Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

In Brief: On this site you will find pictures and information about some of the electronic, electrical and electrotechnical technology relics that the Frank Sharp Private museum has accumulated over the years .

Premise: There are lots of vintage electrical and electronic items that have not survived well or even completely disappeared and forgotten.

Or are not being collected nowadays in proportion to their significance or prevalence in their heyday, this is bad and the main part of the death land. The heavy, ugly sarcophagus; models with few endearing qualities, devices that have some over-riding disadvantage to ownership such as heavy weight,toxicity or inflated value when dismantled, tend to be under-represented by all but the most comprehensive collections and museums. They get relegated to the bottom of the wants list, derided as 'more trouble than they are worth', or just forgotten entirely. As a result, I started to notice gaps in the current representation of the history of electronic and electrical technology to the interested member of the public.


Following this idea around a bit, convinced me that a collection of the peculiar alone could not hope to survive on its own merits, but a museum that gave equal display space to the popular and the unpopular, would bring things to the attention of the average person that he has previously passed by or been shielded from. It's a matter of culture. From this, the Obsolete Technology Tellye Web Museum concept developed and all my other things too. It's an open platform for all electrical Electronic TV technology to have its few, but NOT last, moments of fame in a working, hand-on environment. We'll never own Colossus or Faraday's first transformer, but I can show things that you can't see at the Science Museum, and let you play with things that the Smithsonian can't allow people to touch, because my remit is different.

There was a society once that was the polar opposite of our disposable, junk society. A whole nation was built on the idea of placing quality before quantity in all things. The goal was not “more and newer,” but “better and higher" .This attitude was reflected not only in the manufacturing of material goods, but also in the realms of art and architecture, as well as in the social fabric of everyday life. The goal was for each new cohort of children to stand on a higher level than the preceding cohort: they were to be healthier, stronger, more intelligent, and more vibrant in every way.

The society that prioritized human, social and material quality is a Winner. Truly, it is the high point of all Western civilization. Consequently, its defeat meant the defeat of civilization itself.

Today, the West is headed for the abyss. For the ultimate fate of our disposable society is for that society itself to be disposed of. And this will happen sooner, rather than later.

OLD, but ORIGINAL, Well made, Funny, Not remotely controlled............. and not Made in CHINA.

How to use the site:

- If you landed here via any Search Engine, you will get what you searched for and you can search more using the search this blog feature provided by Google. You can visit more posts scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year,
or you can click on the main photo-page to start from the main page. Doing so it starts from the most recent post to the older post simple clicking on the Older Post button on the bottom of each page after reading , post after post.

You can even visit all posts, time to time, when reaching the bottom end of each page and click on the Older Post button.

- If you arrived here at the main page via bookmark you can visit all the site scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year pointing were you want , or more simple You can even visit all blog posts, from newer to older, clicking at the end of each bottom page on the Older Post button.
So you can see all the blog/site content surfing all pages in it.

- The search this blog feature provided by Google is a real search engine. If you're pointing particular things it will search IT for you; or you can place a brand name in the search query at your choice and visit all results page by page. It's useful since the content of the site is very large.

Note that if you don't find what you searched for, try it after a period of time; the site is a never ending job !

Every CRT Television saved let revive knowledge, thoughts, moments of the past life which will never return again.........

Many contemporary "televisions" (more correctly named as displays) would not have this level of staying power, many would ware out or require major services within just five years or less and of course, there is that perennial bug bear of planned obsolescence where components are deliberately designed to fail and, or manufactured with limited edition specificities..... and without considering........picture......sound........quality........

..............The bitterness of poor quality is remembered long after the sweetness of todays funny gadgets low price has faded from memory........ . . . . . .....
Don't forget the past, the end of the world is upon us! Pretty soon it will all turn to dust!

Have big FUN ! !
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©2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 Frank Sharp - You do not have permission to copy photos and words from this blog, and any content may be never used it for auctions or commercial purposes, however feel free to post anything you see here with a courtesy link back, btw a link to the original post here , is mandatory.
All sets and apparates appearing here are property of
Engineer Frank Sharp. NOTHING HERE IS FOR SALE !

Sunday, July 29, 2012

ITT SCHAUB LORENZ IDEAL COLOR 1963 OSCAR 16 CHASSIS VIDOM 456809 INTERNAL VIEW.





































The ITT CHASSIS VIDOM 456809 is a semi modular chassis. The
VIDOM
D
iagnosesystem which stays for Voll Integriete Diagnose
Optische Messpunkte wich is a Completely Optical Integrated measurements Diagnose Sytstem introduces new technolgy approach in fault diagnosing.

The system has the target to help the specialized and trained technician to evaluate faults in logical way.

The diagnosing system is based on led lamps which are informing realtively to the functional status of some main points, even derived, around the chassis, giving further information during diagnosing faults.


Was first and last chassis from ITT(SEL) GRAETZ using the Thyristor technology in horizontal deflection ciruits instead transistors, and for that is quite rare and unique and was used even in some portable sets all of them only in 1977. ITT SCHAUB LORENZ IDEAL COLOR 1963 OSCAR 16 CHASSIS VIDOM 456809 UNITS:

- 426816C REGEL MODUL

- 426812 SYNCHRO MODUL ITT TDA9400

- 426807A VERTIKAL OSZILLATOR

- 420709A NF - SOUND AMPL TBA800.

- 430308A IF /ZF MODUL TBA1440 TBA120.

- 458507 VIDEO MODUL / LUM + CHROM.

 THE TBA800, TBA810 AUDIO integrated circuits:

AUDIO integrated circuits are being increasingly used in television chassis and certainly represent the simplest approach to improving the audio side of a TV set. A number of such i.c.s have appeared during the 70's.
Here describes the use of two fairly recent ones, the SGS-ATES TBA800 and TBA8I0S. Both devices can provide reasonably high outputs into a suitable loudspeaker-the TBA800 will give up to 5W and the TBA810S up to 7W.
The main difference between them being that the TBA800 is a somewhat higher voltage, lower current device. The TBA800 is used in the current Grundig and ASA 110° colour chassis while the Finlux 110' colour chassis uses a TBA810. In each of these chassis the audio i.c. is driven from a TBA120 intercarrier sound i.c. The TBA800 and TBA810S can also be used as the field output stage in 110' monochrome chassis with c.r.t.s of up to l7in. and as the field driver stage in larger screen monochrome sets.
The TBA800 is designed to provide up to 5W into a 16 Ohm load when operated from a 24V supply. It is encapsulated in the type cf quad -in -line case shown in Fig. I: the tabs at the centre are to assist in cooling the device and must be earthed. The TBA800 can be operated from power supply voltages up to the absolute maximum permissible value of 30V. It is best to regard 24V as being the upper limit however in order to provide an adequate safety margin and prevent possible damage during voltage surges. The minimum power supply voltage recommended by the manufacturers is 5V, but the power output is then less than 0-5W. The quiescent current taken by the TBA800 is typically 9mA from a 24V supply-no device of this type should draw more than 20mA. When an input signal is applied the current increases considerably- up to about 1.5A at full power. Two circuits for use with the TBA800 are shown in Figs. 2 and 3 and give comparable performance. The circuit shown in Fig. 2 is somewhat simpler but that
shown in Fig. 3 enables one side of the loudspeaker to be connected to chassis. The input resistance of the TBA800 is quite high (typically 5 MOhm) but a resistor must be connected between the input pin 8 and chassis otherwise the out- put stage will not operate with the correct bias. In the circuits shown the volume control VR1 provides this function: the bias current that flows through it is typically 1 microA (maximum 5 microA). The average voltage at the output pin 12 is half the supply potential. The loudspeaker must be capacitively coupled therefore and the low frequency response will be worse as this capacitor is decreased in value. The output coupling capacitor C4 in Fig. 2 also provides the bootstrap connection to pin 4. In Fig. 3 an additional capacitor (C9) is required for this purpose.
In both circuits the value of R1 controls the amount of feedback and thus the gain. The output signal is fed back to pin 6 via an internal 7 kOhm resistor. If R1 is reduced in value the gain will increase but the frequency response will be affected and the distortion will rise. With the component values shown the voltage gain of both circuits is typically 140 (43dB) which is quite adequate for most audio applications. R3 in Fig. 3 is necessary only if the power supply voltage is fairly low (less than about 14V).
C2 smooths the power supply input and C1 is connected between pin 1 and chassis to provide r.f. decoupling and help prevent instability. If mains hum is present on the supply line with the circuit shown in Fig. 3 capacitor C8 should be included between pin 7 and chassis. The circuits shown have a level frequency response (within ±3dB) between about 40Hz and 20kHz. If you wish to reduce the upper 3dB level to about 8kHz C5 can be increased to about 560pF. The total harmonic distortion provided by these circuits remains fairly constant at about 0.5% until the power output reaches 3W: it then rises rapidly with power level as shown in Fig. 4.
The TBA800 can be operated from a 13V supply to feed up to 2.5W into an 80 load or from a 17V supply to feed the same power into a 160 load without an additional heatsink. If more output power is required the cooling tabs must be connected to a heatsink. Two methods of mounting the TBA800 are shown in Figs. 5 and 6. In Fig. 5 the device is inserted into a circuit board and a heatsink is soldered to the same points as the tabs: this has the disadvantage that the heatsink extends above the board though on the other hand the whole board can be used for the construction of the circuit. In Fig. 6 the tabs are soldered directly to a suitable area of copper on the board: this method has the disadvantage that about two square inches of the board are not available for component mounting. It is generally best to make soldered connections to the pins of the device since this ensures good heat dissipation with minimum unwanted feedback. Observe the usual heat precautions when soldering. The pins can however be carefully bent so that they will fit into a 16 -pin dual -in -line socket.
The TBA810S has the same type of encapsulation as the TBA800 and the connections are also as shown in Fig. 1 except that there is no internal connection to pin 3. An alternative version, the TBA810AS, has two horizontal tabs with a hole in each (see Fig. 7) so that a heatsink can be bolted on. Some readers may find it easier to bolt a heatsink to a TBA810AS than to solder the TBA810S tabs. TBA810 devices can provide 7W of audio power to a 40 loudspeaker when operated from a I6V supply. Fig. 8 shows the change in maximum output power with different supply voltages. As a 4.5W output can be obtained with a 12V supply the TBA810 is much more suitable than the TBA800 for use with battery operated equipment. The TBA810 can provide output currents up to 2.5A.
Two circuits for use with TBA810 devices are shown in Figs. 9 and 10: they are very similar to the circuits shown in Figs. 2 and 3 though some of the capacitor values are larger because of the lower output impedance. The two circuits have comparable performance but that shown in Fig. 10 gives somewhat better results at low supply voltages (down to 4V). In either circuit R2 may be replaced with a 100k0 volume control. The bias current flowing in the pin 8 circuit is typically
0-4 microA and the input resistance 5M 0 (the value of R2 must be much less however to ensure correct bias.
 The gain decreases as the value of R1 is increased for the same reason as with the TBA800. The values of R1, C3 and C7 affect the high -frequency response. With the values shown the response is level within ±3dB from about 40Hz to nearly 20kHz. Fig. 11 shows values of C3 plotted against R1 where the frequency is 3dB down at 10kHz and 20kHz and C7 is five times C3. The output distortion with these circuits is about 0.3% for outputs up to 3W rising to about 1% at 4W, 3% at 5W and 9% at 6W with a 14.4V supply voltage. The voltage gain is typically 70 times (37dB). Although this value is half that obtained with the TBA800 the input voltage required to produce a given output power is about the same for both types. This is because a smaller output voltage is required to drive a 40 load at a certain power level than is required to drive a 160 load.

The TBA810S may be mounted in the same way as the TBA800. One way of mounting the TBA810AS is shown in Fig. 12. It is simpler however to bolt flat heatsinks to the tabs.
Devices of this type will be destroyed within a fraction of a second if the power supply is accidentally con- nected with reversed polarity. When experimenting therefore it is wise to include a diode in the positive power supply line to prevent any appreciable reverse current flowing in the event of incorrect power supply connection. The diode can be removed once the circuit has been finalised. The TBA800 is likely to be destroyed if the output is accidentally shorted to chassis. The TBA810S and TBA810AS however are protected from damage in the event of such a short-circuit even if this remains for a long time (but note that the earlier TBA8I0 and  TBA810A versions did not contain internal circuitry to provide this protection). The TBA800 is not protected against overheating but the TBA810S and TBA810AS incorporate a thermal shutdown circuit.
For this reason the heat- sinks used with the TBA810S and TBA810AS can have a smaller safety factor than those used with the TBA800. If the silicon chip in a TBA810S or TBA810AS becomes too hot the output power is temporarily reduced by the internal thermal shutdown circuit. As with all high -gain amplifiers great care should be taken to keep the input and output circuits well separated otherwise oscillation could occur. The de- coupling capacitors should be soldered close to the i.c. -especially the 0 1pF decoupling capacitor in the supply line (this should be close to pin I).
Field Output Circuit:
 Fig. 13 shows a suggested field output stage for monochrome receivers with 12-17in. 110° c.r.t.s using the TBA81OS. For safe working up to 50°C ambient temperature each tab of the device must be soldered to a square inch of copper on the board. The peak -to - peak scanning current is 1.5A, the power delivered to the scan coils 0.47W, power disspipation in the TBA810S 1 8W, scan signal amplitude 4.1V, flyback amplitude 5V and the maximum peak -to -peak current available in the coils 1.75A.

TDA2522 PAL TV CHROMA DEMODULATOR COMBINATION
FAIRCHILD LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT
GENERAL DESCRIPTION- The TDA2522 is a monolithic integrated circuit designed as
a synchronous demodulator for PAL color television receivers. It includes an 8,8 MHz
oscillator and divider to generate two 4.4 MHz reference signals and provides color difference outputs.
PACKAGE OUTLINE 9B

The TDA2522 is Intended to Interface directly with the TDA2560 with a minimum oF external components. The TDA2530 may be added if RGB drive is required. The TDA2522
is constructed using the Fairchild Planar* process.





