Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

In Brief: On this site you will find pictures and information about some of the electronic, electrical and electrotechnical technology relics that the Frank Sharp Private museum has accumulated over the years .

Premise: There are lots of vintage electrical and electronic items that have not survived well or even completely disappeared and forgotten.

Or are not being collected nowadays in proportion to their significance or prevalence in their heyday, this is bad and the main part of the death land. The heavy, ugly sarcophagus; models with few endearing qualities, devices that have some over-riding disadvantage to ownership such as heavy weight,toxicity or inflated value when dismantled, tend to be under-represented by all but the most comprehensive collections and museums. They get relegated to the bottom of the wants list, derided as 'more trouble than they are worth', or just forgotten entirely. As a result, I started to notice gaps in the current representation of the history of electronic and electrical technology to the interested member of the public.


Following this idea around a bit, convinced me that a collection of the peculiar alone could not hope to survive on its own merits, but a museum that gave equal display space to the popular and the unpopular, would bring things to the attention of the average person that he has previously passed by or been shielded from. It's a matter of culture. From this, the Obsolete Technology Tellye Web Museum concept developed and all my other things too. It's an open platform for all electrical Electronic TV technology to have its few, but NOT last, moments of fame in a working, hand-on environment. We'll never own Colossus or Faraday's first transformer, but I can show things that you can't see at the Science Museum, and let you play with things that the Smithsonian can't allow people to touch, because my remit is different.

There was a society once that was the polar opposite of our disposable, junk society. A whole nation was built on the idea of placing quality before quantity in all things. The goal was not “more and newer,” but “better and higher" .This attitude was reflected not only in the manufacturing of material goods, but also in the realms of art and architecture, as well as in the social fabric of everyday life. The goal was for each new cohort of children to stand on a higher level than the preceding cohort: they were to be healthier, stronger, more intelligent, and more vibrant in every way.

The society that prioritized human, social and material quality is a Winner. Truly, it is the high point of all Western civilization. Consequently, its defeat meant the defeat of civilization itself.

Today, the West is headed for the abyss. For the ultimate fate of our disposable society is for that society itself to be disposed of. And this will happen sooner, rather than later.

OLD, but ORIGINAL, Well made, Funny, Not remotely controlled............. and not Made in CHINA.

How to use the site:

- If you landed here via any Search Engine, you will get what you searched for and you can search more using the search this blog feature provided by Google. You can visit more posts scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year,
or you can click on the main photo-page to start from the main page. Doing so it starts from the most recent post to the older post simple clicking on the Older Post button on the bottom of each page after reading , post after post.

You can even visit all posts, time to time, when reaching the bottom end of each page and click on the Older Post button.

- If you arrived here at the main page via bookmark you can visit all the site scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year pointing were you want , or more simple You can even visit all blog posts, from newer to older, clicking at the end of each bottom page on the Older Post button.
So you can see all the blog/site content surfing all pages in it.

- The search this blog feature provided by Google is a real search engine. If you're pointing particular things it will search IT for you; or you can place a brand name in the search query at your choice and visit all results page by page. It's useful since the content of the site is very large.

Note that if you don't find what you searched for, try it after a period of time; the site is a never ending job !

Every CRT Television saved let revive knowledge, thoughts, moments of the past life which will never return again.........

Many contemporary "televisions" (more correctly named as displays) would not have this level of staying power, many would ware out or require major services within just five years or less and of course, there is that perennial bug bear of planned obsolescence where components are deliberately designed to fail and, or manufactured with limited edition specificities..... and without considering........picture......sound........quality........

..............The bitterness of poor quality is remembered long after the sweetness of todays funny gadgets low price has faded from memory........ . . . . . .....
Don't forget the past, the end of the world is upon us! Pretty soon it will all turn to dust!

Have big FUN ! !
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©2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 Frank Sharp - You do not have permission to copy photos and words from this blog, and any content may be never used it for auctions or commercial purposes, however feel free to post anything you see here with a courtesy link back, btw a link to the original post here , is mandatory.
All sets and apparates appearing here are property of
Engineer Frank Sharp. NOTHING HERE IS FOR SALE !

Tuesday, August 14, 2012

GRAETZ (ITT) PRISMA COLOR 4680 OSCAR 16 CHASSIS VIDOM 20AX-U 458501B INTERNAL VIEW.























GRAETZ (ITT) PRISMA COLOR 4680 OSCAR 16 CHASSIS VIDOM 20AX-U 458501B VIDOM DIAGNOSE SYSTEM OVERVIEW:




The ITT CHASSIS VIDOM 20AXU VS Kbt. 458501b is a semi modular chassis. The
VIDOM
D
iagnosesystem which stays for Voll Integriete Diagnose
Optische Messpunkte wich is a Completely Optical Integrated measurements Diagnose Sytstem introduces new technolgy approach in fault diagnosing.

The system has the target to help the specialized and trained technician to evaluate faults in logical way.

The diagnosing system is based on led lamps which are informing realtively to the functional status of some main points, even derived, around the chassis, giving further information during diagnosing faults.

It's the first chassis employing InLine 20AX System tube, the previous were Delta Gun system.





Synchronized switch-mode power supply:GRAETZ (ITT) PRISMA COLOR 4680 OSCAR 16 CHASSIS VIDOM 20AX-U 458501B
In a switch mode power supply, a first switching transistor is coupled to a primary winding of an isolation transformer. A second switching transistor periodically applies a low impedance across a second winding of the transformer that is coupled to an oscillator for synchronizing the oscillator to the horizontal frequency. A third winding of the transformer is coupled via a switching diode to a capacitor of a control circuit for developing a DC control voltage in the capacitor that varies in accordance with a supply voltage B+. The control voltage is applied via the transformer to a pulse width modulator that is responsive to the oscillator output signal for producing a pulse-width modulated control signal. The control signal is applied to a mains coupled chopper transistor for generating and regulating the supply voltage B+ in accordance with the pulse width modulation of the control signal.

Description:
The invention relates to switch-mode power supplies.
Some television receivers have signal terminals for receiving, for example, external video input signals such as R, G and B input signals, that are to be developed relative to the common conductor of the receiver. Such signal terminals and the receiver common conductor may be coupled to corresponding signal terminals and common conductors of external devices, such as, for example, a VCR or a teletext decoder.
To simplify the coupling of signals between the external devices and the television receiver, the common conductors of the receiver and of the external devices are connected together so that all are at the same potential. The signal lines of each external device are coupled to the corresponding signal terminals of the receiver. In such an arrangement, the common conductor of each device, such as of the television receiver, may be held "floating", or conductively isolated, relative to the corresponding AC mains supply source that energizes the device. When the common conductor is held floating, a user touching a terminal that is at the potential of the common conductor will not suffer an electrical shock.
Therefore, it may be desirable to isolate the common conductor, or ground, of, for example, the television receiver from the potentials of the terminals of the AC mains supply source that provide power to the television receiver. Such isolation is typically achieved by a transformer. The isolated common conductor is sometimes referred to as a "cold" ground conductor.
In a typical switch mode power supply (SMPS) of a television receiver the AC mains supply voltage is coupled, for example, directly, and without using transformer coupling, to a bridge rectifier. An unregulated direct current (DC) input supply voltage is produced that is, for example, referenced to a common conductor, referred to as "hot" ground, and that is conductively isolated from the cold ground conductor. A pulse width modulator controls the duty cycle of a chopper transistor switch that applies the unregulated supply voltage across a primary winding of an isolating flyback transformer. A flyback voltage at a frequency that is determined by the modulator is developed at a secondary winding of the transformer and is rectified to produce a DC output supply voltage such as a voltage B+ that energizes a horizontal deflection circuit of the television receiver. The primary winding of the flyback transformer is, for example, conductively coupled to the hot ground conductor. The secondary winding of the flyback transformer and voltage B+ may be conductively isolated from the hot ground conductor by the hot-cold barrier formed by the transformer.
It may be desirable to synchronize the operation of the chopper transistor to horizontal scanning frequency for preventing the occurrence of an objectionable visual pattern in an image displayed in a display of the television receiver.
It may be further desirable to couple a horizontal synchronizing signal that is referenced to the cold ground to the pulse-width modulator that is referenced to the hot ground such that isolation is maintained.
A synchronized switch mode power supply, embodying an aspect of the invention, includes a transfromer having first and second windings. A first switching arrangement is coupled to the first winding for generating a first switching current in the first winding to periodically energize the second winding. A source of a synchronizing input signal at a frequency that is related to a deflection frequency is provided. A second switching arrangement responsive to the input signal and coupled to the second winding periodically applies a low impedance across the energized second winding that by transformer action produces a substantial increase in the first switching current. A periodic first control signal is generated. The increase in the first switching current is sensed to synchronize the first control signal to the input signal. An output supply voltage is generated from an input supply voltage in accordance with the first control signal.


GRAETZ (ITT) PRISMA COLOR 4680 OSCAR 16 CHASSIS VIDOM 20AX-U 458501B CIRCUIT ARRANGEMENT IN A PICTURE DISPLAY DEVICE UTILIZING A STABILIZED SUPPLY VOLTAGE CIRCUIT:
Line synchronized switch mode power supply:
A stabilized supply voltage circuit for a picture display device comprising a chopper wherein the switching signal has the line frequency and is duration-modulated. The coil of the chopper constitutes the primary winding of a transformer a secondary winding of which drives the line output transistor so that the switching transistor of the chopper also functions as a driver for the line output stage. The oscillator generating the switching signal may be the line oscillator. In a special embodiment the driver and line output transistor conduct simultaneously and in order to limit the base current of the line output transistor a coil shunted by a diode is incorporated in the drive line of the line output transistor. Other secondary windings of the transformer drive diodes which conduct simultaneously with the efficiency diode of the chopper so as to generate further stabilized supply voltages.



1. An electrical circuit arrangement for a picture display device operating at a given line scanning frequency, comprising a source of unidirectional voltage, an inductor, first switching transistor means for periodically energizing said inductor at said scanning frequency with current from said source, an electrical load circuit coupled to said inductor and having applied thereto a voltage as determined by the ratio of the ON and OFF periods of said transistor, means for maintaining the voltage across said load circuit at a given value comprising means for comparing the voltage of said load circuit with a reference voltage, means responsive to departures of the value of the load circuit voltage from the value of said reference voltage for varying the conduction ratio of the ON and OFF periods of said transistor thereby to stabilize said load circuit voltage at the given value, a line deflection coil system for said picture display device, means for energizing said line deflection coil system from said load voltage circuit means, means for periodically interrupting the energization of said line deflection coil comprising second switching means and means coupled to said inductor for deriving therefrom a switching current in synchronism with the energization periods of said transistor and applying said switching current to said switching means thereby to actuate the same, and means coupled to said switching means and to said load voltage circuit for producing a voltage for energizing said 2. A circuit as claimed in claim 1 wherein the duty cycle of said switching 3. A circuit as claimed in claim 1 further comprising an efficiency first 4. A circuit as claimed in claim 3 further comprising at least a second diode coupled to said deriving means and to ground, and being poled to 5. A circuit as claimed in claim 1 wherein said second switching means comprises a second transistor coupled to said deriving means to conduct simultaneously with said first transistor, and further comprising a coil coupled between said driving means and said second transistor and a third diode shunt coupled to said coil and being poled to conduct when said 6. A circuit as claimed in claim 1 further comprising a horizontal oscillator coupled to said first transistor, said oscillator being the 7. A circuit as claimed in claim 1 further comprising means coupled to said inductor for deriving filament voltage for said display device.
Description:
The invention relates to a circuit arrangement in a picture display device wherein the input direct voltage between two input terminals, which is obtained be rectifying the mains alternating voltage, is converted into a stabilized output direct voltage by means of a switching transistor and a coil and wherein the transistor is connected to a first input terminal and an efficiency diode is connected to the junction of the transistor and the coil. The switching transistor is driven by a pulsatory voltage of line frequency which pulses are duration-modulated in order to saturate the switching transistor during part of the period dependent on the direct voltage to be stabilized and to cut off this transistor during the remaining part of the period. The pulse duration modulation is effected by means of a comparison circuit which compares the direct voltage to be stabilized with a substantially constant voltage, the coil constituting the primary winding of a transformer.

