Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

In Brief: On this site you will find pictures and information about some of the electronic, electrical and electrotechnical technology relics that the Frank Sharp Private museum has accumulated over the years .

Premise: There are lots of vintage electrical and electronic items that have not survived well or even completely disappeared and forgotten.

Or are not being collected nowadays in proportion to their significance or prevalence in their heyday, this is bad and the main part of the death land. The heavy, ugly sarcophagus; models with few endearing qualities, devices that have some over-riding disadvantage to ownership such as heavy weight,toxicity or inflated value when dismantled, tend to be under-represented by all but the most comprehensive collections and museums. They get relegated to the bottom of the wants list, derided as 'more trouble than they are worth', or just forgotten entirely. As a result, I started to notice gaps in the current representation of the history of electronic and electrical technology to the interested member of the public.


Following this idea around a bit, convinced me that a collection of the peculiar alone could not hope to survive on its own merits, but a museum that gave equal display space to the popular and the unpopular, would bring things to the attention of the average person that he has previously passed by or been shielded from. It's a matter of culture. From this, the Obsolete Technology Tellye Web Museum concept developed and all my other things too. It's an open platform for all electrical Electronic TV technology to have its few, but NOT last, moments of fame in a working, hand-on environment. We'll never own Colossus or Faraday's first transformer, but I can show things that you can't see at the Science Museum, and let you play with things that the Smithsonian can't allow people to touch, because my remit is different.

There was a society once that was the polar opposite of our disposable, junk society. A whole nation was built on the idea of placing quality before quantity in all things. The goal was not “more and newer,” but “better and higher" .This attitude was reflected not only in the manufacturing of material goods, but also in the realms of art and architecture, as well as in the social fabric of everyday life. The goal was for each new cohort of children to stand on a higher level than the preceding cohort: they were to be healthier, stronger, more intelligent, and more vibrant in every way.

The society that prioritized human, social and material quality is a Winner. Truly, it is the high point of all Western civilization. Consequently, its defeat meant the defeat of civilization itself.

Today, the West is headed for the abyss. For the ultimate fate of our disposable society is for that society itself to be disposed of. And this will happen sooner, rather than later.

OLD, but ORIGINAL, Well made, Funny, Not remotely controlled............. and not Made in CHINA.

How to use the site:

- If you landed here via any Search Engine, you will get what you searched for and you can search more using the search this blog feature provided by Google. You can visit more posts scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year,
or you can click on the main photo-page to start from the main page. Doing so it starts from the most recent post to the older post simple clicking on the Older Post button on the bottom of each page after reading , post after post.

You can even visit all posts, time to time, when reaching the bottom end of each page and click on the Older Post button.

- If you arrived here at the main page via bookmark you can visit all the site scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year pointing were you want , or more simple You can even visit all blog posts, from newer to older, clicking at the end of each bottom page on the Older Post button.
So you can see all the blog/site content surfing all pages in it.

- The search this blog feature provided by Google is a real search engine. If you're pointing particular things it will search IT for you; or you can place a brand name in the search query at your choice and visit all results page by page. It's useful since the content of the site is very large.

Note that if you don't find what you searched for, try it after a period of time; the site is a never ending job !

Every CRT Television saved let revive knowledge, thoughts, moments of the past life which will never return again.........

Many contemporary "televisions" (more correctly named as displays) would not have this level of staying power, many would ware out or require major services within just five years or less and of course, there is that perennial bug bear of planned obsolescence where components are deliberately designed to fail and, or manufactured with limited edition specificities..... and without considering........picture......sound........quality........

..............The bitterness of poor quality is remembered long after the sweetness of todays funny gadgets low price has faded from memory........ . . . . . .....
Don't forget the past, the end of the world is upon us! Pretty soon it will all turn to dust!

Have big FUN ! !
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©2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 Frank Sharp - You do not have permission to copy photos and words from this blog, and any content may be never used it for auctions or commercial purposes, however feel free to post anything you see here with a courtesy link back, btw a link to the original post here , is mandatory.
All sets and apparates appearing here are property of
Engineer Frank Sharp. NOTHING HERE IS FOR SALE !

Monday, August 13, 2012

PHILIPS 26P1195 MULTISTANDARD YEAR 1982.











The PHILIPS 26P1195 MULTISTANDARD is a 26 inches color television with 12 programs potentiometric searched tuning and remote control.

Stereo HIFI sound multi and Spatial Stereo feature is present.

A SCART SOCKET and DIN socket also present.

