Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

In Brief: On this site you will find pictures and information about some of the electronic, electrical and electrotechnical Obsolete technology relics that the Frank Sharp Private museum has accumulated over the years .
Premise: There are lots of vintage electrical and electronic items that have not survived well or even completely disappeared and forgotten.

Or are not being collected nowadays in proportion to their significance or prevalence in their heyday, this is bad and the main part of the death land. The heavy, ugly sarcophagus; models with few endearing qualities, devices that have some over-riding disadvantage to ownership such as heavy weight,toxicity or inflated value when dismantled, tend to be under-represented by all but the most comprehensive collections and museums. They get relegated to the bottom of the wants list, derided as 'more trouble than they are worth', or just forgotten entirely. As a result, I started to notice gaps in the current representation of the history of electronic and electrical technology to the interested member of the public.

Following this idea around a bit, convinced me that a collection of the peculiar alone could not hope to survive on its own merits, but a museum that gave equal display space to the popular and the unpopular, would bring things to the attention of the average person that he has previously passed by or been shielded from. It's a matter of culture. From this, the Obsolete Technology Tellye Web Museum concept developed and all my other things too. It's an open platform for all electrical Electronic TV technology to have its few, but NOT last, moments of fame in a working, hand-on environment. We'll never own Colossus or Faraday's first transformer, but I can show things that you can't see at the Science Museum, and let you play with things that the Smithsonian can't allow people to touch, because my remit is different.

There was a society once that was the polar opposite of our disposable, junk society. A whole nation was built on the idea of placing quality before quantity in all things. The goal was not “more and newer,” but “better and higher" .This attitude was reflected not only in the manufacturing of material goods, but also in the realms of art and architecture, as well as in the social fabric of everyday life. The goal was for each new cohort of children to stand on a higher level than the preceding cohort: they were to be healthier, stronger, more intelligent, and more vibrant in every way.

The society that prioritized human, social and material quality is a Winner. Truly, it is the high point of all Western civilization. Consequently, its defeat meant the defeat of civilization itself.

Today, the West is headed for the abyss. For the ultimate fate of our disposable society is for that society itself to be disposed of. And this will happen sooner, rather than later.

OLD, but ORIGINAL, Well made, Funny, Not remotely controlled............. and not Made in CHINA.

How to use the site:
- If you landed here via any Search Engine, you will get what you searched for and you can search more using the search this blog feature provided by Google. You can visit more posts scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year,
or you can click on the main photo-page to start from the main page. Doing so it starts from the most recent post to the older post simple clicking on the Older Post button on the bottom of each page after reading , post after post.

You can even visit all posts, time to time, when reaching the bottom end of each page and click on the Older Post button.

- If you arrived here at the main page via bookmark you can visit all the site scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year pointing were you want , or more simple You can even visit all blog posts, from newer to older, clicking at the end of each bottom page on the Older Post button.
So you can see all the blog/site content surfing all pages in it.

- The search this blog feature provided by Google is a real search engine. If you're pointing particular things it will search IT for you; or you can place a brand name in the search query at your choice and visit all results page by page. It's useful since the content of the site is very large.

Note that if you don't find what you searched for, try it after a period of time; the site is a never ending job !

Every CRT Television saved let revive knowledge, thoughts, moments of the past life which will never return again.........

Many contemporary "televisions" (more correctly named as displays) would not have this level of staying power, many would ware out or require major services within just five years or less and of course, there is that perennial bug bear of planned obsolescence where components are deliberately designed to fail and, or manufactured with limited edition specificities..... and without considering........picture......sound........quality........
..............The bitterness of poor quality is remembered long after the sweetness of todays funny gadgets low price has faded from memory........ . . . . . .....
Don't forget the past, the end of the world is upon us! Pretty soon it will all turn to dust!

Have big FUN ! !
©2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 Frank Sharp - You do not have permission to copy photos and words from this blog, and any content may be never used it for auctions or commercial purposes, however feel free to post anything you see here with a courtesy link back, btw a link to the original post here , is mandatory.
All sets and apparates appearing here are property of Engineer Frank Sharp. NOTHING HERE IS FOR SALE !
All posts are presented here for informative, historical and educative purposes as applicable within Fair Use.

Friday, June 17, 2011


The GRAETZ (ITT) LANDGRAF COLOR 4661 OSCAR is A 26 Inches color television with 32 programs and VST Tuning system search;

It is several years since Nordmende, Philips, ITT and other fabricants introduced TV sets incorporating simple ultrasonic remote control, enabling sequential channel changing, sound muting and switching the set off from the comfort of one's armchair. As is so often the case however, the European setmaking = industry tends to lag behind its Japan counterparts when it comes to introducing new ideas and technology. A number of continental sets have been imported (notably from Germany and Scandinavia) which have taken the principle considerably further - direct (non sequential) channel selection, proportional control of colour, volume, brightness (and contrast in some instances), an `ideal' command which sets the brightness, colour and volume to preset values giving a 'normal' display. In addition there is an 'off' facility, although this is normally treated as 'standby' - the set is virtually switched off except for the remote control receiver section and is switched on again when any one channel is selected. For reception of teletext, this type of remote control becomes almost obligatory, since the number of customer controls is considerably increased - page selection, TV/text switching, auxiliary function switching, e.g. newsflash, update, mixed display, etc. ITT and Nordmende have recently introduced up-market sets with 30 channel remote control systems based on two i.c.s manufactured by ITT Semiconductors. Although Philips and others are in the process of offering alternative remote control systems to setmakers, this is the only one currently employed and is therefore the one I have chosen as the basis for this post. We shall first of all look at the principles of operation, as illustrated by the ITT , circuits. The i.c.s in question are the SAA1024 which is used for the transmitter, and the SAA1025 receiver. They are both CMOS types and can be used in conjunction with either ultrasonic or infrared transmitter/receiver systems.