TDA2560 LUMINANCE AND CHROMINANCE CONTROL COMBINATION
The TDA2560 is a monolithic integrated circuit for use in decoding systems of COLOR
television receivers. The circuit consists of a luminance and chrominance amplifier.
The luminance amplifier has a low input impedance so that matching of the luminance
delay line is very easy.
It also incorporates the following functions:
- d.c. contrast control;
- d.c. brightness control;
- black level clamp;
- blanking;
- additional video output with positive-going sync.
The chrominance amplifier comprises:
- gain controlled amplifier;
- chrominance gain control tracked with contrast control;
- separate d.c. saturation control:
- combined chroma and burst output, burst signal amplitude not affected by contrast and
saturation control;
- the delay line can be driven directly ‘by the IC.

APPLICATION INFORMATION (continued)
The function is quoted against the corresponding pin number
Balanced chrominance input signal (in conjunction with pin 2)
This is derived from the chrominance signal bandpass filter, designed to provide a
push-pull input. A signal amplitude of at least 4 mV peak-to-peak is required
between pins l and 2. The chrominance amplifier is stabilized by an external feedback
loop from the output (pin 6) to the input (pins I and 2). The required level at pins l
and 2 will be 3 V.
All figures for the chrominance signals are based on a colour bar signal with 75%
saturation: i.e. burst-to-chrominance ratio of input signal is 1 1 2.
Chrominance signal input (see pin 1)
A. C.C. input
A negative-going potential, starting at +l,2 V, gives a 40 dB range of a. c. c.
Maximum gain reduction is achieved at an input voltage of 500 mV.
Chrominance saturation control
A control range of +6 dB to >-14 dB is provided over a range of d. c. potential on
pin 4 from +2 to +4 V. The saturation control is a linear function of the control
voltage.
Negative supply (earth)
Chro minance signal output
For nominal settings of saturation and contrast controls (max. -6 dB for saturation,
and max. -3 dB for contrast) both the chroma' and burst are available at this pin, and
in the same ratio as at the input pins 1 and 2. The burst signal is not affected by the
saturation and contrast controls. The a.c. c. circuit of the TDA2522 will hold
constant the colour burst amplitude at the input of the TDA2522. As the PAL delay
line is situated here between the TDA256O and TDA2522 there may be some variation
of the nominal 1 V peak-to-peak burst output of the TDA2560, according to the
tolerances of the delay line. An external network is required from pin 6 of the
TDA256O to provide d. c. negative feedback in the chroma channel via pins I and 2.
Burst gating and clamping pulse input
A two-level pulse is required at this pin to be used for burst gate and black level
clamping. The black level clamp is activated when the pulse level is greater than
7 V. The timing of this interval should be such that no appreciable encroachment
occurs into the sync pulse on picture line periods during normal operation of the
receiver. The burst gate, which switches the gain of the chroma amplifier to
maximum, requires that the input pulse at pin 7 should be sufficiently wide, at least
8 ps, at the actuating level of 2,3 V.

+12 V power supply
Correct operation occurs within the range 10 to 14 V. All signal and control levels
have a linear dependency on supply voltage but, in any given receiver design, this
range may be restricted due to considerations of tracking between the power supply
variations and picture contrast and chroma levels.
Flyback blanking input waveform
This pin is used for blanking the luminance amplifier. When the input pulse exceeds
the +2, 5 Vlevel, the output signal is blanked to a level of about 0 V. When the input
exceeds a +6 V level, a fixed level of about 1, 5 V is inserted in the output. This
level can be used for clamping purposes.
Luminance sigal output
An emitter follower provides a low impedance output signal of 3 V black-to-white
amplitude at nominal contrast setting having a black level in the range 1 to 3 V. An
external emitter load resistor is not required.
The luminance amplitude available for nominal contrast may be modified according
to the resistor value from pin 13 to the +12 V supply. At an input bias current
114 of 0,25 mA during black level the amplifier is compensated so that no black
level shift more than 10 mV occurs at contrast control. When the input current
deviates from the quoted value the black level shift amounts to 100 mV/rnA.
Brightness control
The black level at the luminance output (pin 10) is identical to the control voltage
required at this pin, A range of black level from l to 3 V may be obtained.
Black level clamp capacitor
Luminance gain setting resistor
The gain of the luminance amplifier may be adjusted by selection of the resistor
value from pin 13 to +12 V. Nominal luminance output amplitude is then 3 V
black-to-white at pin 10 when this resistor is 2, 7.
TDA2530 RGB MATRIX PREAMPLIFIER
The TDA2530 is an integrated RGB -matrix preamplifier for colour television receivers,
incorporating a matrix preamplifier for RGB cathode drive of the picture tube with
clamping circuits. The three channels have the same layout to ensure identical frequency
behaviour.
This integrated circuit has been designed to be driven from the TDA2522 Synchronous
demodulator and oscillator IC.









TDA9400, Line Circuits for TV Receivers (18-Pin Plastic Package)
These integrated circuits are advanced versions of the well-known types TDA1940, TDA1940F, TDA1950 and TDA1950F are identical
TBA940/950, TDA9400/9500 etc. integrated line oscillator circuits. except the following: at pin 2 the types having the suffix "F" supply ,
They comprise all stages for sync separation and line synchronisation horizontal output pulses of longer duration compared with the basic I
in TV receivers in one single silicon chip. Due to their high degree of types Integration, the number of external components is very small.
This integrated circuit contains the horizontal sweep generator (HO), the amplitude filter (AS), the sync-signal separating circuit (SA) and the frequency/phase comparator (FP). For the purpose of suppressing noise pulses which are caused via the operating voltage during the upper and the lower inversion point of the horizontal sweep generator (HO) which contains a single capacitor (C) and a first threshold stage circuit (SS1) with two fixed thresholds, there are provided a second and a third threshold stage circuit (SS2, SS3), to the inputs of which the sawtooth signal is applied, and with the thresholds thereof, approximately 2 μs prior to reaching the upper or the lower peak value of the sawtooth signal, are being passed through thereby. The output signal of the second threshold circuit (SS2) and the output signal of the third threshold stage circuit (SS3) which is applied via the pulse shaper circuit (IF), are superimposed linearly and, via the stopper circuit (blocking stage) (SP) serve to control the application of the composite video signal (BAS) to the amplitude filter (AS), or else they are applied to a clamping circuit which serves to apply the operating points of the amplitude filter (AS) and/or of the sync-signal separating circuit (SA) to such a potential that these two stages, for the time duration of these output pulses, are prevented from operating.
1. An integrated circuit for color television receivers, comprising a voltage- or current-controlled horizontal sweep generator (HO), an amplitude filter (AS), a synchronizing-signal separating circuit (SA) and a frequency/phase comparator (FP) which serves to synchronize the horizontal sweep generator (HO), with said generator being a sawtooth generator containing a single capacitor
(C) and a first threshold stage circuit (SS1) having two fixed thresholds, said integrated circuit further comprising:
a second and a third threshold stage circuit (SS2, SS3) each being supplied with the sawtooth signal on the input side, comprising each time one threshold which, approximately 2μs prior to the reaching of the upper or the lower peak value of the sawtooth signal, is being passed thereby;
a pulse shaper circuit (IF) coupled to the output of said third threshold stage circuit (SS3) which pulse shaper circuit reduces the duration of the output pulse thereof to about the duration of the output pulse of said second threshold stage circuit (SS2), and
a stopper circuit (blocking stage) (SP) coupled to the outputs of both said pulse shaper circuit (IF) and said second threshold stage circuit (SS2), said stopper circuit having a signal input to which there is applied a composite video signal (BAS) and a signal output which is coupled to the input of said amplitude filter (AS).


2. The invention of claim 1 wherein the outputs of both said pulse shaper circuit (IF) and said second threshold stage circuit (SS2) are coupled to a clamping circuit which applies the operating points of said amplitude filter (AS) and said sync-separating signal (SA) to such a potential that they are prevented from operating.

3. An integrated horizontal sweep circuit comprising:
a generator for generating a sawtooth signal;
an amplitude filter having an input for receiving a composite video signal and having an output;
a sync-signal separating circuit having an input coupled to said amplitude filter output and having an output;
a frequency/phase comparator having a first input coupled to said separating circuit output,
a second input receiving said sawtooth signal and an output for controlling said generator; and
a control circuit responsive to said sawtooth signal for inhibiting said composite video signal when said sawtooth signal is within predetermined signal level ranges about the upper and lower inversion points of said sawtooth signal.


4. An integrated circuit in accordance with claim 3 wherein:
said generator comprises a capacitor, circuit means for charging and discharging said capacitor, and a first threshold circuit controlling said circuit means in response to said sawtooth signal reaching a first level corresponding to said first inversion point and a second level corresponding to said second inversion point.


5. An integrated horizontal sweep circuit comprising:
a sawtooth signal generator;
an amplitude filter having an input receiving a composite video signal and having an output;
a sync-signal separating circuit having an input coupled to said amplitude filter output and having an output;
a frequency/phase comparator having a first input coupled to said separating circuit output, a second input receiving said sawtooth signal and an output for controlling said generator; and
a control circuit responsive to said sawtooth signal for inhibiting operation of said amplitude filter and/or said sync-signal separating circuit when said sawtooth signal is within predetermined signal level ranges about the upper and lower inversion point of said sawtooth signal.


6. An integrated circuit in accordance with claim 5 wherein:
said generator comprises a capacitor, circuit means for charging and discharging said capacitor and a first threshold circuit controlling said circuit means in response to said sawtooth signal reaching a first level corresponding to said first inversion point and a second level corresponding to said second inversion point.


Description:
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The invention relates to an integrated circuit for (color) television receivers, comprising a voltage- or current-controlled horizontal-sweep generator, an amplitude filter, a synchronizing signal separating circuit (sync-separator) and a frequency/phase comparator which serves to synchronize the horizontal sweep generator which is a sawtooth generator consisting of a single capacitor and of a first threshold stage having two fixed switching thresholds, cf. preamble of the patent claim. Such types of integrated circuits, for example, are known from the technical journal "Elektronik aktuell", 1976, No. 2, pp. 7 to 14 where they are referred to as TDA 9400 and TDA 9500.
Especially on account of the fact that the amplitude filter as well as the horizontal sweep generator in the form of the aforementioned sawtooth generator, are integrated on a single semiconductor body, it is likely that noise interference pulses coming from the individual stages, and via the supply voltage line, may have a disturbing influence upon the horizontal sweep generator, i.e. upon the threshold stage thereof, in such a way that either the lower or the upper or successively both switching thresholds are exceeded before the time by the voltage at the capacitor, owing to the noise superposition, so that the generator will show to have a "wrong" frequency or phase position. This frequency/phase variation, of course, is compensated for by the circuit, with the aid of the synchronzing pulses, but only in such a way that the noise effect remains visible in the television picture.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
The invention is characterized in the claim is aimed at overcoming this drawback by solving the problem of designing an integrated circuit of the type described in greater detail hereinbefore, in such a way that noise pulses acting upon the capacitor voltage or the internal reference voltages for the switching thresholds (see below) in the proximity of the two switching thresholds, are prevented from having the described disadvantageous effect. Accordingly, an advantage of the invention results directly from solving the given problem.
Other objects, features and advantages of the present invention will become more fully apparent from the following detailed description of the preferred embodiment, the appended claims and the accompanying drawing in which:
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
The invention will now be described in greater detail with reference to the accompanying drawing. This drawing, in the form of a schematical circuit diagram, shows the construction of an integrated circuit according to the invention.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
T
he horizontal sweep generator HO comprises the capacitor C as connected to the zero point of the circuit, and which is charged and discharged via the two shown constant current sources CS1 and CS2, thus causing the intended sawtooth voltage to appear thereat. Moreover, the horizontal sweep generator HO comprises the first threshold stage circuit SS1, having an upper and a lower threshold. As soon as the capacitor voltage exceeds one of the thresholds, the first threshold stage circuit SS1 switches over to the other threshold. The two thresholds are defined by the voltage divider P as connected to the operating voltage U, and in which the corresponding threshold inputs are connected to corresponding tapping points. The output of the threshold stage circuit SS1 controls the electronic switch S, so that the constant current source CS2 as connected thereto, is either disconnected from or connected to the zero point of the circuit. Accordingly, in the disconnected state, the capacitor C is charged via the constant current source CS1 arranged in series therewith while in the connected state the capacitor C is discharged across the aforementioned constant current source CS2 arranged in parallel therewith, if, as a matter of fact, the current of the constant current source CS1 arranged in series with the capacitor C, is smaller than that of the parallel-arranged constant current source CS2.
Now, for the purpose of avoiding the aforementioned drawbacks, there is provided a second and a third threshold stage circuit SS2 and SS3, respectively, as well as the pulse shaper circuit IF. To the respective input of the two threshold stage circuits SS2, SS3, there is applied the capacitor voltage, in the form of the sawtooth signal, and these stages have a threshold voltage which, approximately 2 μs prior to the reaching of the upper or the lower peak value of the sawtooth voltage, is being passed thereby. This means to imply that the threshold voltage of the second threshold stage circuit SS2 is somewhat lower than the voltage of the upper threshold of the first threshold stage circuit SS1, and that the threshold voltage of the third threshold stage circuit SS3 is somewhat higher than the voltage of the lower threshold of the first threshold stage circuit SS1. The two thresholds of the threshold stage circuits SS2, SS3 can thus be realized in a simple way by providing further tapping points at the voltage divider P, as is shown in the accompanying drawing. Thus, the second threshold stage circuit SS2 is provided for at a voltage divider tapping point below the tapping point chosen for the upper threshold, and the tapping point for the third threshold stage circuit SS3 is provided for above the tapping point which has been chosen for the lower threshold of the first threshold stage circuit SS1.
Since, within the area of the lower inversion point of the sawtooth signal there results an excessively wide output pulse of the third threshold stage circuit SS3, the pulse shaper circuit IF is arranged subsequently thereto, for reducing the duration of the output pulse as applied to its input, to about the duration of the output pulse of the second threshold stage circuit SS2. This pulse shaper circuit IF, for example, may be realized by a monoflop, in particular by a digital monoflop (=monostable circuit).
The output pulses of the second threshold stage circuit SS2 and of the pulse shaper circuit IF are then super-positioned linearly, with this being denoted in the drawing by a simple interconnection of the two respective lines. The combined signal is applied to the input of the stopper circuit (blocking stage) SP, to the signal input of which there is fed the composite video signal BAS, and the output thereof controls both the amplitude filter AS and the synchronizing signal separating circuit SA.
The combined signal may also be used to control a clamping circuit applying the operating points of the amplitude filter AS and/or of the sync-signal-separating circuit SA to such a potential which prevents it from operating.
If now the sawtooth signal reaches the range of its upper or its lower inversion point, the composite video signal BAS is not applied to either the amplitude filter AS or the sync-signal separating circuit SA, so that shortly before and shortly after the inversion points, signals are prevented from being processed in the two stages AS, SA. This, in turn, has the consequence that during these times noise pulses are prevented from superimposing upon the operating voltage U, so that there is also prevented an unintended triggering of the first threshold stage circuit SS1.
Moreover, it is still shown in the drawing that the amplitude filter AS, the sync-signal separating circuit SA and the frequency/phase comparator FP are arranged in series in terms of signal flow, with the latter, in addition, receiving the sawtooth signal, and with the output signal thereof acting upon the two current sources in a regulating sense. In the drawing, this is indicated by the setting arrows at the two current sources.
While the present invention has been disclosed in connection with the preferred embodiment thereof, it should be understood that there may be other embodiments which fall within the spirit and scope of the invention as defined by the following claims.