Such a circuit arrangement is known from German "Auslegeschrift" 1.293.304. wherein a circuit arrangement is described which has for its object to convert an input direct voltage which is generated between two terminals into a different direct voltage. The circuit employs a switch connected to the first terminal of the input voltage and periodically opens and closes so that the input voltage is converted into a pulsatory voltage. This pulsatory voltage is then applied to a coil. A diode is arranged between the junction of the switch and the coil and the second terminal of the input voltage whilst a load and a charge capacitor in parallel thereto are arranged between the other end of the coil and the second terminal of the input voltage. The assembly operates in accordance with the known efficiency principle i.e., the current supplied to the load flows alternately through the switch and through the diode. The function of the switch is performed by a switching transistor which is driven by a periodical pulsatory voltage which saturates this transistor for a given part of the period. Such a configuration is known under different names in the literature; it will be referred to herein as a "chopper." A known advantage thereof, is that the switching transistor must be able to stand a high voltage or provide a great current but it need not dissipate a great power. The output voltage of the chopper is compared with a constant reference voltage. If the output voltage attempts to vary because the input voltage and/or the load varies, a voltage causing a duration modulation of the pulses is produced at the output of the comparison arrangement. As a result the quantity of the energy stored in the coil varies and the output voltage is maintained constant. In the German "Auslegeschrift" referred to it is therefore an object to provide a stabilized supply voltage device.

In the circuit arrangement according to the mentioned German "Auslegeschrift" the frequency of the load variations or a harmonic thereof is chosen as the frequency for the switching voltage. Particularly when the load fed by the chopper is the line deflection circuit of a picture display device, wherein thus the impedance of the load varies in the rhythm of the line frequency, the frequency of the switching voltage is equal to or is a multiple of the line frequency.

It is to be noted that the chopper need not necessarily be formed as that in the mentioned German "Auslegeschrift." In fact, it is known from literature that the efficiency diode and the coil may be exchanged. It is alternatively possible for the coil to be provided at the first terminal of the input voltage whilst the switching transistor is arranged between the other end and the second terminal of the input voltage. The efficiency diode is then provided between the junction of said end and the switching transistor and the load. It may be recognized that for all these modifications a voltage is present across the connections of the coil which voltage has the same frequency and the same shape as the pulsatory switching voltage. The control voltage of a line deflection circuit is a pulsatory voltage which causes the line output transistor to be saturates and cut off alternately. The invention is based on the recognition that the voltage present across the connections of the coil is suitable to function as such a control voltage and that the coil constitutes the primary of a transformer. To this end the circuit arrangement according to the invention is characterized in that a secondary winding of the transformer drives the switching element which applies a line deflection current to line deflection coils and by which the voltage for the final anode of a picture display tube which forms part of the picture display device is generated, and that the ratio between the period during which the switching transistor is saturated and the entire period, i.e., the switching transistor duty cycle is between 0.3 and 0.7 during normal operation.

The invention is also based on the recognition that the duration modulation which is necessary to stabilize the supply voltage with the switching transistor does not exert influence on the driving of the line output transistor. This resides in the fact that in case of a longer or shorter cut-off period of the line output transistor the current flowing through the line deflection coils thereof is not influenced because of the efficiency diode current and transistor current are taken over or, in case of a special kind of transistor, the collector-emitter current is taken over by the base collector current and conversely. However, in that case the above-mentioned ratios of 0.3 : 0.7 should be taken into account since otherwise this take-over principle is jeopardized.

As will be further explained the use of the switching transistor as a driver for the line output transistor in an embodiment to be especially described hereinafter has the further advantage that the line output transistor automatically becomes non-conductive when this switching transistor is short circuited so that the deflection and the EHT for the display tube drop out and thus avoid damage thereof.

Due to the step according to the invention the switching transistor in the stabilized supply functions as a driver for the line deflection circuit. The circuit arrangement according to the invention may in addition be equipped with a very efficient safety circuit so that the reliability is considerably enhanced, which is described in the U.S. Pat. No. 3,629,686. The invention is furthermore based on the recognition of the fact that the pulsatory voltage present across the connections of the coil is furthermore used and to this end the circuit arrangement according to the invention is characterized in that secondary windings of the transformer drive diodes which conduct simultaneously with the efficiency diode so as to generate further stabilized direct voltages, one end of said diodes being connected to ground.

In order that the invention may be readily carried into effect, a few embodiments thereof will now be described in detail by way of example with reference to the accompanying diagrammatic drawings in which:

FIG. 1 shows a principle circuit diagram wherein the chopper and the line deflection circuit are further shown but other circuits are not further shown.

FIGS. 2a, 2b and 2c show the variation as a function of time of two currents and of a voltage occurring in the circuit arrangement according to FIG. 1.

FIGS. 3a 3b, 3c and 3d show other embodiments of the chopper.

FIGS. 4a and 4b show modifications of part of the circuit arrangement of FIG. 1.

In FIG. 1 the reference numeral 1 denotes a rectifier circuit which converts the mains voltage supplied thereto into a non-stabilized direct voltage. The collector of a switching transistor 2 is connected to one of the two terminals between which this direct voltage is obtained, said transistor being of the npn-type in this embodiment and the base of which receives a pulsatory voltage which originates through a control stage 4 from a modulator 5 and causes transistor 2 to be saturated and cut off alternately. The voltage waveform 3 is produced at the emitter of transistor 2. In order to maintain the output voltage of the circuit arrangement constant, the duration of the pulses provided is varied in modulator 5. A pulse oscillator 6 supplies the pulsatory voltage to modulator 5 and is synchronized by a signal of line frequency which originates from the line oscillator 6' present in the picture display device. This line oscillator 6' is in turn directly synchronized in known manner by pulses 7' of line frequency which are present in the device and originate for example from a received television signal if the picture display device is a television receiver. Pulse oscillator 6 thus generates a pulsatory voltage the repetition frequency of which is the line frequency.

The emitter of switching transistor 2 is connected at one end to the cathode of an efficiency diode 7 whose other end is connected to the second input voltage terminal and at the other end to primary winding 8 of a transformer 9. Pulsatory voltage 3 which is produced at the cathode of efficiency diode 7 is clamped against the potential of said second terminal during the intervals when this diode conducts. During the other intervals the pulsatory voltage 3 assumes the value V i . A charge capacitor 10 and a load 11 are arranged between the other end of winding 8 and the second input voltage terminal. The elements 2,7,8,10 and 11 constitute a so-called chopper producing a direct voltage across charge capacitor 10, provided that capacitor 10 has a sufficiently great value for the line frequency and the current applied to load 11 flowing alternately through switching transistor 2 or through efficiency diode 7. The output voltage V o which is the direct voltage produced across charge capacitor 10 is applied to a comparison circuit 12 which compares the voltage V o with a reference voltage. Comparison circuit 12 generates a direct voltage which is applied to modulator 5 so that the duration of the effective period δ T of switching transistor 2 relative to the period T of pulses 3 varies as a function of the variations of output voltage V 0 . In fact, it is readily evident that output voltage V o is proportional to the ratio δ :

V o = V i . δ

Load 11 of the chopper consists in the consumption of parts of the picture display device which are fed by output voltage V 0 . In a practical embodiment of the circuit arrangement according to FIG. 1 wherein the mains alternating voltage has a nominal effective value of 220 V and the rectified voltage V i is approximately 270 V, output voltage V o for δ = 0.5 is approximately 135 V. This makes it also possible, for example, to feed a line deflection circuit as is shown in FIG. 1 wherein load 11 then represents different parts which are fed by the chopper. Since voltage V o is maintained constant due to pulse duration modulation, the supply voltage of this line deflection circuit remains constant with the favorable result that the line amplitude(= the width of the picture displayed on the screen of the picture display tube) likewise remains constant as well as the EHT required for the final anode of the picture display tube in the same circuit arrangement independent of the variations in the mains voltage and the load on the EHT generator (= variations in brightness).

However, variations in the line amplitude and the EHT may occur as a result of an insufficiently small internal impedance of the EHT generator. Compensation means are known for this purpose. A possibility within the scope of the present invention is to use comparison circuit 12 for this purpose. In fact, if the beam current passes through an element having a substantially quadratic characteristic, for example, a voltage-dependent resistor, then a variation for voltage V o may be obtained through comparison circuit 12 which variation is proportional to the root of the variation in the EHT which is a known condition for the line amplitude to remain constant.

In addition this facilitates smoothing of voltage V o since the repetition frequency of pulsatory voltage 3 is many times higher than that of the mains and a comparatively small value may be sufficient for charge capacitor 10. If charge capacitor 10 has a sufficiently high value for the line frequency, voltage V o is indeed a direct voltage so that a voltage having the same form as pulsatory voltage 3 is produced across the terminals of primary winding 8. Thus voltages which have the same shape as pulsatory voltage 3 but have a greater or smaller amplitude are produced across secondary windings 13, 14 of transformer 9 (FIG. 1 shows only 2 secondary windings but there may be more). The invention is based on the recognition that one end of each secondary winding is connected to earth while the other end thereof drives a diode, the winding sense of each winding and the direction of conductance of each diode being chosen to be such that these diodes conduct during the same period as does efficiency diode 7. After smoothing, stabilized supply voltages, for example, at terminal 15 are generated in this manner at the amplitudes and polarities required for the circuit arrangements present in the picture display device. In FIG. 1 the voltage generated at terminal 15 is, for example, positive relative to earth. It is to be noted that the load currents of the supply voltages obtained in this manner cause a reduction of the switching power which is economized by efficiency diode 7. The sum of all diode currents including that of diode 7 is in fact equal to the current which would flow through diode 7 if no secondary winding were wound on transformer 9 and if no simultaneous diode were used. This reduction may be considered an additional advantage of the circuit arrangement according to the invention, for a diode suitable for smaller powers may then be used. However, it will be evident that the overall secondary load must not exceed the primary load since otherwise there is the risk of efficiency diode 7 being blocked so that stabilization of the secondary supply voltages would be out of the question.

It is to be noted that a parabola voltage of line frequency as shown at 28 is produced across the charge capacitor 10 if this capacitor is given a smaller capacitance so that consequently the so-called S-correction is established.

In FIG. 1 charge capacitors are arranged between terminals 15 etc. and earth so as to ensure that the voltages on these points are stabilized direct voltages. If in addition the mean value of the voltage on one of these terminals has been made equal to the effective value of the alternating voltage which is required for heating the filament of the picture display tube present in the picture display device, this voltage is suitable for this heating. This is a further advantage of the invention since the cheap generation of a stabilized filament voltage for the picture display tube has always been a difficult problem in transistorized arrangements.

A further advantage of the picture display device according to the invention is that transformer 9 can function as a separation transformer so that the different secondary windings can be separated from the mains and their lower ends can be connected to ground of the picture display device. The latter step makes it possible to connect a different apparatus such as, for example, a magnetic recording and/or playback apparatus to the picture display device without earth connection problems occurring.

