Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

In Brief: On this site you will find pictures and information about some of the electronic, electrical and electrotechnical technology relics that the Frank Sharp Private museum has accumulated over the years .

Premise: There are lots of vintage electrical and electronic items that have not survived well or even completely disappeared and forgotten.

Or are not being collected nowadays in proportion to their significance or prevalence in their heyday, this is bad and the main part of the death land. The heavy, ugly sarcophagus; models with few endearing qualities, devices that have some over-riding disadvantage to ownership such as heavy weight,toxicity or inflated value when dismantled, tend to be under-represented by all but the most comprehensive collections and museums. They get relegated to the bottom of the wants list, derided as 'more trouble than they are worth', or just forgotten entirely. As a result, I started to notice gaps in the current representation of the history of electronic and electrical technology to the interested member of the public.


Following this idea around a bit, convinced me that a collection of the peculiar alone could not hope to survive on its own merits, but a museum that gave equal display space to the popular and the unpopular, would bring things to the attention of the average person that he has previously passed by or been shielded from. It's a matter of culture. From this, the Obsolete Technology Tellye Web Museum concept developed and all my other things too. It's an open platform for all electrical Electronic TV technology to have its few, but NOT last, moments of fame in a working, hand-on environment. We'll never own Colossus or Faraday's first transformer, but I can show things that you can't see at the Science Museum, and let you play with things that the Smithsonian can't allow people to touch, because my remit is different.

There was a society once that was the polar opposite of our disposable, junk society. A whole nation was built on the idea of placing quality before quantity in all things. The goal was not “more and newer,” but “better and higher" .This attitude was reflected not only in the manufacturing of material goods, but also in the realms of art and architecture, as well as in the social fabric of everyday life. The goal was for each new cohort of children to stand on a higher level than the preceding cohort: they were to be healthier, stronger, more intelligent, and more vibrant in every way.

The society that prioritized human, social and material quality is a Winner. Truly, it is the high point of all Western civilization. Consequently, its defeat meant the defeat of civilization itself.

Today, the West is headed for the abyss. For the ultimate fate of our disposable society is for that society itself to be disposed of. And this will happen sooner, rather than later.

OLD, but ORIGINAL, Well made, Funny, Not remotely controlled............. and not Made in CHINA.

How to use the site:

- If you landed here via any Search Engine, you will get what you searched for and you can search more using the search this blog feature provided by Google. You can visit more posts scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year,
or you can click on the main photo-page to start from the main page. Doing so it starts from the most recent post to the older post simple clicking on the Older Post button on the bottom of each page after reading , post after post.

You can even visit all posts, time to time, when reaching the bottom end of each page and click on the Older Post button.

- If you arrived here at the main page via bookmark you can visit all the site scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year pointing were you want , or more simple You can even visit all blog posts, from newer to older, clicking at the end of each bottom page on the Older Post button.
So you can see all the blog/site content surfing all pages in it.

- The search this blog feature provided by Google is a real search engine. If you're pointing particular things it will search IT for you; or you can place a brand name in the search query at your choice and visit all results page by page. It's useful since the content of the site is very large.

Note that if you don't find what you searched for, try it after a period of time; the site is a never ending job !

Every CRT Television saved let revive knowledge, thoughts, moments of the past life which will never return again.........

Many contemporary "televisions" (more correctly named as displays) would not have this level of staying power, many would ware out or require major services within just five years or less and of course, there is that perennial bug bear of planned obsolescence where components are deliberately designed to fail and, or manufactured with limited edition specificities..... and without considering........picture......sound........quality........

..............The bitterness of poor quality is remembered long after the sweetness of todays funny gadgets low price has faded from memory........ . . . . . .....
Don't forget the past, the end of the world is upon us! Pretty soon it will all turn to dust!

Have big FUN ! !
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©2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 Frank Sharp - You do not have permission to copy photos and words from this blog, and any content may be never used it for auctions or commercial purposes, however feel free to post anything you see here with a courtesy link back, btw a link to the original post here , is mandatory.
All sets and apparates appearing here are property of
Engineer Frank Sharp. NOTHING HERE IS FOR SALE !

