Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

In Brief: On this site you will find pictures and information about some of the electronic, electrical and electrotechnical Obsolete technology relics that the Frank Sharp Private museum has accumulated over the years .
Premise: There are lots of vintage electrical and electronic items that have not survived well or even completely disappeared and forgotten.

Or are not being collected nowadays in proportion to their significance or prevalence in their heyday, this is bad and the main part of the death land. The heavy, ugly sarcophagus; models with few endearing qualities, devices that have some over-riding disadvantage to ownership such as heavy weight,toxicity or inflated value when dismantled, tend to be under-represented by all but the most comprehensive collections and museums. They get relegated to the bottom of the wants list, derided as 'more trouble than they are worth', or just forgotten entirely. As a result, I started to notice gaps in the current representation of the history of electronic and electrical technology to the interested member of the public.

Following this idea around a bit, convinced me that a collection of the peculiar alone could not hope to survive on its own merits, but a museum that gave equal display space to the popular and the unpopular, would bring things to the attention of the average person that he has previously passed by or been shielded from. It's a matter of culture. From this, the Obsolete Technology Tellye Web Museum concept developed and all my other things too. It's an open platform for all electrical Electronic TV technology to have its few, but NOT last, moments of fame in a working, hand-on environment. We'll never own Colossus or Faraday's first transformer, but I can show things that you can't see at the Science Museum, and let you play with things that the Smithsonian can't allow people to touch, because my remit is different.

There was a society once that was the polar opposite of our disposable, junk society. A whole nation was built on the idea of placing quality before quantity in all things. The goal was not “more and newer,” but “better and higher" .This attitude was reflected not only in the manufacturing of material goods, but also in the realms of art and architecture, as well as in the social fabric of everyday life. The goal was for each new cohort of children to stand on a higher level than the preceding cohort: they were to be healthier, stronger, more intelligent, and more vibrant in every way.

The society that prioritized human, social and material quality is a Winner. Truly, it is the high point of all Western civilization. Consequently, its defeat meant the defeat of civilization itself.

Today, the West is headed for the abyss. For the ultimate fate of our disposable society is for that society itself to be disposed of. And this will happen sooner, rather than later.

OLD, but ORIGINAL, Well made, Funny, Not remotely controlled............. and not Made in CHINA.

How to use the site:
- If you landed here via any Search Engine, you will get what you searched for and you can search more using the search this blog feature provided by Google. You can visit more posts scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year,
or you can click on the main photo-page to start from the main page. Doing so it starts from the most recent post to the older post simple clicking on the Older Post button on the bottom of each page after reading , post after post.

You can even visit all posts, time to time, when reaching the bottom end of each page and click on the Older Post button.

- If you arrived here at the main page via bookmark you can visit all the site scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year pointing were you want , or more simple You can even visit all blog posts, from newer to older, clicking at the end of each bottom page on the Older Post button.
So you can see all the blog/site content surfing all pages in it.

- The search this blog feature provided by Google is a real search engine. If you're pointing particular things it will search IT for you; or you can place a brand name in the search query at your choice and visit all results page by page. It's useful since the content of the site is very large.

Note that if you don't find what you searched for, try it after a period of time; the site is a never ending job !

Every CRT Television saved let revive knowledge, thoughts, moments of the past life which will never return again.........

Many contemporary "televisions" (more correctly named as displays) would not have this level of staying power, many would ware out or require major services within just five years or less and of course, there is that perennial bug bear of planned obsolescence where components are deliberately designed to fail and, or manufactured with limited edition specificities..... and without considering........picture......sound........quality........
..............The bitterness of poor quality is remembered long after the sweetness of todays funny gadgets low price has faded from memory........ . . . . . .....
Don't forget the past, the end of the world is upon us! Pretty soon it will all turn to dust!

Have big FUN ! !
©2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 Frank Sharp - You do not have permission to copy photos and words from this blog, and any content may be never used it for auctions or commercial purposes, however feel free to post anything you see here with a courtesy link back, btw a link to the original post here , is mandatory.
All sets and apparates appearing here are property of Engineer Frank Sharp. NOTHING HERE IS FOR SALE !
All posts are presented here for informative, historical and educative purposes as applicable within Fair Use.