In FIG. 1 the reference numeral 14 denotes a secondary winding of transformer 9 which in accordance with the previously mentioned recognition of the invention can drive line output transistor 16 of the line deflection circuit 17. Line deflection circuit 17 which is shown in a simplified form in FIG. 1 includes inter alia line deflection coils 18 and an EHT transformer 19 a secondary winding 20 of which serves for generating the EHT required for the acceleration anode of the picture display tube. Line deflection circuit 17 is fed by the output voltage V o of the chopper which voltage is stabilized due to the pulse duration modulation with all previously mentioned advantages. Line deflection circuit 17 corresponds, for example, to similar arrangements which have been described in U.S. Pat. No. 3,504,224 issued Mar. 31, 1970 to J.J. Reichgelt et al., U.S. patent application Ser. No. 737,009 filed June 14, 1968 by W. H. Hetterscheid and U.S. application Ser. No. 26,497 filed April 8, 1970 by W. Hetterscheid et al. It will be evident that differently formed lined deflection circuits are alternatively possible.

It will now be shown that secondary winding 14 can indeed drive a line deflection circuit so that switching transistor 2 can function as a driver for the line deflection. FIGS. 2a and b show the variation as a function of time of the current i C which flows in the collector of transistor 16 and of the drive voltage v 14 across the terminals of secondary winding 14. During the flyback period (0, t 1 ) transistor 16 must be fully cut off because a high voltage peak is then produced at its collector; voltage v 14 must then be absolutely negative. During the scan period (t 1 , t 4 ) a sawtooth current i C flows through the collector electrode of transistor 16 which current is first negative and then changes its direction. As the circuit arrangement is not free from loss, the instant t 3 when current i C becomes zero lies, as is known, before the middle of the scan period. At the end t 4 of the scan period transistor 16 must be switched off again. However, since transistor 16 is saturated during the scan period and since this transistor must be suitable for high voltages and great powers so that its collector layer is thick, this transistor has a very great excess of charge carriers in both its base and collector layers. The removal of these charge carriers takes a period t s which is not negligible whereafter the transistor is indeed switched off. Thus the fraction δ T of the line period T at which v 14 is positive must end at the latest at the instant (t 4 - t s ) located after the commencement (t = 0) of the previous flyback.

The time δ T may be initiated at any instant t 2 which is located between the end t 1 of the flyback period and the instant t 3 when collector current i C reverses its direction. It is true that emitter current flows through transistor 16 at the instant t 2 , but collector current i C is not influenced thereby, at least not when the supply voltage (= V o ) for line deflection circuit 17 is high enough. All this has been described in the U.S. Pat. No. 3,504,224. The same applies to line deflection circuits wherein the collector base diode does not function as an efficiency diode as is the case in the described circuit 17, but wherein an efficiency diode is arranged between collector and emitter of the line output transistor. In such a case the negative part of the current i C of FIG. 2a represents the current flowing through the said efficiency diode.

After the instant t 3 voltage v 14 must be positive. In other words, the minimum duration of the period T when voltage v 14 must be positive is (t 4 - t s ) - t 3 whilst the maximum duration thereof is (t 4 - t s ) - t 1 . In a television system employing 625 lines per raster the line period t 4 is approximately 64 μus and the flyback period is approximately 12 μus. Without losses in the circuit arrangement instant t 3 would be located approximately 26 μus after the instant t 1 , and with losses a reasonable value is 22 μus which is 34 μus after the commencement of the period. If for safety's sake it is assumed that t s lasts approximately 10 μus, the extreme values of δ T are approximately 20 and 42 μus and consequently the values for δ are approximately 0.31 and 0.66 at a mean value which is equal to approximately 0.49. It was previously stated that a mean value of δ = 0.5 was suitable. Line deflection circuit 17 can therefore indeed be used in combination with the chopper in the manner described, and the relative variation of δ may be (0.66 - 0.31) : 0.49 = 71.5 percent. This is more than necessary to obviate the variations in the mains voltage or in the various loads and to establish the East-West modulation and ripple compensation to be described hereinafter. In fact, if it is assumed that the mains voltage varies between -15 and +10 percent of the nominal value of 220 V, while the 50 Hz ripple voltage which is superimposed on the input voltage V i has a peak-to-peak value of 40 V and V i is nominally 270 V, then the lowest occurring V i is:

0.85 × 270 V - 20 V = 210 V and the highest occurring V i is

1.1 × 270 V + 20 V = 320 V. For an output voltage V o of 135 V the ratio must thus vary between

δ = 135 : 210 = 0.64 and δ = 135 : 320 = 0.42.

A considerable problem presenting itself is that of the simultaneous or non-simultaneous drive of line output transistor 16 with switching transistor 2, it being understood that in case of simultaneous drive both transistors are simultaneously bottomed, that is during the period δ T. This depends on the winding sense of secondary winding 14 relative to that of primary winding 8. In FIG. 1 it has been assumed that the drive takes place simultaneously so that the voltage present across winding 14 has the shape shown in FIG. 2b. This voltage assumes the value n(V i - V o ) in the period δ T and the value -nVo in the period (1 - δ )T, wherein n is the ratio of the number of turns on windings 14 and 8 and wherein V o is maintained constant at nominal mains voltage V o = δ V inom . However, if as a result of an increase or a decrease of the mains voltage V i increases or decreases proportionally therewith, i.e., V i = V i nom + Δ V, the positive portion of V 14 becomes equal to n(V i nom - V o +Δ V) = n [(1 -δ)V i nom +ΔV] = n(0.5 V inom +ΔV) if δ = 0.5 for V i = V i nom. Relatively, this is a variation which is twice as great. For example, if V i nom = 270 V and V o = 135 V, a variation in the mains voltage of from -15 to +10 percent causes a variation of V i of from -40.5 V to +27 V which ranges from -30 to +20 percent of 135 V which is present across winding 8 during the period δ T. The result is that transistor 16 can always be bottomed over a large range of variation. If the signal of FIG. 2b would be applied through a resistor to the base of transistor 16, the base current thereof would have to undergo the same variation while the transistor would already be saturated in case of too low a voltage. In this case it is assumed that transformer 9 is ideal (without loss) and that coil 21 has a small inductance as is explained in the U.S. patent application Ser. No. 737,009 above mentioned. It is therefore found to be desirable to limit the base current of transistor 16.

This may be effected by providing a coil 22 having a large value inductance, approximately 100 μH, between winding 14 and the small coil 21. The variation of said base current i b is shown in FIG. 2c but not to the same scale as the collector current of FIG. 2a. During the conducting interval δ T current i b varies as a linear function of time having a final value of wherein L represents the inductance of coil 22. This not only provides the advantage that this final value is not immediately reached, but it can be shown that variation of this final value as a function of the mains voltage has been reduced, for there applies at nominal mains voltage that: If the mains voltage V i = V i nom +Δ V, then ##SPC1## because V i nom = 2 V o . Thus this variation is equal to that of the mains voltage and is not twice as great.

During switching off, t 2 , of transistor 16 coil 22 must exert no influence and coil 21 must exert influence which is achieved by arranging a diode 23 parallel to coil 22. Furthermore the control circuit of transistor 16 in this example comprises the two diodes 24 and 25 as described in U.S. application Ser. No. 26,497 above referred to, wherein one of these diodes, diode 25 in FIG. 1, must be shunted by a resistor.

The control circuit of transistor 16 may alternatively be formed as is shown in FIG. 4. In fact, it is known that coil 21 may be replaced by the parallel arrangement of a diode 21' and a resistor 21" by which the inverse current can be limited. To separate the path of the inverse current from that of the forward current the parallel arrangement of a the diode 29' and a resistor 29" must then be present. This leads to the circuit arrangement shown in the upper part of FIG. 4. This circuit arrangement may now be simplified if it is noted that diodes 25 and 21' on the one hand and diodes 23 and 29' on the other hand are series-arranged. The result is shown in the lower part of FIG. 4 which, as compared with the circuit arrangement of FIG. 1, employs one coil less and an additional resistor.

FIG. 3 shows possible modifications of the chopper. FIG. 3a shown in a simplified form the circuit arrangement according to FIG. 1 wherein the pulsatory voltage present across the connections of windings 8 has a peak-to-peak amplitude of V i - V o = 0.5 V i for δ = 0.5, As has been stated, the provision of coil 22 gives a relative variation for the base current of transistor 16 which is equal to that of the mains voltage. In the cases according to FIG. 3b, 3c and 3d the peak-to-peak amplitude of the voltage across winding 8 is equal to V i so that the provision of coil 22 results in a relative variation which is equal to half that of the mains voltage which is still more favorable than in the first case.

Transistors of the npn type are used in FIG. 3. If transistors of the pnp type are used, the relevant efficiency diodes must of course be reversed.

In this connection it is to be noted that it is possible to obtain an output voltage V o with the aid of the modifications according to FIGS. 3b, c and d, which voltage is higher than input voltage V i . These modifications may be used in countries such as, for example, the United of America or France where the nominal mains voltage is 117 or 110 V without having to modify the rest of the circuit arrangement.

The above-mentioned remark regarding the sum of the diode currents only applies, however, for the modifications shown in FIGS. 3a and d.

If line output transistor 16 is not simultaneously driven with switching transistor 2, efficiency diodes 7 conducts simultaneously with transistor 16 i.e., during the period which is denoted by δ T in FIGS. 1 and 2b. During that period the output voltage V o of the chopper is stabilized so that the base current of transistor 16 is stabilized without further difficulty. However, a considerable drawback occurs. In FIG. 1 the reference numeral 26 denotes a safety circuit the purpose of which is to safeguard switching transistor 2 when the current supplied to load 11 and/or line deflection circuit 17 becomes to high, which happens because the chopper stops. After a given period output voltage V o is built up again, but gradually which means that the ratio δ is initially small in the order of 0.1. All this is described in U.S. patent No. 3,629,686. The same phenomenon occurs when the display device is switched on. Since δ = 0.1 corresponds to approximately 6 μs when T = 64 μs, efficiency diode 7 conducts in that case for 64 - 6 = 58 μus so that transistor 16 is already switched on at the end of the scan or at a slightly greater ratio δ during the flyback. This would cause an inadmissibly high dissipation. For this reason the simultaneous drive is therefore to be preferred.

The line deflection circuit itself is also safeguarded: in fact, if something goes wrong in the supply, the driver voltage of the line deflection circuit drops out because the switching voltage across the terminals of primary winding 8 is no longer present so that the deflection stops. This particularly happens when switching transistor 2 starts to constitute a short-circuit between emitter and collector with the result that the supply voltage V o for the line deflection circuit in the case of FIG. 1 becomes higher, namely equal to V i . However, the line output transformer is now cut off and is therefore also safe as well as the picture display tube and other parts of the display device which are fed by terminal 15 or the like. However, this only applies to the circuit arrangement according to FIG. 1 or 3a.

