Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

In Brief: On this site you will find pictures and information about some of the electronic, electrical and electrotechnical technology relics that the Frank Sharp Private museum has accumulated over the years .

Premise: There are lots of vintage electrical and electronic items that have not survived well or even completely disappeared and forgotten.

Or are not being collected nowadays in proportion to their significance or prevalence in their heyday, this is bad and the main part of the death land. The heavy, ugly sarcophagus; models with few endearing qualities, devices that have some over-riding disadvantage to ownership such as heavy weight,toxicity or inflated value when dismantled, tend to be under-represented by all but the most comprehensive collections and museums. They get relegated to the bottom of the wants list, derided as 'more trouble than they are worth', or just forgotten entirely. As a result, I started to notice gaps in the current representation of the history of electronic and electrical technology to the interested member of the public.


Following this idea around a bit, convinced me that a collection of the peculiar alone could not hope to survive on its own merits, but a museum that gave equal display space to the popular and the unpopular, would bring things to the attention of the average person that he has previously passed by or been shielded from. It's a matter of culture. From this, the Obsolete Technology Tellye Web Museum concept developed and all my other things too. It's an open platform for all electrical Electronic TV technology to have its few, but NOT last, moments of fame in a working, hand-on environment. We'll never own Colossus or Faraday's first transformer, but I can show things that you can't see at the Science Museum, and let you play with things that the Smithsonian can't allow people to touch, because my remit is different.

There was a society once that was the polar opposite of our disposable, junk society. A whole nation was built on the idea of placing quality before quantity in all things. The goal was not “more and newer,” but “better and higher" .This attitude was reflected not only in the manufacturing of material goods, but also in the realms of art and architecture, as well as in the social fabric of everyday life. The goal was for each new cohort of children to stand on a higher level than the preceding cohort: they were to be healthier, stronger, more intelligent, and more vibrant in every way.

The society that prioritized human, social and material quality is a Winner. Truly, it is the high point of all Western civilization. Consequently, its defeat meant the defeat of civilization itself.

Today, the West is headed for the abyss. For the ultimate fate of our disposable society is for that society itself to be disposed of. And this will happen sooner, rather than later.

OLD, but ORIGINAL, Well made, Funny, Not remotely controlled............. and not Made in CHINA.

How to use the site:

- If you landed here via any Search Engine, you will get what you searched for and you can search more using the search this blog feature provided by Google. You can visit more posts scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year,
or you can click on the main photo-page to start from the main page. Doing so it starts from the most recent post to the older post simple clicking on the Older Post button on the bottom of each page after reading , post after post.

You can even visit all posts, time to time, when reaching the bottom end of each page and click on the Older Post button.

- If you arrived here at the main page via bookmark you can visit all the site scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year pointing were you want , or more simple You can even visit all blog posts, from newer to older, clicking at the end of each bottom page on the Older Post button.
So you can see all the blog/site content surfing all pages in it.

- The search this blog feature provided by Google is a real search engine. If you're pointing particular things it will search IT for you; or you can place a brand name in the search query at your choice and visit all results page by page. It's useful since the content of the site is very large.

Note that if you don't find what you searched for, try it after a period of time; the site is a never ending job !

Every CRT Television saved let revive knowledge, thoughts, moments of the past life which will never return again.........

Many contemporary "televisions" (more correctly named as displays) would not have this level of staying power, many would ware out or require major services within just five years or less and of course, there is that perennial bug bear of planned obsolescence where components are deliberately designed to fail and, or manufactured with limited edition specificities..... and without considering........picture......sound........quality........

..............The bitterness of poor quality is remembered long after the sweetness of todays funny gadgets low price has faded from memory........ . . . . . .....
Don't forget the past, the end of the world is upon us! Pretty soon it will all turn to dust!

Have big FUN ! !
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©2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 Frank Sharp - You do not have permission to copy photos and words from this blog, and any content may be never used it for auctions or commercial purposes, however feel free to post anything you see here with a courtesy link back, btw a link to the original post here , is mandatory.
All sets and apparates appearing here are property of
Engineer Frank Sharp. NOTHING HERE IS FOR SALE !

Wednesday, August 22, 2012

EMERSON MOD. PIPER 12" YEAR 1974.