A SCART Connector (which stands for Syndicat des Constructeurs d'Appareils Radiorécepteurs et Téléviseurs) is a standard for connecting audio-visual equipment together. The official standard for SCART is CENELEC document number EN 50049-1. SCART is also known as Péritel (especially in France) and Euroconnector but the name SCART will be used exclusively herein. The standard defines a 21-pin connector (herein after a SCART connector) for carrying analog television signals. Various pieces of equipment may be connected by cables having a plug fitting the SCART connectors. Television apparatuses commonly include one or more SCART connectors.
Although a SCART connector is bidirectional, the present invention is concerned with the use of a SCART connector as an input connector for receiving signals into a television apparatus. A SCART connector can receive input television signals either in an RGB format in which the red, green and blue signals are received on Pins 15, 11 and 7, respectively, or alternatively in an S-Video format in which the luminance (Y) and chroma (C) signals are received on Pins 20 and 15. As a result of the common usage of Pin 15 in accordance with the SCART standard, a SCART connector cannot receive input television signals in an RGB format and in an S-Video format at the same time.
Consequently many commercially available television apparatuses include a separate SCART connectors each dedicated to receive input television signals in one of an RGB format and an S-Video format. This limits the functionality of the SCART connectors. In practical terms, the number of SCART connectors which can be provided on a television apparatus is limited by cost and space considerations. However, different users wish the input a wide range of different combinations of formats of television signals, depending on the equipment they personally own and use. However, the provision of SCART connectors dedicated to input television signals in one of an RGB format and an S-Video format limits the overall connectivity of the television apparatus. Furthermore, for many users the different RGB format and S-Video format are confusing. Some users may not understand or may mistake the format of a television signal being supplied on a given cable from a given piece of equipment. This can result in the supply of input television signals of an inappropriate format for the SCART connector concerned.
This kind of connector is todays obsoleted !

The set is a Exclusive and a rare model Featuring the PHILIPS CHASSIS TVC11.

The set was only for French market and configured and featured for SECAM standard, but is capable for Multistandard:
Multi -standard Operation: Multi -standard sets were becoming more common even  with the international exchange of tapes and the interest in satellite TV. They must have switchable polarity at the vision detector, a sound section capable of handling a.m. or f.m. signals at four different carrier frequencies, and some means of decoding the three main colour systems. If you're content with monochrome reception all three sys- tems are to a degree compatible, provided you adjust the field hold and height on a UK set for 525-line/60Hz field .rate signals. Colour decoders that sort out PAL and SECAM already existed and more are on the way. Most of us have been used to the idea of PAL -only working for so long that a bit of information on the other two systems may not come amiss at this point. The chrominance subcarriers in the SECAM system - one for each colour -difference signal - were frequency modulated but remain in the area of .4.5MHz. Saturation is represented by frequency deviation. The two colour - difference signals Dr (red) and Db (blue) were transmitted on alternate lines, the decoder demodulators receiving their inputs directly and via a 64μsec delay line on alternate lines. Synchronised switching was required to ensure that the demodulators receive the correct signals. Since the subcarrier is present throughout the line there's no need for a crystal oscillator in the receiver. As with f.m. sound, pre emphasis was applied at the transmitter and de -emphasis at the receiver. There's a choice of ident signals, either an extended burst of Dr or Db during the back porch period or ten lines of triangular subcarrier, alternately Dr and Db, during the field blanking period. The unmodulated subcarrier present in monochrome parts of the picture showed as a "fuzzy" trace on oscilloscope waveforms. The NTSC system (USA, Japan, etc.) had a similar line frequency to ours but runs at 60 fields per second. The line period differs therefore and the vision bandwidth is narrower. The suppressed chrominance subcarrier wass phase/amplitude modulated as was in PAL, but without the phase change on alternate lines. The subcarrier frequency was around 3.58MHz, with a 9Hz burst on the back porch.
PAL C
PAL BG
PAL I
SECAM 819
SECAM 625

SECAM, also written SÉCAM (Séquentiel couleur à mémoire, French for "Sequential Color with Memory"), is an analog color television system first used in France. A team led by Henri de France working at Compagnie Française de Télévision (later bought by Thomson, now Technicolor) invented SECAM. It is, historically, the first European color television standard.

There are six varieties of SECAM:

1. French SECAM (SECAM-L)

French SECAM (SECAM-L) is used only in France, Luxembourg (only RTL9 on CH 21 from Dudelange) and Tele Monte-Carlo Transmitters in the south of France

2. SECAM-B/G

SECAM-B/G is/was used in parts of the Middle East, former East Germany and Greece

3. SECAM D/K

SECAM D/K is used in the Commonwealth of Independent States and parts of Eastern Europe (this is simply SECAM used with the D and K monochrome TV transmission standards) although most Eastern European countries have now migrated to other systems.