- The mechanisms for tuning these channels were initially large, cumbersome mechanical tuners that switched in different coil and capacitor combinations to attain the appropriate frequencies for television signal reception. A modern television tuner comprises a relatively simple electronic device having varactor diodes as the primary tuning control elements. The various coil arrangements used with the varactor diodes to tune the different frequency ranges are switched by so-called bandswitching diodes. As is well known, a varactor diode exhibits a capacitance which varies as a function of an applied DC tuning voltage. Since the amount of capacitance variation required to tune a circuit is primarily a function of the ratio between the highest and lowest frequencies involved, it is still necessary to bandswitch to embrace all of the so-called VHF frequencies. The UHF band, on the other hand, has generally been tunable with a single set of non-bandswitched tuned circuits. here a television receiver incorporating one or more voltage controlled tuners and providing an automatic fine tuning voltage may be tuned to any available television channel by selectively applying an analog tuning voltage corresponding to a frequency associated with the desired television channel to the television tuner. For the channel selector of television receivers, there have been hitherto known and widely used search type channel selectors and preset search type channel selection apparatus. In the former case, tuning voltage applied to the electronic tuner is swept or scanned to seach a desired television or TV signal. Upon reception of the TV signal of a desired channel, the sweeping operation is stopped. On the other hand, in the case of the preset search type channel selector, a ditigal signal is converted into an analog signal for sweeping the tuning voltage applied to the tuner. When the desired signal has been found, optimum tuning point for the reception of the signal is detected, whereupon the supply of the digital signal is interrupted. The channel selection apparatus of the prior art are, however, disadvantageous in that erroneous operations will be often involved particularly when the signal in concern is of a feeble intensity or when unfavorable conditions exist for the signal reception. .

- It has a Transistorized horizontal deflection circuits  made up of a horizontal switching or output transistor, a diode, one or more capacitors and a deflection winding. The output transistor, operating as a switch, is driven by a horizontal rate square wave signal and conducts during a portion of the horizontal trace interval. A diode, connected in parallel with the transistor, conducts during the remainder of the trace interval. A retrace capacitor and the deflection yoke winding are coupled in parallel across the transistor-diode combination. Energy is transferred into and out of the deflection winding via the diode and output transistor during the trace interval and via the retrace capacitor during the retrace interval.
In some television receivers, the collector of the horizontal output transistor is coupled to the B+ power supply through the primary windings of the high voltage transformer.

- First model series from GRAETZ (ITT) featuring the 30AX SYSTEM CRT TUBE WITH PHILIPS Technology but fabricated by SEL (ITT) COMBINED WITH VIDOM CHASSIS.
The 30AX system, which Philips introduced in 1979, is an important landmark in the development of colour picture systems. With previous systems the assembly technician had to workthrough a large number of complicated setting-up procedures whenever he fitted a television picture tube with aset of coils for deflecting the electron beams. These procedures were necessary to ensure that the beams for the three colours would converge at thescreen for every deflection. They are no longer necessary with the 30AX system: for a given screen format any deflection unit can be combined  with any tube to form a single 'dynamically convergent' unit. A colour-television receiver can thus be assembled from its components almost as easily as a monochrome receiver. The colour picture tube of the PHILIPS 30AX system displays a noticeably sharper picture over the entire screen surface. This will be particularly noticeable when data transmissions such as Viewdata and Teletext are displayed. This has been achieved by a reduction in the size of the beam spot by about 30%. Absence of coma and the retention of the 36.5 mm neck diameter have both contributed to increased picture sharpness. Coma has been eliminated by means of corrective field shapers embedded in the deflection coils which are sectionally wound saddle types. The new deflection unit has no rear flanges. enabling uniform self-convergence to be obtained for all screen sizes. without special corrections, adjustments, or tolerance compensations. Horizontal raster distortion is reduced and no vertical correction is required. One of the inventions in 30AX is an internal magnetic correction system which obviates static convergence and colour purity errors. This enables the usual multiple unit to be dispensed with. together with the need for its adjustment !  New techniques have been employed to achieve close tolerance construction of the glass envelope. In addition, the 30AX picture tube incorporates two features whereby it can be accurately adjusted during the last stages of manufacture. One is the internal magnetic correction system. The other is an array of bosses on the cone that establish a precise reference for the axial purity positioning of the deflection unit on the tube axis and for raster orientation. During its manufacture, each deflection unit is individually adjusted for optimum convergence. The coil carrier also incorporates reference bosses that co-operate with those on the cone of the tube. ' Since every picture tube and every deflection unit is individually pre-aligned, any deflection unit automatically matches with any picture tube of the appropriate size. The deflection unit has only to be pushed onto the neck of the tube unit it seats. Once the reference bosses are engaged, the combination is accurately aligned and requires no adjustment for convergence, colour purity or raster orientation. With no multiple unit and a flangeless deflection unit, there is more space in the receiver cabinet. Higher deflection sensitivity means that less current is consumed, and consequently less heat is produced. This increases the reliability of the TV receiver again. 30AX means simple assembly. Any picture tube is compatible with any deflection unit of the appropriate size and is automatically self-aligning as well as being self-convergent.
The well-known 20AX features of HI-Bri, Soft-Flash and Quick-vision are maintained in the new 30AX systern.  In their work on the design of deflection coils in the last few years the developers have expanded  the magnetic deflectionfields into 'multipoles', This approach has improved the understanding  of the relations between coil and field and between field and deflection to such an extent that  designing deflection units is now more like playing a difficult but fascinating game of chess than  carrying out the obscure computing procedure once necessary.

