Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

In Brief: On this site you will find pictures and information about some of the electronic, electrical and electrotechnical technology relics that the Frank Sharp Private museum has accumulated over the years .

Premise: There are lots of vintage electrical and electronic items that have not survived well or even completely disappeared and forgotten.

Or are not being collected nowadays in proportion to their significance or prevalence in their heyday, this is bad and the main part of the death land. The heavy, ugly sarcophagus; models with few endearing qualities, devices that have some over-riding disadvantage to ownership such as heavy weight,toxicity or inflated value when dismantled, tend to be under-represented by all but the most comprehensive collections and museums. They get relegated to the bottom of the wants list, derided as 'more trouble than they are worth', or just forgotten entirely. As a result, I started to notice gaps in the current representation of the history of electronic and electrical technology to the interested member of the public.


Following this idea around a bit, convinced me that a collection of the peculiar alone could not hope to survive on its own merits, but a museum that gave equal display space to the popular and the unpopular, would bring things to the attention of the average person that he has previously passed by or been shielded from. It's a matter of culture. From this, the Obsolete Technology Tellye Web Museum concept developed and all my other things too. It's an open platform for all electrical Electronic TV technology to have its few, but NOT last, moments of fame in a working, hand-on environment. We'll never own Colossus or Faraday's first transformer, but I can show things that you can't see at the Science Museum, and let you play with things that the Smithsonian can't allow people to touch, because my remit is different.

There was a society once that was the polar opposite of our disposable, junk society. A whole nation was built on the idea of placing quality before quantity in all things. The goal was not “more and newer,” but “better and higher" .This attitude was reflected not only in the manufacturing of material goods, but also in the realms of art and architecture, as well as in the social fabric of everyday life. The goal was for each new cohort of children to stand on a higher level than the preceding cohort: they were to be healthier, stronger, more intelligent, and more vibrant in every way.

The society that prioritized human, social and material quality is a Winner. Truly, it is the high point of all Western civilization. Consequently, its defeat meant the defeat of civilization itself.

Today, the West is headed for the abyss. For the ultimate fate of our disposable society is for that society itself to be disposed of. And this will happen sooner, rather than later.

OLD, but ORIGINAL, Well made, Funny, Not remotely controlled............. and not Made in CHINA.

How to use the site:

- If you landed here via any Search Engine, you will get what you searched for and you can search more using the search this blog feature provided by Google. You can visit more posts scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year,
or you can click on the main photo-page to start from the main page. Doing so it starts from the most recent post to the older post simple clicking on the Older Post button on the bottom of each page after reading , post after post.

You can even visit all posts, time to time, when reaching the bottom end of each page and click on the Older Post button.

- If you arrived here at the main page via bookmark you can visit all the site scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year pointing were you want , or more simple You can even visit all blog posts, from newer to older, clicking at the end of each bottom page on the Older Post button.
So you can see all the blog/site content surfing all pages in it.

- The search this blog feature provided by Google is a real search engine. If you're pointing particular things it will search IT for you; or you can place a brand name in the search query at your choice and visit all results page by page. It's useful since the content of the site is very large.

Note that if you don't find what you searched for, try it after a period of time; the site is a never ending job !

Every CRT Television saved let revive knowledge, thoughts, moments of the past life which will never return again.........

Many contemporary "televisions" (more correctly named as displays) would not have this level of staying power, many would ware out or require major services within just five years or less and of course, there is that perennial bug bear of planned obsolescence where components are deliberately designed to fail and, or manufactured with limited edition specificities..... and without considering........picture......sound........quality........

..............The bitterness of poor quality is remembered long after the sweetness of todays funny gadgets low price has faded from memory........ . . . . . .....
Don't forget the past, the end of the world is upon us! Pretty soon it will all turn to dust!

Have big FUN ! !
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©2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 Frank Sharp - You do not have permission to copy photos and words from this blog, and any content may be never used it for auctions or commercial purposes, however feel free to post anything you see here with a courtesy link back, btw a link to the original post here , is mandatory.
All sets and apparates appearing here are property of
Engineer Frank Sharp. NOTHING HERE IS FOR SALE !

Thursday, July 12, 2012

NORDMENDE SPECTRA SK2-COLOR TP9746 CHASSIS F5TT CRT TUBE VIDEOCOLOR A67-615X PRECISION IN LINE (P.I.L.)







Videocolor was a fabricant of Electronic components in Anagni (Italy).


Was formed from an Italian CRT Fabricant called ERGON which was sold to Thomson in 1971 and the technology further called PIL (Precision In Line) was produced by a collaboration with RCA. (ERGON S.P.A., ANAGNI, FROSINONE).

They have patented several technologyes like the LICHT-KOLLIMATOR and  various methods to improve the fabrication of shadowmasks in CRT Tubes like the invention of a process of manufacturing a cathode-ray tube (CRT) having an anti-glare, anti-static, dark coating on an external surface of a faceplate panel thereof, and more particularly, to the formulation of such a coating.
Further Inventions were related to inventions formulated for the control of electron beam for adjustment of, for example, static convergence and/or purity in a picture tube and others invention relates to a shadow mask or color selection electrode for a color television picture tube, as well as the support frame making it possible to stiffen or rigidify the mask.

Videocolor CRTs were widely used by many fabricants on European scale and even around the world.


Example of Videocolor CRTs were the P.I.L. (Precision In Line) the PIL S4  the PIL PLANAR the PIL MP the PIL FS10.......


