affiliates." One Hansol Group source asserted, "Hansol, Shinsegae, and CJ have been under independent management since their respective separations from the Samsung Group." One Shinsegae Department Store executive director said, "Shinsegae has no payment guarantees associated with the Samsung Group."
In the 1980s, Samsung Electronics began to invest heavily in research and development, investments that were pivotal in pushing the company to the forefront of the global electronics industry. In 1982, it built a television assembly plant in Portugal; in 1984, a plant in New York; in 1985, a plant in Tokyo; in 1987, a facility in England; and another facility in Austin in 1996. As of 2012, Samsung has invested more than US$13 billion in the Austin facility, which operates under the name Samsung Austin Semiconductor LLC. This makes the Austin location the largest foreign investment in Texas and one of the largest single foreign investments in the United States.
1990 to 2000
Pan-samsung2-error corrections.png

Samsung started to rise as an international corporation in the 1990s. Samsung's construction branch was awarded a contract to build one of the two Petronas Towers in Malaysia, Taipei 101 in Taiwan and the Burj Khalifa in United Arab Emirates.[25] In 1993, Lee Kun-hee sold off ten of Samsung Group's subsidiaries, downsized the company, and merged other operations to concentrate on three industries: electronics, engineering, and chemicals. In 1996, the Samsung Group reacquired the Sungkyunkwan University foundation.

Samsung became the largest producer of memory chips in the world in 1992, and is the world's second-largest chipmaker after Intel (see Worldwide Top 20 Semiconductor Market Share Ranking Year by Year).[26] In 1995, it created its first liquid-crystal display screen. Ten years later, Samsung grew to be the world's largest manufacturer of liquid-crystal display panels. Sony, which had not invested in large-size TFT-LCDs, contacted Samsung to cooperate, and, in 2006, S-LCD was established as a joint venture between Samsung and Sony in order to provide a stable supply of LCD panels for both manufacturers. S-LCD was owned by Samsung (50% plus 1 share) and Sony (50% minus 1 share) and operates its factories and facilities in Tangjung, South Korea. As on 26 December 2011 it was announced that Samsung had acquired the stake of Sony in this joint venture.[27]

Compared to other major Korean companies, Samsung survived the 1997 Asian financial crisis relatively unharmed. However, Samsung Motor was sold to Renault at a significant loss. As of 2010, Renault Samsung is 80.1 percent owned by Renault and 19.9 percent owned by Samsung. Additionally, Samsung manufactured a range of aircraft from the 1980s to 1990s. The company was founded in 1999 as Korea Aerospace Industries (KAI), the result of merger between then three domestic major aerospace divisions of Samsung Aerospace, Daewoo Heavy Industries, and Hyundai Space and Aircraft Company. However, Samsung still manufactures aircraft engines and gas turbines. [28]
2000 to present
The Samsung pavilion at Expo 2012

Samsung Techwin has been the sole supplier of a combustor module of the Trent 900 engine of the Rolls-Royce Airbus A380-The largest passenger airliner in the world- since 2001.[29] Samsung Techwin of Korea is a revenue-sharing participant in the Boeing's 787 Dreamliner GEnx engine program.[30]

In 2010, Samsung announced a 10-year growth strategy centred around five businesses.[31] One of these businesses was to be focused on biopharmaceuticals, to which the Company has committed ₩2.1 trillion.[32]

In December 2011, Samsung Electronics sold its hard disk drive (HDD) business to Seagate.[33]

In the first quarter of 2012, Samsung Electronics became the world's largest mobile phone maker by unit sales, overtaking Nokia, which had been the market leader since 1998.[34][35] In the August 21st edition of the Austin American-Statesman, Samsung confirmed plans to spend 3 to 4 billion dollars converting half of its Austin chip manufacturing plant to a more profitable chip.[36] The conversion should start in early 2013 with production on line by the end of 2013.

On August 24, 2012, a U.S jury ruled that Samsung had to pay Apple Incorporated US$1.05 billion dollars in damages for violating its patents on smartphone technology.[37] Samsung decried the decision saying that the move could harm innovation in the sector.[38] It also followed a South Korean ruling that said both companies were guilty of infringing on each other's intellectual property.[39] In the first trading after the ruling, Samsung shares on the Kospi index fell 7.7%, the largest fall since October 24, 2008, to 1,177,000 Korean won.[40] Apple then sought to bar the sales of eight Samsung phones (Galaxy S 4G, Galaxy S2 AT&T, Galaxy S2 Skyrocket, Galaxy S2 T-Mobile, Galaxy S2 Epic 4G, Galaxy S Showcase, Droid Charge and Galaxy Prevail) in the United States.[41]