Pulse oscillator 6 applies pulses of line frequency to modulator 5. It may be advantageous to have two line frequency generators as already described, to wit pulse oscillator 6 and line oscillator 6' which is present in the picture display device and which is directly synchronized in known manner by line synchronizing pulses 7'. In fact, in this case line oscillator 6' applies a signal of great amplitude and free from interference to pulse oscillator 6. However, it is alternatively possible to combine pulse oscillator 6 and line oscillator 6' in one single oscillator 6" (see FIG. 1) which results in an economy of components. It will be evident that line oscillator 6' and oscillator 6" may alternatively be synchronized indirectly, for example, by means of a phase discriminator. It is to be noted neither pulse oscillator 6, line oscillator 6' and oscillator 6" nor modulator 5 can be fed by the supply described since output voltage V o is still not present when the mains voltage is switched on. Said circuit arrangements must therefore be fed directly from the input terminals. If as described above these circuit arrangements are to be separated from the mains, a small separation transformer can be used whose primary winding is connected between the mains voltage terminals and whose secondary winding is connected to ground at one end and controls a rectifier at the other end.

Capacitor 27 is arranged parallel to efficiency diode 7 so as to reduce the dissipation in switching transistor 2. In fact, if transistor 2 is switched off by the pulsatory control voltage, its collector current decreases and its collector-emitter voltage increases simultaneously so that the dissipated power is not negligible before the collector current has becomes zero. If efficiency diode 7 is shunted by capacitor 27 the increase of the collector-emitter voltage is delayed i.e., this voltage does not assume high values until the collector current has already been reduced. It is true that in that case the dissipation in transistor 2 slightly increases when it is switched on by the pulsatory control voltage but on the other hand since the current flowing through diode 7 has decreased due to the presence of the secondary windings, its inverse current is also reduced when transistor 2 is switched on and hence its dissipation has become smaller. In addition it is advantageous to delay these switching-on and switching-off periods to a slight extent because the switching pulses then contain fewer Fourier components of high frequency which may cause interferences in the picture display device and which may give rise to visible interferences on the screen of the display tube. These interferences occupy a fixed position on the displayed image because the switching frequency is the line frequency which is less disturbing to the viewer. In a practical circuit wherein the line frequency is 15,625 Hz and wherein switching transistor 2 is an experimental type suitable for a maximum of 350 V collector-emitter voltage or 1 A collector current and wherein efficiency diode 7 is of the Philips type BA 148 the capacitance of capacitor 27 is approximately 680 pF whilst the load is 70 W on the primary and 20 W on the secondary side of transformer 9. The collector dissipation upon switching off is 0.3 W (2.5 times smaller than without capacitor 27) and 0.7 W upon switching on.

As is known the so-called pincushion distortion is produced in the picture display tubes having a substantially flat screen and large deflection angles which are currently used. This distortion is especially a problem in color television wherein a raster correction cannot be brought about by magnetic means. The correction of the so-called East-West pincushion distortion i.e., in the horizontal direction on the screen of the picture display tube can be established in an elegant manner with the aid of the circuit arrangement according to the invention. In fact, if the voltage generated by comparison circuit 12 and being applied to modulator 5 for duration-modulating pulsatory voltage 3 is modulated by a parabola voltage 28 of field frequency, pulsatory voltage 3 is also modulated thereby. If the power consumption of the line deflection circuit forms part of the load on the output voltage of the chopper, the signal applied to the line deflection coils is likewise modulated in the same manner. Conditions therefore are that the parabola voltage 28 of field frequency has a polarity such that the envelope of the sawtooth current of line frequency flowing through the line deflection coils has a maximum in the middle of the scan of the field period and that charge capacitor 10 has not too small an impedance for the field frequency. On the other hand the other supply voltages which are generated by the circuit arrangement according to the invention and which might be hampered by this component of field frequency must be smoothed satisfactorily.

A practical embodiment of the described example with the reference numerals given provides an output for the supply of approximately 85 percent at a total load of 90 W, the internal resistance for direct current loads being 1.5 ohms and for pulsatory currents being approximately 10 ohms. In case of a variation of ± 10 percent of the mains voltage, output voltage V o is stable within 0.4 V. Under the nominal circumstances the collector dissipation of switching transistor 2 is approximately 2.5 W.

Since the internal resistance of the supply is so small, it can be used advantageously, for example, at terminal 15 for supplying a class-B audio amplifier which forms part of the display device. Such an amplifier has the known advantages that its dissipation is directly proportional to the amplitude of the sound to be reproduced and that its output is higher than that of a class-A amplifier. On the other hand a class-A amplifier consumes a substantially constant power so that the internal resistance of the supply voltage source is of little importance. However, if this source is highly resistive, the supply voltage is modulated in the case of a class-B amplifier by the audio information when the sound intensity is great which may detrimentally influence other parts of the display device. This drawback is prevented by means of the supply according to the invention.

The 50 Hz ripple voltage which is superimposed on the rectified input voltage V i is compensated by comparison circuit 12 and modulator 5 since this ripple voltage may be considered to be a variation of input voltage V i . A further compensation is obtained by applying a portion of this ripple voltage with suitable polarity to comparison circuit 12. It is then sufficient to have a lower value for the smoothing capacitor which forms part of rectifier circuit 1 (see FIG. 3). The parabola voltage 28 of field frequency originating from the field time base is applied to the same circuit 12 so as to correct the East-West pincushion distortion.



GRAETZ (ITT) PRISMA COLOR 4680 OSCAR 16 CHASSIS VIDOM 20AX-U 458501B Method and system for increasing the number of instructions transmitted in digital systems, I.A. in systems for remote control of television receiver:ITT VOLTAGE SYNTHESIZER TUNING SEARCH SYSTEM

Method of increasing the number of instructions according to the invention consists therein that withing the command signal (6) additional instructions are transmitted, which after being decoded in the instruction decoder (1) and processed in the strobbin signal generation circuit (4) strobes the operation of additional controlled units (5) and control the transmission of the signal through the register (2) to the controlled units (3).
In the system according to the invention, between one of the outputs od the instruction decoder (1) and the unit (3) to be controlled the register (2) is connected, provided with an additional input for the record inhibiting instruction (10), whereas to the second output of the instruction decoder (1) the strobbing signal generation circuit (4) is connected aimed at controlling the additional controlled units (5). The register (2) and the strobbing signal generation circuit (4), employed in the system according to the invention, can be built-in into each of the integrated circuits or made in form of a separate integrated circuit.

1. A method of increasing the number of instructions transmitted in remote control systems of television receivers and the like in which decoded signals directly control receiving units, comprising transmitting coded instructions in a command signal (6), decoding said instructions into a first part of an instruction signal (8), processing said first part of the instruction signal (8) in a strobing signal generation circuit (4) to provide a first signal (10) in a form for enabling the transmission of a control signal (7) through a register (2) in the form of a stored signal (11) to first receiving units (3) to be controlled while simultaneously providing a second signal (9) in a form for blocking the reception of one of said instruction signal (8) and said control signal (7) by additional receiving units (5) to be controlled, transmitting an additional coded instruction in said command signal, decoding said additional instruction into a second part of the instruction signal (8), processing said second part of the instruction signal (8) in said strobing signal generation circuit (4) to provide said first signal (10) in a form for blocking further storage of said control signal (7) in said register (2) while simultaneously providing said second signal (9) in a form for enabling the reception of said one of said instruction signal (8) and said control signal (7) by said additional receiving units (5) to be controlled, and transmitting a coded erasing instruction in said command signal for restarting the method. 2. A method according to claim 1, wherein the controlling of said additional receiving units (5) by one of said instruction signal (8) and said control signal (7) is performed while controlling said first receiving units (3) by said stored signal (11). 3. A system for increasing the number of instructions transmitted in remote control systems of television receivers and the like, comprising an instruction decoder (1), a first unit (3) to be controlled, a main register (2) connected between a first output of said instruction decoder and said first unit, an additional unit (5) to be controlled, and a strobing generation circuit (4) connected to a second output of said instruction decoder for controlling said additional unit, said additional unit having respective inputs connected to a strobing signal output of said strobing generation circuit and one of said first and second outputs of said instruction decoder. 4. A system according to claim 3, wherein said strobing generation circuit (4) has an inhibiting signal output (10) connected to an input of said main register (2) for inhibiting the storage in said main register of signals received from said first output of said instruction decoder. 5. A system according to claim 3, wherein said strobing generation circuit (4) includes an internal decoder (12), an internal register (14) and an adding gate (25), said internal decoder having outputs (13,15,16,17,18) connected to said internal register, said internal register having outputs (19-22) connected to said additional unit (5) and to said adding gate, said adding gate providing said inhibiting signal output (10) both to said main register (2) and to an inhibit input of said internal register.
Description:
This invention relates to a method and a system making it possible to increase the number of instructions transmitted in systems of remote control of television or radio receivers, and the like.

One of the known remote control systems is a system based on integrated circuits of the firm ITT. Similarly as in other systems, the instructions transmitted remotely are coded by a transmitter, for instance SAA1024, in an electric signal modulating a wave being able to propagate in the environment. In the receiver for instance SAA 1130, the coded electric signal is received and gives at its outputs the completely decoded output information signal and decoded output control signals.
In known application notes of the firm ITT the decoded output control signals control directly the receiving devices SAA1021, SAA1020. The decoder of information transmits also other decoded control signals, for instance analog adjustment signals, turning a signal on the power supply, and other signals necessary for the operation of the system. A certain part of the total number of instructions transmitted in the coded input signal constitutes a group of additional instructions for decoding by an additional instructions decoder controlled by the output signal.
The method of increasing the number of instructions transmitted in digital systems, i.a. in remote control systems of television receivers, according to the invention comprises transmitting in the control signal additional instructions which, on being decoded in an instruction decoder and after processing in a circuit for generating strobing signals, strobe the operation of additional controlled devices and control the transmission of the control signal through a register to main controlled units. In the system according to the invention two variants of operation of the system are distinguished. In the first variant an inhibiting signal coming out of the strobing signal generation circuit enables storage by the register of the real values being decoded, the output control signals, and controls with a suitable signal the main controlled units, while blocking by another suitable signal the additional controlled devices. In the second variant of the method according to the invention, after transmission of the additional instruction in the input signal, the storage inhibiting signal inhibits the register which stores the previous instruction and interruptedly controls the controlled unit, whereby simultaneously another strobing signal enables the additional controlled units to receive the controlling instruction.
In the system according to the invention the controlling of additional units is performed in the course of uninterrupted operation of controlled units.
In the system for increasing the number of instructions transmitted in digital systems, i.a. in remote control systems of television receivers, according to the invention, between one output of the instruction decoder and first controlled units a register is connected, having an additional input for a recording inhibiting signal, whereas to another output of the instruction decoder a strobing signal generation circuit is connected for controlling additional controlled units.
The inputs of the additional controlled units are connected with any outputs of the instruction decoder and with outputs of a register of the strobing circuit. The register and the strobing generation circuit, employed in the system according to the invention, can be built-in in one integrated circuit or may be made in the form of separate integrated circuits.
Referring to the aforementioned system of the firm ITT, the list of instructions thereof comprises 10 instructions used for basic servicing of the television receivers, 16 instructions for program selection and 5 additional instructions. In the method according to the invention, by using all the additional instructions, additionally 5×16 instructions are obtained. The number of all useful instructions in the method according to the invention amounts to 10+16+5×16=106 instructions, and thus by 75 instructions more than it was foreseen by the manufacturer of said systems.
Employing of the method and the system in a simple constructional arrangement enables one to multiply the number of transmitted signals, and simultaneously the number of units to be controlled. With reference to the system of the firm ITT, based on integrated circuits SAA1024, SAA1130, SAA1021, SAA1020, this enables one to employ additionally a teletext, a time programmer, an electronic watch, remote control of a radio receiver, tuning of a second head to observe another program, and other uses that were not possible and not foreseen by the manufacturer of said circuits.
The method and system according to the invention will be now described by means of an exemplary embodiment with reference to the accompanying drawing, wherein:
FIG. 1 is the block diagram of the system, and
FIG. 2 is the connection diagram of the strobing circuit.
The system of an instruction invention consists of the decoder 1, one output of which is connected through a register 2 with units 3 to be controlled. Another output of the instruction decoder 1 is connected with a strobing signal generation system 4 to the output of which is connected an additional controlled unit 5 having inputs connected with either output of the decoder 1.
The strobing circuit 4 is equipped with a decoder 12 an output 13 of which is connected with the clearing input of a register 14, and outputs 15, 16, 17, 18 of which are connected with the recording inputs of the register 14. The registers outputs 19, 20, 21, and 22, however, are connected with the additional unit 5 (FIG. 1) and with an adding gate 23, the output 10 of which is connected with the record inhibiting input of the register 14 and with the record inhibiting input of the register 2.
In the method according to the invention, the control signal 6 received by the instruction decoder 1 is decoded into groups of instructions 7 and 8. The instructions 8 after being processed in the strobing signal generating circuit 4 strobe the operation of additional devices 5 in the form of a signal 9, and in the form of the inhibiting signal 10 they control the operation of the register 2. A part of instructions 8, after processing in the strobbing circuit 4, enables with the signal 10 the transmission of the instructions 7 through the register 2 to the controlled units 3 in the form of the decoded control signal 11. Simultaneously, the decoded instruction 8 blocks with the strobing signal 9 the receiving of instructions 7 or 8 by the additional units 5 to be controlled. After transmitting the additional information from the second part of the instructions 8 in the signal 6, the instruction 8 after processing in the strobing signal generating circuit 4 blocks with the signal 10 the register 2, which stores the previous signal 7 and uninterruptedly controls the units 3 to be controlled, and simultaneously enables the additional controlled units 5 to receive instructions 7 or 8. The transmission of an erasing instruction in the signal 6 causes the return to the previous way of transmission and the turning off of the additional units 5.
The controlling of additional units 5 in the method according to the invention by means of the signal 7 or 8 is performed in the course of uninterrupted controlling of the units 3 by means of the signal 11 from the register 2.