The EMERSON MOD. PIPER 12" is a little 12 inches (34cm) b/W portable television with 6 programs tuning keyboard and potentiometric tuning search.

The mechanical turret approach to television tuning has been used almost exclusively for the past 60 years. Even though replete with the inherent disadvantages of mechanical complexity, unreliability and cost, such apparatus has been technically capable of performing its intended function and as a result the consumer has had to bear the burdens associated with the device. However, with the " recent "  Broadcast demands for parity of tuning for UHF and VHF channels, the increasing number of UHF and cable TV stations have imposed new tuning performance requirements which severely tax the capability of the mechanical turret tuner. Consequently, attempts are now being made to provide all electronic tuning to meet the new requirements.

 One " " new " " tuning system currently being incorporated in some television receivers uses a varactor tuner which overcomes some of the disadvantages of mechanical turret tuner by accomplishing tuning electronically. As the name indicates, the heart of such a tuner is a varactor diode which is used as a capacitive tuning element in the RF and local oscillator sections. In this system, channel selection is made by applying a given reverse bias voltage to the varactor to change its electrical capacitance. The channel selection biasing can be performed by mechanically or electrically switching approximately 5 or many more preset potentiometers. The problem with such arrangement is that it quite seriously limits the number of channels available to the consumer. Additionally, it suffers from the drawback that all potentiometers require adjusting for the desired channels. The VHF channels are usually factory adjusted while the six UHF channels require on-location adjustment. Moreover, using this arrangement, the only indication--during adjustment--of which channel is selected is by station identification.

In the end of the 60's  increasingly attention was focused on the varicap diode tuner as the latest, sophisticated means of television receiver frontend tuning in both colour and black and white sets.
 The main purpose of this article is to investigate the servicing problems associated with this comparatively new method of tuning.

First however let's briefly recap on the principles involved in this tuning system:

 The tuners use variable capacitance (or "varicap") diodes as the variable tuning elements: the effective capacitance of the diodes is controlled by the reverse bias applied across them, tuning being achieved by varying this voltage. As the reverse bias across a varicap diode is increased so its junction depletion region widens thus reducing its capacitance.
A VHF/ UHF television tuner is constructed in accordance with the present invention includes a preselector tuned circuit having a solid state voltage controlled capacitor as its tunable element, a radio frequency amplifier coupled to the preselector circuit and alsoother circuit to perfect the signal receiving capability and the application the like.

Considering the Mechanical Tuner Problems:

To get the servicing problems in perspective let us next consider the tuning arrangements previously used.
 The earliest of these, employed on v.h.f., was the switched tuner which was either of the turret or incremental type.
 The turret tuner substituted a coil bearing "biscuit" mounted on the rotating drum or turret when channels were changed. Twelve positions were normally provided, with a fine tuning knob to adjust the local oscillator frequency. As its name suggests the incremental tuner simply added more inductance to the tuned circuits at every downward channel movement: thus the highest inductance was present on channel one and the least on channel 12 (which normally covered 13 as well with manipulation of the fine tuner).
The movement towards u.h.f. TV working, initially with dual standard sets and later with single standard ones, brought about the need for u.h.f. tuners. In the earliest u.h.f. receivers valve tuners which were not particularly efficient were used.

The drive mechanism was usually a dual  speed rotary system calibrated from channels 21 to 68. Experience in the field indicated that 625 line television was in many cases considered by the viewer to be inferior to 405 -line reception, on account of the poor signal to noise ratio achieved by the valve tuners. Many viewers were not prepared to use external u.h.f. aerials of course, having achieved satisfactory reception on v.h.f. with an indoor aerial: this aggravated the situation even more.
Another aspect which caused difficulty was the care needed to tune in a u.h.f. channel using a rotary tuner covering the whole of Bands IV and V. Many viewers simply could not tune in BBC 2  or ZDF or ORF or any channel correctly with such a tuning mechanism, finding that they had passed right over the channel they wanted before realising what they had done.
The advent of transistor tuners rapidly improved the quality of u.h.f. reception but use of a rotary mechanism was continued by many manufacturers. Thus while potential reception was improved the same tuning difficulties remained and viewers continued to gravitate towards 405 line viewing using the "old faithful" switched tuner. The operational breakthrough came with the introduction of the push-button u.h.f. channel change. 