- First model series employing a isolated CHASSIS from Mains ground.

- Featuring a 40W Music Power (20W RMS) speaker.
AUDIO MODULE: The design of a suitable audio output system for a television receiver presents a delicate question : should the quality aimed at be the best possible in order to give full justice to the transmitted sound or should the quality be satisfactory for the majority of viewers and little else? The problem is not really one of cost if an extra few pounds could result in hi-fi performance there would be little argument about which way to proceed. Unfortunately however the conventional television receiver as a sound reproducer inevitably leaves a lot to be desired. Although a reasonably sized cabinet could be made in order to incorporate a loudspeaker enclosure of hi-fi dimensions a television set is not really suitable for levels of reproduction. The power considered necessary for hi-fi results is at least 8-10 watts: this would inevitably lead to microphony in a television set particularly in the shadowmask tube. There is little point therefore in striving towards the design of a perfect audio output stage, although provision should we feel be made to enable the audio signal to be extracted to drive an external hi-fi system. The drive level available for the audio module is about 23mV (as noted in part 4) and for reasonable reproduction we would like some 2.5 to 3 watts. Commercial receivers average around 2 watts at the time and this is probably a little too low to give a reasonable dynamic range for trahsients. To get 2.5-3W using discrete circuitry we would probably need a five transistor amplifier with coupling, bias, load and feedback components plus a specially designed printed circuit board and suitable heat sinks. The total cost would be higher. It was therefore decided to use an integrated circuit amplifier instead though selection is rather limited for the gain required.

- The set is build with a Modular chassis design because as modern television receivers become more complex the problem of repairing the receiver becomes more difficult. As the number of components used in the television receiver increases the susceptibility to breakdown increases and it becomes more difficult to replace defective components as they are more closely spaced. The problem has become even more complicated with the increasing number of color television receivers in use. A color television receiver has a larger number of circuits of a higher degree of complexity than the black and white receiver and further a more highly trained serviceman is required to properly service the color television receiver.
Fortunately for the service problem to date, most failures occur in the vacuum tubes used in the television receivers. A faulty or inoperative vacuum tube is relatively easy to find and replace. However, where the television receiver malfunction is caused by the failure of other components, such as resistors, capacitors or inductors, it is harder to isolate the defective component and a higher degree of skill on the part of the serviceman is required.
Even with the great majority of the color television receiver malfunctions being of the "easy to find and repair" type proper servicing of color sets has been difficult to obtain due to the shortage of trained serviceman.
At the present time advances in the state of the semiconductor art have led to the increasing use of transistors in color television receivers. The receiver described in this application has only two tubes, the picture tube and the high voltage rectifier tube, all the other active components in the receiver being semiconductors.
One important characteristic of a semiconductor device is its extreme reliability in comparison with the vacuum tube. The number of transistor and integrated circuit failures in the television receiver will be very low in comparison with the failures of other components, the reverse of what is true in present day color television receivers. Thus most failures in future television receivers will be of the hard to service type and will require more highly qualified servicemen.
The primary symptoms of a television receiver malfunction are shown on the picture tube of the television receiver while the components causing the malfunction are located within the cabinet. Also many adjustments to the receiver require the serviceman to observe the screen. Thus the serviceman must use unsatisfactory mirror arrangements to remove the electronic chassis from the cabinet, usually a very difficult task. Further many components are "buried" in a maze of circuitry and other components so that they are difficult to remove and replace without damage to other components in the receiver.
Repairing a modern color television receiver often requires that the receiver be removed from the home and carried to a repair shop where it may remain for many weeks. This is an expensive undertaking since most receivers are bulky and heavy enough to require at least two persons to carry them. Further, two trips must be made to the home, one to pick up the receiver and one to deliver it. For these reasons, the cost of maintaining the color television receiver in operating condition often exceeds the initial cost of the receiver and is an important factor in determining whether a receiver will be purchased.
Therefore, the object of this invention is to provide a transistorized color television receiver in which the main electronic chassis is easily accessible for maintenance and adjustment. Another object of this invention is to provide a transistorized color television receiver in which the electronic circuits are divided into a plurality of modules with the modules easily removable for service and maintenance. The main electronic chassis is slidably mounted within the cabinet so that it may be withdrawn, in the same manner as a drawer, to expose the electronic circuitry therein for maintenance and adjustment from the rear closure panel after easy removal. Another aspect is the capability to be serviced at eventually the home of the owner.
Many connectors for AV / Headphone / Audiorecorder.