On September 4, 2012, Samsung announced it plans to examine all of its Chinese suppliers for possible violations of labor policies. The company said it will carry out audits of 250 Chinese companies that are its exclusive suppliers to see if children under the age of 16 are being used in their factories.[42]
Acquisitions and attempted acquisitions

For a company of its size Samsung has made relatively few acquisitions.[43]

Rollei – Swiss watch battle
    Samsung Techwin acquired a German camera-maker Rollei on 1995. Samsung (Rollei) used its optic expertise on the crystals of a new line of 100% Swiss-made watches, designed by a team of watchmakers at Nouvelle Piquerez S.A. in Bassequort, Switzerland. Rolex's decision to fight Rollei on every front stemmed from the close resemblance between the two names and fears that its sales would suffer as a consequence. In the face of such a threat, the Geneva firm decided to confront. This was also a demonstration of the Swiss watch industry's determination to defend itself when an established brand is threatened. Rolex sees this front-line battle as vital for the entire Swiss watch industry. Rolex has succeeded in keeping Rollei out of the German market. On 11 March 1995 the Cologne District court prohibited the advertising and sale of Rollei watches on German territory.[44][45]

Fokker, a Dutch aircraft maker
    Samsung lost a chance to revive its failed bid to take over Dutch aircraft maker Fokker when other airplane makers rejected its offer to form a consortium. The three proposed partners – Hyundai, Hanjin and Daewoo – have notified the South Korean government that they will not join Samsung Aerospace Industries Ltd.[46]

AST Research
    Samsung bought AST (1994) and tried to break into North America, but the effort foundered. Samsung was forced to close the California-based computer maker following mass defection of research staff and a string of losses.[47]

FUBU clothing and apparel
    In 1992, Daymond John had started the company with a hat collection that was made in his house in the Queens area of New York City. To fund the company, John had to mortgage his house for $100,000. With his friends, namely J. Alexander Martin, Carl Brown and Keith Perrin, half of his house was turned into the first factory of FUBU, while the other half remained as the living quarters. Along with the expansion of FUBU, Samsung invested in FUBU in 1995.[48]

Lehman Brothers Holdings’ Asian operations
    Samsung Securities was one of a handful of brokerages looking into Lehman Brothers Holdings. But Nomura Holdings has reportedly waved the biggest check to win its bid for Lehman Brothers Holdings’ Asian operations, beating out Samsung Securities, Standard Chartered, and Barclays.[49] Ironically, after few months Samsung Securities Co., Ltd. and City of London-based N M Rothschild & Sons (more commonly known simply as Rothschild) have agreed to form a strategic alliance in investment banking business. Two parties will jointly work on cross border mergers and acquisition deals.

Grandis Inc. - memory developer
    In July 2011, Samsung announced that it had acquired spin-transfer torque random access memory (MRAM) vendor Grandis Inc.] Grandis will become a part of Samsung's R&D operations and will focus on development of next generation random-access memory.

Samsung and Sony joint venture - LCD display
    On December 26, 2011 the board of Samsung Electronics approved a plan to buy Sony's entire stake in their 2004 joint liquid crystal display (LCD) venture for 1.08 trillion won ($938.97 million).

Samsung Group headquarters at Samsung Town, Seoul

Samsung comprises around 80 companies.[54] It is highly diversified, with activities in areas including construction, electronics, financial services, shipbuilding and medical services.[54]

In FY 2009, Samsung reported consolidated revenues of 220 trillion KRW ($172.5 billion). In FY 2010, Samsung reported consolidated revenues of 280 trillion KRW ($258 billion), and profits of 30 trillion KRW ($27.6 billion) (based upon a KRW-USD exchange rate of 1,084.5 KRW per USD, the spot rate as of 19 August 2011). However, it should be noted that these amounts do not include the revenues from all of Samsung's subsidiaries based outside South Korea.
Subsidiaries and affiliates

As of April 2011 the Samsung Group comprised 59 unlisted companies and 19 listed companies, all of which had their primary listing on the Korea Exchange stock-exchange.

Principal subsidiary and affiliate companies of Samsung include:
Ace Digitech

Ace Digitech is listed on the Korea Exchange stock-exchange (number 036550).
Cheil Industries

Cheil Industries is listed on the Korea Exchange stock-exchange (number 001300).
Cheil Worldwide

Cheil Worldwide is listed on the Korea Exchange stock-exchange (number 030000).