The mechanism is basically simple. Adjustable push buttons press down on a lever bar which in turn rotates the tuner's variable capacitors to the appropriate position. Each button is capable of tuning over the entire u.h.f. bands and this leads to customer confusion at times when after some adjustments which were too heavy handed they find themselves receiving ITV on a BBC button or a ORF and ZDF broadcasting or any channel possible !

Mechanical Faults:

 Mechanical tuning obviously has its snags. There are for example contact springs which earth the tuning capacitor and go intermittent. This gives rise to the most random tuning defects, capable of driving the. most patient viewer to a state of total exasperation. It is also possible for the rotation mechanism to hang up and jam intermittently, or just become sticky, so that the reset accuracy of the mechanism is impaired and the receiver has to be retuned every time the channel is changed.
The vanes in the tuning capacitor can also short out at different settings, thereby eliminating some channels. The  Varicap Tuner It will be seen then that mechanical defects can cause very irritating fault symptoms. If one thinks along the lines that anything mechanical is nasty, then the elimination of mechanical parts can only be to the good.

The logic of this is splendid provided the electronic replacement for the mechanical system is more reliable! Otherwise we are leaping out of the frying pan into the fire! In the light of experience gained with mechanical tuning devices it seems great that with the varicap tuner we have at last dispensed with the dreaded rotary tuning capacitor, replacing it instead with a variable voltage to the tuner. 
Let us think about this however since things are never quite as simple as they first appear. The tuning voltage has to be variable in order to tune the receiver. Obviously then a means of varying the voltage has to be provided to act as the tuning control.
As it is a voltage that has to be varied the tuning control takes the form of a potentiometer., Now we have returned to a mechanical system again, though in a less complex form.
A potentiometer is required for each channel, selected by pressing the appropriate channel button.

We have lost a tuning capacitor and its rotating mechanism and gained a set of pots and selector switches therefore. Provided the pots and switches are mechanically more reliable than the tuning capacitor we should be better off-or should we? 

Need for Voltage Stabilisation.
 The voltage selected by the pots cannot be allowed to drift otherwise the receiver will go off -tune. The voltage supply to the potentiometers has to be stabilised therefore and a stabilising zener diode or integrated circuit (TAA550) .is needed for this purpose.

Any failure in this part of the circuit will give rise to tuning drift or worse, a total loss of reception. A short-circuit TAA550 for example will completely remove the tuning voltage while if it is open circuit the tuning can vary with picture brightness. Likewise any intermittency in the potentiometers or associated switching and/or resistors can also cause problems.

Relative Reliability of Tuners:

 It  will be seen then that in order to lose our troublesome mechanical arrangement we have had to introduce considerably more electronics which we trust are going to be more reliable. In addition we have not so far considered the relative reliability of the varicap tuner itself compared with the mechanical type. Since two r.f. transistors are generally used to compensate for the reduced Q of the varicap tuned circuits we immediately have twice the likelihood of an r.f. stage breaking down! 
And being semiconductors the varicap diodes themselves are more likely to fail than the sections of a ganged tuning capacitor. It is reasonable then to conclude that if mechanical faults are the most prevalent the use of varicap tuners will make life easier. Mechanical faults are generally not too difficult to sort out however and the field engineer can often cope with them in the home. 
Can the same be said of the varicap tuner? It seems that this type of tuner does not need so much attention as its mechanical counterpart but is likely to throw up some much more difficult faults when it does, resulting in bench repairs being needed. So far my own experience has indicated that varicap tuning faults nearly always need servicing on the bench.
Generally speaking it seems true to say that varicap tuners themselves are adequately reliable: the snags result from the tuning system and stabilised power supply.

Tuning Drift with Varicap Tuners:

 If a varicap tuned receiver is constantly drifting off tune the +30V supply should be the number one suspect. It is best to connect an Avometer permanently to the supply so that it can be precisely monitored-if necessary write down the exact voltage measured.
 If the receiver drifts, check the voltage. If it has changed, even slightly, this may well be enough to be the cause of the fault. To pinpoint and confirm the diagnosis aerosol freezer should be applied to the stabiliser i.c. or zener. If the voltage returns to normal or changes wildly for the worse the stabiliser is almost certainly the cause of the trouble and should be replaced.
A prolonged soak test should then be carried out. Another point concerning varicap tuners arises with their use in colour receivers.