ULTRASONIC REMOTE CONTROL RECEIVER GRAETZ (ITT) PRISMA COLOR 4680 OSCAR 16 CHASSIS VIDOM 20AX-U 458501B
An ultrasonic remote control receiver wherein an incoming ultrasonic signal is converted to square wave pulses of the same frequency by a Schmitt trigger circuit; digital circuits are thereafter used to count pulses resulting from the incoming signal over a predetermined period of time; a decoder activates one of a plurality of outputs in dependance to the number of pulses counted, provision is made to prevent interference signals from producing undesired control outputs.



1. An ultrasonic remote control receiver for applying a control signal to a selected one of a plurality of control channels in response to and dependent on the frequency of a received ultrasonic signal comprising:

2. An ultrasonic remote control receiver comprising:

3. An ultrasonic remote control receiver comprising:

4. The ultrasonic remote control receiver as defined in claim 3, wherein said means producing square pulses is a Schmitt trigger circuit and said means providing a signal input to said sequence controller is a retriggerable monostable multivibrator.

5. An ultrasonic remote control receiver comprising:

6. An ultrasonic remote control receiver comprising:

7. An ultrasonic remote control receiver as defined in claim 6 further comprising a monostable multivibrator between the output of said Schmitt trigger circuit and the remaining elements of said receiver.

8. An ultrasonic remote control receiver as defined in claim 6 further comprising a bistable multivibrator between the output of said Schmitt trigger circuit and the remaing elements of said receiver.

9. The ultrasonic remote control receiver as defined in claim 7 wherein the hold period of said monostable multivibrator is slightly less than one half the period of said square wave pulses from said Schmitt trigger circuit.

Description:

The invention relates to an ultrasonic remote control receiver for receiving signals having different useful frequencies each associated with a channel, comprising a plurality of outputs which are each associated with one of the channels and from which a control signal is emitted on receipt of a signal having the corresponding useful frequency.

To obtain the simplest possible transmitter construction in ultrasonic remote control, modulation of the emitted ultrasonic frequencies is not employed; to control different operations different frequencies are emitted which must be recognized in the receiver and evaluated for carrying out the different functions associated therewith. Presently, to recognize the different frequencies, use is made of resonant circuits, each of which contains one or more coils tuned in each case together with a capacitor to one of the useful frequencies.

These hitherto known receivers have numerous disadvantages. Thus, for example, before starting operation of the receiver a time-consuming alignment procedure must be carried out with which the resonant frequencies of the individual resonant circuits are set. Since it is inevitable that with time the resonant circuits become detuned, it may be necessary to repeat the alignment procedure.

A further disadvantage is that the known receivers cannot be made by integrated techniques because the coils used therein are not suitable for such techniques.

The problem underlying the invention is thus to provide an ultrasonic remote control receiver of the type mentioned at above which is extremely simple to set and in addition can be made by integrated techniques.

To solve this problem, according to the invention an ultrasonic remote control receiver of the type mentioned above contains a counter for counting the useful frequency oscillations received during a fixed measuring time, a sequence control device which determines the measuring time and which is started on receipt of a useful frequency, and a decoder comprising several outputs which is connected to the outputs of the counter, said decoder emitting a control signal at the output associated with the count reached at the end of the measuring time.

In the receiver constructed according to the invention the frequency emitted by the transmitter is identified by counting the oscillations received during a measuring time. The evaluation of the count reached at the end of the measuring time takes place in a decoder which emits a control signal at a certain output according to the count. The measuring time is fixed by a sequence control device which is set in operation on receipt of useful frequency signals.

In such a receiver the only quantity which has to be exactly fixed is the measuring time; it is therefore no longer necessary to align components to certain frequencies. Since no coils are required, the novel receiver can also be made up of integrated circuits.

A further development of the invention resides in that an interference identifying device is provided which on receipt of interference frequencies differing from the useful frequencies interrupts the operation of the sequence control device.

Hitherto known ultrasonic remote control receivers respond to any oscillation received if the frequency thereof has a value which excites a resonant circuit in the receiver. There is no way of distinguishing between oscillations received from the remote control transmitter and from interference sources.

Interfering ultrasonic oscillations may be due to many different causes. For example, noises such as hand clapping, rattling of short keys such as safety keys, operating cigarette lighters, rattling of crockery and the like cover a frequency spectrum reaching from the audio frequency range far into the ultrasonic region. The ultrasonic components may have the effect of simulating a useful frequency and cause an erroneous function in the receiver.

The interference identifying device according to the further development is constructed in such a manner that it recognizes oscillations having frequencies deviating from the useful frequencies and as a result of this recognition switches off the sequence control device. This switching off prevents the counter state reached from being passed to the decoder and consequently the latter cannot emit an erroneous control signal.

With this further development of the ultrasonic remote control receiver the operation of equipment such as radio and television sets is made extremely reliable and interference-free. During the operation of such a set it is no longer possible for the remote control to become operative, triggered by interference noises, eliminating for example the possibility of unintentional program or volume changes.

Examples of embodiment of the invention are illustrated in the drawings, wherein:

FIG. 1 shows a block circuit diagram of a remote control receiver according to the invention;

FIG. 2 is a diagram explaining the mode of operation of the circuit according to FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 shows another embodiment of the invention;

FIG. 4 is a diagram explaining the mode of operation of the circuit according to FIG. 3;

FIG. 5 is a diagram illustrating interference frequency identification in the circuit according to FIG. 3;

FIG. 6 shows a block circuit diagram of another embodiment of part of the circuit according to FIG. 3;

FIG. 7 is a diagram explaining the mode of operation of the embodiment according to FIG. 6;

FIG. 8 is a block circuit diagram of a further embodiment of a part of the circuit according to FIG. and, an

FIG. 9 is a diagram explaining the mode of operation of the embodiment according to FIG. 8.

The ultrasonic remote control receiver shown in FIG. 1 comprises an input 1 which is connected to an ultrasonic microphone intended to receive ultrasonic signals coming from a remote control transmitter. For each function to be performed by the receiver the remote control transmitter emits one of several unmodulated different useful frequencies which are spaced from each other a constant channel spacing Δ f and which all lie within a useful frequency band.

To obtain a signal which is as free as possible from noise at the input 1, a band filter and a limiting amplifier are preferably incorporated between the ultrasonic microphone and the input 1. The band filter may be made up of two active filters whose resonant frequencies are offset with respect to each other so that a pass band curve in the useful frequency band is obtained which is as flat as possible.

The input 1 leads to a Schmitt trigger 2 which converts the electrical signal applied thereto with the frequency of the ultrasonic signal to a sequence of rectangular pulses. The output 3 of the Schmitt trigger 2 is connected to the input 6 of a frequency divider 7 which is in operation for the duration of a control pulse applied to its control input 8 and divides the recurrence frequency of the pulses supplied thereto at the input 6 thereof in a constant division ratio. The output 9 of the frequency divider 7 is connected to the input 10 of a counter 11 which counts the pulses coming from the frequency divider 7. The counter 11 is a four-stage binary counter whose stage outputs are connected to the inputs of a store (register) 12 which is so constructed that on application of a control pulse to the input 12 thereof it takes on the counter state in the counter 11 and stores said counter state until the next pulse at the input 13. The stage outputs of the store 12 are fed to the inputs of a decoder 14 which decodes the counter state contained in the store 12 in such a manner that a control signal is emitted at that one of its outputs D0 to D9 which is associated with the decoded counter state.

The output 3 of the Schmitt trigger 2 is also connected to the input 4 of a monoflop 5 which is brought into its operating state by each pulse at the output 3 of the Schmitt trigger. It returns from this operating state to its quiescent state after expiration of a hold time depending on its intrinsic time constant if it does not receive a new pulse prior to expiration of this hold time. It is held in the operating state by each pulse received during the hold time until it finally flops back into the quiescent state when the interval between two successive pulses is greater than its hold time.

The output 15 of the monoflop circuit 5 is connected to the input 16 of a sequence control device 17 which is set in operation by the signal emitted in the operating state of the monoflop 5. Supplied
to the sequence control device by 17 via a Schmitt trigger 18 at a control input 19 are pulses having a recurrence frequency derived from oscillations of the same frequency, for example, twice the mains frequency of 100 c/s, applied to the input 20. The sequence control device 17 is so constructed that in a cyclically recurring sequence in time with the pulses supplied to it at the input 19 it emits pulses at the outputs 21, 22 and 23 whose duration is equal to the period of the oscillation applied to the input 20. The output 21 of the sequence control device 17 is connected to the control input 8 of the frequency divider 7, the output 22 is connected to the control input 13 of the store 12 and the output 23 thereof is connected to the reset input 24 of the counter 11.

The mode of operation of the circuit of FIG. 1 will now be explained with the aid of the diagram of FIG. 2 which shows the variation with time of the signals at the output 3 of the Schmitt trigger 2 and at the inputs 16 and 19 as well as the outputs 21, 22 and 23 of the sequence control device 17.

It will be assumed that a useful frequency oscillation is being received at the input 1. The Schmitt trigger 2 then emits at the output 3 rectangular pulses whose recurrence frequency is equal to the frequency of said useful frequency oscillation. The first pulse emitted by the Schmitt trigger 2 puts the monoflop 5 into its operating state. The hold time of the monoflop 5 is so dimensioned that for all useful frequencies occurring it is longer than the recurrence period of the rectangular pulses emitted at the output 3. The monoflop 5 therefore remains in its operating state for as long as the useful frequency oscillation is applied to the input 1 and supplies to the control input 16 of the sequence control device 17 a control signal throughout this time.