It's an interesting fact that the cathode ray tube, which was amongst the very earliest thermionic devices, seems likely to be amongst the very last in everyday use. Receiving valves are largely things of the past, while timebase valves now belong in the service department. The development of the CRT continues apace however, and one cannot see any likelihood of its demise. Solid-state displays have been talked about, and demonstrated, but anything likely to compete on cost and performance grounds with the modern colour tube seems forever to be "at least ten years away". The early experiments with cathode-ray tubes were carried out in the last century. By the turn of the century, crude CRTs could be made. An early CRT, the Wehnelt hot cathode tube of 1905, is on display at the IBA's Television Gallery. By 1910, Alexander Campbell -Swinton had come to appreciate the possibilities of the CRT as a pick-up and display device for television, and put forward suggestions for such a TV system. It was a while however before the type of tube we know today appeared. The tubes of the 1910-30 era were gas focused devices (relying on residual gas to focus the beam), the vacuum pumps of the period producing only a poor vacuum. By the time of the start of the BBC's TV service in 1936 however the modern type of tube had arrived. It was a triode device with external focusing and a deflection angle of around 50°. The usual sizes were 9 and 12in., and the e.h.t. was about 5kV. Post-war developments during the 1950s saw some important innovations. The deflection angle went to 70°, then 90°, then 110°; multi -electrode gun assemblies with electrostatic focusing were introduced; the e.h.t rose to 20kV; improved phosphors became available; and the advent of the aluminised screen considerably improved the brightness and contrast (by reflecting all the phosphor light emission forwards) while overcoming the problem of ion bombardment. Meanwhile, colour had come. The principle of the shadowmask tube had been suggested in the 1930s, but development (by RCA) had to wait until proposals for an acceptable, practical colour broadcasting system were put forward. A regular colour service was started in the USA in 1954, and the receivers were fitted with 21in. shadowmask tubes. Early developments included the use of improved phosphors, but essentially the same tube confronted us with the advent of colour transmissions in Europe in 1967. As you all know, it had three guns mounted in a triangular formation, a dot-phosphor screen, a massive convergence system in two sections (radial and lateral), plus purity magnets and a large metal shield on which the degaussing coils hung. It also needed both NS and EW raster correction circuitry. The first versions in Europe had a deflection angle of 90° : when the 110° version came along in the early 1970s the convergence and raster correction circuitry required were even more complex, but the degaussing shield had disappeared inside the tube. At much the same time however the first major breakthrough in large screen tube design occurred (we put it that way because the innovating Sony Trinitron was at the time mainly a small screen tube) - the RCA PIL tube with its in -line guns, phosphor -striped screen, and slotted shadowmask. The design of the yoke to provide self -convergence in conjunction with the in -line gun arrangement meant that no dynamic convergence system was required, while some simple manufacturer preset magnets provided static convergence and purity correction. Sets using this tube first appeared in Europe in 1975, and meanwhile the PHILIPS 20AX system had come along. Over the last few years the pace of development has quickened to a striking extent. We've had quick warm-up cathodes, the hi-bri technology which increases the shadow mask's transparency, the contoured line screen, the super -arch mask, pigmented phosphors, soft flash to reduce flashover damage, redesigned focus arrangements, and increased use of an earlier development, the black -stripe screen. The latest generation of tubes require no NS raster correction circuitry, which is all part of a parallel development in yoke technology, while the need for EW correction is also in the process of being designed out. With the new Philips 30AX tube, the static convergence and purity system disappear inside the tube in the form of a small internal magnetic ring. It's all a long way from Wehnelt's hot -cathode tube of 1905. The latest colour tubes are compact and have all the various correction arrangements required built in. They are amazing feats of precision engineering, and a solid-state alternative seems as far away as ever. Is there any farther to go along this path? Well, single -gun colour tubes using the beam indexing principle are now understood to be a practical proposition for small screen tubes, so we can't be too sure.

Graetz AG (formerly Ehrich & Graetz AG) was a German manufacturer of petrol lamps. In 1899 the company began to produce radio sets at its plant in Treptow, Berlin. The company lent its name to an electrical circuit called the diode bridge, which is better known as the full-wave bridge rectifier. A drawing of this circuit attributed to Graetz, dated 1897, appears in a paper by Chattopadhyay.

On January 2nd, 1866, master plumber Albert Graetz (1831-1901), together with the distributor Emil Ehrich, founded the "Lampen-Fabrik Erich and Graetz OHG" (Erich and Graetz Lamp Factory, Unlimited), on Dresdener St. in Berlin. Albert Graetz felt compelled to end the "dark times" of what he referred to as "Rueboelfunzein" (vegetable oil lamps), through the introduction of improved lamp designs. Thus, Ehrich and Graetz manufactured and sold, quite successfully, air-draft kerosene lamps under the brand names "Akaria", Matador", and "Iris". In 1889, Albert Graetz handed over management of the company to his sons Adolf (1860-1909) and Max (1861-1937), Emil Ehrich having left the company some time earlier.

In early 1961, Erich Graetz, having no family successor to take over the company, sold 74.5% of "Graetz KG" to the high-bidding "SEL" (Standard- Elektronik-Lorenz AG) (the "Phillips" corporation also being a bidder). The remaining 25.5% of the shares were held by the "Westfaelische Kupfer-und Messing-Werke AG" (Westfaeli Copper and Brass Factories Corporation), as a purely speculative investment holding. "SEL", in turn, eventually sold the factories to "Nokia", of Finland. At the Altena factories, the Petromax lantern continued to be built in to the 1970's.

Ehrich & Graetz
Der Handwerker Albert Graetz unterhielt seit 1859 mit drei Mann in Berlin, Dresdener Straße, eine Werkstatt für Petroleumlampen.
Durch Eintritt des Kaufmanns Emil Ehrich als Kapitalgeber erfolgte im Januar 1866 die Gründung einer offenen Handelsgesellschaft (OHG) in der Lausitzer Strasse 31, Berlin S.O..
Nachdem Emil Ehrich im Jahre 1887 verstarb, war es vornehmlich der Sohn des Mitbegründers der Firma, Max Graetz, der mit technischer Erfindungsgabe und kaufmännischem Geschick den Betrieb ständig ausbaute.
Die folgenden Jahrzehnte brachten auch der Firma Ehrich & Graetz OHG, wie der Mehrzahl der deutschen Industriebetriebe, einen beachtlichen wirtschaftlichen Aufschwung. 1889 beschäftigte Graetz schon 100 Arbeiter. In den Jahren 1897 bis 1899 wurde auf einem sechs Hektar großen Gelände in der Elsenstraße in der damaligen Landgemeinde Treptow bei Berlin (Kreis Teltow) ein neues Fabrikgebäude gebaut. Dor begann die Produktion mit 300 Arbeitern. Nach dem Einzug in die neuerbauten Fabrikgebäude im Jahre 1899 wuchs die Belegschaft der Firma in einem Jahr auf 1000 Beschäftigte.
1908 begann der Betrieb erstmalig mit der Herstellung einer elektrischen Metallfadenlampe und der Produktion verschiedener anderer elektrotechnischer Artikel. Ab 1913 wurden in großem Umfang elektrische Bügeleisen, Wasserkocher und Heizöfen hergestellt und abgesetzt. Das Hauptsortiment lag jedoch weiterhin in der Herstellung von Petroleum- und Gaslampen. Die Markennamen Graetzin und Graetzor werden weltbekannt. Mit der "Petromax Lampe" erlangte Graetz ein Absatzmonopol auf dem Weltmarkt.