ITT SCHAUB LORENZ IDEAL COLOR 1963 OSCAR 16 CHASSIS VIDOM 456809 ULTRASONIC REMOTE CONTROL RECEIVER :



An ultrasonic remote control receiver wherein an incoming ultrasonic signal is converted to square wave pulses of the same frequency by a Schmitt trigger circuit; digital circuits are thereafter used to count pulses resulting from the incoming signal over a predetermined period of time; a decoder activates one of a plurality of outputs in dependance to the number of pulses counted, provision is made to prevent interference signals from producing undesired control outputs.



1. An ultrasonic remote control receiver for applying a control signal to a selected one of a plurality of control channels in response to and dependent on the frequency of a received ultrasonic signal comprising:

2. An ultrasonic remote control receiver comprising:

3. An ultrasonic remote control receiver comprising:

4. The ultrasonic remote control receiver as defined in claim 3, wherein said means producing square pulses is a Schmitt trigger circuit and said means providing a signal input to said sequence controller is a retriggerable monostable multivibrator.

5. An ultrasonic remote control receiver comprising:

6. An ultrasonic remote control receiver comprising:

7. An ultrasonic remote control receiver as defined in claim 6 further comprising a monostable multivibrator between the output of said Schmitt trigger circuit and the remaining elements of said receiver.

8. An ultrasonic remote control receiver as defined in claim 6 further comprising a bistable multivibrator between the output of said Schmitt trigger circuit and the remaing elements of said receiver.

9. The ultrasonic remote control receiver as defined in claim 7 wherein the hold period of said monostable multivibrator is slightly less than one half the period of said square wave pulses from said Schmitt trigger circuit.

Description:
The invention relates to an ultrasonic remote control receiver for receiving signals having different useful frequencies each associated with a channel, comprising a plurality of outputs which are each associated with one of the channels and from which a control signal is emitted on receipt of a signal having the corresponding useful frequency.

To obtain the simplest possible transmitter construction in ultrasonic remote control, modulation of the emitted ultrasonic frequencies is not employed; to control different operations different frequencies are emitted which must be recognized in the receiver and evaluated for carrying out the different functions associated therewith. Presently, to recognize the different frequencies, use is made of resonant circuits, each of which contains one or more coils tuned in each case together with a capacitor to one of the useful frequencies.

These hitherto known receivers have numerous disadvantages. Thus, for example, before starting operation of the receiver a time-consuming alignment procedure must be carried out with which the resonant frequencies of the individual resonant circuits are set. Since it is inevitable that with time the resonant circuits become detuned, it may be necessary to repeat the alignment procedure.

A further disadvantage is that the known receivers cannot be made by integrated techniques because the coils used therein are not suitable for such techniques.

The problem underlying the invention is thus to provide an ultrasonic remote control receiver of the type mentioned at above which is extremely simple to set and in addition can be made by integrated techniques.

To solve this problem, according to the invention an ultrasonic remote control receiver of the type mentioned above contains a counter for counting the useful frequency oscillations received during a fixed measuring time, a sequence control device which determines the measuring time and which is started on receipt of a useful frequency, and a decoder comprising several outputs which is connected to the outputs of the counter, said decoder emitting a control signal at the output associated with the count reached at the end of the measuring time.

In the receiver constructed according to the invention the frequency emitted by the transmitter is identified by counting the oscillations received during a measuring time. The evaluation of the count reached at the end of the measuring time takes place in a decoder which emits a control signal at a certain output according to the count. The measuring time is fixed by a sequence control device which is set in operation on receipt of useful frequency signals.

In such a receiver the only quantity which has to be exactly fixed is the measuring time; it is therefore no longer necessary to align components to certain frequencies. Since no coils are required, the novel receiver can also be made up of integrated circuits.

A further development of the invention resides in that an interference identifying device is provided which on receipt of interference frequencies differing from the useful frequencies interrupts the operation of the sequence control device.

Hitherto known ultrasonic remote control receivers respond to any oscillation received if the frequency thereof has a value which excites a resonant circuit in the receiver. There is no way of distinguishing between oscillations received from the remote control transmitter and from interference sources.

Interfering ultrasonic oscillations may be due to many different causes. For example, noises such as hand clapping, rattling of short keys such as safety keys, operating cigarette lighters, rattling of crockery and the like cover a frequency spectrum reaching from the audio frequency range far into the ultrasonic region. The ultrasonic components may have the effect of simulating a useful frequency and cause an erroneous function in the receiver.

The interference identifying device according to the further development is constructed in such a manner that it recognizes oscillations having frequencies deviating from the useful frequencies and as a result of this recognition switches off the sequence control device. This switching off prevents the counter state reached from being passed to the decoder and consequently the latter cannot emit an erroneous control signal.

With this further development of the ultrasonic remote control receiver the operation of equipment such as radio and television sets is made extremely reliable and interference-free. During the operation of such a set it is no longer possible for the remote control to become operative, triggered by interference noises, eliminating for example the possibility of unintentional program or volume changes.

Examples of embodiment of the invention are illustrated in the drawings, wherein:

FIG. 1 shows a block circuit diagram of a remote control receiver according to the invention;

FIG. 2 is a diagram explaining the mode of operation of the circuit according to FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 shows another embodiment of the invention;

FIG. 4 is a diagram explaining the mode of operation of the circuit according to FIG. 3;

FIG. 5 is a diagram illustrating interference frequency identification in the circuit according to FIG. 3;

FIG. 6 shows a block circuit diagram of another embodiment of part of the circuit according to FIG. 3;

FIG. 7 is a diagram explaining the mode of operation of the embodiment according to FIG. 6;

FIG. 8 is a block circuit diagram of a further embodiment of a part of the circuit according to FIG. and, an

FIG. 9 is a diagram explaining the mode of operation of the embodiment according to FIG. 8.

The ultrasonic remote control receiver shown in FIG. 1 comprises an input 1 which is connected to an ultrasonic microphone intended to receive ultrasonic signals coming from a remote control transmitter. For each function to be performed by the receiver the remote control transmitter emits one of several unmodulated different useful frequencies which are spaced from each other a constant channel spacing Δ f and which all lie within a useful frequency band.

To obtain a signal which is as free as possible from noise at the input 1, a band filter and a limiting amplifier are preferably incorporated between the ultrasonic microphone and the input 1. The band filter may be made up of two active filters whose resonant frequencies are offset with respect to each other so that a pass band curve in the useful frequency band is obtained which is as flat as possible.

The input 1 leads to a Schmitt trigger 2 which converts the electrical signal applied thereto with the frequency of the ultrasonic signal to a sequence of rectangular pulses. The output 3 of the Schmitt trigger 2 is connected to the input 6 of a frequency divider 7 which is in operation for the duration of a control pulse applied to its control input 8 and divides the recurrence frequency of the pulses supplied thereto at the input 6 thereof in a constant division ratio. The output 9 of the frequency divider 7 is connected to the input 10 of a counter 11 which counts the pulses coming from the frequency divider 7. The counter 11 is a four-stage binary counter whose stage outputs are connected to the inputs of a store (register) 12 which is so constructed that on application of a control pulse to the input 12 thereof it takes on the counter state in the counter 11 and stores said counter state until the next pulse at the input 13. The stage outputs of the store 12 are fed to the inputs of a decoder 14 which decodes the counter state contained in the store 12 in such a manner that a control signal is emitted at that one of its outputs D0 to D9 which is associated with the decoded counter state.

The output 3 of the Schmitt trigger 2 is also connected to the input 4 of a monoflop 5 which is brought into its operating state by each pulse at the output 3 of the Schmitt trigger. It returns from this operating state to its quiescent state after expiration of a hold time depending on its intrinsic time constant if it does not receive a new pulse prior to expiration of this hold time. It is held in the operating state by each pulse received during the hold time until it finally flops back into the quiescent state when the interval between two successive pulses is greater than its hold time.

The output 15 of the monoflop circuit 5 is connected to the input 16 of a sequence control device 17 which is set in operation by the signal emitted in the operating state of the monoflop 5. Supplied to the sequence control device by 17 via a Schmitt trigger 18 at a control input 19 are pulses having a recurrence frequency derived from oscillations of the same frequency, for example, twice the mains frequency of 100 c/s, applied to the input 20. The sequence control device 17 is so constructed that in a cyclically recurring sequence in time with the pulses supplied to it at the input 19 it emits pulses at the outputs 21, 22 and 23 whose duration is equal to the period of the oscillation applied to the input 20. The output 21 of the sequence control device 17 is connected to the control input 8 of the frequency divider 7, the output 22 is connected to the control input 13 of the store 12 and the output 23 thereof is connected to the reset input 24 of the counter 11.

The mode of operation of the circuit of FIG. 1 will now be explained with the aid of the diagram of FIG. 2 which shows the variation with time of the signals at the output 3 of the Schmitt trigger 2 and at the inputs 16 and 19 as well as the outputs 21, 22 and 23 of the sequence control device 17.

It will be assumed that a useful frequency oscillation is being received at the input 1. The Schmitt trigger 2 then emits at the output 3 rectangular pulses whose recurrence frequency is equal to the frequency of said useful frequency oscillation. The first pulse emitted by the Schmitt trigger 2 puts the monoflop 5 into its operating state. The hold time of the monoflop 5 is so dimensioned that for all useful frequencies occurring it is longer than the recurrence period of the rectangular pulses emitted at the output 3. The monoflop 5 therefore remains in its operating state for as long as the useful frequency oscillation is applied to the input 1 and supplies to the control input 16 of the sequence control device 17 a control signal throughout this time.

Due to the control signal applied to the input 16 the sequence control device 17 emits at its outputs 21, 22 and 23 in time with the pulses supplied to it via the Schmitt trigger 18 at the input 19 mutually offset control pulse sequences, the duration of the control pulses being equal to the time interval of the leading edges of the pulses supplied at the input 19 and thus equal to the period of the oscillation applied to the input 20 and the pulse sequences being offset with respect to each other by one pulse duration. The control pulses emitted by the sequence control device 17 perform the following functions:

a. The first control pulse appearing at the output 21 sets in operation for its duration via the input 8 the frequency divider 7 so that the latter divides the recurrence frequency of the pulses supplied thereto from the Schmitt trigger 2 and thus the frequency of the useful frequency oscillations received in a constant ratio and passes counting pulses to the input 10 of the counter 11 with a correspondingly reduced recurrence frequency.

b. Via the input 13 the second pulse occurring at the output 22 causes the store 12 to take on and to store the count of the counter 11 reached at the end of the first control pulse.

c. The third control pulse appearing at the output 23 resets the counter 11 via the reset input 24.

COntrol pulse sequences continue to be emitted for as long as the monoflop 5 remains in its operating state.

Since the stage outputs of the store 12 are permanently connected to the inputs of the decoder 14, the store content is continuously being decoded. The decoder 14 therefore emits a control signal at the output which is associated with the count contained in the store.

During each group of three offset control pulses of the three control pulse sequences emitted by the sequence control device 17, the counter 11 receives counting pulses from the frequency divider 8 only for the duration of the control pulse of the first control pulse sequence emitted at the output 21. The duration of this control pulse thus determines the measuring time during which the oscillations of the useful frequency signal received are counted. Since the duration of the control pulses emitted by the sequence control device 17 is however equal to the period of the oscillation applied to the input 20, the measuring time is fixed by the period of said oscillation.

The frequency divider 7 is connected in front of the counter 11 so that a small capacity of the counter 11 is sufficient to obtain a clear indication of the received frequency even when the measuring time is so long that a large number of periods of the useful frequency oscillation is received during the measuring time. This is for example, the case when the oscillation supplied to the input 20 has twice the mains frequency. Since the frequency divider 7 divides the frequency of the useful frequency oscillations received in the constant ratio k, the counter 11 need count only the oscillations having a correspondingly reduced frequency. If the division ratio k of the divider 7 is so set that it is equal to the product of the measuring time t and channel spacing Δ f, only a frequency which differs by at least the channel spacing Δ f from a previously received frequency will change the count of the counter 11.