Credu is listed on the Korea Exchange stock-exchange (number 067280).
Imarket Korea

Imarket Korea is listed on the Korea Exchange stock-exchange (number 122900).
Samsung Card

Samsung Card is listed on the Korea Exchange stock-exchange (number 029780).
Samsung C&T Corporation

Samsung C&T Corporation is listed on the Korea Exchange stock-exchange (000830).
Samsung Electro-Mechanics

Samsung Electro-Mechanics, established in 1973 as a manufacturer of key electronic components, is headquartered in Suwon, Kyeonggi-Do, South Korea. It is listed on the Korea Exchange stock-exchange (number 009150).
Samsung Electronics
Main article: Samsung Electronics

Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. is a multinational electronics and information technology company headquartered in Suwon and the flagship company of the Samsung Group. Its products include air conditioners, computers, digital televisions, liquid crystal displays (including thin film transistors (TFTs) and active-matrix organic light-emitting diodes (AMOLEDs)), mobile phones, monitors, printers, refrigerators, semiconductors and telecoms networking equipment.It is the world's largest mobile phone maker by unit sales in the first quarter of 2012, with a global market share of 25.4%. It is also the world's second-largest semiconductor maker by 2011 revenues (after Intel).

Samsung Electronics is listed on the Korea Exchange stock-exchange (number 005930).
The headquarters of Samsung Engineering in Seoul
Samsung Engineering
Main article: Samsung Engineering

Samsung Engineering Co., Ltd. is a multinational construction company headquartered in Seoul. It was founded in January 1970. Its principal activity is the construction of oil refining plants; upstream oil and gas facilities; petrochemical plants and gas plants; steel making plants; power generation plants; water treatment facilities; and other infrastructure. It achieved total revenues of 9,298.2 billion won (US$8.06 billion) in 2011.

Samsung Engineering is listed on the Korea Exchange stock-exchange (number 028050).
Samsung Fine Chemicals

Samsung Fine Chemicals is listed on the Korea Exchange stock-exchange (number 004000).
Samsung Fire & Marine Insurance
Main article: Samsung Fire & Marine Insurance

Samsung Fire & Marine Insurance Co., Ltd. is a multinational general insurance company headquartered in Seoul.[65] It was founded in January 1952 as Korea Anbo Fire and Marine Insurance Co., Ltd. and was renamed Samsung Fire & Marine Insurance in December 1993.[66] Samsung Fire & Marine Insurance offers services including accident insurance, automobile insurance, casualty insurance, fire insurance, liability insurance, marine insurance, personal pensions and loans. As of March 2011 it had operations in 10 countries and 6.5 million customers.Samsung Fire & Marine Insurance had a total premium income of US$11.7 billion in 2011 and total assets of US$28.81 billion at 31 March 2011. It is the largest provider of general insurance in South Korea.

Samsung Fire has been listed on the Korea Exchange stock-exchange since 1975 (number 000810).
Samsung Heavy Industries
Main article: Samsung Heavy Industries

Samsung Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. is a shipbuilding and engineering company headquartered in Seoul. It was founded in August 1974. Its principal products are bulk carriers, container vessels, crude oil tankers, cruisers, passenger ferries, material handling equipment steel and bridge structures. It achieved total revenues of 13,358.6 billion won in 2011 and is the world's second-largest shipbuilder by revenues (after Hyundai Heavy Industries).

Samsung Heavy Industries is listed on the Korea Exchange stock-exchange (number 010140).
Samsung Life Insurance
Main article: Samsung Life Insurance

Samsung Life Insurance Co., Ltd. is a multinational life insurance company headquartered in Seoul. It was founded in March 1957 as Dongbang Life Insurance and became an affiliate of the Samsung Group in July 1963.[71] Samsung Life's principal activity is the provision of individual life insurance and annuity products and services. As of December 2011 it had operations in seven countries, 8.08 million customers and 5,975 employees.[71] Samsung Life had total sales of 22,717 billion won in 2011 and total assets of 161,072 billion won at 31 December 2011. It is the largest provider of life insurance in South Korea.