4. SECAM-H

Around 1983–1984 a new color identification standard ("Line SECAM or SECAM-H") has been introduced in order to make more space available inside the signal for adding teletext information (originally according to the Antiope standard). Identification bursts have been made per-line (like in PAL) rather than per-picture. Very old SECAM TV sets might not be able to display color for today's broadcasts. Although any sets manufactured after the mid-1970s should be able to receive either variant.

5. SECAM-K

France also introduced the SECAM standard to its dependencies. However, the SECAM standard used in France's overseas possessions (as well as African countries that were once ruled by France) was slightly different from the SECAM used in Metropolitan France. The SECAM standard used in Metropolitan France used the SECAM-L and a variant of the channel information for VHF channels 2-10. French overseas possessions and many French-speaking African countries use the SECAM-K standard and a mutually incompatible variant of the channel information for VHF channels 4-9 (not channels 2-10).

6. SECAM-M

Around 1970-1991 was used in Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam (Hanoi and cities North).


A small chronology of french Philps color TV sets:

1968: TVC3 , first SECAM PHIPS TV on the french market, color circuits with valves(video amplifiers) and transistors
1970: TVC4 , color and sound amplifier circuits solid states, time bases with valves
1972: TVC5, all solid states , color decoder with integreted circuits
1974: TVC6, 21” models
1976: TVC7,TVC8 first philips models with PIL CRT (without convergences controls)
1981: TVC11, last only SECAM sets
1983: TVC12,TVC13(square CRT), PAL/SECAM sets
1985: TVC 14, TVC15 first automatic cutoff control, end of TVC chassis series
All of these SECAM color TV sets were concieved and made in france with “La Radiotechnique (RTC)”




It featureas a PHILIPS 30AX CRT Tube.The 30AX system, which Philips introduced in 1979, is an important landmark in the development of colour picture systems. With previous systems the assembly technician had to workthrough a large number of complicated setting-up procedures whenever he fitted a television picture tube with aset of coils for deflecting the electron beams. These procedures were necessary to ensure that the beams for the three colours would converge at thescreen for every deflection. They are no longer necessary with the 30AX system: for a given screen format any deflection unit can be combined  with any tube to form a single 'dynamically convergent' unit. A colour-television receiver can thus be assembled from its components almost as easily as a monochrome receiver. The colour picture tube of the PHILIPS 30AX system displays a noticeably sharper picture over the entire screen surface. This will be particularly noticeable when data transmissions such as Viewdata and Teletext are displayed. This has been achieved by a reduction in the size of the beam spot by about 30%. Absence of coma and the retention of the 36.5 mm neck diameter have both contributed to increased picture sharpness. Coma has been eliminated by means of corrective field shapers embedded in the deflection coils which are sectionally wound saddle types. The new deflection unit has no rear flanges. enabling uniform self-convergence to be obtained for all screen sizes. without special corrections, adjustments, or tolerance compensations. Horizontal raster distortion is reduced and no vertical correction is required. One of the inventions in 30AX is an internal magnetic correction system which obviates static convergence and colour purity errors. This enables the usual multiple unit to be dispensed with. together with the need for its adjustment !  New techniques have been employed to achieve close tolerance construction of the glass envelope. In addition, the 30AX picture tube incorporates two features whereby it can be accurately adjusted during the last stages of manufacture. One is the internal magnetic correction system. The other is an array of bosses on the cone that establish a precise reference for the axial purity positioning of the deflection unit on the tube axis and for raster orientation. During its manufacture, each deflection unit is individually adjusted for optimum convergence. The coil carrier also incorporates reference bosses that co-operate with those on the cone of the tube. ' Since every picture tube and every deflection unit is individually pre-aligned, any deflection unit automatically matches with any picture tube of the appropriate size. The deflection unit has only to be pushed onto the neck of the tube unit it seats. Once the reference bosses are engaged, the combination is accurately aligned and requires no adjustment for convergence, colour purity or raster orientation. With no multiple unit and a flangeless deflection unit, there is more space in the receiver cabinet. Higher deflection sensitivity means that less current is consumed, and consequently less heat is produced. This increases the reliability of the TV receiver again. 30AX means simple assembly. Any picture tube is compatible with any deflection unit of the appropriate size and is automatically self-aligning as well as being self-convergent.

The well-known 20AX features of HI-Bri, Soft-Flash and Quick-vision are maintained in the new 30AX systern.  In their work on the design of deflection coils in the last few years the developers have expanded  the magnetic deflectionfields into 'multipoles', Thisapproach has improved the understanding  of the relations between coil and field and between field and deflection to such an extent that  designing deflection units is now more like playing a difficult but fascinating game of chess than  carrying out the obscure computing procedure once necessary.