 There were  makers of the most expensive colour receiver on the market still didn't use a varicap tuner but instead use a mechanical one. The makers' claim is that the signal to-noise ratio of the varicap tuner is inadequate for their colour standards. Undoubtedly the results obtained on the receiver seem to confirm this. Interestingly, the same manufacturers use varicap tuners in their black -and -white receivers, and the tuning button system is often full of troublesome intermittent contacts. The varicap tuner has its advantages and disadvantages then. Probably the simplest comment would be to say that when it is good it is very very good but when it is bad it is horrid!
Springs component in old tv's tuner :
Most old televisions tuning mechanisms were incorporating coil springs in one form or another for various functions. They can be of the compression type which are wound with spaces between adjacent turns and are intended to be squeezed under pressure : when released they expand to their original form. The mounting springs under record-player turntable units are examples of this type. Alternatively the spring can be of the expanding variety. The coils are wound closely together with adjacent turns touching. The applied tension tends to pull them apart and they exert a contracting force to counteract this and pull the linked components together. In the majority of applications this type is used. Springs often become damaged by being over stretched, or the end loop breaks. More frequently the spring simply becomes detached and disappears. Thus the engineer is faced with the task of finding and fitting a replacement. While it is possible to apply to the makers of the equipment for the right spring this involves delay and of course there is always the problem of identifying the right one out of the many used in the particular mechanism. For this reason many engineers find it more convenient to make their own replacements.

Making a Coil Spring: The operation was quite simple, the equipment needed being a wheelbrace, vice, selection of long screwdrivers with varying diameter shanks and a supply of piano wire of various gauges. The wheelbrace is mounted horizontally in the vice with the wheel uppermost and a screwdriver chosen and inserted into the chuck with the blade foremost. This serves as a mandrel on which the spring can be wound. Because a spring expands slightly in diameter after it is wound the diameter of the screwdriver shank should be a little less than the required inside diameter of the spring. One end of the piano wire should be inserted in the chuck and secured to prevent it coming free. The wheel is then slowly turned and the wire taken up around the screwdriver shank. Keep the wire taut and pull it backward (see Fig. 1) toward the chuck at an angle which keeps the adjacent turns together but does not make a turn ride over the top of its predecessor. When the spring has reached the required length cut the wire and remove the springand screwdriver from the chuck.
As an aid in determining the size of the spring required-especially if the original is lost and there is no pattern to make a comparison with-here are a few observations on the characteristics of coil springs as determined by their dimensions.
Properties of Coil Springs: There are two main properties of a spring, the length to which it can be expanded in comparison to its closed length and its tension or strength in the expanded state. If a coil spring is expanded too far its coils will not return to their original position and the spring is said to be stretched. The amount that a spring can be expanded without becoming stretched is governed by the number of turns and the diameter. The greater the number of turns the less each one has to deviate from its resting position for the complete spring to reach a particular length. Also the greater the diameter the smaller the strain and therefore the more the spring can be expanded. The strength of a spring is related to the gauge of wire and the diameter. A heavy gauge will obviously give greater tension than a lighter one but also a spring with a large diameter will exert less force than a smaller one because as we have seen there is less strain when it is expanded. More force is exerted when the spring is well expanded than when it is nearly closed. If therefore we need a spring that is strong and will stretch a long way we need a large number of turns but not so many that the spring is too long in its closed position. It needs to be of fairly large diameter but as this will make it weaker we must compensate by using a heavy gauge of wire. A weak spring with a long stretch is easily made with thinner wire and a large diameter while a strong spring with a short stretch need have few turns and small diameter. So the various factors are interdependent and although spring design can be quite an exact art-by varying the various parameters-something suitable for the job can usually be made up by judicously estimating the size from the foregoing principles. If a spring has become stretched nothing can be done to restore it by squeezing it up as it has now become a compression spring and the expanded state is its normal one. Rather than winding a completely new spring however the old one can be unwound on a wheelbrace-by reversing the winding process and then rewound tightly. Proper unwinding is essential, not just pulling the spring out straight, because this will produce kinks.
Leaf Springs: From coil springs we turn to leaf springs. These were used as contacts in tuner units and are also were used in the press  button channel selector of the Philips colour TV range and other fabricants. To make a positive contact the leaf spring must be tensioned just right. In the case of the turret tuner the leaf must be so sprung that the contacting stud moves it about a tenth of an inch away from the resting position. If as sometimes happens contact is made without much movement of the leaf there will be little if any pressure and the contact will very likely be intermittent. If on the other hand the leaf is adjusted too far forward it may be caught by the edge of the coil biscuit and crumpled when the turret is rotated.
The uncommon knobs design remembers some pocket radio style.