Due to the control signal applied to the input 16 the sequence control device 17 emits at its outputs 21, 22 and 23 in time with the pulses supplied to it via the Schmitt trigger 18 at the input 19 mutually offset control pulse sequences, the duration of the control pulses being equal to the time interval of the leading edges of the pulses supplied at the input 19 and thus equal to the period of the oscillation applied to the input 20 and the pulse sequences being offset with respect to each other by one pulse duration. The control pulses emitted by the sequence control device 17 perform the following functions:

a. The first control pulse appearing at the output 21 sets in operation for its duration via the input 8 the frequency divider 7 so that the latter divides the recurrence frequency of the pulses supplied thereto from the Schmitt trigger 2 and thus the frequency of the useful frequency oscillations received in a constant ratio and passes counting pulses to the input 10 of the counter 11 with a correspondingly reduced recurrence frequency.

b. Via the input 13 the second pulse occurring at the output 22 causes the store 12 to take on and to store the count of the counter 11 reached at the end of the first control pulse.

c. The third control pulse appearing at the output 23 resets the counter 11 via the reset input 24.

COntrol pulse sequences continue to be emitted for as long as the monoflop 5 remains in its operating state.

Since the stage outputs of the store 12 are permanently connected to the inputs of the decoder 14, the store content is continuously being decoded. The decoder 14 therefore emits a control signal at the output which is associated with the count contained in the store.

During each group of three offset control pulses of the three control pulse sequences emitted by the sequence control device 17, the counter 11 receives counting pulses from the frequency divider 8 only for the duration of the control pulse of the first control pulse sequence emitted at the output 21. The duration of this control pulse thus determines the measuring time during which the oscillations of the useful frequency signal received are counted. Since the duration of the control pulses emitted by the sequence control device 17 is however equal to the period of the oscillation applied to the input 20, the measuring time is fixed by the period of said oscillation.

The frequency divider 7 is connected in front of the counter 11 so that a small capacity of the counter 11 is sufficient to obtain a clear indication of the received frequency even when the measuring time is so long that a large number of periods of the useful frequency oscillation is received during the measuring time. This is for example, the case when the oscillation supplied to the input 20 has twice the mains frequency. Since the frequency divider 7 divides the frequency of the useful frequency oscillations received in the constant ratio k, the counter 11 need count only the oscillations having a correspondingly reduced frequency. If the division ratio k of the divider 7 is so set that it is equal to the product of the measuring time t and channel spacing Δ f, only a frequency which differs by at least the channel spacing Δ f from a previously received frequency will change the count of the counter 11.

The purpose of the monoflop 5 is to prevent interference frequencies supplied to the input 1 from producing at one of the outputs D0 to D9 of the decoder 14 a control signal which could lead to an erroneous function of the equipment being controlled. The interference sources usually encountered emit a frequency spectrum whose components lie predominantly in the audio region, i.e., below the ultrasonic region. If the hold time of the monoflop 5 is set to a value slightly greater than the period of the smallest useful frequency but smaller than the period of the highest interference frequency occurring, the monoflop 5 returns to its quiescent state before the end of the period of an interference frequency. Since in this state no signal is supplied to the control input 16 of the sequence control device 17, the latter is put out of operation and consequently the received signal cannot be evaluated because the count of the counter 11 is not transferred to the store 12 and thus no decoding takes place.

To facilitate understanding of the invention, the function of the circuit of FIG. 1 will now be explained numerically by way of example. The channel spacing Δ f will be taken as 1,200 c/s so that for a frequency of 100 c/s of the oscillation applied to the input 20 and thus a measuring time of 10 ms a division ratio of the frequency divider 7 of k = t . Δf = 12 results. It will further be assumed that ten different channel frequencies are to be evaluated; the counter 11 is therefore so connected that it has a capacity of 10. With these values, during the measuring time the counter 11 runs through several count cycles. This means that for the received frequency during the measuring time the counter 11 reaches its maximum count several times and then starts counting again from the beginning. The count reached at the end of the measuring time is however still a clear indication of the received useful frequency provided the number of useful frequencies having a channel spacing Δf is at the most equal to the counter capacity Z. The relationship between the useful frequency f received and the count reached at the end of each measuring time t while this useful frequency is being received is expressed by the following equation:

f = (k/t) . (n . Z + m + 0.5)

wherein

f = useful frequency received in c/s

t = measuring time in seconds

k = division ratio of the frequency divider 7

Z = capacity of the counter 11

n = number of count cycles passed through (integral)

m = count

The term 0.5 in brackets is a correction factor which ensures that a new count is reached whenever the received frequency differs at least by half the channel spacing Δf from the channel center frequency of the neighboring channel. With a channel spacing Δ of 1,200 c/s, a measuring time t of 10 ms, a division ratio k of the frequency divider 7 of 12, a capacity Z of the counter 11 of 10 and an input frequency f of 33 k c/s, the count 7 is for example reached after two complete count cycles. This is because the input frequency of 33 k c/s is first divided by 12 by the frequency divider 7 so that pulses having a recurrence frequency of 2.750 k c/s reach the input 10 of the counter 11. Since the frequency divider 7 emits counting pulses only during the measuring time of 10 ms, during said time only 27.5 pulses reach the input 10 of the counter 11. For this number of pulses the counter thus runs through two complete cycles and finally stops at the count 7. Similarly, for an input frequency of 39 k c/s the counter stops at the count 2 after passing through three complete counter cycles. With the numerical values given up to 10 different frequencies may be received without any ambiguity occurring in the evaluation.

FIG. 3 illustrates a further embodiment of an ultrasonic remote control receiver which differs from the embodiment described above primarily in that to fix the measuring time it is not necessary to supply a reference frequency. In the illustration of FIG. 3 the same reference numerals as in FIG. 1 are used for identical circuit components. The part of the circuit enclosed in the dashed line represents the sequence control device 17' which emits at its outputs 21', 22', 23' control signals which have substantially the same functions as the control signals emitted at the outputs 21, 22 and 23 of the sequence control device 17 of FIG. 1.

The useful frequency signal received is again supplied to the input 1. The input 1 is connected to the input of the Schmitt trigger 2 which again converts the input useful frequency oscillations into a sequence of pulses whose recurrence frequency is equal to the input useful frequency. The output 3 of the Schmitt trigger 2 is connected to the input B1 of a monoflop 25 which is contained in the sequence control device 17' and which is so constructed that it is switched to its operating state by a pulse received at the input B1 but during its hold time cannot be tripped again by any further pulse. The output 3 of the Schmitt trigger 2 is also connected to the input 26 of an AND gate 27 whose other input 28 is connected to that output 21' of the sequence control device 17' which is directly connected to the output Q1 of the monoflop 25. The output Q1 of the monoflop 25 which emits the signal complementary to the signal at the output Q1 is connected to the input B2 of a further monoflop 29 whose output Q2 is connected to the input A1 of the monoflop 25. The input 10 of the counter 11 is connected to the output of the AND gate 27. The stage outputs of the counter 11 are connected to the inputs of a gate circuit 30 which on receipt of a control pulse at its input 31 transfers the count contained in the counter 11 to the decoder 14 connected to its outputs. In the decoder 14 the count is then decoded in the manner already explained in conjunction with FIG. 1 so that a control signal is emitted at the output corresponding to the transferred count.

The output 3 of the Schmitt trigger 2 is further connected to the input 32 of an AND gate 33 which is contained in the sequence control circuit 17' and the other input 34 of which is connected to the output of a NOR gate 35. The output Q1 of the monoflop 25 is directly connected to one input 36 of the NOR gate 35 and is connected to the other input 37 via a delay member 38 and an inverter 39.

The output of the AND gate 33 represents the output 22' of the sequence control circuit 17' which is directly connected to the control input 31 of the gate circuit 30. In addition, the output of the AND gate 33 is directly connected to one input 40 of a NOR gate 41 and to the other input 42 thereof via a delay member 43 and an inverter 44. The output of the NOR gate 41 represents the output 23' of the sequence control circuit 17', to which output the reset input 24 of the counter 11 is connected.

The mode of operation of the circuit of FIG. 3 is explained in FIG. 4. Since the measuring time in the arrangement of FIG. 3 is substantially shorter than in the arrangement of FIG. 1, the time scale in FIG. 4 has been enlarged compared with FIG. 2 in order to clarify the illustration. When useful frequency oscillations are supplied to the input 1 of the receiver, pulses whose recurrence frequency is equal to the useful frequency appear at the output 3 of the Schmitt trigger 2. It will be assumed that the presence of a pulse corresponds to the logical signal value 1 whereas a pulse space represents the logical signal value 0. The leading edge of the first pulse at the output 3 puts the monoflop 25 into its operating state in which it emits the signal value 1 for the duration of its hold time at its output Q1, resulting in the control pulse at the output 21', which passes to the input 28 of the AND gate 27. Since the other input 26 of the AND gate 27 is directly connected to the output 3 of the Schmitt trigger 2, for the duration of each pulse at the output 3 the signal value 1 is also applied to the input 26 of the AND gate 27. Thus, the pulses occurring at the output 3 of the Schmitt trigger 2 are transferred for the duration of the control pulse at the output 21', i.e. during the hold time of the monoflop 25, as count pulses to the counter 11 and counted by the latter. The hold time of the monoflop 25 thus determines the measuring time; the capacity of the counter 11 must be greater than the number of pulses received during the measuring time for the greatest useful frequency. The count of the counter 11 reached at the end of the measuring time is then a clear indication of the received useful frequency.

When the monoflop 25 flops back into the quiescent state at the end of its hold time, it applies the signal value 0 via its output Q1 to the input 28 of the AND gate 27 so that no further count pulses can enter the counter 11. At the same time there appears at the output Q1 of the monoflop 25 the signal value 1 which at the input B2 puts the monoflop 29 into the operating state. In this state the monoflop 29 emits at its output Q2 the signal value 1 which blocks the monoflop 25 via the input A1 for the duration of the hold time of the monoflop 29 in such a manner that it cannot be switched into the operating state by pulses at the input B1. This is necessary to enable the sequence control device 17' to have sufficient time to generate the control pulses appearing at the outputs 22' and 23' for the transfer of the count or resetting of the counter.

With the return of the monoflop 25 to its quiescent state, the signal value 0 passes to the input 26 of the NOR gate 35 directly connected to the output Q1. During the operating state of the monoflop 25 the signal value 0 is applied with a delay determined by the delay member 38 via the inverter 39 to the input 37 of the NOR gate 35, said signal value 0 being replaced by the signal value 1 only after the delay time of the delay member 38 and not simultaneously with the flop back of the monoflop 25. Thus, for the duration of this delay time the signal value 0 is applied to both inputs 36 and 37 of the NOR gate 35 and consequently for this period of time the signal value 1 appears at the output of the NOR gate 35. The circuits 35, 38, 39 thus effect the generation of a short pulse which immediately follows the return of the monoflop 25 and the duration of which is determined by the delay of the delay member 38. This pulse is applied to the input 34 of the AND gate 33 (FIG. 4). The same effect could obviously alternatively be obtained with a monoflop which is tripped by the signal at the output Q1 changing from the value 1 to the value 0.