Now that the new Philips 30AX tube has put in an appearance, some details can be filled in. The new tube has been developed from the 20AX, which has been in production since 1974, but brings with it several important advances. First, no dynamic convergence, static convergence, purity or raster correction adjustments are necessary. Secondly the new yoke design gives improved deflection sensitivity, a straight NS raster, and reduced EW raster distortion. Due to the close mechanical tolerances and the inclusion of positioning bosses on the tube bowl, the tube and yoke can be aligned simply by being pushed together - any 30AX yoke will automatically match any 30AX tube of the appropriate size. Thirdly the newly designed electron gun gives a sharper spot, with greater focus uniformity over the screen area. An internal magnetic ring is used to give correct purity and static beam convergence, in place of the multipole unit used in previous in -line gun tube designs. This results in a strikingly compact assembly. The automatic yoke/tube alignment does away with the need for preset mechanical tilt and shift adjustments which, Philips point out, correct one error by introducing another. The new tube is being produced in the 26, 22 and 20in. screen sizes. The power consumption of a set fitted with the 30AX is typicaly 100W compared to 120W with the 20AX system, at 1.2mA beam current and with an e.h.t. of 25kV. This compares with 88W for a set fitted with a 90° narrow -neck tube and hybrid yoke, under the same conditions.
 
Some History of the 625-line television standardization:

In July 1948 at the CCIR meeting in Stockholm Russia proposed a 625-line standard! The exact origins are not entirely clear, but the most plausible story is that immediately after the war, in the Russian-occupied zone, captured German engineers were forced to re-design NTSC sets received from the Americans under the Lend-Lease war program into a 50Hz-compatible new one. That resulted in a 625-line/50Hz standard with a line frequency of 15.625Hz, which is indeed very close to the 15.700Hz of the 525-line/60Hz NTSC system. One can say this is the same exercise Philips did with its 567-line standard, although with fewer compromises.
This 625-line proposal generated quite a shock and received immediately considerable support from technical experts, not from the political side.
 This was namely yet another standard next to the 405, 567 and 819-line proposals. And there was one more complication: the Russian standard positioned itself roughly halfway the Philips 567-line standard, which was at the time the highest resolution (quasi)-operational standard, and the French 819-line high-definition proposal, still a few years out from operational use. 
It proposed an 8MHz channel bandwidth with 6MHz video and 6,5MHz sound carrier distance. Many countries (i.e. the national telecom organisations like the Dutch PTT) and set makers considered this 8MHz channel bandwidth at this time as overly ambitious and uneconomical. It would allow fewer channels in VHF and make receivers expensive. And then there was of course the starting Cold War, so adopting a Russian standard was not a politically correct thing to do.
Like in all democratic standardization committees the solution to opposing and conflicting proposals is a working group, which was formed to tour the countries and laboratories that proposed a standard. 
France played the power card, and on November 20, 1948 François Mitterand, the later president but then Secretary of State for Information, issued a decree that France had officially chosen for the 819-line standard. 
France also put heavy pressure on its French-speaking neighbours Belgium and Luxembourg. Efforts of the Dutch government to align with Belgium on a single standard thus didn't lead to anything, since the Belgian government wanted to keep all options open. Throughout 1949 the CCIR committee must have visited all players including Philips, which gave demo's of its 567-line system and the PET transmissions. 
Target was the next meeting May 1950 in London. By this time a competing/alternative 625-line system was proposed, mainly by engineers of Telefunken of which at least Walter Bruch was a former Russian prisoner who worked on the Russian 625-line standard. This system copied the 625-line/50HHz basics of the original Russian standard, but at reduced channel bandwidth (7MHz instead of 8), video bandwidth (5MHz vs. 6MHz) and sound carrier (5.5 vs. 6.5MHz). Interestingly the new Bundesrepublik Deutschland, founded May 1949, was a strong supporter of the 625-line standard with the main argument that they wanted no two different standards in the two German zones. 
However, the BRD was not yet a member of the CCIR! At the May meeting in London there was still no agreement, if only for the reason that Britain could not let a meeting in London agree on anything else than a British standard. However, support for the ageing 502-line standard was minimal outside the UK, while the French 819-line high-definition standard was seen as too far fetched. That the pressure to come to a single standard and a compromise with the French was high is illustrated by the fact that end of 1949 even a 729-line standard was proposed [from De geschiedenis van Koninklijke Philips Electronics NV by J. Blanken, pt V, p37]. But the French had issued their state decree and didn't want to accept a compromise. The battle was in fact between the two versions of the 625-line standard.