The purpose of the monoflop 5 is to prevent interference frequencies supplied to the input 1 from producing at one of the outputs D0 to D9 of the decoder 14 a control signal which could lead to an erroneous function of the equipment being controlled. The interference sources usually encountered emit a frequency spectrum whose components lie predominantly in the audio region, i.e., below the ultrasonic region. If the hold time of the monoflop 5 is set to a value slightly greater than the period of the smallest useful frequency but smaller than the period of the highest interference frequency occurring, the monoflop 5 returns to its quiescent state before the end of the period of an interference frequency. Since in this state no signal is supplied to the control input 16 of the sequence control device 17, the latter is put out of operation and consequently the received signal cannot be evaluated because the count of the counter 11 is not transferred to the store 12 and thus no decoding takes place.

To facilitate understanding of the invention, the function of the circuit of FIG. 1 will now be explained numerically by way of example. The channel spacing Δ f will be taken as 1,200 c/s so that for a frequency of 100 c/s of the oscillation applied to the input 20 and thus a measuring time of 10 ms a division ratio of the frequency divider 7 of k = t . Δf = 12 results. It will further be assumed that ten different channel frequencies are to be evaluated; the counter 11 is therefore so connected that it has a capacity of 10. With these values, during the measuring time the counter 11 runs through several count cycles. This means that for the received frequency during the measuring time the counter 11 reaches its maximum count several times and then starts counting again from the beginning. The count reached at the end of the measuring time is however still a clear indication of the received useful frequency provided the number of useful frequencies having a channel spacing Δf is at the most equal to the counter capacity Z. The relationship between the useful frequency f received and the count reached at the end of each measuring time t while this useful frequency is being received is expressed by the following equation:

f = (k/t) . (n . Z + m + 0.5)

wherein

f = useful frequency received in c/s

t = measuring time in seconds

k = division ratio of the frequency divider 7

Z = capacity of the counter 11

n = number of count cycles passed through (integral)

m = count

The term 0.5 in brackets is a correction factor which ensures that a new count is reached whenever the received frequency differs at least by half the channel spacing Δf from the channel center frequency of the neighboring channel. With a channel spacing Δ of 1,200 c/s, a measuring time t of 10 ms, a division ratio k of the frequency divider 7 of 12, a capacity Z of the counter 11 of 10 and an input frequency f of 33 k c/s, the count 7 is for example reached after two complete count cycles. This is because the input frequency of 33 k c/s is first divided by 12 by the frequency divider 7 so that pulses having a recurrence frequency of 2.750 k c/s reach the input 10 of the counter 11. Since the frequency divider 7 emits counting pulses only during the measuring time of 10 ms, during said time only 27.5 pulses reach the input 10 of the counter 11. For this number of pulses the counter thus runs through two complete cycles and finally stops at the count 7. Similarly, for an input frequency of 39 k c/s the counter stops at the count 2 after passing through three complete counter cycles. With the numerical values given up to 10 different frequencies may be received without any ambiguity occurring in the evaluation.

FIG. 3 illustrates a further embodiment of an ultrasonic remote control receiver which differs from the embodiment described above primarily in that to fix the measuring time it is not necessary to supply a reference frequency. In the illustration of FIG. 3 the same reference numerals as in FIG. 1 are used for identical circuit components. The part of the circuit enclosed in the dashed line represents the sequence control device 17' which emits at its outputs 21', 22', 23' control signals which have substantially the same functions as the control signals emitted at the outputs 21, 22 and 23 of the sequence control device 17 of FIG. 1.

The useful frequency signal received is again supplied to the input 1. The input 1 is connected to the input of the Schmitt trigger 2 which again converts the input useful frequency oscillations into a sequence of pulses whose recurrence frequency is equal to the input useful frequency. The output 3 of the Schmitt trigger 2 is connected to the input B1 of a monoflop 25 which is contained in the sequence control device 17' and which is so constructed that it is switched to its operating state by a pulse received at the input B1 but during its hold time cannot be tripped again by any further pulse. The output 3 of the Schmitt trigger 2 is also connected to the input 26 of an AND gate 27 whose other input 28 is connected to that output 21' of the sequence control device 17' which is directly connected to the output Q1 of the monoflop 25. The output Q1 of the monoflop 25 which emits the signal complementary to the signal at the output Q1 is connected to the input B2 of a further monoflop 29 whose output Q2 is connected to the input A1 of the monoflop 25. The input 10 of the counter 11 is connected to the output of the AND gate 27. The stage outputs of the counter 11 are connected to the inputs of a gate circuit 30 which on receipt of a control pulse at its input 31 transfers the count contained in the counter 11 to the decoder 14 connected to its outputs. In the decoder 14 the count is then decoded in the manner already explained in conjunction with FIG. 1 so that a control signal is emitted at the output corresponding to the transferred count.

The output 3 of the Schmitt trigger 2 is further connected to the input 32 of an AND gate 33 which is contained in the sequence control circuit 17' and the other input 34 of which is connected to the output of a NOR gate 35. The output Q1 of the monoflop 25 is directly connected to one input 36 of the NOR gate 35 and is connected to the other input 37 via a delay member 38 and an inverter 39.

The output of the AND gate 33 represents the output 22' of the sequence control circuit 17' which is directly connected to the control input 31 of the gate circuit 30. In addition, the output of the AND gate 33 is directly connected to one input 40 of a NOR gate 41 and to the other input 42 thereof via a delay member 43 and an inverter 44. The output of the NOR gate 41 represents the output 23' of the sequence control circuit 17', to which output the reset input 24 of the counter 11 is connected.

The mode of operation of the circuit of FIG. 3 is explained in FIG. 4. Since the measuring time in the arrangement of FIG. 3 is substantially shorter than in the arrangement of FIG. 1, the time scale in FIG. 4 has been enlarged compared with FIG. 2 in order to clarify the illustration. When useful frequency oscillations are supplied to the input 1 of the receiver, pulses whose recurrence frequency is equal to the useful frequency appear at the output 3 of the Schmitt trigger 2. It will be assumed that the presence of a pulse corresponds to the logical signal value 1 whereas a pulse space represents the logical signal value 0. The leading edge of the first pulse at the output 3 puts the monoflop 25 into its operating state in which it emits the signal value 1 for the duration of its hold time at its output Q1, resulting in the control pulse at the output 21', which passes to the input 28 of the AND gate 27. Since the other input 26 of the AND gate 27 is directly connected to the output 3 of the Schmitt trigger 2, for the duration of each pulse at the output 3 the signal value 1 is also applied to the input 26 of the AND gate 27. Thus, the pulses occurring at the output 3 of the Schmitt trigger 2 are transferred for the duration of the control pulse at the output 21', i.e. during the hold time of the monoflop 25, as count pulses to the counter 11 and counted by the latter. The hold time of the monoflop 25 thus determines the measuring time; the capacity of the counter 11 must be greater than the number of pulses received during the measuring time for the greatest useful frequency. The count of the counter 11 reached at the end of the measuring time is then a clear indication of the received useful frequency.

When the monoflop 25 flops back into the quiescent state at the end of its hold time, it applies the signal value 0 via its output Q1 to the input 28 of the AND gate 27 so that no further count pulses can enter the counter 11. At the same time there appears at the output Q1 of the monoflop 25 the signal value 1 which at the input B2 puts the monoflop 29 into the operating state. In this state the monoflop 29 emits at its output Q2 the signal value 1 which blocks the monoflop 25 via the input A1 for the duration of the hold time of the monoflop 29 in such a manner that it cannot be switched into the operating state by pulses at the input B1. This is necessary to enable the sequence control device 17' to have sufficient time to generate the control pulses appearing at the outputs 22' and 23' for the transfer of the count or resetting of the counter.

With the return of the monoflop 25 to its quiescent state, the signal value 0 passes to the input 26 of the NOR gate 35 directly connected to the output Q1. During the operating state of the monoflop 25 the signal value 0 is applied with a delay determined by the delay member 38 via the inverter 39 to the input 37 of the NOR gate 35, said signal value 0 being replaced by the signal value 1 only after the delay time of the delay member 38 and not simultaneously with the flop back of the monoflop 25. Thus, for the duration of this delay time the signal value 0 is applied to both inputs 36 and 37 of the NOR gate 35 and consequently for this period of time the signal value 1 appears at the output of the NOR gate 35. The circuits 35, 38, 39 thus effect the generation of a short pulse which immediately follows the return of the monoflop 25 and the duration of which is determined by the delay of the delay member 38. This pulse is applied to the input 34 of the AND gate 33 (FIG. 4). The same effect could obviously alternatively be obtained with a monoflop which is tripped by the signal at the output Q1 changing from the value 1 to the value 0.

Now, if during this time a pulse is emitted at the output 3 of the Schmitt trigger 2, i.e., a signal value 1 is at the input 32 of the AND gate 33, said gate supplies to the control input 31 of the gate circuit 30 a control pulse for the duration of the delay of the delay member 38. This control pulse opens the gate circuit so that it allows the count reached at the end of the hold time of the monoflop 25 to pass to the decoder 14. The latter then emits a control signal at the output associated with this count. The signal value 1 present at the output of the AND gate 33 during the delay of the delay member 38 also passes directly to the input 40 of the NOR gate 41, at the other input 42 of which the signal value 0 is applied for the duration of the same pulse but with a delay determined by the delay member 43. Thus, in a manner similar to the circuits 35, 38, 39 the circuits 41, 43, 44 produce a short pulse which immediately follows the end of the output pulse of the AND gate 33 and appears at the output 23' of the sequence control circuit and is applied to the reset input 24 of the counter 11 (FIG. 4). This pulse resets the counter 11.

The hold time of the monoflop 29 is so set that it flops back into its quiescent state again only when the transfer process from the counter to the decoder via the gate circuit and the resetting of the counter has been effected. When the monoflop 29 returns to its quiescent state, it emits at its output Q2 the signal value 0 which brings the monoflop 25 via the input A1 thereof into such a condition that it can again be brought into its operating state by a pulse at the output 3 of the Schmitt trigger 2. In this manner the measuring and evaluating periods can be repeated for as long as useful frequency oscillations are supplied to the input 1.

In the circuit according to FIG. 3, interference frequencies are suppressed by setting a certain hold time of the monoflop 25. It is apparent from the above description of the function that the transfer of the count of the counter 11 to the decoder 14 takes place immediately following the end of the hold time of the monoflop 25, i.e., immediately following the end of the measuring time. However, a control signal initiating the transfer can be applied by the AND gate 33 to the control input 31 of the gate circuit 30 only when simultaneously with the end of the measuring time a pulse, i.e., the signal value 1, is present at the output 3 of the Schmitt trigger 2. Now, if the hold time of the monoflop 25 is made equal to the reciprocal of the channel spacing Δf, this coincidence at the AND gate 33 at the end of the measuring time occurs only when quite definite frequencies are applied to the input 1; these frequencies lie only within frequency bands which in the example described here, in which the output pulses of the Schmitt trigger 2 have a pulse duty factor of 1:2, have the width of half a channel spacing. These frequency bands each contain one of the useful frequencies. Between these frequency bands there are gaps having the width of half the channel frequency and frequencies falling in these gaps do not produce coincidence at the AND gate 33 and consequently cannot be evaluated by transfer of the count of the counter 11 to the decoder 14. Thus, frequency windows are formed over the entire frequency range which can occur at the input 1 and only frequencies lying within these windows are treated by the circuit according to FIG. 3 as useful frequencies. All intermediate frequencies are recognized as interference frequencies and excluded from evaluation.

If the measuring time is made exactly equal to the reciprocal of the channel spacing the frequency bands in which evaluation takes place are such that the rated frequencies of the signals transmitted by the transmitter are disposed at the lower end of the frequency bands. Thus, in this case only frequencies starting from a rated frequency in each case and extending up to the frequency in the center between two channels would be evaluated as useful frequencies. Since the frequency of the signals emitted by the transmitter can however also fluctuate below the rated frequency, it is desirable to place the frequency bands in which evaluation takes place so that the rated frequencies lie substantially in the center of the bands. To achieve this, the hold time of the monoflop 25 and thus the measuring time is lengthened by a quarter of the reciprocal of the maximum rated frequency. Although with this setting only the maximum rated frequency lies exactly in the center of the corresponding frequency band, the other rated frequencies still lie within the corresponding frequency bands and consequently the frequencies of the useful signals can also deviate from the rated frequency downwardly without preventing evaluation. The frequency gaps including the frequencies treated as interference frequencies then lie in each case substantially in the center between two rated frequencies.

To facilitate understanding of the type of interference identification just outlined attention is drawn to FIG. 5; the latter shows at Q1 the output signal of the monoflop 25 determining the measuring time, at 3-F1, 3-F2, 3-F3 the pulse sequences appearing at the output 3 of the Schmitt trigger 2 for three different useful frequencies F1, F2, F3 and at 3-FS the pulse sequence which appears at the output 3 when an interference frequency FS is received which lies between the useful frequencies F2 and F3. It is apparent from this diagram that at the end of the measuring time a pulse is present at the output 3 of the Schmitt trigger only when useful frequencies are being received and that when an interference frequency is applied there is a pulse space at the end of the measuring time. Thus, at the AND gate 33 the presence of a pulse at the end of the measuring time is employed as criterion for the receipt of a useful frequency. It is also apparent from FIG. 5 that with the useful frequency F1 the counter 11 counts 4 pulses, with the useful frequency F2 up to 5 pulses and with the useful frequency F3 6 pulses.