(To see the Internal Chassis Just click on Older Post Button on bottom page, that's simple !)


Emerson Radio Corp., founded in 1948, is one of the nation’s largest volume consumer electronics distributors with a recognized trademark in continuous use since 1912. It continues to be one of the oldest and well-respected names in the consumer electronics industry.


The Company engages in the design and marketing of audio and video products tailored to meet consumer preferences of the local market, particularly in the case of International markets. The breadth of products offered encompass televisions, Digital Versatile Disc (DVD) players and video cassette recorders (VCR's), audio accessories, microwave ovens, home theater, high end audio products, office products, mobile stereo and wireless products.


The Company distributes its products primarily through mass merchants, discount retailers, and specialty catalogers and, to a lesser degree, the Internet. The Company utilizes an extensive distributor network to facilitate its international presence and further leverages the Emerson brand globally through various licensing agreements. Its core business consists primarily of the distribution and sale of various low to moderately priced product categories.





History
1915–1920

Emerson Radio Corp. was incorporated in 1915 as Emerson Phonograph Co. (NAICS: 421620 Consumer Electronics Wholesaling), based in New York City, by an early recording engineer and executive, Victor Hugo Emerson, who was at one time employed by Columbia Records. The first factories were opened in Chicago and Boston, in 1920. In December of that year, the company fell victim to the unanticipated sales slump for phonograph music that accompanied the post-World War I recession and the growth of commercial radio. It went from the self-claimed third largest record manufacturer into receivership.
1921–1940

In 1922 Emerson Phonograph Co. passed into the hands of Benjamin Abrams [1] and Rudolph Kanarak. Abrams, a phonograph and record salesman, along with his two brothers, ran the company and renamed it Emerson Radio & Phonograph Corp in 1924 after entering the radio business. The company's record interests were subsequently sold. Although Emerson introduced the first radio-phonograph combination sold in the United States, the company remained in obscurity until 1932, when, during the Great Depression, it introduced the "peewee" radio (see "Historical Products" below).[1]
1941–1950

Emerson Radio & Phonograph converted to military production for World War II in 1942, when it held one-sixth of the U.S. radio market. In 1943, it became a public corporation, when it offered over 40 percent of its stock to the public for $12 a share. In 1947, among its first post-war products, Emerson offered a television set with a 10-inch tube.[2] Although its ending retail price was nearly equal to a month's salary for the average working American, it put Emerson at the lower end of the market. However, between fiscal 1948 and 1950, the high demand for television allowed Emerson to more than double its sales. Its net income reached a record of $6.5 million in fiscal 1950, with sales of $74.2 million.
1951–1960

In 1953 Emerson Radio and Phonograph purchased Quiet Heet Corp., which entered the company into air conditioning. Although radio represented only 15 percent of Emerson's revenue by 1954,[3] the company credited itself as creating the firsts of the clock radio, self-powered radio, and transistorized pocket radio; production of tape recorders began in 1955.

Emerson Radio and Phonograph paid $6 million to purchase the consumer products division of DuMont Laboratories in 1958.[4] With this acquisition, a higher-priced line of television sets, phonographs and high-fidelity and stereo instruments, along with the DuMont trademark was added to Emerson's products. Unfortunately, by this time, almost every U.S. household that wanted a TV set already had one, and many customers who were in need of another set were waiting for color television instead of buying a replacement. Sales fell from $87.4 million in fiscal 1955 to $73.9 million in fiscal 1956, when the company earned a paltry $84,852.