As a next step yet another sub-committee was created, led by what was considered to be the neutral chairman Dr. Walter Gerber, an engineer of the Swiss telecom organization. During a meeting in Geneva Switzerland in July 1950, the countries Sweden, Denmark, Italy, the Netherlands and (Flemish) Belgium agreed on the modified 625-line standard, which was consequently for a long time known as the "Gerber-norm". Of course Germany supported the proposal in the background. But in the next formal CCIR meeting May 1951 in Geneva still no agreement could be reached on a single European standard, and from that moment onwards four different standards were to exist in parallel. 
To complicate matters further Vlaanderen (Flanders, the Dutch-speaking part of Belgium) defined their 625-line system as a compromise with the French 819-line standard, so AM sound and positive modulation, whereas Wallonie, the French-speaking part of Belgium as well as Luxembourg, opted for the 819-line system but squeezed into the 7MHz channel.
It goes without saying that Russia stuck to its original 8MHz 625-line standard, the UK to its 405-lines and France continued its path towards 819 lines. As a typical result their were consequently six different television standards in Europe
Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. (Royal Philips Electronics Inc.), most commonly known as Philips, (Euronext: PHIA, NYSE: PHG) is a multinational Dutch electronics corporation.
Philips is one of the largest electronics companies in the world. In 2009, its sales were €23.18 billion. The company employs 115,924 people in more than 60 countries.

Philips is organized in a number of sectors: Philips Consumer Lifestyles (formerly Philips Consumer Electronics and Philips Domestic Appliances and Personal Care), Philips Lighting and Philips Healthcare (formerly Philips Medical Systems).
he company was founded in 1891 by Gerard Philips, a maternal cousin of Karl Marx, in Eindhoven, Netherlands. Its first products were light bulbs and other electro-technical equipment. Its first factory survives as a museum devoted to light sculpture. In the 1920s, the company started to manufacture other products, such as vacuum tubes (also known worldwide as 'valves'), In 1927 they acquired the British electronic valve manufacturers Mullard and in 1932 the German tube manufacturer Valvo, both of which became subsidiaries. In 1939 they introduced their electric razor, the Philishave (marketed in the USA using the Norelco brand name).
Philips was also instrumental in the revival of the Stirling engine.

As a chip maker, Philips Semiconductors was among the Worldwide Top 20 Semiconductor Sales Leaders.

In December 2005 Philips announced its intention to make the Semiconductor Division into a separate legal entity. This process of "disentanglement" was completed on 1 October 2006.

On 2 August 2006, Philips completed an agreement to sell a controlling 80.1% stake in Philips Semiconductors to a consortium of private equity investors consisting of Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co. (KKR), Silver Lake Partners and AlpInvest Partners. The sale completed a process, which began December 2005, with its decision to create a separate legal entity for Semiconductors and to pursue all strategic options. Six weeks before, ahead of its online dialogue, through a letter to 8,000 of Philips managers, it was announced that they were speeding up the transformation of Semiconductors into a stand-alone entity with majority ownership by a third party. It was stated then that "this is much more than just a transaction: it is probably the most significant milestone on a long journey of change for Philips and the beginning of a new chapter for everyone – especially those involved with Semiconductors".

In its more than 115 year history, this counts as a big step that is definitely changing the profile of the company. Philips was one of few companies that successfully made the transition from the electrical world of the 19th century into the electronic age, starting its semiconductor activity in 1953 and building it into a global top 10 player in its industry. As such, Semiconductors was at the heart of many innovations in Philips over the past 50 years.

Agreeing to start a process that would ultimately lead to the decision to sell the Semiconductor Division therefore was one of the toughest decisions that the Board of Management ever had to make.

On 21 August 2006, Bain Capital and Apax Partners announced that they had signed definitive commitments to join the expanded consortium headed by KKR that is to acquire the controlling stake in the Semiconductors Division.

On 1 September 2006, it was announced in Berlin that the name of the new semiconductor company founded by Philips is NXP Semiconductors.

Coinciding with the sale of the Semiconductor Division, Philips also announced that they would drop the word 'Electronics' from the company name, thus becoming simply Koninklijke Philips N.V. (Royal Philips N.V.).


PHILIPS FOUNDATION:

The foundations of Philips were laid in 1891 when Anton and Gerard Philips established Philips & Co. in Eindhoven, the Netherlands. The company begun manufacturing carbon-filament lamps and by the turn of the century, had become one of the largest producers in Europe. Stimulated by the industrial revolution in Europe, Philips’ first research laboratory started introducing its first innovations in the x-ray and radio technology. Over the years, the list of inventions has only been growing to include many breakthroughs that have continued to enrich people’s everyday lives.