Tuesday, September 27, 2011

NORDMENDE SPECTRA PORTABLE COLOR 3601 CHASSIS F VI/90 (F6) INTERNAL VIEW.








































































































































The NORDMENDE CHASSIS F VI/90 (F6) is a modular type and is unique for portable sets like the model here shown, for bigger models were used the F6TT which is different developed.






HOW THYRISTOR LINE DEFLECTION OUTPUT SCAN STAGES WORK:

INTRODUCTION:
The massive demand for colour television receivers in Europe/Germany in the 70's  brought about an influx of sets from the continent. Many of these use the thin -neck (29mm) type of 110° shadowmask tube and the Philips 20AX CRT Tube, plus the already Delta Gun CRT . 
Scanning of these tubes is accomplished by means of a toroidally wound deflection yoke (conventional 90° and thick -neck 110° tubes operate with saddle -wound deflection coils). The inductance of a toroidal yoke is very much less than that of a saddle -wound yoke, thus higher scan currents are required. The deflection current necessary for the line scan is about 12A peak -to -peak. This could be provided by a transistor line output stage but a current step-up transformer, which is bulky and both difficult and costly to manufacture, would be required. 
An entirely different approach, pioneered by RCA in America and developed by them and by ITT (SEL) in Germany, is the thyristor line output stage. In this system the scanning current is provided via two thyristors and two switching diodes which due to their characteristics can supply the deflection yoke without a step-up transformer (a small transformer is still required to obtain the input voltage pulse for the e.h.t. tripler). The purpose of this article is to explain the basic operation of such circuits. The thyristor line output circuit offers high reliability since all switching occurs at zero current level. C.R.T. flashovers, which can produce high current surges (up to 60A), have no detrimental effects on the switching diodes or thyristors since the forward voltage drop across these devices is small and the duration of the current pulses short. If a surge limiting resistor is pro- vided in the tube's final anode circuit the peak voltages produced by flashovers seldom exceed the normal repetitive circuit voltages by more than 50-100V. This is well within the device ratings.
 