Isolated short interference pulses which could reach the input 1 of the circuit of FIG. 3 between two useful pulses and undesirably increase the count may be made ineffective by inserting a flip-flop circuit 45 between the output 3 of the Schmitt trigger 2 and the rest of the circuit as illustrated in FIG. 6. The mode of operation of this flip-flop circuit 45 will be explained with the aid of FIG. 7, which shows the signals at the output 3 of the Schmitt trigger 2 and at the output 3a of the flip-flop circuit 45 firstly without interference and secondly with interference. The flip-flop circuit 45 is tripped by the leading edge of each output pulse of the Schmitt trigger 2. If a short interference pulse is received, the flip-flop circuit 45 supplies at its output 3a the signal value 0 for example on receipt of the useful pulse preceding the interference pulse, the signal value 1 on receipt of the interference pulse and the signal value 0 on receipt of the next useful pulse. If no interference pulse had occurred, the flip-flop circuit would not have been switched to the signal value 1 at the output until receipt of the next useful pulse. The flip-flop circuit thus effects on receipt of an interference pulse (and in general on receipt of an odd number of interference pulses) between two useful pulses a reversal of the signal values so that at the end of the measuring time coincidence is not reached at the gate 33 although a useful frequency was received. Without the flip-flop circuit 45 the count would be transferred, although because of the interference pulse received it would not correspond to the useful frequency received.

The embodiment of FIG. 3 differs from the embodiment of FIG. 1 also in that instead of the store (register) 12 the gate circuit 30 is used that allow the count to be evaluated to pass briefly only once in a measuring and evaluating time. Thus, at the output of the decoder 14, instead of a uniform signal as in the case of the embodiment of FIG. 1, a series of pulses appears with the spacing of the control signals at the input 31 of the gate circuit 30. The use of a gate circuit instead of a store is suitable in applications where the equipment to be controlled must be actuated with control pulses and not with a uniform signal.

The immunity to interference may be further increased if in accordance with FIG. 8 a further monoflop 46 which cannot be triggered again during its hold time is inserted between the output 3 of the Schmitt trigger 2 (or the output 3a of the flip-flop circuit 45 of FIG. 6) and the remainder of the circuit. This hold time is set to half the period of the highest useful frequency. This modification is effective against a particular type of interferences, i.e., cases where an amplitude break occurs within an oscillation at the input 1 of the Schmitt trigger 2; this break would lead at the output 3 of the Schmitt trigger to the emission of two pulses instead of the single pulse per oscillation emitted in the normal case. These two pulses give the same effect as the receipt of a frequency which is twice as high and consequently without the additional monoflop 46 erroneous evaluations could arise. However, the monoflop 46 prevents the two pulses from becoming separately effective because it always emits pulses having the duration of its hold time; short double pulses which can arise due to amplitude breaks in the received signal thus cannot have any effect. FIG. 9 shows the action of the monoflop 46 when an amplitude break occurs at the input 1 of the Schmitt trigger 2 which produces a double pulse at the output 3 of the Schmitt trigger. As is apparent, the pulses at the output 3b of the monoflop 46 are not affected by this double pulse.

One embodiment of the remote control receiver may also reside in that a sequence control counter fed by the pulses at the output of the Schmitt trigger 18 is used for the sequence control device 17 of FIG. 1; the stage outputs of said counter are connected to a decoder which is so designed that it activates one after the other one of its outputs for each count. Thus, for example, this decoder may have 10 outputs which are activated successively in each counting period of the sequence control counter. Since in accordance with the description of the example of embodiment of FIG. 1 a total of three control signals are required for the evaluation of the frequency received, the output signals at the fourth, fifth and seventh outputs may be used respectively for activating the frequency divider 7, opening the store 12 and resetting the counter 11. Since in this case the evaluation of the received frequency by the control pulses emitted from the output of the decoder of the sequence control device does not begin until the decoder emits a signal at its fourth output, there is an evaluation delay which has the advantage that short interference pulses produce no response in the receiver.

The advantageous formation of frequency band windows are used in the embodiment of FIG. 3 can also be applied in the embodiment of FIG. 1 if instead of the retriggerable monoflop 5 a monoflop is used which has no dead time and which is not retriggerable again during its hold time which as in the monoflop 35 of FIG. 3 is made equal to the reciprocal of the channel spacing Δ f. This monoflop thus always flops back into its quiescent state when there is a pulse pause at its input at the end of its hold time whereas it is returned to its operating state practically without dead time by a pulse applied to its input at the end of the hold time. Since a pulse at the input of the monoflop at the end of its hold time however occurs only for frequencies lying within the frequency bands mentioned in connection with the description of FIG. 3, only frequencies which lie within the frequency bands can be treated as useful frequencies. For all intermediate frequencies, the monoflop returns to its quiescent state in which it interrupts the sequence control device and thus prevents evaluation of said frequencies. For the same reasons as in the circuit of FIG. 3, in this case as well the hold time of the monoflop should be lengthened by a quarter of the reciprocal of the highest useful frequency.

The ultrasonic remote control receiver described above can be used not only to control television sets, radio sets and the like but is particularly suitable also for industrial use in which high immunity to interference is very important. It may, for example, be used for remote control of cranes on large building sites, where there are a great number of different interference sources. The ultrasonic remote control receiver according to the above description is so immune to interference that it operates satisfactorily even under the difficult conditions encountered in the aforementioned use.

The following table provides examples of integrated circuits from Texas Instruments Incorporated which may be used in the foregoing invention.

______________________________________ Schmitt-triggers 2 and 18 SNX 49713 Monoflops 25, 29 and 46 SN 74121 Monoflop 5 SN 74122 Frequency divider 7 SN 7492 Counter 11 SN 7490 Store 12 SN 7475 Control 17 SN 7476 Gate 30 SN 7432 Decoder 14 SN 7442 ______________________________________



ITT SCHAUB LORENZ IDEAL COLOR 1963 OSCAR 16 CHASSIS VIDOM 456809 INTEGRAL THYRISTOR-RECTIFIER DEVICE:A semiconductor switching device comprising a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) and a diode rectifier integrally connected in parallel with the SCR in a single semiconductor body. The device is of the NPNP or PNPN type, having gate, cathode, and anode electrodes. A portion of each intermediate N and P region makes ohmic contact to the respective anode or cathode electrode of the SCR. In addition, each intermediate region includes a highly conductive edge portion. These portions are spaced from the adjacent external regions by relatively low conductive portions, and limit the conduction of the diode rectifier to the periphery of the device. A profile of gold recombination centers further electrically isolates the central SCR portion from the peripheral diode portion.
That class of thyristors known as controlled rectifiers are semiconductor switches having four semiconducting regions of alternate conductivity and which employ anode, cathode, and gate electrodes. These devices are usually fabricated from silicon. In its normal state, the silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) is non-conductive until an appropriate voltage or current pulse is applied to the gate electrode, at which point current flows from the anode to the cathode and delivers power to a load circuit. If the SCR is reverse biased, it is non-conductive, and cannot be turned on by a gating signal. Once conduction starts, the gate loses control and current flows from the anode to the cathode until it drops below a certain value (called the holding current), at which point the SCR turns off and the gate electrode regains control. The SCR is thus a solid state device capable of performing the circuit function of a thyratron tube in many electronic applications. In some of these applications, such as in automobile ignition systems and horizontal deflection circuits in television receivers, it is necessary to connect a separate rectifier diode in parallel with the SCR. See, for example, W. Dietz, U. S. Pat. Nos. 3,452,244 and 3,449,623. In these applications, the anode of the rectifier diode is connected to the cathode of the SCR, and the cathode of the rectifier is connected to the SCR anode. Thus, the rectifier diode will be forward biased and current will flow through it when the SCR is reverse biased; i.e., when the SCR cathode is positive with respect to its anode. For reasons of economy and ease of handling, it would be preferable if the circuit function of the SCR and the associated diode rectifier could be combined in a single device, so that instead of requiring two devices and five electrical connections, one device and three electrical connections are all that would be necessary. In fact, because of the semiconductor profile employed, many SCR's of the shorted emitter variety inherently function as a diode rectifier when reverse biased. However, the diode rectifier function of such devices is not isolated from the controlled rectifier portion, thus preventing a rapid transition from one function to the other. Therefore, it would be desirable to physically and electrically isolate the diode rectifier portion from that portion of the device which functions as an SCR.



ITT SCHAUB LORENZ IDEAL COLOR 1963 OSCAR 16 CHASSIS VIDOM 456809 Horizontal deflection circuit with Thyristors.(ZEILEN ABLENKUNG MIT THYRISTOR SCHALTUNG).



























Description:



1. A horizontal deflection circuit for generating the deflection current in the deflection coil of a television picture tube wherein a first switch controls the horizontal sweep, and wherein a second switch in a so-called commutation circuit with a commutating inductor and a commutating capacitor opens the first switch and, in addition, controls the energy transfer from a dc voltage source to an input inductor, characterized in that the input inductor (Le) and the commutating inductor (Lk) are combined in a unit designed as a transformer (U) which is proportioned so that the open-circuit inductance of the transformer is essentially equal to the value of the input inductor (Le), while the short-circuit inductance of the transformer (U) is essentially equal to the value of the commutating inductor (Lk), and that the second switch (S2) is connected in series with the dc voltage source (UB) and a first winding (U1) of the transformer (U). 2. A horizontal deflection circuit according to claim 1, characterized in that the transformer (U) operates as an isolation transformer between the supply (UB) and the subcircuits connected to a second winding. 3. A horizontal deflection circuit according to claim 1, characterized in that the second switch (S2) is connected between ground and that terminal of the first winding (U1) of the transformer (U) not connected to the supply potential (+UB). 4.

A horizontal deflection circuit according to claim 1, characterized in that a capacitor (CE) is connected across the series combination of the first winding (U1) of the transformer and the second switch (S2). 5. A horizontal deflection circuit according to claim 1, characterized in that the second winding (U2) of the transformer (U) is connected in series with a first switch (S1), the commutating capacitor (Ck), and a third, bipolar switch (S3) controllable as a function of the value of a controlled variable developed in the deflection circuit. 6. A horizontal deflection circuit according to claim 5, characterized in that the third switch (S3) is connected between ground and the second winding (U2) of the transformer. 7. A horizontal deflection circuit according to claim 2, characterized in that the isolation transformer carries a third winding via which power is supplied to the audio output stage of the television set. 8. A horizontal deflection circuit according to claims 2, characterized in that the voltage serving to control the first switch (S1) is derived from a third winding of the transformer.
Description:
The present invention relates to a horizontal deflection circuit for generating the deflection current in the deflection coil of a television picture tube wherein a first switch controls the horizontal sweep, and wherein a second switch in a so-called commutation circuit with a commutating inductor and a commutating capacitor opens the first switch and, in addition, controls the energy transfer from a dc voltage source to an input inductor.
German Auslegeschrift (DT-AS) No. 1,537,308 discloses a horizontal deflection circuit in which, for generating a periodic sawtooth current within the respective deflection coil of the picture tube, in a first branch circuit, the deflection coil is connected to a sufficiently large capacitor serving as a current source via a first controlled, bilaterally conductive switch which is formed by a controlled rectifier and a diode connected in inverse parallel. The control electrode of the rectifier is connected to a drive pulse source which renders the switch conductive during part of the sawtooth trace period. In that arrangement, the sawtooth retrace, i.e. the current reversal, also referred to as "commutation", is initiated by a second controlled switch.
The first controlled switch also forms part of a second branch circuit where it is connected in series with a second current source and a reactance capable of oscillating. When the first switch is closed, the reactance, consisting essentially of a coil and a capacitor, receives energy from the second current source during a fixed time interval. This energy which is taken from the second current source corresponds to the circuit losses caused during the previous deflection cycle.
As can be seen, such a circuit needs two different, separate inductive elements, it being known that inductive elements are expensive to manufacture and always have a certain volume determined by the electrical properties required.
The object of the invention is to reduce the amount of inductive elements required.
The invention is characterized in that the input inductor and the commutating inductor are combined in a unit designed as a transformer which is proportioned so that the open-circuit inductance of the transformer is essentially equal to the value of the input inductor, while the short-circuit inductance of the transformer is essentially equal to the value of the commutating inductor, and that the second switch is connected in series with the dc voltage source and a first winding of the transformer.
This solution has an added advantage in that, in mass production, both the open-circuit and the short-circuit inductance are reproducible with reliability.
According to another feature of the invention, the electrical isolation between the windings of the transformer is such that the transformer operates as an isolation transformer between the supply and the subcircuits connected to a second winding or to additional windings of the transformer. In this manner, the transformer additionally provides reliable mains isolation.
According to a further feature of the invention, the second switch is connected between ground and that terminal of the first winding of the transformer not connected to the supply potential. This simplifies the control of the switch.
According to a further feature of the invention, to regulate the energy supply, the second winding of the transformer is connected in series with the first switch, the commutating capacitor, and a third, bipolar switch controllable as a function of the value of a controlled variable developed in the deflection circuit.