In the early years of Philips &; Co., the representation of the company name took many forms: one was an emblem formed by the initial letters of Philips ; Co., and another was the word Philips printed on the glass of metal filament lamps.

One of the very first campaigns was launched in 1898 when Anton Philips used a range of postcards showing the Dutch national costumes as marketing tools. Each letter of the word Philips was printed in a row of light bulbs as at the top of every card. In the late 1920s, the Philips name began to take on the form that we recognize today.


The now familiar Philips waves and stars first appeared in 1926 on the packaging of miniwatt radio valves, as well as on the Philigraph, an early sound recording device. The waves symbolized radio waves, while the stars represented the ether of the evening sky through which the radio waves would travel.


In 1930 it was the first time that the four stars flanking the three waves were placed together in a circle. After that, the stars and waves started appearing on radios and gramophones, featuring this circle as part of their design. Gradually the use of the circle emblem was then extended to advertising materials and other products.



At this time Philips’ business activities were expanding rapidly and the company wanted to find a trademark that would uniquely represent Philips, but one that would also avoid legal problems with the owners of other well-known circular emblems. This wish resulted in the combination of the Philips circle and the wordmark within the shield emblem.



In 1938, the Philips shield made its first appearance. Although modified over the years, the basic design has remained constant ever since and, together with the wordmark, gives Philips the distinctive identity that is still embraced today.

The first steps of CRT production by Philips started in the thirties with the Deutsche Philips Electro-Spezial gesellschaft in Germany and the Philips NatLab (Physics laboratory) in Holland. After the introduction of television in Europe, just after WWII there was a growing demand of television sets and oscilloscope equipment. Philips in Holland was ambitious and started experimental television in 1948. Philips wanted to be the biggest on this market. From 1948 there was a small Philips production of television and oscilloscope tubes in the town of Eindhoven which soon developed in mass production. In 1976 a part of the Philips CRT production went to the town of Heerlen and produced its 500.000'th tube in 1986. In 1994 the company in Heerlen changed from Philips into CRT-Heerlen B.V. specialized in the production of small monochrome CRT's for the professional market and reached 1.000.000 produced tubes in 1996. In this stage the company was able to produce very complicated tubes like storage CRT's.
In 2001 the company merged into Professional Display Systems, PDS worked on LCD and Plasma technology but went bankrupt in 2009. The employees managed a start through as Cathode Ray Technology which now in 2012 has to close it's doors due to the lack of sales in a stressed market. Their main production was small CRT's for oscilloscope, radar and large medical use (X-ray displays). New experimental developments were small Electron Microscopy, 3D-TV displays, X-Ray purposes and Cathode Ray Lithography for wafer production. Unfortunately the time gap to develop these new products was too big.


28 of September 2012, Cathode Ray Technology (the Netherlands), the last Cathode Ray Tube factory in Europe closed. Ironically the company never experienced so much publicity as now, all of the media brought the news in Holland about the closure. In fact this means the end of mass production 115 years after Ferdinand Braun his invention. The rapid introduction and acceptation of LCD and Plasma displays was responsible for a drastic decrease in sales. Despite the replacement market for the next couple of years in the industrial, medical and avionics sector.
The numbers are small and the last few CRT producers worldwide are in heavy competition.

Gerard Philips:

Gerard Leonard Frederik Philips (October 9, 1858, in Zaltbommel – January 27, 1942, in The Hague, Netherlands) was a Dutch industrialist, co-founder (with his father Frederik Philips) of the Philips Company as a family business in 1891. Gerard and his younger brother Anton Philips changed the business to a corporation by founding in 1912 the NV Philips' Gloeilampenfabrieken. As the first CEO of the Philips corporation, Gerard laid with Anton the base for the later Philips multinational.


Early life and education

Gerard was the first son of Benjamin Frederik David Philips (1 December 1830 – 12 June 1900) and Maria Heyligers (1836 – 1921). His father was active in the tobacco business and a banker at Zaltbommel in the Netherlands; he was a first cousin of Karl Marx.


Career

Gerard Philips became interested in electronics and engineering. Frederik was the financier for Gerard's purchase of the old factory building in Eindhoven where he established the first factory in 1891. They operated the Philips Company as a family business for more than a decade.


Marriage and family

On March 19, 1896 Philips married Johanna van der Willigen (30 September 1862 – 1942). They had no children.

Gerard was an uncle of Frits Philips, whom he and his brother brought into the business. Later they brought in his brother's grandson, Franz Otten.


Gerard and his brother Anton supported education and social programs in Eindhoven, including the Philips Sport Vereniging (Philips Sports Association), which they founded. From it the professional football (soccer) department developed into the independent Philips Sport Vereniging N.V.