Brief Basics: LINE Scan output stages operate on the same basic principle whether the active device used is a valve, transistor or thyristor. As a starting point, let's remind ourselves of this principle, which was first developed by Blumlein in 1932. The idea in its simplest form is shown in Fig. 1. The scan coils, together with a parallel tuning capacitor, are connected in series with a switch across the h.t. supply. When the switch is closed - (a) - current flows through the coils, building up linearly as required to deflect the beam from the centre to the right-hand side of the screen. At this point the switch is opened. The coils and the capacitor then form a resonant circuit. The magnetic fields generated around the coils during the preceeding forward scan as current flowed through them when the switch was closed now collapse, charging the capacitor - (b). As a result of the resonant action the capacitor next discharges, driving current through the coils in the opposite direction - (c). Once more magnetic fields are generated around the coils. This resonant action lasts for one half -cycle of oscillation, during which the beam is rapidly deflected from the right- hand side to the centre and then to the left-hand side of the screen. The flyback is thus complete. If the switch is now closed again further oscillation is prevented and, as the magnetic fields around the coils collapse, a decaying current flows through them in the direction shown at (d). This decaying current flow deflects the beam from the left-hand side of the screen back towards the centre: the period during which this occurs is often referred to as the energy recovery part of the scanning cycle. When the current has decayed to zero we are back at the situation shown at (a): the current through the coils reverses, driving the beam to the right-hand side of the screen. This is a very efficient System, since most of the energy drawn from the supply is subsequently returned to it. There is negligible resistance in the circuit, so there is very little power loss.
 Basic Transistor Circuit:
 In Blumlein's day valves had to be used to perform the switching action. Two were required since a valve is a unidirectional device, and as we have seen current must flow through the switch in both directions. Nowadays we generally use a transistor to perform the switching action, arranging the circuit along the lines shown in Fig. 2. The line output transformer T is used as a load for the transistor and as a simple means of generating the e.h.t. and other supplies required by the receiver. The scan -correction capacitor Cs also serves as a d.c. block. Capacitor Ct tunes the coils during the flyback when the transistor is cut off. During the forward scan Cs first charges, then discharges, via the scan coils, thus providing deflection from the left- hand side to the right-hand side of the screen. One advantage of a transistor is that it can conduct in either direction. Thus unless we are operating the stage from an 1.t. line of around 11V - as in the case of many small -screen portables - we don't need a second switching device. With a supply of 11-12V a shunt efficiency diode - connected in parallel with the transistor, cathode to collector and anode to emitter, is required because the linearity is otherwise unacceptable. Another advantage of a transistor compared to a valve is that it is a much more efficient switch. When a transistor is saturated both its junctions are forward biased and its collector voltage is then at little more than chassis potential. The anode voltage of a saturated pentode however is measured in tens of volts, and this means that there is considerable wasteful dissipation. Thyristor Switch If what we need is an efficient switch, why not use a thyristor??? 
Thyristors are even more efficient switches than transistors. They are more rugged, can pass heavy currents, and are insensitive to the voltage overloads that can kill off transistors. In addition, in the sort of circuit we are about to look at the power supply requirements can be simplified (a line output transistor must be operated in conjunction with a stabilised power supply: this is not necessary in the thyristor circuit since regulation can be built in). In the nature of things however there must be disadvantages as well - and there are! First, a thyristor will not act as a bidirectional switch. 
There is no great problem here however: all we need do is to shunt it with a parallel efficiency diode. More awkward is the fact that once a  thyristor has been triggered on at its gate it cannot be switched off again by any further action taken in its gate circuit. In fact it's this problem of operating the thyristor switch that is responsible for the complexity of thyristor line output circuits. 
A thyristor can be switched off only by reducing the current through it below the "hold on" value, either by momentarily removing the voltage across the device or by passing an opposing current through it in the opposite direction - this latter technique is used in practical thyristor line output circuits. Once the reverse current through the thyristor is about equal to the forward current flowing through it the net current falls below the "hold on" value and the thyristor switches off.
 Basic Thyristor Circuit:
 There is more than one way of arranging a thyristor line output stage. Only one basic circuit has been used so far however, though as you'd expect there are differences in detail in the circuits used by different setmakers. The basic circuit was first devised and put into production by RCA in the USA in the late 1960s. It was subsequently popularised in Europe by ITT, and many continental setmakers have used it, mainly in colour receiver chassis fitted with 110° delta gun c.r.t.s. They include Finlux, Grundig, Saba, Siemens and ASA. Korting use it in their 55636 chassis which is fitted with a 90° PIL tube, while Grundig continue to use it in their latest sets which use the Mullard/Philips 20AX tube. 
Amongst Japanese setmakers, Sharp use it in their Model C1831H which is fitted with a Toshiba RIS tube. 
Reduced to its barest essentials, the circuit takes the form shown in Fig. 3. To start with this looks strange indeed! The right-hand side however is simply the equivalent of the scanning section of the transistor circuit shown in Fig. 2, with TH2 and D2 replacing the transistor as the bidirectional switch.  
The tuning capacitor however is returned to chassis via the left-hand side of the circuit - in consequence there is no d.c. path between the right-hand and left-hand sides of the circuit. L1 provides a load. The efficiency diode D2 conducts during the first part of the forward scan, after which TH2 is switched on to drive the beam towards the right-hand side of the screen. The purpose of the left-hand side of the circuit, the bidirectional switch TH1/D1 and L2, together with the tuning capacitor Ct, is to switch TH2 off and to provide the flyback action.
 The output from the line oscillator consists  of a brief pulse to initiate the flyback. It occurs just before the flyback time (roughly 3µS before) and is applied to the gate of TH1, switching it on. When this happens L2 is connected to chassis and current flows into it, discharging Ct (previously charged from the h.t. line). L2 is called the commutating coil, and forms a resonant circuit with Ct. Thus when TH1 is switched on a sudden pulse builds up and this is used to switch off TH2. In addition to tuning L2, Ct tunes the scan coils to provide the usual flyback action. 
Roughly speaking therefore D2 and TH2 conduct alternately during the forward scan and are cut off during the flyback, while TH1 is triggered on just before the flyback, TH1 and D I subsequently conducting alternately during the flyback and then cutting off when the efficiency diode takes over. 
 Thyristor Line Scan Practical Circuit:
 A more practical arrangement is shown in Fig. 4. A secondary winding L3 is added to Ll to provide the trigger pulse for TH2: L4, C4 and R I provide the pulse shaping required. The tuning capacitor Ct is rearranged as a T network: this is done to reduce the voltage across the individual capacitors and enable smaller values to be used, all in the interests of economy. And finally a transformer is coupled to the circuit by C5 to make use of the flyback pulse for e.h.t. generation and to provide other supplies. In many recent chassis THUD 1 and TH2/D2 are encapsu- lated together, in pairs. In practical circuits L1 and L2 generally consist of a single transformer - often a transductor is used, for convenience rather than for the transductor characteristics. This makes practical circuits look at first glance rather different to the basic form shown in Figs. 3 and 4. A further winding is often added to the transformer to provide a supply for other parts of the receiver, making the circuit look even more confusing. In addition e.h.t. regulation, pincushion distortion correction and beam limiting circuitry is required, and protection circuits may be incorporated.
 