Samsung Life Insurance is listed on the Korea Exchange stock-exchange (number 032830).
Samsung Machine Tools

Samsung Machine Tools of America is a national distributor of machines in the United States.
Samsung SDI

Samsung SDI is listed on the Korea Exchange stock-exchange (number 006400).
Samsung Securities

Samsung Securities is listed on the Korea Exchange stock-exchange (number 016360).
Samsung Techwin

Samsung Techwin is listed on the Korea Exchange stock-exchange (number 012450).
Shilla Hotels and Resorts

Shilla Hotels and Resorts is listed on the Korea Exchange stock-exchange (number 008770).
SI Corporation

SI Corporation is listed on the Korea Exchange stock-exchange (number 012750).
Joint ventures
aT Grain

State-run Korea Agro-Fisheries Trade Corp. set up the venture, aT Grain Co., in Chicago, with three other South Korean companies, Korea Agro-Fisheries owns 55 percent of aT Grain, while Samsung C&T Corp, Hanjin Transportation Co. and STX Corporation. each hold 15 percent.
Brooks Automation Asia

Brooks Automation Asia Co., Ltd. is a joint venture between Brooks Automation (70%) and Samsung (30%) which was established in 1999. The venture locally manufactures and configure vacuum wafer handling platforms and 300mm Front-Opening Unified Pod (FOUP) load port modules, and designs, manufactures and configures atmospheric loading systems for flat panel displays.
POSCO-Samsung Slovakia Steel Processing Center

Company POSS - SLPC s.r.o. was founded in 2007 as a subsidiary of Samsung C & T Corporation, Samsung C & T Deutschland and the company POSCO.
POSCO-Samsung Suzhou Steel Processing Center

Samsung Air China Life Insurance

Samsung Air China Life Insurance Co., Ltd. is a 50:50 joint venture between Samsung Life Insurance and China National Aviation Corporation. It was established in Beijing in July 2005.
Samsung Bioepis

Samsung Bioepis is a joint venture between Samsung Biologics (85%) and the United States-based Biogen Idec (15%).
Samsung Biologics

Samsung Electronics Co. and Samsung Everland Inc. will each own a 40 percent stake in the venture, with Samsung C&T Corp. and Durham, North Carolina-based Quintiles each holding 10 percent. It will contract-make medicines made from living cells, and Samsung Group plans to expand into producing copies of biologics including Rituxan, the leukemia and lymphoma treatment sold by Roche Holding AG and Biogen Idec Inc.
Samsung BP Chemicals

Samsung BP Chemicals Co., Ltd is a 50:50 joint venture between Samsung and the United Kingdom-based BP, which was established in 1989 to produce and supply high-value-added chemical products.
Samsung Corning Precision Glass

Samsung Corning Precision Glass is a joint venture between Samsung and Corning, which was established in 1973 to manufacture and market cathode ray tube glass for black and white televisions. The company’s first LCD glass substrate manufacturing facility opened in Gumi, Korea in 1996.
Samsung Sumitomo LED Materials

Samsung Sumitomo LED Materials is a Korea-based joint venture between Samsung LED Co., Ltd., an LED maker based in Suwon, Korea-based and the Japan-based Sumitomo Chemical. The JV will carry out research and development, manufacturing, and sales of sapphire substrates for LEDs.
Samsung Thales

Samsung Thales Co., Ltd. (until 2001 known as Samsung Thomson-CSF Co., Ltd.) is a joint venture between Samsung Techwin and the France-based aerospace and defence company Thales. It was established in 1978 and is based in Seoul.
Samsung Total

Samsung Total is a 50:50 joint venture between Samsung and the France-based oil group Total S.A. (more specifically Samsung General Chemicals and Total Petrochemicals).
SB LiMotive

SB LiMotive is a 50:50 joint company of Robert Bosch GmbH(commonly known as Bosch) and Samsung SDI founded in June 2008. The joint venture develops and manufactures lithium-ion batteries for use in hybrid-, plug-in hybrid vehicles and electric vehicles.
SD Flex

SD Flex Co., Ltd. was founded on October 2004 as a joint venture corporation by Samsung and DuPont, one of the world's largest chemical company.
Sermatech Korea

Sermatech owns 51% of its stock, while Samsung owns the remaining 49%. The U.S. firm Sermatech International, for a business focusing on highly specialized aircraft construction processes such as special welding and brazing.
Siam Samsung Life Insurance

Samsung Life Insurance, holds a 37% stake while Saha Group also has a 37.5% stake in the joint venture, with the remaining 25% owned by Thanachart Bank.
Siltronic Samsung Wafer

Siltronic Samsung Wafer Pte. Ltd, the joint venture by Samsung and wholly owned Wacker Chemie subsidiary Siltronic, was officially opened in Singapore in June 2008.

SMP Ltd. is a joint venture between Samsung Fine Chemicals and MEMC. MEMC Electronic Materials Inc. and an affiliate of Korean conglomerate Samsung are forming a joint venture to build a polysilicon plant.

Steco Co., Ltd. is established as the joint - venture company with Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd and Japan TORAY in 1995.