Sunday, April 7, 2013



Circuit arrangement for establishing a reference potential of a chassis of an electrical device such as a radio and/or TV receiver, such device being provided with at least one contactless touching switch operating under the AC voltage principle. The device is switched by touching a unipole touching field in a contactless manner so as to establish connection to a grounded network pole. The circuit arrangement includes in combination an electronic blocking switch and a unidirectional rectifier which separates such switch from the network during the blocking phase.

1. A circuit arrangement for establishing, at the chassis of an electrical device powered by a grounded AC supply network, a reference potential with relation to ground, said device having at least one contactless touching switch operating on the AC voltage principle, the switch being operated by touching a unipole touching field in a contactless manner, said arrangement comprising an electronic switch for selectively blocking the circuit of the device from the supply network, a half-wave rectifier including a pair of diodes individually connected in series-aiding relation between the terminals of the supply network and the terminals of the device for separating the electronic blocking switch from the supply network during a blocking phase defined by a prescribed half period of the AC cycle, and a pair of condensers individually connected in parallel with the respective diodes. 2. A circuit arrangement according to claim 1, wherein the capacitances of the two condensers are of equal magnitude.
This invention relates to a circuit arrangement for establishing a constant reference potential on the chassis of an electrical instrument such as a radio and/or a TV receiver. Such instrument includes at least one contactless touching switch operating under the AC voltage principle, whereby by touching a single pole touching field the contactless switch is operated.

In electronic devices, for example TV and radio receivers, there are used in ever increasing numbers electronic touching switches for switching and adjusting the functions of the device. In one known embodiment of this type of touching switch, which operates on a DC voltage principle, the function of the electronic device, is contactlessly switched by touching a unipole touching field, the switching being carried out by means of an alternating current voltage. When using such a unipole touching electrode, one takes advantage of the fact that the AC current circuit is generally unipolarly grounded. In order to close the circuit by touching the touching surface via the body of the operator to ground, it is necessary to provide an AC voltage on the touching field. In one special known embodiment there is employed a known bridge current rectifier for the current supply. This type of arrangement has the drawback that the chassis of the device changes its polarity relative to the grounded network pole with the network frequency. With such construction considerable difficulties appear when connecting measuring instruments to the device, such difficulties possibly eventually leading to the destruction of individual parts of the electronic device.

In order to avoid these drawbacks, the present invention provides a normal combination of a unidirectional rectifier with an electronic blocking switch that separates the chassis of the electronic device from the network during the blocking phase. In accordance with the present invention, the polarity of the chassis of the electronic device does not periodically change, because the electronic device is practically separated from the network during the blocking phase of the unidirectional rectifier by means of the electronic blocking switch.

In a further embodiment of the invention a further rectifier is connected in series with the unidirectional rectifier in the connection between the circuit and the negative pole of the chassis. Such further rectifier is preferably a diode which is switched in the transfer direction of the unidirectional rectifier. According to another feature of the invention there are provided condensers, a respective condenser being connected parallel with each of the rectifiers. Preferably the two condensers have equal capacitances. Because of the use of such condensers, which are required because of high frequency reasons, during the blocking phase there is conducted to the chassis of the electronic device an AC voltage proportional to the order of capacitances of the condensers. Thus there is placed upon the touching field in a desired manner an AC voltage, and there is thereby assured a secure functioning of the adjustment of the device when such touching occurs.

In the embodiment of the invention employing two rectifiers there is the further advantage that over a bridging over of the minus conduit of the rectifier that is connected between the network and the negative pole of the chassis connection, no injuries can be caused by a measuring instrument in the electronic device itself and in the circuit arrangement connected thereto.

In the accompanying drawing:

The sole FIGURE of the drawing is a circuit diagram of a preferred embodiment of the invention.

In the illustrated embodiment the current supply part of the device, shown at the left, is connected via connecting terminals A and B to an AC voltage source, the terminal B being grounded at 8. The current supply part consists of a unidirectional rectifier in the form of a diode 1 with its anode connected to the terminal I, the cathode of diode 1 being connected to one input terminal 9 of an electronic device 2. In the device 2 there is also arranged a sensor circuit 3, shown here mainly as a block, circuit 3 being shown as including a pnp input transistor the emitter of which is connected to an output terminal 11 of the device 2. The collector of such transistor is connected to the other output terminal 12 of the device 2. The base of the transistor is connected by a wire 13 to a unipolar touching field 4 which may be in the form of a simple metal plate instead of the pnp transistor shown, the sensor circuit itself may consist of a standard integrating circuit which controls, among other things, the periodic sequential switching during the touching time of the touching field 4. All of the circuits of the electronic device 2 are isolated in a known manner from the chassis potential. Between the network terminal B and the negative pole 10 of the chassis there is arranged in the direction opposite that of diode 1 a further diode 5, the anode of diode 5 being connected to the terminal 10, and the cathode of diode 5 being connected to the terminal B of the current supply. To provide for HF type bridging of the diodes 1 and 5 there are arranged condensers 6 and 7 respectively, which are connected in parallel with such diodes.