Zu Beginn des 1. Weltkrieges 1914 verstand es der Großunternehmer Graetz, dessen Belegschaft etwa 3000 Beschäftigte umfasste, sich auf die steigende profitversprechende Rüstungsproduktion umzustellen. Hauptsächlich wurden Patronen, Zünder sowie Maschinengewehre produziert. Dabei wuchs die Belegschaft auf etwa 7000 Beschäftigte (vor allem Frauen) an.
Die Firma Ehrich und Graetz büßte durch den Krieg ihre Auslandsverbindungen weitgehend ein und war somit gezwungen, sich wieder auf Konsumgüterproduktion umzustellen. Von den 5500 Arbeitern, die am Ende des Krieges beschäftigt waren, wurden 4500 entlassen.
Am 29. Dezember 1919 bildete sich die "Offene Handelsgesellschaft Ehrich & Graetz" in die "Kommanditgesellschaft Ehrich & Graetz" um
Am 20. Mai 1922 wurde die Aktiengesellschaft Ehrich & Graetz AG (neben der Graetz KG) gegründet. Die Hauptaktionäre waren der Seniorchef Max Graetz, seine Söhne Erich, Fritz, Hans und Rudolf sowie sein Schwiegersohn Hans Pahl. (Stammkapital 18 Millionen Mark)

Fritz Graetz übernahm die Geschäftsführung. Es wurden dann Radioapparate für Graetz hergestellt.
1933 wurde "Elektrowatt" aufgelöst und ging in die Graetz Radio GmbH auf.
Seit 1929 stellte die Graetz Radio GmbH, eine hundertprozentige Tochter von Ehrich & Graetz, Rundfunkgeräte her.
Als 1933 die faschistische Diktatur in Deutschland errichtet wurde, begann die Firma Graetz den Maschinenpark zu erneuern und stellte sich bereits 1933 auf Rüstungsproduktion um. Von 1935 bis 1939 entwickelte sich die Firma wieder zu einem bedeutenden Großbetrieb mit 4000 Belegschaftsmitgliedern.
Gefertigt wurden neben Radiogeräten auch vieles andere, hier zu sehen ein 8er Topfsockel / Röhrensockel aus Pressstoff als Zulieferung für Röhrenhersteller / Elektronenröhrenindustrie (1940):
Die Firma Ehrich & Graetz AG stellte sich mit Kriegsbeginn immer mehr auf Rüstungsproduktion um und fertigte Zünder, Kartuschen, Motorradvergaser, Radio- und Nachrichtengeräte sowie Benzinpumpen (Graetzin-Kraftstoff-Förderpumpe) für Flugzeuge.

Die Graetz AG unterlag nach dem Potsdamer Abkommen der Demontage. Ein Großteil der noch intakten Maschinen wurde in die Sowjetunion abtransportiert.
Wenige Männer und Frauen, die bis Ende des Krieges 1945 bei der Graetz AG beschäftigt waren, begannen mit den Aufräumungsarbeiten auf den mit Trümmern übersäten Betriebsgelände.
Wie in vielen anderen Berliner Betrieben fingen auch sie an, aus Kriegsmaterial und den verbliebenen und reparierten Maschinen dringend benötigte Gebrauchsgüter (Töpfe, Schüsseln, Bratpfannen u.a.) herzustellen.
Noch im Jahre 1945 wurde die Produktion der Petromax-Lampen aufgenommen und weitere Konsumgüter wie Rasierapparate, Winkelmesser und Schulzirkel übernommen. Im Dezember 1945 waren bei der Graetz AG wieder 300 Arbeiter und Angestellte beschäftigt.
Am 8. Februar 1949 wurden die Graetz-Werke in Volkseigentum überführt und der Hauptverwaltung RFT, Rundfunk- und Fernmeldetechnik, in Leipzig unterstellt (VEB Graetz).
Nach kurzer Zeit der Eingliederung des Betriebes in die Hauptverwaltung RFT begann eine Wende im Produktionsprofil des VEB Graetz-Werk. Als Perspektive sah die Hauptverwaltung vor, den gesamten Betrieb mit nunmehr 1200 Beschäftigten auf die Produktion von Fernmeldeanlagen umzustellen.
Die bisherige Produktion von Gaslampen, Bügeleisen, Radiogeräten u.a. musste etappenweise eingestellt werden. Am 4. Februar 1950 wurde der VEB Graetz-Werk in VEB Fernmeldewerk Treptow umbenannt.
Am 1. Juli 1953 wurde der Zusammenschluss des VEB Fernmeldewerk Treptow und des VEB Signalbau Berlin zum neugebildeten VEB Werk für Signal- und Sicherungstechnik Berlin (WSSB) vollzogen.