Anton Philips:

Anton Frederik Philips (March 14, 1874, Zaltbommel, Gelderland – October 7, 1951, Eindhoven) co-founded Royal Philips Electronics N.V. in 1912 with his older brother Gerard Philips in Eindhoven, the Netherlands. He served as CEO of the company from 1922 to 1939.



Early life and education

Anton was born to Maria Heyligers (1836 – 1921) and Benjamin Frederik David Philips (December 1, 1830 – June 12, 1900). His father was active in the tobacco business and a banker at Zaltbommel in the Netherlands. (He was a first cousin to Karl Marx.) Anton's brother Gerard was 16 years older.



Career

In May 1891 the father Frederik was the financier and, with his son Gerard Philips, co-founder of the Philips Company as a family business. In 1912 Anton joined the firm, which they named Royal Philips Electronics N.V.

During World War I, Anton Philips managed to increase sales by taking advantage of a boycott of German goods in several countries. He provided the markets with alternative products.

Anton (and his brother Gerard) are remembered as being civic-minded. In Eindhoven they supported education and social programs and facilities, such as the soccer department of the Philips Sports Association as the best-known example.

Anton Philips brought his son Frits Philips and grandson Franz Otten into the company in their times. Anton took the young Franz Otten with him and other family members to escape the Netherlands just before the Nazi Occupation during World War II; they went to the United States. They returned after the war.

His son Frits Philips chose to stay and manage the company during the occupation; he survived several months at the concentration camp of Vught after his workers went on strike. He saved the lives of 382 Jews by claiming them as indispensable to his factory, and thus helped them evade Nazi roundups and deportation to concentration camps.

Philips died in Eindhoven in 1951.


Marriage and family

Philips married Anne Henriëtte Elisabeth Maria de Jongh (Amersfoort, May 30, 1878 – Eindhoven, March 7, 1970). They had the following children:

* Anna Elisabeth Cornelia Philips (June 19, 1899 – ?), married in 1925 to Pieter Franciscus Sylvester Otten (1895 – 1969), and had:
o Diek Otten
o Franz Otten (b. c. 1928 - d. 1967), manager in the Dutch electronics company Philips
* Frederik Jacques Philips (1905-2005)
* Henriëtte Anna Philips (Eindhoven, October 26, 1906 – ?), married firstly to A. Knappert (d. 1932), without issue; married secondly to G. Jonkheer Sandberg (d. September 5, 1935), without issue; and married thirdly in New York City, New York, on September 29, 1938 to Jonkheer Gerrit van Riemsdijk (Aerdenhout, January 10, 1911 – Eindhoven, November 8, 2005). They had the following children:
o ..., Jonkheerin Gerrit van Riemsdijk (b. Waalre, October 2, 1939), married at Waalre on February 17, 1968 to Johannes Jasper Tuijt (b. Atjeh, Koeta Radja, March 10, 1930), son of Jacobus Tuijt and wife Hedwig Jager, without issue
o ..., Jonkheerin Gerrit van Riemsdijk (b. Waalre, April 3, 1946), married firstly at Calvados, Falaise, on June 6, 1974 to Martinus Jan Petrus Vermooten (Utrecht, September 16, 1939 – Falaise, August 29, 1978), son of Martinus Vermooten and wife Anna Pieternella Hendrika Kwantes, without issue; married secondly in Paris on December 12, 1981 to Jean Yves Louis Bedos (Calvados, Rémy, January 9, 1947 – Calvados, Lisieux, October 5, 1982), son of Georges Charles Bedos and wife Henriette Louise Piel, without issue; and married thirdly at Manche, Sartilly, on September 21, 1985 to Arnaud Evain (b. Ardennes, Sedan, July 7, 1952), son of Jean Claude Evain and wife Flore Halleux, without issue
o ..., Jonkheerin Gerrit van Riemsdijk (b. Waalre, September 4, 1948), married at Waalre, October 28, 1972 to Elie Johan François van Dissel (b. Eindhoven, October 9, 1948), son of Willem Pieter
Jacob van Dissel and wife Francisca Frederike Marie Wirtz, without issue.



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A comment...........of a 1996 reality ..................
Philips, which seems to be a perennial walking wounded case. The company had appeared to be on the mend after a worldwide cost- cutting programme which was started five years ago when Jan Timmer took over as chairman.
 But, following a sharp profits fall, with the company's first quarterly loss since 1992, a further shake up is being undertaken.
The difficulty is that the company operates in a mature market, in which prices are falling at an annual rate of six per cent. Manufacturers are competing by cutting costs to gain a larger share of static demand. It's not a situation in which any firm that does its own manufacturing can achieve much. Philips' latest plan involves an overall loss of 6,000 jobs in its consumer electronics business, with far greater reliance placed on a group of external suppliers which are referred to as "a cluster of dedicated subcontractors".