Stemco is a joint venture between Samsung Electro-Mechanics and the Japan-based Toray Industries which was established in 1995.
Toshiba Samsung Storage Technology

Toshiba Samsung Storage Technology Corporation (TSST) is joint venture between Samsung Electronics and Toshiba of Japan which specialises in optical disc drive manufacturing. TSST was formed in 2004, and Toshiba owns 51% of its stock, with Samsung owns the remaining 49%.
Alpha Processor

In 1998, Samsung created a U.S. joint venture with Compaq—called Alpha Processor Inc. (API)--to help it enter the high-end processor market. The venture was also aimed at expanding Samsung's non-memory chip business by fabricating Alpha processors. At the time, Samsung and Compaq invested $500 million in Alpha Processor.[88]
GE-Samsung Lighting

GE Samsung Lighting was a joint venture between Samsung and the GE Lighting subsidiary of General Electric. The venture was established in 1998 and was broken up 2009. Global Steel Exchange

Global Steel Exchange was a joint venture formed in 2000 between Samsung, the United States-based Cargill, the Switzerland-based Duferco Group, and the Luxembourg-based Tradearbed (now part of the ArcelorMittal), to handle their online buying and selling of steel.

S-LCD Corporation was a joint venture between Samsung Electronics (50% plus one share) and the Japan-based Sony Corporation (50% minus one share) which was established in April 2004. On December 26, 2011, Samsung Electronics announced that it would acquire all of Sony's shares in the venture.
Partially owned companies
Atlantico Sul

Samsung Heavy Industries currently owns 10 percent of the Brazilian shipbuilder Atlantico Sul, which operates the largest shipyard in South America. Joao Candido, the largest ship built to date in Brazil, was built by Atlantico Sul with technology supplied by Samsung Heavy Industries.
DGB Financial Group

Samsung Life Insurance currently holds a 7.4% stake in the South Korean banking companyDGB Financial Group, making it the largest shareholder.Doosan Engine

Samsung Heavy Industries currently holds a 14.1 percent stake in Doosan Engine, making it the second-biggest shareholder.Korea Aerospace Industries

Samsung Techwin currently holds a 10 percent stake in Korea Aerospace Industries (KAI). Other major shareholders include the state-owned Korea Finance Corporation (26.75 percent), Hyundai Motor (10 percent) and Doosan (10 percent).MEMC KOREA

MEMC's joint venture with Samsung Electronics Company, Ltd. In 1990, MEMC entered into a joint venture agreement to construct a silicon plant in Korea.Rambus Incorporated

Samsung currently owns 4.19 percent of Rambus Incorporated.Renault Samsung Motors

Samsung currently owns 19.9 percent of the automobile manufacturer Renault Samsung Motors.
Seagate Technology

Samsung currently owns 9.6 percent of Seagate Technology, making it the second-largest shareholder. Under a shareholder agreement, Samsung has the right to nominate an executive to Seagate’s Board of Directors.
SungJin Geotec

Samsung Engineering holds a 10 percent stake in Sungjin Geotec, an offshore oil drilling company that is a subsidiary of POSCO.[98]
Taylor Energy

Taylor Energy is an independent American oil company that drills in the Gulf of Mexico based in New Orleans, Louisiana.Samsung Oil & Gas USA Corp., subsidiaries of Samsung, currently owns 20% of Taylor Energy.
Major customers
The world's largest oil and gas project, Sakhalin II- Lunskoye platform under construction. The topside facilities of the LUN-A (Lunskoye) and PA-B (Piltun Astokhskoye) platforms are being built at the Samsung Heavy Industry shipyard in South Korea.
Major customers of Samsung include:

Royal Dutch Shell
    Samsung Heavy Industries will be the sole provider of liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage facilities worth up to US$50 billion to Royal Dutch Shell for the next 15 years.
    Shell has unveiled plans to build the world's first floating liquefied natural gas (FLNG) platform. At Samsung Heavy Industries' shipyard on Geoje Island in South Korea, work is about to start[when?] on a "ship" that, when finished and fully loaded, will weigh 600,000 tonnes – the world's biggest "ship". That is six times as much as the biggest US aircraft carrier.
United Arab Emirates government
    A consortium of South Korean firms - including Samsung, Korea Electric Power Corp and Hyundai - has won a deal worth 40 billion dollars to build nuclear power plants in the United Arab Emirates.[104]

Ontario government
    The government of the Canadian province of Ontario signed off one of the world's largest renewable energy projects, signing a $6.6bn deal that will result in 2,500 MW of new wind and solar energy capacity being built. Under the agreement a consortium – led by Samsung and the Korea Electric Power Corporation – will manage the development of 2,000 MW-worth of new wind farms and 500 MW of solar capacity, while also building a manufacturing supply chain in the province.

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