Erich Graetz und sein Bruder Fritz waren unmittelbar vor dem Zusammenbruch des Deutschen Reiches 1945 nach Bregenz in ihr Zweigwerk geflüchtet, die Metallwaren GmbH, in dem noch Maschinen im Wert von mehreren hunderttausend Reichsmark standen.
Im Oktober 1945 reiste Fritz Graetz nach Berlin und versuchte, im Stammwerk wieder Fuß zu fassen. Doch stieß er auf erbitterte Ablehnung beim neuen Betriebsausschuss. Er musste unverrichteter Dinge wieder abreisen.
Erich Graetz begann so 1946 / 1947 mit der Produktion u.a. von Petromax-Laternen, für die es auch in den Westzonen Bedarf gab. Aber auch andere Gegenstände des "täglichen Bedarfs" wurden hergestellt, u.a. Feuerzeuge:

1948 gründete er zusammen mit seinem Bruder Fritz die Graetz KG, und zwar im westfälischen Altena.
GRAETZ Kommandit-Gesellschaft, Altena (Westfalen), Westiger Strasse 172, Postfach 48, Fernruf: 2357-2359 Amt Altena (Westf.)
Das Gelände und die vorhandenen Fabrikhallen einer ehemaligen Munitionsfabrik von "Thyssen-Krupp" konnten für den Neubeginn genutzt werden. Im November 1948 war das neue Stammwerk fertiggestellt. In rascher Folge weitete sich der Betrieb aus, im Juni 1950 entstand Werk II, im Mai 1951 Werk III - beide ebenfalls in Altena.
In der 1949 gegründeten "Bundesrepublik Deutschland" nahmen Erich und Fritz Graetz die Produktion von Radiogeräten erneut auf.
Anfang der 50er Jahre trumpfte Graetz mit einigen technischen Innovationen in den vorderen Reihen der deutschen Radio- und Fernsehgeräte- Hersteller.

In der Nacht vom 8. zum 9. Mai 1952 brannte das komplette Obergeschoss des Graetz- Werkes 1 ab... : Ansprache des Herrn Erich Graetz an die Belegschaft am Tage nach dem Brand.
Zu Beginn des Jahres 1961 gehen die Firmengruppen SEL (Standard Elektronik Lorenz) und Graetz eine Verbindung ein, zum Ende des Jahres scheidet Erich Graetz aus dem Unternehmen aus.
Auch die SEL gehörte zum amerikanischen Konzern ITT (International Telephone and Telegraph Company)

Der Vertrieb wird ab 1962 neu strukturiert: Man spricht von der koordinierten Vertriebsorganisation von Graetz und Schaub-Lorenz im SEL - Geschäftsbereich Rundfunk Fernsehen Phono.
Zunächst wurde aber noch Graetz und Schaub-Lorenz getrennt, aber unter einem Dach organisiert. Es galt:
Graetz Vertriebsgesellschaft mbH, 7530 Pforzheim, Östliche Karl-Friedrich-Straße 132, Telefon 07231-3021
Ab 1. Januar 1967 wird der Vertrieb weiter "gestrafft" - aus organisatorischen Gründen - wie es in einer Mitteilung verfasst wird. Verkaufsbezirke werden neu festgelegt und Geschäftsstellen benannt.
Firmiert wird mit Standard Elektronik Lorenz Aktiengesellschaft (SEL-AG) / UGR Audio Video Elektronik, 7530 Pforzheim, Östliche 132, Postfach 1526, Telefon 07231/59-2216, Telex 0783781
darunter die Marken "ITT" ("Schaub-Lorenz") und "Graetz", später auch "Ingelen"
Auf der Rückwand späterer "Graetz" Geräte finden wir später:

Auch die österreichische Firma Ingelen wird 1966 vom ITT-Konzern übernommen. Interessanterweise sind so viele in Pforzheim entwickelte Geräte, welche aus Deutschland unter der Marke GRAETZ bekannt wurden, auch mit dem MarkennamenDer frühere Inhaber der Marke, die "Nokia Unterhaltungselektronik GmbH" in 75175 Pforzheim hat die Marke am 02.11.1998 an das Italienische Unternehmen "VIDITEL S.P.A." in Rom weitergegeben. Aufgrund der Nichtverlängerung wurde die Marke am 13.09.2000 gelöscht.

ITT Corporation (NYSE: ITT) is a global diversified manufacturing company with 2008 revenues of $11.7 billion. ITT participates in global markets including water and fluids management, defense and security, and motion and flow control. named ITT Corporation to its list of "America's Best Managed Companies" for 2008, and awarded the company the top spot in the conglomerates category.

,ITT's water business is the world's largest supplier of pumps and systems to transport, treat and control water, and other fluids. The company's defense electronics and services business is one of the ten largest US defense contractors providing defense and security systems, advanced technologies and operational services for military and civilian customers. ITT's motion and flow control business manufactures specialty components for aerospace, transportation and industrial markets.

In 2008, ITT was named to the Dow Jones Sustainability World Index (DJSI World) for the tenth time in recognition of the company's economic, environmental and social performance. ITT is one of the few companies to be included on the list every year since its inception in 1999.

The company was founded in 1920 as International Telephone & Telegraph. During the 1960s and 1970s, under the leadership of its CEO Harold Geneen the company rose to prominence as the archetypal conglomerate, deriving its growth from hundreds of acquisitions in diversified industries. ITT divested its telecommunications assets in 1986, and in 1995 spun off its non-manufacturing divisions, later to be purchased by Starwood Hotels & Resorts Worldwide.

In 1996, the company became ITT Industries, Inc., but changed its name back to ITT Corporation in 2006.


ITT was formed in 1920, created from the Puerto Rico Telephone Company co-founded by Sosthenes Behn.[1] Its first major expansion was in 1923 when it consolidated the Spanish Telecoms market into what is now Telefónica.[2] From 1922 to 1925 it purchased a number of European telephone companies. In 1925 it purchased the Bell Telephone Manufacturing Company of Brussels, Belgium, which was formerly affiliated with AT&T, and manufactured rotary system switching equipment. In the 1930s, ITT grew through purchasing German electronic companies Standard Elektrizitaetsgesellschaft (SEG) and Mix & Genest, both of which were internationally active companies. Its only serious rival was the Theodore Gary & Company conglomerate, which operated a subsidiary, Associated Telephone and Telegraph, with manufacturing plants in Europe.