The advantage gained by this measure lies in the fact that the control takes place on the side separated from the mains, so no separate isolation device is required for the gating of the third switch. Further details and advantages will be apparent from the following description of the accompanying drawings and from the claims. In the drawings,
FIG. 1 is a basic circuit diagram of the arrangement disclosed in German Auslegeschrift (DT-AS) No. 1,537,308;
FIG. 2 shows a first embodiment of the horizontal deflection circuit according to the invention, and
FIG. 3 shows a development of the horizontal deflection circuit according to the invention.
FIG. 1 shows the essential circuit elements of the horizontal deflection circuit known from the German Auslegeschrift (DT-AS) No. 1,537,308 referred to by way of introduction.
Connected in series with a dc voltage source UB is an input inductor Le and a bipolar, controlled switch S2. In the following, this switch will be referred to as the "second switch"; it is usually called the "commutating switch" to indicate its function.
In known circuits, the second switch S2 consists of a controlled rectifier and a diode connected in inverse parallel.
The second switch S2 also forms part of a second circuit which contains, in addition, a commutating inductor Lk, a commutating capacitor Ck, and a first switch S1. The first switch S1, controlling the horizontal sweep, is constructed in the same manner as the above-described second switch S2, consisting of a controlled rectifier and a diode in inverse parallel. Connected in parallel with this first switch is a deflection-coil arrangement AS with a capacitor CA as well as a high voltage generating arrangement (not shown). In FIGS. 1, 2, and 3, this arrangement is only indicated by an arrow and by the reference characters Hsp. The operation of this known horizontal deflection circuit need not be explained here in detail since it is described not only in the German Auslegeschrift referred to by way of introduction, but also in many other publications.
FIGS. 2 and 3 show the horizontal deflection circuit modified in accordance with the present invention. Like circuit elements are designated by the same reference characters as in FIG. 1.
FIG. 2 shows the basic principle of the inven
tion. The two inductors Le and Lk of FIG. 1 have been replaced by a transformer U. To be able to serve as a substitute for the two inductors Le and Lk, the transformer must be proportioned in a special manner. Regardless of the turns ratio, the open-circuit inductance of the transformer is chosen to be essentially equal to the value of the input inductor Le, and the short-circuit inductance of the transformer is essentially equal to the value of the commutating inductor Lk.
To permit the second switch S2 to be utilized for the connection of the dc voltage source UB, it is included in the circuit of that winding U1 of the transformer connected to the dc voltage UB.
In principle, it is of no consequence for the operation of the switch S2 whether it is inserted on that side of the winding U1 connected to the positive operating potential +UB or on the side connected to ground. In practice, however, the solution shown in FIGS. 2 and 3 will be chosen since the gating of the controlled rectifier is less problematic in this case.
In compliance with pertinent safety regulations, the transformer U may be designed as an isolation transformer and can thus provide mains separation, which is necessary for various reasons. It is known from German Offenlegungschrift (DT-OS) No. 2,233,249 to provide dc isolation by designing the commutating inductor as a transformer, but this measure is not suited to attaining the object of the present invention.
If the energy to be taken from the dc voltage source is to be controlled as a function of the energy needed in the horizontal deflection circuit and in following subcircuits, the embodiment of the horizontal deflection circuit of FIG. 3 may be used.
The circuit including the winding U2 of the transformer U contains a third controlled switch S3, which, too, is inserted on the grounded side of the winding U2 for the reasons mentioned above. This third switch S3, just as the second switch S2, is operated at the frequency of a horizontal oscillator HO, but a control circuit RS whose input l is fed with a controlled variable is inserted between the oscillator and the switch S3. Depending on this controlled variable, the controlled rectifier of the third switch S3 can be caused to turn on earlier. A suitable controlled variable containing information on the energy consumption is, for example, the flyback pulse capable of being taken from the high voltage generating circuit (not shown). Details of the operation of this kind of energy control are described in applicant's German Offenlegungsschrift (DT-OS) No. b 2,253,386 and do not form part of the present invention.
With mains isolation, the additional, third switch S3 shown here has the advantage of being on the side isolated from the mains and eliminates the need for an isolation device in the control lead of the controlled rectifier.
As an isolation transformer, the transformer U may also carry additional windings U3 and U4 if power is to be supplied to the audio output stage, for example; in addition, the first switch S1 may be gated via such an additional winding.
The points marked at the windings U1 and U2 indicate the phase relationship between the respective voltages. Connected in parallel with the winding U1 and the second switch S2 is a capacitor CE which completes the circuit for the horizontal-frequency alternating current; this serves in particular to bypass the dc voltage source or the electrolytic capacitors contained therein.
If required, a well-known tuning coil may be inserted, e.g. in series with the second winding U2, without changing the basic operation of the horizontal deflection circuit according to the invention.


ITT SCHAUB LORENZ IDEAL COLOR 1963 OSCAR 16 CHASSIS VIDOM 456809 Electron beam deflection circuit including thyristors Further Discussion and deepening of knowledge, Thyristor horizontal output circuits:
1. An electron beam deflection circuit for a cathode ray tube with electromagnetic deflection by means of a sawtooth current waveform having a trace portion and a retrace portion, said circuit comprising: a deflection winding; a first source of electrical energy formed by a first capacitor; first controllable switching means comprising a parallel combination of a first thyristor and a first diode connected together to conduct in opposite directions, for connecting said winding to said first source during said trace portion, while said first switching means is turned on; a second source of electrical energy including a first inductive energy storage means coupled to a voltage supply; reactive circuit means including a combination of inductive and capacitive reactances for storing the energy supplied by said second source; second controllable switching means, substantially similar to said first one, for completing a circuit including said reactive circuit means and said first switching means, when turned on before the end of said trace portion, so as to pass through said first switching means an oscillatory current in opposite direction to that which passes through said first thyristor from said first source and to turn said first thyristor off after these two currents cancel out, the oscillatory current flowing thereafter through said first diode for an interval
termed the circuit turn-off time, which has to be greater than the turn-off time of said first thyristor; wherein the improvement comprises: means for drawing, during at least a part of said trace portion, a substantial amount of additional current through said first switching means, in the direction of conduction of said first diode, whereby to perceptibly shift the waveform of the current flowing through said first switching means towards the negative values by an amount equal to that of said substantial additional current and to lengthen, in proportion thereto, said circuit turn-off time, without altering the values of the reactances in the reactive circuit which intervene in the determination of both the circuit turn-off and retrace portion time intervals.










2. A deflection circuit as claimed in claim 1, wherein said amount of additional current is greater than or equal to 5 per cent of the peak-to-peak value of the current flowing through the deflection winding.

3. A deflection circuit as claimed in claim 1, wherein said means for drawing a substantial amount of additional current through said first switching means comprises a resistor connected in parallel to said first capacitor.

4. A deflection circuit as claimed in claim 1, wherein said means for drawing an additional current is formed by connecting said first and second energy sources in series so that the current charging said reactive circuit means forms the said additional current.

5. A deflection circuit as claimed in claim 1, further including a series combination of an autotransformer winding and a second high-value capacitor, said combination being connected in parallel to said first switching means, wherein said autotransformer comprises an intermediate tap located between its terminals respectively connected to said first switching means and to said second capacitor, said tap delivering, during said trace portion, a suitable DC supply voltage lower than the voltage across said second capacitor; and wherein said means for drawing a substantial amount of additional current comprises a load to be fed by said supply voltage and having one terminal connected to ground; and further controllable switching means controlled to conduct during at least part of said trace portion and to remain cut off during said retrace portion, said further switching means being connected between said tap and the other terminal of said load.

Description:
The present invention relates to electron beam deflection circuits including thyristors, such as silicon controlled rectifiers and relates, in particular, to horizontal deflection circuits for television receivers.

The present invention constitutes an improvement in the circuit described in U.S. Pat. No. 3,449,623 filed on Sept. 6, 1966, this circuit being described in greater detail below with reference to FIGS. 1 and 2 of the accompanying drawings. A deflection circuit of this type comprises a first thyristor switch which allows the conenction of the horizontal deflection winding to a constant voltage source during the time interval used for the transmisstion of the picture signal and for applying this signal to the grid of the cathode ray tube (this interval will be termed the "trace portion" of the scan), and a second thyristor switch which provides the forced commutation of the first one by applying to it a reverse current of equal amplitude to that which passes through it from the said voltage source and thus to initiate the retrace during the horizontal blanking interval.







A undirectional reverse blocking triode type thyristor or silicon controlled rectifier (SCR), such as that used in the aformentioned circuit, requires a certain turn-off time between the instant at which the anode current ceases and the instant at which a positive bias may be applied to it without turning it on, due to the fact that there is still a high concentration of free carriers in the vicinity of the middle junction, this concentration being reduced by a process of recombination independently from the reverse polarity applied to the thyristor. This turn-off time of the thyristor is a function of a number of parameters such as the junction temperature, the DC current level, the decay time of the direct current, the peak level of the reverse current applied, the amplitude of the reverse anode to cathode voltage, the external impedance of the gate electrode, and so on, certain of these varying considerably from one thyristor to another.

In horizontal deflection circuits for television receivers, the flyback or retrace time is limited to approximately 20 percent of the horizontal scan period, the retrace time being in the case of the CCIR standard of 625 lines, approximately 12 microseconds and, in the case of the French standard of 819 lines, approximately 9 microseconds. During this relatively short interval, the thyristor has to be rendered non-conducting and the electron beam has to be returned to the origin of the scan. The first thyristor is blocked by means of a series resonant LC circuit which is subject to a certain number of restrictions (limitations as to the component values employed) due to the fact that, inter alia, it simultaneously determines the turn-off time of the circuit which blocks the thyristor and it forms part of the series resonant circuit which is to carry out the retrace. To obtain proper operation of the deflection circuit of the aforementioned Patent, especially when used for the French standard of 819 lines per image, the values of the components used have to subject to very close tolerances (approximately 2%), which results in high costs.

The improved deflection circuit, object of the present invention, allows the lengthening of the turn-off time of the circuit for turning the scan thyristor off, without altering the values of the LC circuit, which are determined by other criteria, and without impairing the operation of the circuit.

According to the invention, there is provided an electron beam deflection circuit for a cathode ray tube with electromagentic deflection by means of a sawtooth current waveform having a trace portion and a retrace portion, said circuit comprising: a deflection winding; a first source of electrical energy formed by a first capacitor; first controllable switching means comprising a parallel combination of a first thyristor and a first diode, connected together to conduct in opposite directions, for connecting said winding to said first source during said trace portion when said first switching means is turned on;

a second source of electrical energy including a first inductive energy storage means coupled to a voltage supply; reactive circuit means including a combination of inductive and capacitive reactances for storing the energy supplied by the said second source; a second controllable switching means, substantially identical with the first one, for completing a circuit including said reactive circuit means and said first switching means, when turned on, so as to pass through said first thyristor an oscillatory current in the opposite direction to that which passes through it from said first source and to turn it off after these two currents cancel out, the oscillatory current then flowing through said first diode for an interval termed the circuit turn-off time which has to be greater than the turn-off time of said first thyristor; and means for drawing duing at least a part of said trace portion a substantial amount of additional current from said first switching means in the direction of conduction of said first diode, whereby said circuit turn-off time is lengthened in proportion to the amount of said additional current, without altering the values of the reactances in the reactive circuit by shifting the waveform of the current flowing through said first switching means towards the negative by an amount equal to that of said additional current.

A further object of the invention consists in using the supplementary current in the recovery diode of the first switching means to produce a DC voltage which may be used as a power supply for the vertical deflection circuit of the television receiver, for example.

The invention will be better understood and other features and advantages thereof will become apparent from the following description and the accompanying drawings, given by way of example, and in which:

FIG. 1 is a schematic circuit diagram partially in bloc diagram form of a prior art deflection circuit according to the aforementioned Patent;

FIG. 2 shows waveforms of currents and voltages generated at various points in the circuit of FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of a deflection circuit according to the invention which allows the principle of the improvement to be explained;

FIG. 4 is a diagram of the waveforms of the current through the first switching means 4, 5 of the circuit of FIG. 3;

FIG. 5 is a circuit diagram of another embodiment of the circuit according to the invention;

FIG. 6 is a schematic representation of the preferred embodiment of the circuit according to the invention; and

FIG. 7 shows voltage waveforms at various points of the high voltage autotransformer 21 of FIG. 6.

In all these Figures the same reference numerals refer to the same components.

FIG. 1 shows the horizontal deflection circuit described and claimed in the U.S. Pat. No. 3,449,623 mentioned above, which comprises a first source of electrical energy in the shape of a first capacitor 2 having a high capacitance C 2 for supplying a substantially constant voltage Uc 2 across its terminals. A first terminal of the first capacitor 2 is connected to ground, whilst its second terminal which supplies a positive voltage is connected to one of the terminals of a horizontal deflection winding shown as a first inductance 1. A first switching means 3, consisting of a first reverse blocking triode thyristor 4 (SCR) and a first recovery diode 5 in parallel, the two being interconnected to conduct current in opposite directions, is connected in parallel with the series combination formed by the deflection winding 1 and the first capacitor 2. The assembly of components 1, 2, 4 and 5 forms the final stage of the horizontal deflection circuit in a television receiver using electromagnetic delfection.

The deflection circuit also includes a drive stage for this final stage which here controls the turning off of the first thyristor 4 to produce the retrace or fly-back portion of the scan during the line-blanking intervals i.e. while the picture signal is not transmitted. This driver stage comprises a second voltage source in the shape of a DC power supply 6 which delivers a constant high voltage E. The negative terminal of the power supply 6 is connected to ground and its positive terminal to one of the terminals of a second inductance 7 of relatively high value, which draws a substantially lineraly varying current from the power supply 6 to avoid its overloading. The other terminal of the second inductance 7 is connected, on the one hand, to the junction of the deflection winding 1 and the first switching means 3 by means of a second inductance 8 and a second capacitor 9 in series and, on the other hand, to one of the terminals of a second controllable bi-directionally conducting switching means 10, similar to the first one 3, including a parallel combination of a second thyristor 11 and a second recovery diode 12 al
so arranged to conduct in opposite directions.

The respective values of the third inductance 8 (L 8 ) and of the second capacitor 9 (C 9 ) are principally selected so that, on the one hand, one half-cycle of oscillation of the first series resonant circuit L 8 - C 9 , (i.e. π √ L 8 . C 9 ) is longer than the turn-off time of the first thyristor 4, but still is as short as possible since this time interval determines the speed of the commutation of the thyristor 4, and, on the other hand, one half-cycle of oscillation of another series resonant circuit formed by L 1 , L 8 and C 9 , i.e. π √ (L 1 + L 8 ) . C 9 , is substantially equal to the required retrace time interval (i.e. shorter than the horizontal blanking interval).