A cost-cutting campaign by Abrams rebounded net income which reached $2.7 million in fiscal 1959 on sales of $67.4 million. In fiscal 1964 (Emerson's last full year of independent operation) it earned $2.1 million on sales of $68.2 million.[5]
1961–1980

In 1965 the company acquired the Pilot Radio Corp. from Jerrold Corp. Its line of Quiet Kool air conditioners became a separate National Union Electric division. Later in 1965 Emerson Radio and Phonograph was purchased for approximately $62 million in cash and stock by National Union Electric Corp., a diversified manufacturer. This company continued to produce radios, television sets and phonographs distributed under the Emerson and DuMont names and hi-fi equipment under the Pilot name.[6]

Between 1967 and 1971 the National Union Electric division lost about $27 million due to too little volume to cover costs. The division contracted out the manufacturing of television sets and some other home entertainment products to Admiral Corp., and laid-off 1,800 employees. In addition to importing some of its home entertainment products from the Far East, Emerson continued to be responsible for design, engineering, and marketing.

In late 1972 National Union Electric announced that Emerson was discontinuing distribution of television sets and other home entertainment products. In 1973 Emerson sold its license for marketing products under the Emerson name to Major Electronics Corp. Founded in 1948 by Melvin Lane and incorporated in 1956, this Brooklyn-based company originally made children's phonographs.[7] The company later diversified into the production and sale of a broad line of low-priced home entertainment products that included stereos, radios, and clock radios. In 1971 Major also began importing low-cost radios. By 1975 the company was only manufacturing portable phonographs. In 1976 the company moved its headquarters to Secaucus, New Jersey, and changed its name to Emerson Radio Corp. in 1977.

Sales rose from $11.5 million in fiscal 1975 to $49.2 million in fiscal 1978, the year in which phonographs, radios, tape recoders and players, compact stereos, digital clock radios, and other low to medium-priced electronic equipment was being imported, assembled, and marketed, primarily under the Emerson name. Approximately 60 percent of its components were being imported from the Far East and 20 percent from each Great Britain and domestically, and assembled in either Secaucus or Sun Valley, California.

In 1979, Emerson began selling Heart Aid, after purchasing a large portion of Cardiac Resuscitator Corp., a near-bankrupt company. Emerson spent heavily to develop and produce both an improved Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator and a pacemaker. In addition, the company took an 18 percent share in a developer of Computerized Axial Tomographic (CAT) scanners. Because this line of products never made money, Emerson disposed of its holdings in them between 1987-88.

Emerson Radio dropped its last U.S.-made product, the phonograph line, in 1980 because it became unprofitable due to rising labor costs. Despite harsh competition, Emerson Radio raised its sales and earnings in fiscal 1980 to $81.9 million and $1.6 million, respectively. Their plan was to have their suppliers (mainly in Taiwan and South Korea) to imitate Sony and Panasonic audio/video products and then sell them at a lower price.
1981–1990

Sales soared from $94.8 million in fiscal 1983 to $181.6 million in fiscal 1984, when net income came to $9.1 million[8] because of the company's reintroduction of television sets in 1983. Emerson purchased sets from Goldstar Electric Co. (AKA LG Electronics), a South Korean company, but sold them at a higher price point.

In 1984, Emerson signed a 10-year contract with Orion Electric to produce a line of VCRs to its existing product lineup.[9]

In 1985 a compact disc player and microwave oven were introduced causing sales to once again double in fiscal 1985 to $357.5 million, and net income rose to $13.3 million. TV sets and VCR's accounted for two-thirds of sales that year.[10] Later that year, Emerson Radio moved its headquarters to North Bergen, New Jersey, and acquired H. H. Scott, Inc., a company that manufactured high-fidelity audio and visual equipment. Products were sold under the Scott name until 1991, the year the line was discontinued.

In 1986 Emerson began importing and marketing compact refrigerators and Hi-Fi stereo VHS VCRs. Camcorders, telephones, and answering machines were added to its product line in fiscal 1988. In 1990 personal computers and facsimile machines were added for a major roll-out to more than 500 Wal-Mart stores.[11] In 1992 sales reached a peak of $891.4 million, unfortunately, net income was a lowly $10.4 million.