In the United States, ITT acquired the various companies of the Mackay Companies in 1928 through a specially organized subsidiary corporation, Postal Telegraph & Cable. These companies included the Commercial Cable Company, the Commercial Pacific Cable Company, Postal Telegraph, and the Federal Telegraph Company.

International telecommunications

International telecommunications manufacturing subsidiaries included STC in Australia and Britain, SEL in Germany, BTM in Belgium, and CGCT and LMT in France. Alec Reeves invented Pulse-code modulation (PCM), upon which future digital voice communication was based. These companies manufactured equipment according to ITT designs including the (1960s) Pentaconta crossbar switch and (1970s) Metaconta D, L and 10c Stored Program Control exchanges, mostly for sale to their respective national telephone administrations. This equipment was also produced under license in Poznań (Poland), and in Yugoslavia, and elsewhere. ITT was the largest owner of the LM Ericsson company in Sweden but sold out in 1960.

1989 breakup

In 1989 ITT sold its international telecommunications product businesses to Alcatel, now Alcatel-Lucent. ITT Kellogg was also part of the 1989 sale to Alcatel. The company was then sold to private investors in the U.S. and went by the name Cortelco Kellogg. Today the company is known as Cortelco (Corinth Telecommunications Corporation, named for Corinth, MS headquarters). ITT Educational Services, Inc. (ESI) was spun off through an IPO in 1994, with ITT as an 83% shareholder. ITT merged its long distance division with Metromedia Long Distance, creating Metromedia-ITT. Metromedia-ITT would eventually be acquired by Long Distance Discount Services, Inc. (LDDS) in 1993. LDDS would later change its name to Worldcom in 1995.

In 1995, ITT Corporation split into 3 separate public companies:

* ITT Corp. — In 1997, ITT Corp. completed a merger with Starwood Hotels & Resorts Worldwide, selling off its non-hotel and resorts business. By 1999, ITT completely divested from ITT/ESI; however, the schools still operate as ITT Technical Institute using the ITT name under license.[1] Also in 1999, ITT Corp. dropped the ITT name in favor of Starwood.[7]
* ITT Hartford (insurance) — Today ITT Hartford is still a major insurance company although it has dropped the ITT from its name altogether. The company is now known as The Hartford Financial Services Group, Inc.
* ITT Industries — ITT operated under this name until 2006 and is a major manufacturing and defense contractor business.
o On July 1, 2006, ITT Industries changed its name to ITT Corporation as a result of its shareholders vote on May 9, 2006.

Purchase of International Motion Control (IMC)

An agreement was reached on June 26, 2007 for ITT to acquire privately held International Motion Control (IMC) for $395 million. The deal was closed and finalized in September 2007. An announcement was made September 14, 2010, to close the Cleveland site.
Purchase of EDO

An agreement was reached September 18, 2007 for ITT to buy EDO Corporation for $1.7 billion.[12] After EDO shareholders' approval, the deal was closed and finalized on December 20, 2007.

Purchase of Laing

On April 16, 2009, ITT announced it has signed a definitive agreement to acquire Laing GmbH of Germany, a privately held leading producer of energy-efficient circulator pumps primarily used in residential and commercial plumbing and heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems.

2011 breakup

On January 12, 2011, ITT announced a transformation to separate the company into 3, stand-alone, publicly-traded, and independent companies.

HISTORY OF Standard Elektrik Lorenz AG IN GERMAN:

Die Standard Elektrik Lorenz AG (heute Alcatel-Lucent Deutschland AG) ist ein Unternehmen der Nachrichtentechnik (früherer Slogan: SEL – Die ganze Nachrichtentechnik) mit Hauptsitz in Stuttgart. Zur Nachrichtentechnik zählen auch Informations- und Kommunikationstechnik, Telekommunikationstechnik (SEL war für die Röchelschaltung bekannt) und früher Fernmeldetechnik oder Schwachstromtechnik. Einen weiteren Geschäftsbereich hatte das Unternehmen in der Bahnsicherungstechnik, so wurden für die Deutsche Bundesbahn Relaisstellwerke und elektronische Stellwerke mit den dazugehörigen Außenanlagen (Signale, Gleisfreimeldeanlagen, Weichenantriebe) sowie die Linienzugbeeinflussung entwickelt und gebaut, welche auch bei ausländischen Bahnen Abnehmer fanden. Der Bereich gehört seit 2007 als Thales Transportation Systems GmbH (seit 02.2011 vorher Thales Rail Signalling Solutions GmbH) zum Thales-Konzern. Die bereits 1998 ausgegliederten Bereiche Alcatel Air Navigation Systems und SEL Verteidigungssysteme sind ebenfalls heute in Thales Deutschland beheimatet.[1]
Fernseher Illustraphon 743 von 1957
„Goldsuper Stereo 20“ (1961)
Das Flaggschiff der erfolgreichen Schaub-Lorenz Kofferradios der sechziger Jahre: Touring 70 Universal
Erster Digitalfernseher der Welt (1983)

Bis 1987 gehörte SEL zusammen mit anderen auf dem Sektor Telekommunikation in anderen Ländern tätigen Schwesterfirmen zum US-amerikanischen Mischkonzern International Telephone and Telegraph (ITT). ITT verkaufte die Aktien-Mehrheit an den ITT-Telekommunikationsfirmen an die französische Compagnie Générale d’Electricité (CGE), die nach der Zusammenfassung mit den eigenen Telekommunikationsaktivitäten daraus die Alcatel N.V. bildete.