Scanning Sequence:  It's time to look at the basic scanning sequence in more detail, basing the description on Figs. 3 and 4. We'll start at the beginning of the flyback. TH2 and D2 have just been switched off - we'll come to how this is done later - while  TH1 which was triggered on by a pulse from the line oscillator is still conducting. Energy is stored in the scan coils in the form of magnetic fields. As these collapse, a decaying current flows via the coils, Cs, Ct, L2 and TH 1. When this current falls to zero the charge on Ct will have reversed and TH 1 will switch off. This completes the first half of the flyback. The left-hand plate of Ct is charged negatively, while its right-hand plate carries a positive charge. D1 is now biased on and Ct discharges back into the scan coils to give the second half of the flyback. Current is flowing via D1, L2, Ct, Cs and the scan coils. At the end of this period the circuit energy will have been transferred once again to the scan coils - in the form of magnetic fields. One complete half cycle of oscillation will have occurred, returning the beam to the left-hand side of the screen. With Ct discharged, D 1 switches off. The oscillation tries to continue in the negative direction, but we then get the normal efficiency diode action, i.e. D2 conducts shorting out the tuned circuit. As the fields around the coils collapse a linearly decaying current flows via the coils, Cs and D2. This gives us the first part of the forward scan. Towards the centre of the screen TH2 is switched on by the pulse obtained from L3 and the current in the scan coils reverses to complete the scan.  

 Switching the Scan Thyristor OffThe tricky part is when it comes to switching TH2 off. As we have seen, TH1 is triggered on about 3fitS before the end of the forward scan. Prior to this Ct will have been charged to the h.t. potential via L 1 and L2. When TH1 conducts, current flows via TH1, L2, Ct and TH2 (which is on remember). Because of the tuned circuit formed by L2 and Ct, the current builds up rapidly in the form of a pulse - the commutating pulse shown in Fig. 5. When this current, which flows through TH2 in the opposite direction to the scan current, exceeds the scan current TH2 switches off. Once TH2 cuts off D2 is able to conduct - it is no longer reverse biased - which it does for a short period to provide an earth return path for the remaining duration of the commutating pulse and also to enable the scan to be completed (Cs discharging via the scan coils). When the reverse, commutating current falls below the scan current D2 switches off and we then get the flyback action as the magnetic fields around the coils collapse.
 Power Transferring ; during the forward scan Ct is charged via L1 and L2, its right-hand plate being held at little above
 through the conduction of D2 and then TH2. During the flyback, when TH1 and D1 conduct alternately, connecting the junction L1, L2 to chassis, Ct supplies energy to the scan part of the circuit. The Practical Circuit so much then for the basic circuit and its action. Turning now to a practical circuit, Fig. 6 shows the thyristor line output stage used in the Grundig SuperColor  Models 5011 and 6011. Ty511/Di511 form the flyback switch, T1 is the input/commutating transformer, C516/7/8 comprise the tuning capacitance, Di518 is the efficiency diode and Ty518 the forward scan thyristor. The scan -correction capacitor Cs is C537. As can be seen, the line output transformer circuit is quite conventional. The main complication arises because of the need to provide width/e.h.t. stabilisation. In a valve line output stage it is a simple matter to achieve stabilisation by using a v.d.r. in a feedback circuit to alter the bias on the output pentode. We can't do this with a transistor line output stage, so we have to operate this in conjunction with a stabilised supply. There is a subtle but quite simple method of applying stabilisation to a thyristor line output stage however. As we have seen, the energy supplied to the output side of the circuit is provided by the tuning capacitors when they discharge during the flyback period. During the forward scan they charge via the input coil - or transformer as it is in practice. Now if we shunt the transformer's input winding with a transductor we can control the inductance in series with the tuning capacitors and in consequence the charging time of the capacitors and hence the power supplied to the output side of the circuit.
 