Emerson's addition of personal computers ended up being a catastrophe for the company—a $150 million loss. That coupled with the recession that began in 1990 brought the company's total loss to $37.5 million in the last nine months of the year. Shares of stock fell as low as $2, compared to the high of $12.75 in 1987. Several shareholder suited charging some Emerson directors and officials with breach of fiduciary duty and self-dealing. Emerson also fell into technical default on its long-term debt of $55.4 million at the end of the year.
1991–2000

Fidenas Investment Ltd., a Swiss firm based in the Bahamas, began purchasing shares of Emerson Radio stock in 1989. It held a 20 percent stake (more than that held by Stephen and William Lane) by 1992, when they began a takeover attempt. The Lane brothers were seeking to restructure $180 million in debt, but ended up conceded defeat in June 1992.[12] Unfortunately, Emerson's financial situation worsened, and in fiscal 1993 the company incurred a loss of $56 million on sales of $741.4 million. When the company filed for bankruptcy in October 1993, Emerson had been in default on $223 million in debt for the previous two years.[13]

In 1994, the company emerged from bankruptcy pursuant to a plan of reorganization and with $75 million in financing arranged by Fidenas, which had assumed a 90 percent stake in Emerson.[14] It then issued 30 million shares, some of which were claimed by creditors. Legal battles ensued and continued until mid-August 2001.[15]

In early 1995, in an effort to cut costs, Emerson Radio licensed the manufacture of certain video products under the Emerson and G Clef trademarks for a three-year period to Otake Trading Co. Ltd. The company also licensed the sale of these products in the United States and Canada for the same period to Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. As a result, Emerson's net sales fell from $654.7 million in fiscal 1995 to $245.7 million in fiscal 1996, with the licensing agreement only providing about $4 million a year in royalty income.

Also in 1995, Emerson Radio entered the home theater and car audio fields, and the $900-million-a-year home and personal security market with a carbon monoxide detector. The company planned to eventually lend its name to burglar alarms, motion detectors, personal alarms, smoke detectors, and safety lights, however, the company left this field in fiscal 1997. Additionally, Emerson announced it would license the Emerson name to more than 250 audio and video accessories made by Jasco Products Co., an Oklahoma firm selling cables, remote controls, and appliance cleaning devices.[16][17]

The company took a 27 percent stake in Sport Supply Group, Inc., the largest direct-mail distributor of sporting goods equipment and supplies to the U.S. institutional market, for $11.5 million, in late 1996.

Subsequent to a net income of $7.4 million in fiscal 1995, Emerson dropped into the red again the following three years. They lost $13.4 million, $24 million, and $1.4 million in fiscal 1996, 1997, and 1998, respectively, with net revenues of $245.7 million, $178.7 million, and $162.7 million.

Emerson Radio Corp. announced in November 1998 that it had entered into an exclusive agreement with Team Products International, Inc. of Boonton, N.J., a distributor of audio, video and other consumer electronic product accessories in the United States and Canada. They would promote the sale of a wide variety of Emerson branded consumer electronic products and accessories.[18]

The owner of Fidenas's, Geoffrey P. Jurick, had assumed the position of Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of the company in 1992 and in 1998 he added the titles of President and Chairman of the Board. In December 1998 he held 60 percent of Emerson's common stock, during which time Kenneth S. Grossman, a private investor, along with Oaktree Capital Management, a Los Angeles-based investment firm that held a smaller stake in Emerson Radio, proposed to buy Jurick's holdings in the company for more than $14.6 million, but the offer was rejected as "inadequate."[19] Emerson announced in August 1999 that it planned to sell to Oaktree for $28.9 million.

On the day the licensing agreement with Otake expired, Emerson replaced the company with Daewoo Electronics Co. Ltd., which entered into a four-year agreement with Emerson to manufacture and sell television and video products bearing the Emerson and G Clef trademark to U.S. retailers. In 1999, Emerson also signed five-year license and supply agreements with Cargil International covering the Caribbean and Central and South American markets, along with WW Mexicana for certain consumer products to be sold in Mexico. They also had a licensing agreement with Telesound Electronics for telephones, answering machines, and caller ID products in the United States and Canada.