Die Standard Elektrik Lorenz AG wurde 1993 in Alcatel SEL AG umbenannt. Die Aktienmehrheit liegt mit über 99 % bei der Alcatel. Mit der Fusion von Alcatel und Lucent zu Alcatel-Lucent am 1. Dezember 2006 und der Neu-Firmierung beider Unternehmen in Deutschland zur Alcatel-Lucent Deutschland AG entfiel der Zusatz SEL.


Die beiden Stammfirmen des Unternehmens, die Mix & Genest AG und die Telegraphenbauanstalt von C. Lorenz, wurden 1879 bzw. 1880 gegründet. Das erste Patent von Mix & Genest datiert von 1883, das erste Patent von C. Lorenz ist aus dem Jahr 1902.

Das Unternehmen Mix & Genest war wesentlicher Teil der Standard Elektrizitäts-Gesellschaft (SEG), in die auch die Süddeutsche Apparatefabrik (SAF), die 1875 von F. Heller als "Friedrich Heller, Fabrik Elektrotechnischer Apparate" gegründet wurde, integriert wurde. Der technische Schwerpunkt von Mix & Genest bzw. SEG sowie der C. Lorenz AG war der klassischen Fernmelde- bzw. Funktechnik zuzuordnen. Die C. Lorenz AG baute in den 1920er und 1930er Jahren Großsender für den neu gegründeten Rundfunk.

1930 übernahm die International Telephone and Telegraph Company (ITT) die Aktienmehrheit der Mix & Genest AG und der C. Lorenz AG. [2]

Die C. Lorenz AG positionierte sich mit der Übernahme der G. Schaub Apparatebau-Gesellschaft mbH im Jahr 1940 in der Entwicklung und Herstellung von Rundfunkempfängern. Ab dem Jahr 1950 wurden alle Geräte bei Schaub in Pforzheim gefertigt. 1952 wurde das Typenprogramm beider Unternehmen verschmolzen und der Lorenz-Radio-Vertrieb in die Firma Schaub integriert. Ab 1955 wurden die Geräte unter dem Namen Schaub-Lorenz vertrieben.

1956 wurde das Unternehmen SEG in Standard Elektrik AG umbenannt. Ebenfalls 1956 wurde ein Kabelwerk gegründet. Wesentlicher Motor für das 1957 gegründete Informatikwerk war Karl Steinbuch, der von 1948–1958 dem Unternehmen, zuletzt als Technischer Direktor und Leiter der Zentralen Forschung, angehörte.

1958 erfolgte die Vereinigung der Standard Elektrik AG mit der C. Lorenz AG zur Standard Elektrik Lorenz AG (SEL).

Die Standard Elektrik Lorenz AG übernahm 1961 die Graetz KG. Die Firmenteile Schaub-Lorenz und Graetz waren zusammen mit einem Bildröhrenwerk Bestandteil der Unternehmensgruppe Audio Video der SEL AG, die 1979 als Audio-Video-Elektronik in die ITT ausgegliedert wurde. Die Produkte, die unter anderem Fernsehgeräte, Radios, Autoradios, Kassettenrecorder, Weltempfänger und Lautsprecherboxen umfassen, wurden fortan unter dem Namen ITT Schaub-Lorenz vertrieben.[2]

Versuche, auf dem neuen Gebiet der Raumfahrt-Elektronik Fuß zu fassen, waren auf folgende Produkte beschränkt:

* AZUR: Telemetrie/Telekommandogeräte
* Spacelab: Datenerfassung/Kommandoterminal.

SEL entwickelte zu Beginn der 1970er Jahre das Präzisionsanflugverfahren SETAC. Dieser Unternehmensbereich wurde im Jahre 1987 von der finnischen Firma Nokia übernommen.

1976 hatte SEL ein Grundkapital von 357 Mio. DM bei 33.000 Beschäftigten und einem Umsatz von 2,6 Mrd. DM.

1983 stellte SEL auf der Internationalen Funkausstellung Berlin 1983 mit dem ITT Digivision den weltweit ersten Fernseher mit digitaler Signalverarbeitung vor.

2003 wurden die Markenrechte am Namen Schaub Lorenz an die italienische General Trading SpA verkauft. Die neugegründete Schaub Lorenz International GmbH vertreibt seitdem unter dem alten Markennamen Schaub-Lorenz importierte Konsumelektronik aus dem unteren Preisbereich.


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Ernst Quadt: Deutsche Industriepioniere. Berlin 1940, DNB 57569811X.
Peter Süß: Ist Hitler nicht ein famoser Kerl? Graetz. Eine Familie und ihr Unternehmen vom Kaiserreich bis zur Bundesrepublik. Verlag Ferdinand Schöningh, Paderborn u. a. 2003, ISBN 3-506-78561-3. (Rezension)

Aubrey Pomerance (Hrsg.): Jüdische Zwangsarbeiter bei Ehrich & Graetz, Berlin-Treptow. Zeitzeugnisse aus dem Jüdischen Museum Berlin. DuMont, Köln 2003, ISBN 3-8321-7839-2.

Einzelnachweise Kornett F27. Abgerufen am 17. März 2016. Super Page 47F. Abgerufen am 17. März 2016. Jens Dehne: Die Marke Graetz im Wandel der Zeiten. (Memento des Originals vom 5. April 2007 im Internet Archive) i Info: Der Archivlink wurde automatisch eingesetzt und noch nicht geprüft. Bitte prüfe Original- und Archivlink gemäß Anleitung und entferne dann diesen Hinweis. auf:, Stand 6. August 2009.

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