Now, if during this time a pulse is emitted at the output 3 of the Schmitt trigger 2, i.e., a signal value 1 is at the input 32 of the AND gate 33, said gate supplies to the control input 31 of the gate circuit 30 a control pulse for the duration of the delay of the delay member 38. This control pulse opens the gate circuit so that it allows the count reached at the end of the hold time of the monoflop 25 to pass to the decoder 14. The latter then emits a control signal at the output associated with this count. The signal value 1 present at the output of the AND gate 33 during the delay of the delay member 38 also passes directly to the input 40 of the NOR gate 41, at the other input 42 of which the signal value 0 is applied for the duration of the same pulse but with a delay determined by the delay member 43. Thus, in a manner similar to the circuits 35, 38, 39 the circuits 41, 43, 44 produce a short pulse which immediately follows the end of the output pulse of the AND gate 33 and appears at the output 23' of the sequence control circuit and is applied to the reset input 24 of the counter 11 (FIG. 4). This pulse resets the counter 11.

The hold time of the monoflop 29 is so set that it flops back into its quiescent state again only when the transfer process from the counter to the decoder via the gate circuit and the resetting of the counter has been effected. When the monoflop 29 returns to its quiescent state, it emits at its output Q2 the signal value 0 which brings the monoflop 25 via the input A1 thereof into such a condition that it can again be brought into its operating state by a pulse at the output 3 of the Schmitt trigger 2. In this manner the measuring and evaluating periods can be repeated for as long as useful frequency oscillations are supplied to the input 1.

In the circuit according to FIG. 3, interference frequencies are suppressed by setting a certain hold time of the monoflop 25. It is apparent from the above description of the function that the transfer of the count of the counter 11 to the decoder 14 takes place immediately following the end of the hold time of the monoflop 25, i.e., immediately following the end of the measuring time. However, a control signal initiating the transfer can be applied by the AND gate 33 to the control input 31 of the gate circuit 30 only when simultaneously with the end of the measuring time a pulse, i.e., the signal value 1, is present at the output 3 of the Schmitt trigger 2. Now, if the hold time of the monoflop 25 is made equal to the reciprocal of the channel spacing Δf, this coincidence at the AND gate 33 at the end of the measuring time occurs only when quite definite frequencies are applied to the input 1; these frequencies lie only within frequency bands which in the example described here, in which the output pulses of the Schmitt trigger 2 have a pulse duty factor of 1:2, have the width of half a channel spacing. These frequency bands each contain one of the useful frequencies. Between these frequency bands there are gaps having the width of half the channel frequency and frequencies falling in these gaps do not produce coincidence at the AND gate 33 and consequently cannot be evaluated by transfer of the count of the counter 11 to the decoder 14. Thus, frequency windows are formed over the entire frequency range which can occur at the input 1 and only frequencies lying within these windows are treated by the circuit according to FIG. 3 as useful frequencies. All intermediate frequencies are recognized as interference frequencies and excluded from evaluation.

If the measuring time is made exactly equal to the reciprocal of the channel spacing the frequency bands in which evaluation takes place are such that the rated frequencies of the signals transmitted by the transmitter are disposed at the lower end of the frequency bands. Thus, in this case only frequencies starting from a rated frequency in each case and extending up to the frequency in the center between two channels would be evaluated as useful frequencies. Since the frequency of the signals emitted by the transmitter can however also fluctuate below the rated frequency, it is desirable to place the frequency bands in which evaluation takes place so that the rated frequencies lie substantially in the center of the bands. To achieve this, the hold time of the monoflop 25 and thus the measuring time is lengthened by a quarter of the reciprocal of the maximum rated frequency. Although with this setting only the maximum rated frequency lies exactly in the center of the corresponding frequency band, the other rated frequencies still lie within the corresponding frequency bands and consequently the frequencies of the useful signals can also deviate from the rated frequency downwardly without preventing evaluation. The frequency gaps including the frequencies treated as interference frequencies then lie in each case substantially in the center between two rated frequencies.

To facilitate understanding of the type of interference identification just outlined attention is drawn to FIG. 5; the latter shows at Q1 the output signal of the monoflop 25 determining the measuring time, at 3-F1, 3-F2, 3-F3 the pulse sequences appearing at the output 3 of the Schmitt trigger 2 for three different useful frequencies F1, F2, F3 and at 3-FS the pulse sequence which appears at the output 3 when an interference frequency FS is received which lies between the useful frequencies F2 and F3. It is apparent from this diagram that at the end of the measuring time a pulse is present at the output 3 of the Schmitt trigger only when useful frequencies are being received and that when an interference frequency is applied there is a pulse space at the end of the measuring time. Thus, at the AND gate 33 the presence of a pulse at the end of the measuring time is employed as criterion for the receipt of a useful frequency. It is also apparent from FIG. 5 that with the useful frequency F1 the counter 11 counts 4 pulses, with the useful frequency F2 up to 5 pulses and with the useful frequency F3 6 pulses.

Isolated short interference pulses which could reach the input 1 of the circuit of FIG. 3 between two useful pulses and undesirably increase the count may be made ineffective by inserting a flip-flop circuit 45 between the output 3 of the Schmitt trigger 2 and the rest of the circuit as illustrated in FIG. 6. The mode of operation of this flip-flop circuit 45 will be explained with the aid of FIG. 7, which shows the signals at the output 3 of the Schmitt trigger 2 and at the output 3a of the flip-flop circuit 45 firstly without interference and secondly with interference. The flip-flop circuit 45 is tripped by the leading edge of each output pulse of the Schmitt trigger 2. If a short interference pulse is received, the flip-flop circuit 45 supplies at its output 3a the signal value 0 for example on receipt of the useful pulse preceding the interference pulse, the signal value 1 on receipt of the interference pulse and the signal value 0 on receipt of the next useful pulse. If no interference pulse had occurred, the flip-flop circuit would not have been switched to the signal value 1 at the output until receipt of the next useful pulse. The flip-flop circuit thus effects on receipt of an interference pulse (and in general on receipt of an odd number of interference pulses) between two useful pulses a reversal of the signal values so that at the end of the measuring time coincidence is not reached at the gate 33 although a useful frequency was received. Without the flip-flop circuit 45 the count would be transferred, although because of the interference pulse received it would not correspond to the useful frequency received.

The embodiment of FIG. 3 differs from the embodiment of FIG. 1 also in that instead of the store (register) 12 the gate circuit 30 is used that allow the count to be evaluated to pass briefly only once in a measuring and evaluating time. Thus, at the output of the decoder 14, instead of a uniform signal as in the case of the embodiment of FIG. 1, a series of pulses appears with the spacing of the control signals at the input 31 of the gate circuit 30. The use of a gate circuit instead of a store is suitable in applications where the equipment to be controlled must be actuated with control pulses and not with a uniform signal.

The immunity to interference may be further increased if in accordance with FIG. 8 a further monoflop 46 which cannot be triggered again during its hold time is inserted between the output 3 of the Schmitt trigger 2 (or the output 3a of the flip-flop circuit 45 of FIG. 6) and the remainder of the circuit. This hold time is set to half the period of the highest useful frequency. This modification is effective against a particular type of interferences, i.e., cases where an amplitude break occurs within an oscillation at the input 1 of the Schmitt trigger 2; this break would lead at the output 3 of the Schmitt trigger to the emission of two pulses instead of the single pulse per oscillation emitted in the normal case. These two pulses give the same effect as the receipt of a frequency which is twice as high and consequently without the additional monoflop 46 erroneous evaluations could arise. However, the monoflop 46 prevents the two pulses from becoming separately effective because it always emits pulses having the duration of its hold time; short double pulses which can arise due to amplitude breaks in the received signal thus cannot have any effect. FIG. 9 shows the action of the monoflop 46 when an amplitude break occurs at the input 1 of the Schmitt trigger 2 which produces a double pulse at the output 3 of the Schmitt trigger. As is apparent, the pulses at the output 3b of the monoflop 46 are not affected by this double pulse.

One embodiment of the remote control receiver may also reside in that a sequence control counter fed by the pulses at the output of the Schmitt trigger 18 is used for the sequence control device 17 of FIG. 1; the stage outputs of said counter are connected to a decoder which is so designed that it activates one after the other one of its outputs for each count. Thus, for example, this decoder may have 10 outputs which are activated successively in each counting period of the sequence control counter. Since in accordance with the description of the example of embodiment of FIG. 1 a total of three control signals are required for the evaluation of the frequency received, the output signals at the fourth, fifth and seventh outputs may be used respectively for activating the frequency divider 7, opening the store 12 and resetting the counter 11. Since in this case the evaluation of the received frequency by the control pulses emitted from the output of the decoder of the sequence control device does not begin until the decoder emits a signal at its fourth output, there is an evaluation delay which has the advantage that short interference pulses produce no response in the receiver.

The advantageous formation of frequency band windows are used in the embodiment of FIG. 3 can also be applied in the embodiment of FIG. 1 if instead of the retriggerable monoflop 5 a monoflop is used which has no dead time and which is not retriggerable again during its hold time which as in the monoflop 35 of FIG. 3 is made equal to the reciprocal of the channel spacing Δ f. This monoflop thus always flops back into its quiescent state when there is a pulse pause at its input at the end of its hold time whereas it is returned to its operating state practically without dead time by a pulse applied to its input at the end of the hold time. Since a pulse at the input of the monoflop at the end of its hold time however occurs only for frequencies lying within the frequency bands mentioned in connection with the description of FIG. 3, only frequencies which lie within the frequency bands can be treated as useful frequencies. For all intermediate frequencies, the monoflop returns to its quiescent state in which it interrupts the sequence control device and thus prevents evaluation of said frequencies. For the same reasons as in the circuit of FIG. 3, in this case as well the hold time of the monoflop should be lengthened by a quarter of the reciprocal of the highest useful frequency.

The ultrasonic remote control receiver described above can be used not only to control television sets, radio sets and the like but is particularly suitable also for industrial use in which high immunity to interference is very important. It may, for example, be used for remote control of cranes on large building sites, where there are a great number of different interference sources. The ultrasonic remote control receiver according to the above description is so immune to interference that it operates satisfactorily even under the difficult conditions encountered in the aforementioned use.

The following table provides examples of integrated circuits from Texas Instruments Incorporated which may be used in the foregoing invention.

______________________________________ Schmitt-triggers 2 and 18 SNX 49713 Monoflops 25, 29 and 46 SN 74121 Monoflop 5 SN 74122 Frequency divider 7 SN 7492 Counter 11 SN 7490 Store 12 SN 7475 Control 17 SN 7476 Gate 30 SN 7432 Decoder 14 SN 7442 ______________________________________




















- Frame deflection unit 6911 15 31 Vertikal Abl. with TDA1270

- Video Unit 458507 with TDA2530 + TDA2522 + TDA2560/3 (ALL PHILIPS)

- Synchronization Unit 428501a Synchron Modul with TDA2591

- Power supply Unit (Line Synchronized) 458515 with BU126 (Telefunken).

- Line deflection + E/W Corr. + EHT UNIT



TDA2530 RGB MATRIX PREAMPLIFIER
The TDA2530 is an integrated RGB -matrix preamplifier for colour television receivers,
incorporating a matrix preamplifier for RGB cathode drive of the picture tube with
clamping circuits. The three channels have the same layout to ensure identical frequency
behaviour.
This integrated circuit has been designed to be driven from the TDA2522 Synchronous
demodulator and oscillator IC.










TDA2522 PAL TV CHROMA DEMODULATOR COMBINATION
FAIRCHILD LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT
GENERAL DESCRIPTION- The TDA2522 is a monolithic integrated circuit designed as
a synchronous demodulator for PAL color television receivers. It includes an 8,8 MHz
oscillator and divider to generate two 4.4 MHz reference signals and provides color difference outputs.
PACKAGE OUTLINE 9B

The TDA2522 is Intended to Interface directly with the TDA2560 with a minimum oF external components. The TDA2530 may be added if RGB drive is required. The TDA2522
is constructed using the Fairchild Planar* process.