The gate (control electrode) of the second thyristor 11 is coupled to the output of the horizontal oscillator 13 of the television receiver by means of a first pulse transformer 14 and a first pulse shaping circuit 15 so that it is fed short triggering pulses which are to turn it on.

The gate of the first thyristor 4 fed with signals of a substantially rectangular waveform which are negative during the horizontal blanking intervals, is coupled to a winding 16 by means of a second pulse shaping circuit 17, the winding 16 being magnetically coupled to the second inductance 7 to make up the secondary winding of a transformer of which the inductance 7 forms the primary winding. It will be noted here that it is also possible to couple the secondary winding 16 magnetically to a primary winding connected to a suitable output (not shown) of the horizontal oscillator 13.

The operation of a circuit of this type will be explained below with reference to FIG. 2 which shows the waveforms at various points in the circuit of FIG. 1 during approximately one line period.

FIG. 2 is not to scale since one line period (t 7 - t 0 ) is equal to 64 microseconds in the case of 625 lines and 49 microseconds in the case of 819 lines, while the durations of the respective horizontal blanking intervals are approximately 12 and 9.5 microseconds.

Waveform A shows the form of the current i L1 passing through deflection winding 1, this current having a sawtooth waveform substantially linear from t 0 to t 3 and from t 5 to t 7 , and crossing zero at time instants t 0 and t 7 , and reaching values of + I 1m and - I 1m , at time instants t 3 and t 5 respectively, these being its maximum positive and negative amplitudes.

During the second half of the trace portion of the horizontal deflection cycle, that is to say from t 0 to t 3 , the thyristor 4 of the first switching means 3 is conductive and makes the high value capacitor 2 discharge through the deflector winding 1, which has a high inductance, so that current i L1 increases linearly.

A few microseconds (5 to 8 μ s) before the end of the trace portion, i.e. at time instant t 1 , the trigger of the second thyristor 11 receives a short voltage pulse V G11 which causes it to turn on as its anode is at this instant at a positive potential with respect to ground, which is due to the charging of the second capacitor 9 through inductances 7 and 8 by the voltage E from the power supply 6.

When thyristor 11 is made conductive at time t 1 , on the one hand, inductance 7 is connected between ground and the voltage source 6 and a linearly increasing current flows through it and, on the other hand, the reactive circuit 8, 9 forms a loop through the second and first switching means 10 and 3, thus forming a resonant circuit which draws an oscillatory current i 8 ,9 of frequency ##EQU1##

T
his oscillatory current i 8 ,9 will pass through the first switching means 3, i.e. thyristor 4 and diode 5, in the opposite direction to that of current i L1 . Since the frequency f 1 is high, current i 8 ,9 will increase more rapidly than i L1 and will reach the same level at time t 2 , that is to say i 8 ,9 (t 2 ) = -i L1 (t 2 ) and these currents will cancel out in the thyristor 4 in accordance with the well known principle of forced commutation. After time instant t 2 , current i 8 ,9 continues to increase more rapidly than i L1 , but the difference between them (i 8 ,9 - i L1 ) passes the diode 5 (see wave form B) until it becomes zero at time instant t 3 which is the turn off time instant of the first switching means 3, at which the retrace begins.

The interval between the time instant t 2 and t 3 , i.e. (t 3 -t 2 ), during which diode 5 is conductive and the thyristor is reverse biased will be termed in what follows the circuit turn-off time and it should be greater than the turn-off time of the thyristor 4 itself since the latter will subsequently become foward biased (i.e. from t 3 to t 5 ) by the retrace or flyback pulse (see waveform E) which should not trigger it.

At time instant t 3 , the switching means 3 is opened (i 4 and i 5 are both zero -- see waveforms B and C) and the reactive circuit 8, 9 forms a loop through capacitor 2 and the deflection coil 1 and thus a series resonant circuit including (L 1 + L 8 ) and C 9 , C 2 being of high value and representing a short circuit for the flyback frequency ##EQU2## thus obtained.

The retrace which stated at time t 3 takes place during one half-cycle of the resonant circuit formed by reactances L 1 , L 8 and C 9 , i.e. during the interval between t 3 and t 5 . In the middle of this interval i.e. at time instant t 4 , both i L1 (waveform A) and i 8 ,9 (waveform D) pass through zero and change their sign, whereas the voltage at the terminals of the first switching means 3 (V 3 , waveform E) passes through a maximum. Thus, from t 4 onwards, thyristor 11 will be reverse biased and diode 12 will conduct the current from the resonant circuit 1, 8 and 9 in order to turn the second thyristor 11 off.

At time instant t 5 , when current i L1 has reached - I 1m and when voltage v 3 falls to zero, diode 5 of the first switching means 3 becomes conductive and the trace portion of scan begins.

Current i 8 ,9 nevertheless continues to flow in the resonant circuit 8, 9 through diodes 5 and 12, which causes a break to appear in waveform D at t 5 , and a negative peak to appear in waveform D and a positive one in waveform B in the interval between t 5 and t 6 , these being principally due to the distributed capacities of coil 1 or to an eventual capacitor (not shown) connected in parallel to the first switching means 3.

At time instant t 6 , diode 12 of the second switching means 10 ceases to conduct after having allowed thyristor 11 time to become turned off completely.

T
he level of current i 8 ,9 at time instant t 5 (i.e. I c ) as well as the negative peak I D12 in i 8 ,9 and the positive peak I D5 in i 5 depend on the values of L 8 and C 9 in the same way as does the turn-off time of the circuit (t 3 - t 2 ). If, for example, L 8 and C 9 , are increased I D5 increases towards zero and this could cause diode 5 to be cut off in an undesirable fashion. I c also increases towards zero, which is liable to cause diode 12 to be blocked and thyristor 11 to trigger prematurely.

From the foregoing it can be clearly seen that the choice of values for L 8 and C 9 is subject to four limitations which prevent the values from being increased to lengthen the turn-off time of the driver circuit of first switching thyristor 4 so as to forestall its spurious triggering.

Waveform F shows the voltage v G4 obtained at the gate of thyristor 4 from the secondary winding 16 coupled to the inductor 7. This voltage is positive from t 0 to t 1 and from t 6 to t 7 and is negative between t 2 and t 6 i.e. while the second switching means 10 is conducting.

The present invention makes the lengthening of the turn-off time of thyristor 4 possible without altering the parameters of the circuit such as inductance 8 and capacitor 9.

In the circuit shown in FIG. 3, which illustrates the principle of the present invention, means are added to the circuit in FIG. 1 which enable the turn-off time to be lengthened by connecting a load to diode 5 so as to increase the current which flows through it during the time that it is conductive. These means are here formed by a resistor 18 connected in parallel with a capacitor 20 (which replaces capacitor 2) which is of a higher capacitance so that, in practice, it holds its charge during at least one half of the line period. FIG. 4, which shows the waveform of the current in the first switching means 3 for a circuit as shown in FIG. 3, makes it possible to explain how this lenthening of the turn-off time is achieved.

In FIG. 4, the broken lines show the waveform of the current in the first switch device 3 in the circuit of FIG. 1, this waveform being produced by adding waveforms B and C of FIG. 2. The current i 4 above the axis flows through thyristor 4 and current i 5 below the axis flows through diode 5. When the capacitance C 20 of the capacitor in series with the deflector coil is increased to some tens of microfarads (C 2 having been of the order of 1 μ F) and when there is connected in parallel with capacitor 20 a resistor 18 the value of which is calculated to draw a strong current I R18 from capacitor 20, that is to say a current at least equal to 0,1 I m (I m being of the order of some tens of amperes), current I R18 is added to that i 5 which flows through diode 5 without in any way altering the linearity of the trace portion nor the oscillatory commutation of thyristor 4 which is brought about by the resonant circuit L 8 , C 9 .

The fact of loading capacitor C 20 by means of a resistor 18 thus has the effect of permanently displacing the waveform of the current in the negative direction by I R18 . Thus, during the trace portion of the scan, the transfer of the current from the diode 5 to the thyristor 4 begins at time t 10 instead of t 0 , that is to say with a delay proportional to I R18 . The effect of the triggering pulse delivered by the horizontal oscillator (13 FIG. 1) to the second thyristor 11 at time instant t 1 , will be to start the commutation process of the first thyristor 4 when the current it draws is less by I R18 than that i 4 (t 1 ) which it would have been drawing had there been no resistor 18. Because of this, the turn-off time of the thyristor 4 proper, which as has been mentioned increases with the maximum current level passing throught it, is slightly reduced. Moreover, because the oscillatory current i 8 ,9 (FIG. 2) from circuit L 8 , C 9 which flows through thyristor 4 in the opposite direction is unchanged, it reaches a value equal to that of the current i L1 (FIG. 1) flowing in the coil 1 in a shorter time, that is to say at time t 12 . Diode 5 will thus take the oscillatory current i 8 ,9 (FIG. 2) over in advance with respect ro time instant t 2 and will conduct it until it reaches zero value at a time instant t 13 later than t 3 , the amounts of advance (t 2 - t 12 ) and delay (t 13 - t 3 ) being practically equal.

It can thus be seen in FIG. 4 that the circuit turn-off time T R of a circuit according to the invention and illustrated by FIG. 3 is distinctly longer than that T r of the circuit in FIG. 1. This increase in the turn-off time (T R - T r ) depends on the current I R18 and increases therewith.

It should be noted at this point that the current I R18 produces a voltage drop at the terminals of the resistor the only effect of which is to heat up the resistor since the level of this voltage (40 to 60 volts) does not necessarily have a suitable value to be used as a voltage supply for other circuits in an existing transistorised television receiver.

In accordance with one embodiment of the invention, illustrated in FIG. 5, an application is proposed for the additional current which is to be drawn through diode 5. In FIG. 5, the positive terminal of capacitor 20 is connected by a conductor 19 to the negative pole of the power supply 6 and the voltage at the terminals of capacitor 20 is thus added to that E from the source 6.

In the preferred embodiment of the present invention, which is shown in FIG. 6, it is possible to cause a supplementary current of a desired value to flow through the first diode 5 while obtaining a voltage which has a suitable value for use in another circuit in the television receiver.

If the voltage at the terminals of capacitor 20 in FIG. 3 is not a usable value, it is possible to connect in parallel with the series circuit comprising the deflector coil 1 and the capacitor 2 in FIG. 1, i.e. in parallel with the terminals of the first switching means 3, a series combination of an autotransformer 21 and a high value capacitor 22 (comparable with capacitor 20 in FIGS. 3 and 5). The autotransformer 21 has a tap 23 is suitably positioned between the terminal connected to capacitor 22 at the tap 24 connected to the first switching means 3. This autotransformer 21 may be formed by the one conventionally used for supplying a very high voltage to the cathode ray tube, as described for example in U.S. Pat. No. 3,452,244; such a transformer comprises a voltage step-up winding between taps 24 and 25, which latter is connected to a high voltage rectifier (not shown).

The waveform of the voltage at the various points in the autotransformer is shown in FIG. 7, in which waveform A shows the voltage at the terminals of capacitor 22, waveform B the voltage at tap 24 and waveform C the voltage at tap 23 of the autotransformer 21.

The voltage V c22 at the terminals of capacitor 22 varies slightly about a mean value V cm . It is increasing while diode 5 is conducting and decreasing during the conduction of the thyristor 4.

The voltage v 24 at tap 24 follows substantially the same curve as waveform E in FIG. 2, that is to say that during the retrace time interval from t 13 to t 5 to a positive pulse called the flyback pulse is produced and, during the time interval while the first switching means 3 is conducting, the voltage is zero. The mean valve of the voltage v 24 at tap 24 of the auto-transformer 21 is equal to the mean value V cm of the voltage at the terminals of capacitors 2 and 22.

Thus, there is obtained at tap 23 a waveform which is made up, during the retrace portion, of a positive pulse whose maximum amplitude is less than that of v 24 at tap 24 and, during the trace portion, of a substantially constant positive voltage, the level V of which is less than the mean value V cm of the voltage v c22 at the terminals of capacitor 22. By moving tap 23 towards terminals 24 the amplitude of the pulse during fly-back increases while voltage V falls and conversely by moving tap 23 towards capacitor 22 voltage V increases and the amplitude of the pulse drops.

In more exact terms, the voltage V at tap 23 is such that the means value of v 23 is equal to V cm . It has thus been shown that by choosing carefully the position of tape 23, a voltage V may be obtained during the trace portion of the scan, which may be of any value between V cm and zero.

This voltage V is thus obtained by periodically controlled rectification during the trace portion of the scan.

For this purpose an electronic switch is used to periodically connect the tap 23 of trnasformer winding 21 to a load.


This switch is made up of a power transistor 26 whose collector is connected to tap 23 and the emitter to a parallel combination formed by a high value filtering capacitor 27 and the load which it is desired to supply, which is represented by a resistor 28. The base of the transistor 26 receives a control voltage to block it during retrace and to unblock it during the whole or part of the trace period. A control voltage of this type may be obtained from a second winding 29 magnetically coupled to the inductance 7 of the deflection circuit and it may be transmitted to the base of transistor 26 by means of a coupling capacitor 30 and a resistor 31 connected between the base and the emitter of transistor 26.

It may easily be seen that the DC collector/emitter current in transistor 26 flows through the first diode 5 of the first switching means 3 via a resistor 28 and the part of the winding of auto-transformer 21 located between taps 23 and 24.

Experience has shown that a circuit as shown in FIG. 6 can supply 24 volts with a current of 2 amperes to the vertical deflection circuit of the same television set, the voltage at the terminals of capacitor 22 being from 50 to 60 volts.

It should be mentioned that, when the circuit which forms the load of the controlled rectifier 26, 27 does not draw enough current to sufficiently lengthen the circuit turn-off time T R , an additional resistor (not shown) may be connected between the emitter of transistor 26 and ground or in parallel to capacitor 22, which resistor will draw the additional current required.