EHT/Width Stabilisation:
 The stabilising transductor in Fig. 6 is Td 1, whose load windings are connected in series with R504/Di504 across the input winding of T1. The transductor's control winding is driven by transistor Tr506, which senses the h.t. voltage (via R506) and the amplitude of the signal at tag d on the line output transformer. R508 in the transistor's base circuit enables the e.h.t. to be set to the correct voltage (25kV). 
 
Other Circuit Details: A fourth winding on Ti feeds the 1.t. rectifier and stabiliser which provide the supply for the low -power circuits in the receiver. The trigger pulse winding also feeds a stabilised 1.t. supply circuit (21V). 
EW pincushion distortion correction is applied by connecting the load windings of a second transductor (Td2) across a section of the line output transformer's primary winding. By feeding a field frequency waveform to the control winding on this transductor the line scanning is modulated at field frequency. There is a simple but effective safety circuit in this Grundig line output stage. If the voltage at tag c on the line output transformer rises above 68V zener diode Di514 conducts, triggering thyristor Ty511 into conduction with the result that the cut-out operates. C517 is returned to chassis via a damped coil (L517) so that the voltage transient when the efficiency diode cuts off is attenuated. Likewise L512/C512/R512 are added to suppress the voltage transient when the flyback thyristor Ty511 cuts off. The balancing coil L516 is included to remove unwanted voltage spikes produced by the thyristors. 
 
At the end........This Grundig circuit is representative of the way in which thyristor line output circuits are used in practice. There are differences in detail in the thyristor line output stages found in other setmakers' chassis, but the basic arrangement will be found to be substantially 

 
Servicing / Throubleshooting / Repairing Thyristor Line Scan Timebases Crt Deflections circuits:

LARGELY due to advances in colour c.r.t. scan coil design, the thyristor line output stage has become obsolete laready in the 1981's.
 It  was a very good system to use where the line scan coils require large peak currents with only a moderate flyback voltage - an intrinsic characteristic of toroidally wound deflection coils.
it was originally devised by RCA. Many sets fitted with 110°, narrow -neck delta -gun tubes used a thyristor line output stage - for example those in the Grundig and Saba ranges and the Finlux Peacock , Indesit, Siemens, Salora, Metz, Nordmende, Blaupunkt, ITT, Seleco, REX, Mivar, Emerson, Brionvega, Loewe, Galaxi, Stern, Zanussi, Wega, Philco. The circuit continued to find favour in earlier chassis designed for use with in -line gun tubes, examples being found in the Grundig and Korting ranges - also,  Indesit, Siemens, Salora, Metz, Nordmende, Blaupunkt, ITT, Seleco, REX, Mivar, Emerson, Brionvega, Loewe, Galaxi, Stern, Zanussi, Wega, Philco the Rediffusion Mk. III chassis. Deflection currents of up to 13A peak -to -peak are commonly encountered with 110° tubes, with a flyback voltage of only some 600V peak  to peak. The total energy requirement is of the order of 6mJ, which is 50 per cent higher than modern 110° tubes of the 30AX and S4 variety with their saddle -wound line scan coils.   The only problem with this type of circuit is the large amount of energy that shuttles back and forth at line frequency. This places a heavy stress on certain components. Circuit losses produce quite high temperatures, which are concentrated at certain points, in particular the commutating combi coil. This leads to deterioration of the soldered joints around the coil, a common cause of failure. This can have a cumulative effect, a high resistance joint increasing the local heating until the joint becomes well and truly dry -a classic symptom with some Grundig / Emerson sets. The wound components themselves can be a source of trouble, due to losses - particularly the combi coil and the regulating transductor. Later chassis are less prone to this sort of thing, partly because of the use of later generation, higher efficiency yokes but mainly due to more generous and better design of the wound components. The ideal dielectric for use in the tuning capacitors is polypropylene (either metalised or film). It's a truly won- derful dielectric - very stable, with very small losses, and capable of operation at high frequencies and elevated temperatures. It's also nowadays reasonably inexpensive. Unfortunately many earlier chassis of this type used polyester capacitors, and it's no surprise that they were inclined to give up. When replacing the tuning capacitors in a thyristor line output stage it's essential to use polypropylene types -a good range of axial components with values ranging from 0.001µF to 047µF is available from RS Components, enabling even non-standard values to be made up from an appropriate combination. Using polypropylene capacitors in place of polyester ones will not only ensure capacitor reliability but will also lower the stress on other components by reducing the circuit losses (and hence power consumption).
       Numerous circuit designs for completely transistorized television receivers either have been incorporated in commercially available receivers or have been described in detail in various technical publications. One of the most troublesome areas in such transistor receivers, from the point of View of reliability and economy, lies in the horizontal deflection circuits.
       As an attempt to avoid the voltage and current limitations of transistor deflection circuits, a number of circuits have been proposed utilizing the silicon controlled rectifier (SCR), a semiconductor device capable of handling substantially higher currents and voltages than transistors.
       The circuit utilizes two bi-directionally conductive switching means which serve respectively as trace and commutating switches. Particularly, each of the switching means comprises the parallel combination of a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) and a diode. The commutating switch is triggered on shortly before the desired beginning of retrace and, in conjunction with a resonant commutating circuit having an inductor and two capacitors, serves to turn off the trace switch to initiate retrace. The commutating circuit is also arranged to turn oft the commutating SCR before the end of retrace.  

Circuit Operation:
The basic thyristor line output stage arrangement used in all these chassis is shown in Fig. 1 - it was originally devised by RCA. The part to the right of the tuning capacitance acts in exactly the same manner as a transis- tor line output stage, with the scan thyristor Th2 replacing the transistor. The thyristor is switched on about half way through the forward scan, the efficiency diode D2 provid- ing the initial part of the line scan (left-hand side of the screen). The scan coils and line output transformer (used to generate the e.h.t. plus various other supply lines and pulse waveforms as required) are a.c. coupled, via the scan -correction capacitor C5 and C6 respectively. The problem with a thyristor is that it can be turned on at its gate but not off. To switch a thyristor off, the current flowing through it must be reduced below a value known as the hold -on current. This is the main function of the components on the left-hand side - the line generator, the flyback thyristor with its parallel diode and the commutat- ing coil. During the forward scan, the tuning capacitors are charged from the h.t. line via the input and commutat- ing coils. The line generator produces a pulse to trigger the flyback thyristor Th1- this occurs just before the actual flyback. When Thl1 switches on, the junction of the  input coil and the commutating coil is momentarily con- nected to chassis. The tuning capacitance and the com- mutating coil then resonate, producing a pulse which draws current via the scan thyristor. Since this current flow is in the opposite direction to the scan current flow, the two cancel and the current flowing via the scan thyris- tor falls below the hold -on current. Th2 is thus switched off, and the scan coils resonate with the tuning capaci- tance to provide the flyback action. So much for the basic action. A secondary winding coupled to the input coil produces a pulse to switch the scan thyristor on, in conjunction with the shaping/delay network Ll, C4, R1. The tuning capacitors are usually arranged in the T formation shown to reduce the values required and the voltages developed across them. In practical circuits the input and commutating coils are usually combined in a single unit which for obvious reasons is generally known as the combi coil. The main point not so far mentioned is stabilisation. There are two approaches to this. In earlier circuits a transductor was included in parallel with the input coil to vary the impe- dance in series with the tuning capacitance. This was driven by a transistor which was in turn controlled by feedback from the line output transformer. A more efficient technique is used in later circuits, with a current dumping thyristor in series with the input coil. Practical Circuit As a typical example of the earlier type of circuit, Fig. 2 shows the thyristor line output stage used in the Grundig 5010/5011/6010/6011 series. Td1 is the regulating transductor which is driven by Tr506. Ty511 is the flyback thyristor (commutating thyristor might be a better name), Ty518 the scan thyristor, Di518 the efficiency diode and C516/7/8 the tuning capacitance. The scan coils are cou- pled via C537, while C532 provides coupling between the primary winding of the line output transformer and chas- sis. A transductor (Td2) is used for EW raster correction. The combi coil also feeds 1.t. rectifiers from its secondary windings. 