The invention functions by reason of the fact that in an AC network separate devices radiate electromagnetic waves which produce freely traveling fields in the body of the person who is operating and/or adjusting the device, thereby producing an alternating current through his body to ground, as indicated by the - line at the right of the circuit diagram. If now the person operating the device touches the switching field 4, then the pnp type input transistor of the sensor circuit 3, which is placed on a definite reference potential (for example 12 Volts) and is connected with the negative halfwave of the AC voltage potential, is made conductive. There is thereby released a control command in the sequential switching, for example, for switching the electronic device to the next receiving channel. It is understood that the most suitable connection is formed between ground and the touching field 4 by means of a wire. By the use of such wires it would be assured that in all cases the base of the transistor in circuit 3 is connected to ground. This would, however, not permit anyone to operate the switch without the use of an auxiliary means such as a wire. It will be assumed that the touching almost always results directly via the almost isolated human body. For this reason the AC current fields are necessary, because otherwise there cannot always be provided a ground contact. Thus this connection is established via the body resistance of the person carrying out the touching of the switch.

The positive half wave of the alternating current travels to the terminal 9 of the electronic device 2 after such current has been rectified and smoothed by the devices 1, 6. Such positive halfwave is also conducted to the sensor circuit 3. The thus formed current circuit is closed by way of the chassis of the electronic device 3, the diode 5, and the terminal B. When there is a negative halfwave of the alternating current delivered by the current supply, both diodes 1 and 5 remain closed so that the chassis of the device 2 remains separated from the network during the blocking phase. Nevertheless, by means of condensers 6 and 7 the chassis is placed in a definite network potential, which depends on the relationship of the order of magnitude of the two condensers 6 and 7. When the capacitances of such condensers are equal, there is placed upon the chassis of the device 2 the constant reference potential, and simultaneously there is present via the sensor circuit 3 the required AC voltage at the touching field 4 for adjusting the function or functions of the device 2 upon the touching of the touching field 4.

The reference character 15 indicates a terminal or point at which the potential of the chassis of the device 2 may be measured. As above explained, the diode 5 causes the potential of the chassis at 15 to be separated from the network ground when a negative AC halfwave arrives. It will be noted that the return conduit of the circuit is held at a fixed chassis potential. The input transistor of the sensor circuit 3 remains, however, locked because it is subjected to a DC current of about 12 volts. If now, by means of touching the touching field 4, the chassis potential is connected to ground, then the transistor switches through and releases a switching function.

If the connecting terminals AB of the current source are exchanged, as by changing the plug, then there is still secured the condition that the chassis of the device is separated from the network ground via the diode, in this case the diode 1. The reference potential of the chassis consequently remains constant and the changing AC fields which are superimposed on the condensers can produce in the touching human body an AC current voltage due to the fields which are radiated by the device.

A suitable sensor which may be employed for the circuit 3 herein may be a sensor known as the "SAS 560 Tastatur IS," manufactured and sold by Siemens AG.

It is to be understood that the present invention is not limited to the illustrated environment. They can also be used in electronic blocking switch including a Thyristor circuit, which in the same manner separates the electronic device during the blocking phase from the network rectifier. With such Thyristor circuit the drawbacks described in the introductory portion of the specification of known circuit arrangements are also avoided.

Although the invention is illustrated and described with reference to a plurality of preferred embodiments thereof, it is to be expressly understood that it is in no way limited to the disclosure of such a plurality of preferred embodiments, but is capable of numerous modifications within the scope of the appended claims.