This is an approach that was pioneered many years ago by major Japanese manufacturers. Rather than make everything yourself, you rely on subcontractors who, in return, rely on you for their main source of work. It is hardly a cosy arrangement: the whole point seems to be that the major fain can exert pressure on its subcontractors, thereby - in theory - achieving optimum efficiency and cost-effectiveness. What happens when lower and lower prices are demanded for subcontracted work is not made clear.

The whole edifice could collapse. However that might be, this is the course on which Philips has now embarked. The company is also to carry out distribution, sales and marketing on a regional rather than a national basis, and has said that it will not support Grundig's losses after this year.

But Philips' chief financial officer Dudley Eustace has said that it has "no intention of abandoning the television and audio business". One has to assume that the subcontracting will also be done on an international basis, as major Japanese firms have had to do. There is a sense of déjà vu about this, though one wishes Philips well - it is still one of the major contributors to research and development in our industry.

Toshiba, which has also just appointed a new top man, Taizo Nishimoro, provides an interesting contrast. Mr Nishimoro thinks that the western emphasis on sales and marketing rather than engineering is the way to go. So the whole industry seems to be moving full circle. Taizo Nishimoro has become the first non engineering president of Toshiba. Where the company cannot compete effectively on its own, he intends to seek international alliances or go for closures. He put it as follows. "The technology and the businesses we are engaged in are getting more complex.
 In these circumstances, if we try to do everything ourselves we are making a mistake." Here's how Minoru Makihara, who became head of Mitsubishi Corporation four years ago, sees it. "Technologies are now moving so fast that it is impossible for the top manager to know all the details. 
Companies are now looking for generalists who can understand broad changes, delegate and provide leadership." Corporate change indeed amongst our oriental colleagues. Major firms the world over are facing similar problems and having to adopt similar policies.
In a mature market such as consumer electronics, you have to rely on marketing to squeeze the last little bit of advantage from such developments as Dolby sound and other added value features. The consumer electronics industry has been hoping that the digital video disc would come to its aid and get sales and profits moving ahead.
The DVD was due to be released in Sept 1996 , but we are unlikely to hear much more about it yet awhile. There's no problem with the technology: the difficulty is with licensing and software. There is obviously no point in launching it without adequate software support. But the movie companies, which control most of the required supply of software, are concerned that a recordable version of the disc, due in a couple of years' time, would be a gift to pirates worldwide. Concessions have been made by the electronics industry, in particular that different disc formats should be used in different parts of the world. But a curious problem has arisen.
 The other main use of the DVD is as a ROM in computer systems. For this application flexible copying facilities are a major requirement. But the movie companies are unwilling to agree to this. At present the situation is deadlocked and the great hope of an autumn launch, all important for sales, has had to be postponed. Next year maybe? It's a great pity, since the DVD has much to offer.
There's a lot of sad news on the retail side as well. Colorvision has been placed in administrative receivership in 1996 , with a threat to 800 jobs at its 76 stores, while the Rumbelows shops that were taken over by computer retailer Escom have suffered a similar fate. The receivers have closed down the UK chain with the loss of 850 jobs at some 150 stores. Nothing seems to be going right just now.



 References:

 Philips Research Philips Technical Review Volumes 1-13 (1936-1954).
 Philips Electron Tube Division Electronic Application Bulletin volumes 10-16, 1949-1955.
 Philips Electron Tube Division Television Receiving Tubes EF80 ECL80 PL81 PL83 PY80, 1950
 Philips series Electron Valves, volumes I-VIII, published 1940-1953.

 F. Kerkhof and W. Werner, Televisie, Philips Technische Bibliotheek, 1951

 Philips Service Manuals of individual television receiver models; partly private collectin and found on the internet.

 Electron, the monthly publication of the Dutch Vereniging of Radio Amateurs, volumes 1947-1952. Was especially      useful for the "external view"on the PET-period of experimental transmissions.

 I.J. Blanken, Geschiedenis van de Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V., Europese Bibliotheek, Zaltbommel, 2002. Especially pt.4 "Onder Duits beheer" and pt.5 "Een industriële revolutie".

 A.A.A. de la Bruhèze, H.W. Lintsen, Arie Rip, J.W. Schot Techniek in Nederland in de twintigste eeuw. Deel 5. Transport, communicatie, 2002. Good background story on the broader development of television broadcast in the Netherlands.

 Mark Burgess, History of Philips Semiconductors in the 1950's, 2009.


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