Net income for Emerson was a meager $289,000 on net revenues of $158.7 million in fiscal 1999 with a long-term debt of $20.8 million at the end of the fiscal year. Nearly 84 percent of its merchandise that year was imported, primarily from China, Hong Kong, Malaysia, South Korea, and Thailand. Tonic Electronics (32 percent), Daewoo (22 percent), and Imarflex (12 percent) were its main suppliers. The company depended heavily on Wal-Mart Stores, which took about 52 percent of its goods in fiscal 1999, and Target Stores, Inc., which took about 24 percent.
2001–present

In 2001, Emerson exited the video electronics business (TVs, DVD players, VCRs) and handed 100% of the operations to Funai. Funai currently makes and markets Emerson consumer video products for Wal-Mart. In January 2003, Emerson announced it had entered into a letter of intent naming Sablian Group of Shandong, China the exclusive distributor of Emerson branded products through its subsidiary, Sanlian Household Electric Appliance Company (SHEAC).[20] The agreement contemplated the supply and distribution of Emerson originated product categories through SHEAC's 200 retail stores and maintenance service centers as well as its extensive BtoB and BtoC e-commerce network. Furthermore, Sanlian shall license the Emerson brand for additional product categories it finds suitable for China-wide distribution and cooperate with Emerson in the design, development and sourcing for such.



Historical products

In 1915, at the company's inception, Emerson's main product was the Universal Cut Records, capable of being played laterally or vertically. Music offered included a wide variety of popular, band, opera, classical, religious, and folk music. Also during their first years, Emerson offered one of the last of the external-horn phonographs, which sold for only $3.

The "peewee" radio was introduced December 1932. Measuring about 8½ inches long and 6¼ inches wide, approximately 60 percent of all radios sold between early December 1932 and late May 1933 were peewees, half of which were manufactured by Emerson. The Universal Compact line was priced from $17.95 to $32.50. Emerson led the production and sale of this class of radio until 1938, having by then sold more than a million.

In 1947 Emerson offered a television set with a 10-inch tube, which retailed for $375. It was among Emerson's first postwar products. They dropped the price to $269.50 by June 1948, when the newly developed television industry had sold 375,000 sets.

In 1953, Emerson Radio and Phonograph purchased Quiet Heet Corp., which entered the company into air conditioning.

Although radio represented only 15 percent of Emerson's revenue by 1954, the company credited itself as creating the first clock radio, self-powered radio, and transistorized pocket radio.

Production of tape recorders began in 1955.

When Emerson purchased Allen B. DuMont Laboratories, Inc. in 1958, a higher-priced line of television sets, phonographs and high-fidelity and stereo instruments, along with the DuMont trademark was added to Emerson's products.

In 1979, Emerson began selling Heart Aide, after purchasing a large portion of Cardiac Resuscitator Corp. The company spent heavily to develop and produce both an improved Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator and a pacemaker. In addition, the company took an 18 percent share in a developer of computerized axial tomographic (CAT) scanners. As this line of products never made money, Emerson disposed of its holdings in them between 1987-88.

Emerson manufactured the Arcadia 2001, the most well-known of the "Emerson Arcadia 2001" second-generation 8-bit game console variations. Although, considerably more powerful than the then-dominant Atari 2600, the Arcadia 2001 wasn't released until just before the more-advanced Atari 5200 and the ColecoVision, in mid-1982. It was successful in other countries, however, because Atari had exclusive rights to many games, it was nearly impossible for Emerson to market in the United States due to the lack of popular game titles.

In 1983, Emerson began selling re-branded Goldstar televisions at inflated prices for a substantial profit. The compact disc player and microwave oven were introduced in 1985 doubling sales. In 1986 Emerson began importing and marketing compact refrigerators. Camcorders, telephones, and answering machines were added to its product line in fiscal 1988. Personal computers and facsimile machines were added in 1990.

In 1995, Emerson Radio entered the home theater and car audio fields, and the $900-million-a-year home and personal security market with a carbon monoxide detector, however, they left this field in 1997. Also in 1995, Emerson announced it would license its name to more than 250 audio and video accessories made by Jasco Products Co., a firm selling cables, remote controls, and appliance cleaning devices.

Emerson began manufacturing and selling television and video products bearing the Emerson and G Clef trademark to U.S. retailers in 1999. They also had a licensing agreement with Telesound Electronics for telephones, answering machines, and caller ID products in the United States and Canada.

 

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