MAGNAFON 24" BELVIS 2  CHASSIS The tuning circuits has a large knob potentiometers tuning system which use voltage controlled capacitances such as varactor diodes as the frequency determining elements.
How AFC Circuit Works in B/W Analog Television Receiver:

Push-Button tuning on u.h.f. while being very convenient often leaves a margin of mistuning, especially after some wear and tear has occurred on the mechanism. Even dial tuning can lead to errors due to the difficulty many people experience in judging the correct point. Oscillator drift due to temperature changes can also cause mistuning. Automatic frequency control (a.f.c.) will correct all these faults. The vision carrier when the set is correctly tuned on u.h.f. is at 39.5MHz as it passes down the i.f. strip. Thus if at the end of the i.f. strip a discriminator tuned circuit is incorporated centred on 39.5MHz the discriminator output will be zero at 39.5MHz and will move positively' one side of 39.5MHz and negatively the other as the tuning drifts. This response is shown in Fig. 1.

If the tuning is not correct then the discriminator output is not zero and if this output is applied to change the reverse bias on a tuning diode mounted in the oscillator section of the u.h.f. tuner it will correct most of the error. Tuning, varicap or varactor diodes-to give them a few of their names-are junction diodes normally operated with reverse bias but not sufficient to bias them into the breakdown region in which zener diodes operate. The greater the reverse bias the lower their capacitance: a typical curve, for the PHILIPS BB105 or STC BA141 tuning diode, is shown in Fig. 2. All diodes exhibit this basic type of characteristic but special diodes have to be used for u.h.f. because they must not introduce any excessive loss into the tuned circuits they control. In other words, just as a coil has to have a good Q so does a varicap diode. Normally, we don't worry about the Q of a capacitor as it is usually very good. However, a tuning diode is not a true capacitor. It has, for example, leakage current so the Q of the diode is a factor which has to be considered. The diode manufacturer however will have considered these points and if you buy a diode specified for u.h.f. use you will have no trouble. These points have been mentioned to clear up any misunderstandings and to show why any old diode won't do.

Basic AFC System
To return to our TV set, if the oscillator frequency is too high then the vision carrier frequency will also be too high and in the simple arrangement shown in Fig. 3 the discriminator will give a negative signal to decrease the bias on the tuning diode thus increasing its capacitance and in turn reducing the oscillator frequency and correcting the error. Note that in this diagram the reverse bias on the diode is applied to its cathode. It is therefore positive with respect to ground so that a negative signal from the discriminator will reduce the positive voltage on the diode thus reducing its bias and increasing its capacitance. In this arrangement the diode is biased somewhere near the mid point of its characteristic by the positive d.c. bias fed into one side of the discriminator. The discriminator thus adds to or subtracts from this d.c. bias.

AFC Loop Gain:
The amount by which the error is reduced depends on the gain of the circuit. An estimate of the gain required must first be made by guessing how much error is likely to be given by your push -buttons or hand tuning: 1MHz would be an outside figure as a tuning error of that magnitude would produce a very bad picture of low definition in one direction and badly broken up in the other. This error should be reduced to about 100kHz to be really unnoticeable, indicating a required gain of ten. In fitting a.f.c. to an existing set some measure- ments should be done as an experiment before finally deciding on the circuit gain. The first thing to do is  to add the suggested discriminator to the i.f. strip. As the circuit (Fig. 4) shows a Foster -Seeley type discriminator is used and with the coils specified and the driver circuit shown it should give ±4V for 0.5MHz input variation.

EXAMPLE of Circuit Description:
The driver stage Tr1 takes a small sample signal from the i.f. strip but this should be large enough to drive Tr1 into saturation. That is to say Tr1 is a limiter stage so that the signal amplitude applied to the discriminator coil L2 stays constant over the normal range of signal levels. Trl is biased at approximately 7mA which, according to the original report ("Simple a.f.c. system for 625 -line TV receivers" by P. Bissmire, PHILIPS Technical Communications, March, 1970), gives the best limiting performance. C1, R14 and R3 damp the stage to prevent oscillation. C2 decouples the power feed and should be close to the circuit. The coil former and can are the normal ones used for TV sets and so should be easily obtainable: the former diameter is 5mm. and length 40mm. and winding details are given in Fig. 5.

The invention being thus described, it will be obvious that the same may be varied in many ways. Such variations are not to be regarded as a departure from the spirit and scope of the invention, and all such modifications as would be obvious to one skilled in the art are intended to be included within the scope of the developed apparates both tubes or transistors.

Therefore a stable AFC circuit is developed:

A superheterodyne receiver having an automatic intermediate frequency control circuit with means to prevent the faulty regulation thereof. The receiver has means for receiving a radio frequency signal and mixing the same with the output of a superheterodyne oscillator. This produces an intermediate frequency signal which is coupled to a frequency or phase discriminator to produce an error signal for controlling the frequency of the superheterodyne oscillator. A regulation circuit is provided having an electronic switch to interrupt the feedback circuit when only unwanted frequencies tend to produce faulty regulation of the superheterodyne oscillator.