TDA2560 LUMINANCE AND CHROMINANCE CONTROL COMBINATION
The TDA2560 is a monolithic integrated circuit for use in decoding systems of COLOR
television receivers. The circuit consists of a luminance and chrominance amplifier.
The luminance amplifier has a low input impedance so that matching of the luminance
delay line is very easy.
It also incorporates the following functions:
- d.c. contrast control;
- d.c. brightness control;
- black level clamp;
- blanking;
- additional video output with positive-going sync.
The chrominance amplifier comprises:
- gain controlled amplifier;
- chrominance gain control tracked with contrast control;
- separate d.c. saturation control:
- combined chroma and burst output, burst signal amplitude not affected by contrast and
saturation control;
- the delay line can be driven directly ‘by the IC.

APPLICATION INFORMATION (continued)
The function is quoted against the corresponding pin number
Balanced chrominance input signal (in conjunction with pin 2)
This is derived from the chrominance signal bandpass filter, designed to provide a
push-pull input. A signal amplitude of at least 4 mV peak-to-peak is required
between pins l and 2. The chrominance amplifier is stabilized by an external feedback
loop from the output (pin 6) to the input (pins I and 2). The required level at pins l
and 2 will be 3 V.
All figures for the chrominance signals are based on a colour bar signal with 75%
saturation: i.e. burst-to-chrominance ratio of input signal is 1 1 2.
Chrominance signal input (see pin 1)
A. C.C. input
A negative-going potential, starting at +l,2 V, gives a 40 dB range of a. c. c.
Maximum gain reduction is achieved at an input voltage of 500 mV.
Chrominance saturation control
A control range of +6 dB to >-14 dB is provided over a range of d. c. potential on
pin 4 from +2 to +4 V. The saturation control is a linear function of the control
voltage.
Negative supply (earth)
Chro minance signal output
For nominal settings of saturation and contrast controls (max. -6 dB for saturation,
and max. -3 dB for contrast) both the chroma' and burst are available at this pin, and
in the same ratio as at the input pins 1 and 2. The burst signal is not affected by the
saturation and contrast controls. The a.c. c. circuit of the TDA2522 will hold
constant the colour burst amplitude at the input of the TDA2522. As the PAL delay
line is situated here between the TDA256O and TDA2522 there may be some variation
of the nominal 1 V peak-to-peak burst output of the TDA2560, according to the
tolerances of the delay line. An external network is required from pin 6 of the
TDA256O to provide d. c. negative feedback in the chroma channel via pins I and 2.
Burst gating and clamping pulse input
A two-level pulse is required at this pin to be used for burst gate and black level
clamping. The black level clamp is activated when the pulse level is greater than
7 V. The timing of this interval should be such that no appreciable encroachment
occurs into the sync pulse on picture line periods during normal operation of the
receiver. The burst gate, which switches the gain of the chroma amplifier to
maximum, requires that the input pulse at pin 7 should be sufficiently wide, at least
8 ps, at the actuating level of 2,3 V.

+12 V power supply
Correct operation occurs within the range 10 to 14 V. All signal and control levels
have a linear dependency on supply voltage but, in any given receiver design, this
range may be restricted due to considerations of tracking between the power supply
variations and picture contrast and chroma levels.
Flyback blanking input waveform
This pin is used for blanking the luminance amplifier. When the input pulse exceeds
the +2, 5 Vlevel, the output signal is blanked to a level of about 0 V. When the input
exceeds a +6 V level, a fixed level of about 1, 5 V is inserted in the output. This
level can be used for clamping purposes.
Luminance sigal output
An emitter follower provides a low impedance output signal of 3 V black-to-white
amplitude at nominal contrast setting having a black level in the range 1 to 3 V. An
external emitter load resistor is not required.
The luminance amplitude available for nominal contrast may be modified according
to the resistor value from pin 13 to the +12 V supply. At an input bias current
114 of 0,25 mA during black level the amplifier is compensated so that no black
level shift more than 10 mV occurs at contrast control. When the input current
deviates from the quoted value the black level shift amounts to 100 mV/rnA.
Brightness control
The black level at the luminance output (pin 10) is identical to the control voltage
required at this pin, A range of black level from l to 3 V may be obtained.
Black level clamp capacitor
Luminance gain setting resistor
The gain of the luminance amplifier may be adjusted by selection of the resistor
value from pin 13 to +12 V. Nominal luminance output amplitude is then 3 V
black-to-white at pin 10 when this resistor is 2, 7 l




TDA2591 SYNCHRO AND HORIZONTAL DEFLECTION CONTROL FOR COLOR TV SET

DESCRIPTION
The TDA2591 is a circuit intended for the horizontal
deflection of color TVsets, supplied with transistors
or SCR’S.

The TDA2591 and TDA2593 are integrated line
oscillator ‘_circuits for colour television receivers using
thyristor or transistor line deflection output stages.
The _circuits incorporate a line oscillator ‘which is
based on the threshold switching principle, a line de-
flection output stage capable of direct drive of thyristor
deflection circuits, phase comparison between the
oscillator voltage and both the sync pulse and line
flyback pulse. Also included on the chip is a switch for
changing the filter characteristic and the gate circuit
when used for VCR.
The TDA2593 generates a sandcastle pulse (at pin
7) suitable for use with the TDA.2532.



.LINE OSCILLATOR(two levels switching)
.PHASE COMPARISON BETWEEN SYNCHRO-
PULSE AND OSCILLATOR VOLTAGE Ø 1, ENABLED BY AN INTERNAL PULSE,
(better parasitic immunity)
PHASE COMPARISON BETWEEN THE FLYBACK
PULSES AND THE OSCILLATOR VOLTAGE Ø2
.COINCIDENCE DETECTOR PROVIDING A LARGE HOLD-IN-RANGE.
.FILTER CHARACTERISTICS AND GATE SWITCHING FOR VIDEO RECORDER APPLICATION.
.NOISE GATED SYNCHRO SEPARATOR
.FRAME PULSE SEPARATOR .BLANKING AND SAND CASTLE OUTPUT PULSES
.HORIZONTAL POWER STAGE PHASE LAGGING CIRCUIT
.SWITCHING OF CONTROL OUTPUT PULSE WIDTH
.SEPARATED SUPPLY VOLTAGE OUTPUT STAGE ALLOWING DIRECT DRIVE OF SCR’S CIRCUIT

.SECURITY CIRCUIT MAKES THE OUTPUT PULSE SUPPRESSED WHEN LOW SUPPLY
VOLTAGE.

TDA1170 vertical deflection FRAME DEFLECTION INTEGRATED CIRCUITGENERAL DESCRIPTION f The TDA1170 and TDA1270 are monolithic integrated
circuits designed for use in TV vertical deflection systems. They are manufactured using
the Fairchild Planar* process.
Both devices are supplied in the 12-pin plastic power package with the heat sink fins bent
for insertion into the printed circuit board.
The TDA1170 is designed primarily for large and small screen black and white TV
receivers and industrial TV monitors. The TDA1270 is designed primarily for driving
complementary vertical deflection output stages in color TV receivers and industrial
monitors.
APPLICATION INFORMATION (TDA1170)
The vertical oscillator is directly synchronized by the sync pulses (positive or negative); therefore its free
running frequency must be lower than the sync frequency. The use of current feedback causes the yoke
current to be independent of yoke resistance variations due to thermal effects, Therefore no thermistor is
required in series with the yoke. The flyback generator applies a voltage, about twice the supply voltage, to
the yoke. This produces a short flyback time together with a high useful power to dissipated power
ratio.

GRAETZ (ITT) PRISMA COLOR 4680 OSCAR 16 CHASSIS VIDOM 20AX-U 458501B Synchronized switch-mode power supply:TDA3060In a switch mode power supply, a first switching transistor is coupled to a primary winding of an isolation transformer. A second switching transistor periodically applies a low impedance across a second winding of the transformer that is coupled to an oscillator for synchronizing the oscillator to the horizontal frequency. A third winding of the transformer is coupled via a switching diode to a capacitor of a control circuit for developing a DC control voltage in the capacitor that varies in accordance with a supply voltage B+. The control voltage is applied via the transformer to a pulse width modulator that is responsive to the oscillator output signal for producing a pulse-width modulated control signal. The control signal is applied to a mains coupled chopper transistor for generating and regulating the supply voltage B+ in accordance with the pulse width modulation of the control signal.

Description:
The invention relates to switch-mode power supplies.
Some television receivers have signal terminals for receiving, for example, external video input signals such as R, G and B input signals, that are to be developed relative to the common conductor of the receiver. Such signal terminals and the receiver common conductor may be coupled to corresponding signal terminals and common conductors of external devices, such as, for example, a VCR or a teletext decoder.
To simplify the coupling of signals between the external devices and the television receiver, the common conductors of the receiver and of the external devices are connected together so that all are at the same potential. The signal lines of each external device are coupled to the corresponding signal terminals of the receiver. In such an arrangement, the common conductor of each device, such as of the television receiver, may be held "floating", or conductively isolated, relative to the corresponding AC mains supply source that energizes the device. When the common conductor is held floating, a user touching a terminal that is at the potential of the common conductor will not suffer an electrical shock.
Therefore, it may be desirable to isolate the common conductor, or ground, of, for example, the television receiver from the potentials of the terminals of the AC mains supply source that provide power to the television receiver. Such isolation is typically achieved by a transformer. The isolated common conductor is sometimes referred to as a "cold" ground conductor.
In a typical switch mode power supply (SMPS) of a television receiver the AC mains supply voltage is coupled, for example, directly, and without using transformer coupling, to a bridge rectifier. An unregulated direct current (DC) input supply voltage is produced that is, for example, referenced to a common conductor, referred to as "hot" ground, and that is conductively isolated from the cold ground conductor. A pulse width modulator controls the duty cycle of a chopper transistor switch that applies the unregulated supply voltage across a primary winding of an isolating flyback transformer. A flyback voltage at a frequency that is determined by the modulator is developed at a secondary winding of the transformer and is rectified to produce a DC output supply voltage such as a voltage B+ that energizes a horizontal deflection circuit of the television receiver. The primary winding of the flyback transformer is, for example, conductively coupled to the hot ground conductor. The secondary winding of the flyback transformer and voltage B+ may be conductively isolated from the hot ground conductor by the hot-cold barrier formed by the transformer.
It may be desirable to synchronize the operation of the chopper transistor to horizontal scanning frequency for preventing the occurrence of an objectionable visual pattern in an image displayed in a display of the television receiver.
It may be further desirable to couple a horizontal synchronizing signal that is referenced to the cold ground to the pulse-width modulator that is referenced to the hot ground such that isolation is maintained.
A synchronized switch mode power supply, embodying an aspect of the invention, includes a transfromer having first and second windings. A first switching arrangement is coupled to the first winding for generating a first switching current in the first winding to periodically energize the second winding. A source of a synchronizing input signal at a frequency that is related to a deflection frequency is provided. A second switching arrangement responsive to the input signal and coupled to the second winding periodically applies a low impedance across the energized second winding that by transformer action produces a substantial increase in the first switching current. A periodic first control signal is generated. The increase in the first switching current is sensed to synchronize the first control signal to the input signal. An output supply voltage is generated from an input supply voltage in accordance with the first control signal.

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