ITT SCHAUB LORENZ IDEAL COLOR 1963 OSCAR 16 CHASSIS VIDOM 456809 Gating circuit for television SCR deflection system AND REGULATION / stabilization of horizontal deflection NETWORK CIRCUIT with Transductor reactor / Reverse thyristor energy recovery circuit.
In a television deflection system employing a first SCR for coupling a deflection winding across a source of energy during a trace interval of each deflection cycle and a second SCR for replenishing energy to the source of energy during a commutation interval of each deflection cycle, a gating circuit for triggering the first SCR. The gating circuit employs a voltage divider coupled in parallel with the second SCR which develops gating signals proportional to the voltage across the second SCR.


1. In a television deflection system in which a first switching means couples a deflection winding across a source of energy during a trace interval of each deflection cycle and a second switching means replenishes energy to said source of energy during a commutation interval of each deflection cycle, a gating circuit for said first switching means, comprising:
capacitive voltage divider means coupled in parallel with said second switching means for developing gating signals proportional to the voltage across said second switching means; and
means for coupling said voltage divider means to said first switching means to provide for conduction of said first switching means in response to said gating signals.
2. A gating circuit according to claim 1 wherein said voltage divider includes first and second capacitors coupled in series and providing said gating signals at the common terminal of said capacitors. 3. A gating circuit according to claim 2 wherein said first and second capacitors are proportional in value to provide for the desired magnitude of gating signals. 4. A gating circuit according to claim 3 wherein said means for coupling said voltage divider means to said first switching means includes an inductor. 5. A gating circuit according to claim 4 wherein said inductor and said first and second capacitors comprise a resonant circuit having a resonant frequency chosen to shape said gating signal to improve switching of said first switching means.
Description:
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
This invention relates to a gating circuit for controlling a switching device employed in a deflection circuit of a television receiver.
















Various deflection system designs have been utilized in television receivers. One design employing two bidirectional conducting switches and utilizing SCR's (thyristors) as part of the switches is disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,452,244. In this type deflection system, a first SCR is









employed for coupling a deflection winding across a source of energy during a trace interval of each

deflection cycle, and a second SCR is employed for replenishing energy during a commutation interval of each deflection cycle. The first SCR is commonly provided with gating voltage by means of a separate winding or tap of an input reactor coupling a source of B+ to the second SCR.

Various regulator system designs have been utilized in conjunction with the afore described deflection system to provide for uniform high voltage production as well as uniform picture width with varying line voltage and kinescope beam current conditions.
One type regulator system design alters the amount of energy stored in a commutating capacitor coupled between the first and second SCR's during the commutating interval. A regulator design of this type may employ a regulating SCR and diode for coupling the input reactor to the source of B+. With this type regulator a notch, the width of which depends upon the regulation requirements, is created in the current supplied through the reactor and which notch shows up in the voltage waveform developed on the separate winding or tap of the input reactor which provides the gating voltage for the first SCR. The presence of the notch, even though de-emphasized by a waveshaping circuit coupling the gating voltage to the first SCR, causes erratic control of the first SCR.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
In accordance with one embodiment of the invention, a gating circuit of a television deflection system employing a first switching means for coupling a deflection winding across a source of energy during a trace interval of each deflection cycle and a second switching means for replenishing energy to said source of energy during a commutation interval of each deflection cycle includes a voltage divider means coupled in parallel with the second switching means for developing gating signals proportional to the voltage across the second switching means. The voltage divider means are coupled to the first switching means to provide for conduction of the first switching means in response to the gating signals.
A more detailed description of a preferred embodiment of the invention is given in the following description and accompanying drawing of which:
FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram, partially in block form, of a prior art SCR deflection system;
FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram, partially in block form, of an SCR deflection system of the type shown in FIG. 1 including a gating circuit embodying the invention;
FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram, partially in block form, of one type of a regulator system which employs an SCR as a control device and which is suitable for use with the SCR deflection system of FIG.2;
FIG. 4 is a schematic diagram, partially in block form, of another type of a regulator system suitable for use with the deflection circuit of FIG. 2; and
FIG. 5 is a schematic diagram, partially in block form, of still another type of a regulator system suitable for use with the SCR deflection system of FIG. 2.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT
FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram, partially in block form, of a prior art deflection system of the retrace driven type similar to that disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,452,244. This system includes a commutating switch 12, comprising a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) 14 and an oppositely poled damper diode 16. The commutating switch 12 is coupled between a winding 18a of an input choke 18 and ground. The other terminal of winding 18a is coupled to a source of direct current voltage (B+) by means of a regulator network 20 which controls the energy stored in the deflection circuit 10 when the commutating switch is off, during an interval T3 to T0' as shown in curve 21 which is a plot of the voltage level at the anode of SCR 14 during the deflection cycle. A damping network comprising a series combination of a resistor 22 and a capacitor 23 is coupled in parallel with commutating switch 12 and serves to reduce any ringing effects produced by the switching of commutating switch 12. Commutating switch 12 is coupled through a commutating coil 24, a commutating capacitor 25 and a trace switch 26 to ground. Trace switch 26 comprises an SCR 28 and an oppositely poled damper diode 30. An auxiliary capacitor 32 is coupled between the junction of coil 24 and capacitor 25 and ground. A series combination of a horizontal deflection winding 34 and an S-shaping capacitor 36 are coupled in parallel with trace switch 26. Also, a series combination of a primary winding 38a of a horizontal output transformer 38 and a DC blocking capacitor 40 are coupled in parallel with trace switch 26.
A secondary of high voltage winding 38b of transformer 38 produces relatively large amplitude flyback pulses during the retrace interval of each deflection cycle. This interval exists between T1 and T2 of curve 41 which is a plot of the current through windings 34 and 38a during the deflection cycle. These flyback pulses are applied to a high voltage multiplier (not shown) or other suitable means for producing direct current high voltage for use as the ultor voltage of a kinescope (not shown).
An auxiliary winding 38c of transformer 38 is coupled to a high voltage sensing and control circuit 42 which transforms the level of flyback pulses into a pulse width modulated signal. The control circuit 42 is coupled to the regulator network 20.
A horizontal oscillator 44 is coupled to the gate electrode of commutating SCR 14 and produces a pulse during each deflection cycle slightly before the end of the trace interval at T0 of curve 21 to turn on SCR 14 to initiate the commutating interval. The commutating interval occurs between T0 and T3 of curve 21. A resonant waveshaping network 46 comprising a series combination of a capacitor 48 and an inductor 50 coupled between a winding 18b of input choke 18 and the gate electrode of trace SCR 28 and a damping resistor 52 coupled between the junction of capacitor 48 and inductor 50 and ground shapes the signal developed at winding 18b (i.e. voltage waveform 53) to form a gating signal voltage waveform 55 to enable SCR 28 for conduction during the second half of the trace interval occurring between T2 and T1' of curve 41.
The regulator network 20, when of a type to be described in conjunction with FIG. 3, operates in such a manner that current through winding 18a of input choke 18 during an interval between T4 and T5 (region A) of curves 21, 53 and 55 is interrupted for a period of time the duration of which is determined by the signal produced by the high voltage sensing and control circuit 42. During the interruption of current through winding 18a a zero voltage level is developed by winding 18b as shown in interval T4 to T5 of curve 53. The resonant waveshaping circuit 46 produces the shaped waveform 55 which undesirably retains a slump in region A corresponding to the notch A of waveform 53. The slump in waveform 55 applied to SCR 28 occurs in a region where the anode of SCR 28 becomes positive and where SCR 28 must be switched on to maintain a uniform production of the current waveshape in the horizontal deflection winding 34 as shown in curve 41. The less positive amplitude current occurring at region A of waveform 55 may result in insufficient gating current for SCR 28 and may cause erratic performance resulting in an unsatisfactory raster.
FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram, partially in block form, of a deflection system 60 embodying the invention. Those elements which perform the same function in FIG. 2 as in FIG. 1 are labeled with the same reference numerals. FIG. 2 differs from FIG. 1 essentially in that the signal to enable SCR 28 derived from sampling a portion of the voltage across commutating switch 12 rather than a voltage developed by winding 18b which is a function of the voltage across winding 18a of input choke 18 as in FIG. 1. This change eliminates the slump in the enabling signal during the interval T4 to T5 as shown in curve 64 since the voltage across the commutating switch 12 is not adversely effected by the regulator network 20 operation.
A series combination of resistor 22, capacitor 23 and a capacitor 62 is coupled in parallel with commutating switch 12, one terminal of capacitor 62 being coupled to ground. The junction of capacitors 23 and 62 is coupled to the gate electrode of SCR 28 by means of the inductor 50. The resistor 52 is coupled in parallel with capacitor 62.
Capacitors 23 and 62 form a capacitance voltage divider which provides a suitable portion of the voltage across commutating switch 12 for gating SCR 28 via inductor 50. The magnitude of the voltage at the junction of capacitors 23 and 62 is typically 25 to 35 volts. It can, therefore, be seen that the ratio of values of capacitors 23 and 62 will vary depending on the B+ voltage utilized to energize the deflection system. Capacitors 23 and 62 and inductor 50 form a resonant circuit tuned in a manner which provides for peaking of the curve 64 between T4 and T5. This peaking effect further enhances gating of SCR 28 between T4 and T5.
Since the waveshape of the voltage across commutating switch 12 (curve 21) is relatively independent of the type of regulator system employed in conjunction with the deflection system, the curve 64 also is independent of the type of regulator system.
When commutating switch 12 switches off during the interval T3 to T0' curve 21, the voltage across capacitor 62 increases and the voltage at the gate electrode of SCR 28 increases as shown in curve 64. As will be noted, no slump of curve 64 occurs between T3 and T5 because there is no interruption of the voltage across commutating switch 12.



















FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram, partially in block form, of one type of a regulator system which may be used in conjunction with the invention. B+ is supplied through a regulator network 20 which comprises an SCR 66 and an oppositely poled diode 68. The diode is poled to provide for conduction of current from B+ to the horizontal deflection circuit 60 via winding 18a of input choke 18. Current flows through the diode during the period T3 to T4 of curve 21 FIG. 1 after which current tries to flow through the SCR 66 from the horizontal deflection circuit to B+ since the commutating capacitor 25 is charged to a voltage higher than B+.
The horizontal deflection circuit 60 produces a flyback pulse in winding 38a of the flyback transformer 38 which is coupled to winding 38c. The magnitude of the pulse on winding 38c determines how long the signal required to switch SCR 66 on is delayed after T4 curve 21 FIG. 1. If the flyback pulse is greater than desirable, the SCR 66 turns on sooner than if the flyback pulse is less than desirable and provides a discharge path for current in commutating capacitor 25 back to the B+ supply. In this manner a relatively constant amplitude flyback pulse is maintained.
FIG. 4 is a schematic diagram, partially in block form, of another well-known type of a regulator system which may be used in conjunction with the invention shown in FIG. 2. B+ is coupled through winding 18a of input choke 18 and through a series combination of windings 70a and 70b of a saturable reactor 70 and a parallel combination of a diode 72 and a resistor 74 to the horizontal deflection circuit 60. Diode 72 is poled to conduct current from the horizontal deflection circuit 60 to B+.
Flyback pulse variations are obtained from winding 38c of the horizontal output transformer 38 and applied to a voltage divider comprising resistors 76, 78 and 80 of the high voltage sensing and control circuit 42. A portion of the pulse produced by winding 38c is selected by the position of the wiper terminal on potentiometer 78 and coupled to the base electrode of a transistor 82 by means of a zener diode 84. The emitter electrode of transistor 82 is grounded and a DC stabilization resistor 85 is coupled in parallel with the base-emitter junction of transistor 82. When the pulse magnitude on winding 38c exceeds a level which results in forward biasing the base-emitter junction of transistor 82, current flows from B+ through a resistor 86, a winding 70c of saturable reactor 70 and transistor 82 to ground. Due to the exponential increase of current in winding 70c during the period of conduction of transistor 82, the duration of conduction of transistor 82 determines the magnitude of current flowing in winding 70c and thus the total inductance of windings 70a and 70b. The current in winding 70c is sustained during the remaining deflection period by means of a diode 88 coupled in parallel with winding 70c and poled not to conduct current from B+ to the collector electrode of transistor 82. A capacitor 90 coupled to the cathode of diode 88 provides a bypass for B+. Windings 70a and 70b are in parallel with input reactor 18a and thereby affect the total input inductance of the deflection circuit and thereby controls the transfer of energy to the deflection circuit. The dotted waveforms shown in conjunction with a curve 21' indicate variations from a nominal waveform provided at the input of horizontal deflection circuit 60 by the windings 70a and 70b.













FIG. 5 is a schematic diagram of yet another type of a regulator system which may be used in conjunction with the invention. B+ is coupled through a winding 92a and a winding 92b of a saturable reactor to the horizontal deflection circuit 60. Windings 92a and 92b are used to replace the input choke 18 shown in FIGS. 1 and 2 while also providing for a regulating function corresponding to that provided by regulating network 20.
Flyback pulse variations are obtained from winding 38c and applied to the high voltage sensing and control circuit 42 as in FIG. 4. Current flows from B+ through resistor 86, a winding 92c and transistor 82 to ground. As in FIG. 4 the duration of the conduction of transistor 82 determines the energy stored in winding 92c and thus the total inductance of windings 92a and 92b which control the amount of energy transferred to the deflection circuit during each horizontal deflection cycle. The variations in waveforms of curve 21', shown in conjunction with FIG. 4, are also provided at the input of horizontal deflection circuit 60 by windings 92a and 92b.
For various reasons including cost or performance, a manufacturer may wish to utilize a particular one of the regulators illustrated in FIGS. 3, 4 and 5. Regardless of the choice, the gating circuit according to the invention may be utilized therewith advantageously by providing improved performance and the possibility of cost savings by eliminating taps or extra windings on the wound components which heretofore normally provided a source of SCR gating waveforms.

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