Power supply is realized with mains transformer and Linear transistorized power supply stabilizer, A DC power supply apparatus includes a rectifier circuit which rectifies an input commercial AC voltage. The rectifier output voltage is smoothed in a smoothing capacitor. Voltage stabilization is provided in the stabilizing circuits by the use of Zener diode circuits to provide biasing to control the collector-emitter paths of respective transistors.A linear regulator circuit according to an embodiment of the present invention has an input node receiving an unregulated voltage and an output node providing a regulated voltage. The linear regulator circuit includes a voltage regulator, a bias circuit, and a current control device.

In one embodiment, the current control device is implemented as an NPN bipolar junction transistor (BJT) having a collector electrode forming the input node of the linear regulator circuit, an emitter electrode coupled to the input of the voltage regulator, and a base electrode coupled to the second terminal of the bias circuit. A first capacitor may be coupled between the input and reference terminals of the voltage regulator and a second capacitor may be coupled between the output and reference terminals of the voltage regulator. The voltage regulator may be implemented as known to those skilled in the art, such as an LDO or non-LDO 3-terminal regulator or the like.
The bias circuit may include a bias device and a current source. The bias device has a first terminal coupled to the output terminal of the voltage regulator and a second terminal coupled to the control electrode of the current control device. The current source has an input coupled to the first current electrode of the current control device and an output coupled to the second terminal of the bias device. A capacitor may be coupled between the first and second terminals of the bias device.
In the bias device and current source embodiment, the bias device may be implemented as a Zener diode, one or more diodes coupled in series, at least one light emitting diode, or any other bias device which develops sufficient voltage while receiving current from the current source. The current source may be implemented with a PNP BJT having its collector electrode coupled to the second terminal of the bias device, at least one first resistor having a first end coupled to the emitter electrode of the PNP BJT and a second end, a Zener diode and a second resistor. The Zener diode has an anode coupled to the base electrode of the PNP BJT and a cathode coupled to the second end of the first resistor. The second resistor has a first end coupled to the anode of the Zener diode and a second end coupled to the reference terminal of the voltage regulator. A second Zener diode may be included having an anode coupled to the cathode of the first Zener diode and a cathode coupled to the first current electrode of the current control device.
A circuit is disclosed for improving operation of a linear regulator, having an input terminal, an output terminal, and a reference terminal. The circuit includes an input node, a transistor, a bias circuit, and first and second capacitors. The transistor has a first current electrode coupled to the input node, a second current electrode for coupling to the input terminal of the linear regulator, and a control electrode. The bias circuit has a first terminal for coupling to the output terminal of the linear regulator and a second terminal coupled to the control electrode of the transistor. The first capacitor is for coupling between the input and reference terminals of the linear regulator, and the second capacitor is for coupling between the output and reference terminals of the linear regulator. The bias circuit develops a voltage sufficient to drive the control terminal of the transistor and to operate the linear regulator. The bias circuit may be a battery, a bias device and a current source, a floating power supply, a charge pump, or any combination thereof. The transistor may be implemented as a BJT or FET or any other suitable current controlled device.

- The EHT Output is realized with a selenium rectifier.

The EHT selenium rectifier which is a Specially designed selenium rectifiers were once widely used as EHT rectifiers in television sets and photocopiers. A layer of selenium was applied to a sheet of soft iron foil, and thousands of tiny discs (typically 2mm diameter) were punched out of this and assembled as "stacks" inside ceramic tubes. Rectifiers capable of supplying tens of thousands of volts could be made this way. Their internal resistance was extremely high, but most EHT applications only required a few hundred microamps at most, so this was not normally an issue. With the development of inexpensive high voltage silicon rectifiers, this technology has fallen into disuse.A selenium rectifier is a type of metal rectifier, invented in 1933. They were used to replace vacuum tube rectifiers in power supplies for electronic equipment, and in high current battery charger applications.

The photoelectric and rectifying properties of selenium were observed by C. E. Fitts around 1886 but practical rectifier devices were not manufactured routinely until the 1930s. Compared with the earlier copper oxide rectifier, the selenium cell could withstand higher voltage but at a lower current capacity per unit area.

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