Component Problems: The only problem with this type of circuit is the large amount of energy that shuttles back and forth at line frequency. This places a heavy stress on certain components. Circuit losses produce quite high temperatures, which are concentrated at certain points, in particular the combi coil. This leads to deterioration of the soldered joints around the coil, a common cause of failure. This can have a cumulative effect, a high -resistance joint increasing the local heating until the joint becomes well and truly dry -a classic symptom with some Grundig sets. The wound components themselves can be a source of trouble, due to losses - particularly the combi coil and the regulating transductor. Later chassis are less prone to this sort of thing, partly because of the use of later generation, higher efficiency yokes but mainly due to more generous and better design of the wound components. The ideal dielectric for use in the tuning capacitors is polypropylene (either metalised or film). It's a truly won- derful dielectric - very stable, with very small losses, and capable of operation at high frequencies and elevated temperatures. It's also nowadays reasonably inexpensive. Unfortunately many earlier chassis of this type used polyester capacitors, and it's no surprise that they were inclined to give up. When replacing the tuning capacitors in a thyristor line output stage it's essential to use poly- propylene types -a good range of axial components with values ranging from 0.001µF to 047µF is available from RS Components, enabling even non-standard values to be made up from an appropriate combination. Using polypropylene capacitors in place of polyester ones will not only ensure capacitor reliability but will also lower the stress on other components by reducing the circuit losses (and hence power consumption). The thyristors are also liable to fail, as are their parallel diodes. Earlier devices were less reliable than their successors. Since all thyristor line output stages operate in the same way and under similar conditions, the use of later types of thyristors and diodes in earlier circuits is a matter of mechanical rather than electrical con- siderations. One important point should be noted: the scan thyristor is a faster device and often has a higher voltage rating than the flyback thyristor. The simplest course is to keep in stock some of the later scan thyristors that incorporate an efficiency diode - suitable types are the RCA S3900SF and the Telefunken TD3-800H. The Telefunken device is in a TO66 package (and can be obtained quite cheaply) while the RCA type is in a TO220 package. Either type can be used in the scan or flyback positions and can also be used as a replacement for the regulating thyristor used in later designs instead of a transductor. Whenever replacing a thyristor in the line output stage it's good practice to replace the parallel diode at the same time. Using one of the above recom- mended devices will do this automatically, since the thyristor and its parallel diode share the same encapsulation - always remember to remove the old diode when this is a separate device however, as some can exhibit high -voltage leakage/breakdown which is not evident from a quite check with the Avo. Apart from the wound components (including the line output transformer), the thyristors and their parallel diodes and the tuning capacitors several other com- ponents are prone to failure. These include the tripler, scan/flyback rectifier diodes used to provide various supply lines, surge limiting resistors, the scan coil coup- ling/scan correction capacitor (replace with a metalised polypropylene type) and regulator components such as the thyristor in later types and the transductor driver transistor in earlier circuits. 

Basic Fault Conditions: At one time every engineer must have scratched his head and cursed the new-fangled idea of the thyristor line output stage. That they are awkward to service is a fallacy however. The usual symptom of a fault in the line output stage is the cutout tripping. All chassis that use a thyristor line timebase incorporate a trip of some sort. The type varies from chassis to chassis. Early Grundig sets have a mechanical cutout; the Saba H chassis uses a thyristor and solenoid to open the mains on/off switch; a common arrangement consists of a thyristor in series with the h.t, line and a control transistor which shorts the thyristor's gate and cathode in the event of excessive current demand (this gives audible tripping at about 2Hz). Some sets incorporate both excess current and over -voltage trips, but most have just the former. 
There are two basic fault conditions: when the excess current trip is activated and the set goes dead, or no e.h.t. with the trip not activated. The first condition is usually due to a line timebase fault, the most common being a short-circuit flyback thyristor or its parallel diode. A straightforward resistance check will sort this out. If this is not the case, short-circuit the scan thyristor by soldering a wire link between its anode and cathode. This will prevent any drive to the scan coils and the line output transformer. If the tripping stops, the fault could be due to the tripler, the line output transformer, a rectifier diode fed from a winding on the latter or a short in a circuit supplied by a scan rectifier diode. If the trip continues to operate and the flyback thyristor/diode is not the culprit, the most likely causes are incorrect drive to this thyristor - if possible check with a scope against the waveform given in the manual - or a rectifier diode fed from the combi coil. As an example of the latter, Fig. 3 shows the arrangement used in the Finlux Peacock: the electronic trip will operate if either D503 or D504 goes short-circuit, a fairly common fault on these sets. The diodes can also go open-circuit/high resistance to give the no sound with field collapse symp- tom, but that's another story ( referring to the diodes as D603/4 ). When the set is dead, h.t. is present and the trip is not activated, suspect the following: the scan thyristor, the efficiency diode, the line output transformer, the scan - correction capacitor, or lack of drive to the scan thyristor. Dry -joints can be the cause of any of these basic fault conditions, depending on the actual circuit and where the dry -joint has occurred. 

Other Symptoms: Hairline cracks in the ferrite core of a wound com- ponent can give rise to strange symptoms since this upsets the delicate balance of the tuning arrangements. There will usually be excessive current which will probably cause the trip to operate. Alternatively the fault may be incorrect line frequency which cannot be set by the line hold control. This fault can also give rise to excessive e.h.t., which can in turn produce a chain reaction of des- truction, e.g. the tripler is a common victim as are the two line output stage thyristors. Excessive e.h.t. leading to instant destruction of these components may also be due to open -circuit line scan coils or the connections to them. A quick resistance check done on the board itself will eliminate both the coils and the leads/connectors. Excessive e.h.t. with foldover in the centre of the screen and cooking in the tube's first anode supply net- work occurs in the Grundig 5010 series when L515 in the scan thyristor's trigger circuit (see Fig. 2) goes short- circuit. The reason for this situation is that the thyristor is triggered on early. Another common fault in these sets is failure of Di504/R504 - failure of one seems to affect the other, so both should be replaced. The usual symptom is fuzzy verticals and a sawtooth effect on diagonals. The trip may operate, possibly after period of operation. These components set up the transductor's operating bias. Linearity problems are usually caused by the regulator circuit, which can also be responsible for line "hunting". In the event of lack of width in the earlier type of circuit, check for dry -joints in the regulator circuit and suspect the control transistor. Foldover on the left-hand side of the screen can be caused by an open -circuit flyback diode. Foldover at the centre of the screen with greatly reduced width is the symptom when the efficiency diode goes open -circuit - the trip may or may not operate. Unusual interference patterns on the screen, best viewed with the contrast control turned to minimum and the brightness control advanced until a distinctly visible but not over bright white raster is obtained, can be due to the tripler if there's curved patterning on the extreme left- hand side of the screen, the regulator clamp diode (Di505 in Fig. 2) if there's curved interference just to the left of centre, or the flyback thyristor drive circuit if there's a single vertical line of patterning about four fifths of the way to the right of the screen.

The aim of this article has been to provide a general guide to servicing rather than to list faults common to particular models. Much useful information on individual 
chassis with thyristor line output stages has appeared in previous issues of  Obsolete Technology Tellye !- refer to the following as required: Search with the tag Thyristors at the bottom of the post to select all posts with this argument on various fabricants.

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