In 2005 Videocolor was sold to Videocon An Indian monkeys dotheads conglomerate (WTF !) wich has converted it to Plasma Lcd (cheapshit  idiotic Crap) manufacturing, resulting in a total FAIL !!

Now Videocolor has Stopped the production, it's gone (Forever-dead) !!








In-line electron gun VIDEOCOLOR (RCA) CRT TUBE
PRECISION IN LINE TECHNOLOGY p.i.l. :
The three co-planar beams of an in-line gun are converged near the screen of a cathode ray tube by means of two plate-like grids transverse to the beam paths and having corresponding apertures for the three beams. The three beam apertures of the first grid are aligned with the three beam paths. The two outer beam apertures of the second grid are offset outwardly relative to the beam paths to produce the desired convergence. The three sets of apertures also provide separate focusing fields for the three beams. The second plate-like grid is formed with a barrel shape, concave toward the first grid, to minimize elliptical distortion of beam spots on the screen due to crowding of the adjacent focusing fields. Each of the two outer beams is partially shielded from the magnetic flux of the deflecting yoke by means of a magnetic ring surrounding the beam path in the deflection zone, to equalize the size of the rasters scanned on the screen by the middle and outer beams. Other magnetic pieces are positioned on opposite sides of the path of the middle beam, to enhance one deflection field while reducing the transverse deflection field for that beam.

1. In a color picture tube including an evacuated envelope comprising a faceplate and a neck connected by a funnel, a mosaic color phosphor screen on the inner surface of said faceplate, a multiapertured color selection electrode spaced from said screen, an in-line electron gun mounted in said neck for generating and directing three electron beams along co-planar paths through said electrode to said screen, and a deflection zone, located in the vicinity of the junction between said neck and said funnel, wherein said beams are subjected to vertical and horizontal magnetic deflection fields during operation of said tube for scanning said beams horizontally and vertically over said screen; said electron gun comprising: 2. The structure of claim 1, wherein said electron gun further comprises a pair of magnetic elements positioned in said deflection zone on opposite sides of the middle beam path and in a plane transverse to the common plane of said paths for enhancing the magnetic deflection field in said middle beam path transverse to said common plane and for reducing the magnetic deflection field in said middle beam path along said common plane, thereby increasing the dimension of the raster scanned by the middle beam in said common plane while reducing the dimension of said raster in said transverse plane. 3. In a color picture tube including an evacuated envelope comprising a faceplate and a neck connected by a funnel, a mosaic color phosphor screen on the inner surface of said faceplate, a multi-apertured color selection electrode spaced from said screen, an in-line electron gun mounted in said neck for generating and directing three electron beams along co-planar paths through said electrode to said screen, and a deflection zone, located in the vicinity of the junction between said neck and said funnel, wherein said beams are subjected to vertical and horizontal magnetic deflection fields during operation of said tube for scanning said beams horizontally and vertically over said screen, and wherein the eccentrity of the outer ones of said beams in the deflection fields causes the sizes of the rasters scanned by the outer beams to tend to be larger than the size of the raster scanned by a middle beam, said electron gun comprising; 4. The tube as defined in claim 3, including two small discs of magnetic material located at the fringe of the deflection zone on opposite sides of the middle beam transverse to the plane of the three beams, whereby the magnetic flux on the middle beam transverse to the plane of the three beams is enhanced and the flux in the plane of the three beams is decreased thereby increasing the middle beam dimension in the plane of the three beams while reducing the middle beam dimension in the plane of the three beams.
Description:
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to an improved in-line electron gun for a cathode ray tube, particularly a shadow mask type color picture tube. The new gun is primarily intended for use in a color tube having a line type color phosphor screen, with or without light absorbing guard bands between the color phosphor lines, and a mask having elongated apertures or slits. However, the gun could be used in the well known dot-type color tube having a screen of substantially circular color phosphor dots and a mask with substantially circular apertures.

An in-line electron gun is one designed to generate or initiate at least two, and preferably three, electron beams in a common plane, for example, by at least two cathodes, and direct those beams along convergent paths in that plane to a point or small area of convergence near the tube screen. Various ways have been proposed for causing the beams to converge near the screen. For example, the gun may be designed to initially aim the beams, from the cathodes, towards convergence at the screen, as shown in FIG. 4 of Moodey U.S. Pat. No. 2,957,106, wherein the beam apertures in the gun electrodes are aligned along convergent paths.

In order to avoid wide spacings between the cathodes, which are undesirable in a small neck tube designed for high deflection angles, it is preferable to initiate the beams along substantially parallel (or even divergent) paths and provide some means, either internally or externally of the tube, for converging the beams near the screen. Magnet poles and/or electrostatic deflecting plates for converging in-line beams are disclosed in Francken U.S. Pat. No. 2,849,647, Gundert et al. U.S. Pat. No. 2,859,378 and Benway U.S. Pat No. 2,887,598.

The Moodey patent referred to above also includes an embodiment, shown in FIG. 2 and described in lines 4 to 23 of column 5, wherein an in-line gun for two co-planar beams comprises two spaced cathodes, a control grid plate and an accelerating grid plate each having two apertures aligned respectively with the two cathodes (as in FIG. 2) to initiate two parallel co-planar beam paths, and two spaced-apart beam focusing and accelerating electrodes of cylindrical form. The focusing electrode nearest to the first accelerating grid plate is described as having two beam apertures that are offset toward the axis of the gun from the corresponding apertures of the adjacent accelerating grid plate, to provide an asymmetric electrostatic field in the path of each beam for deflecting the beam from its initial path into a second beam path directed toward the tube axis.

Netherlands U.S. Pat. application No. 6902025, published Aug. 11, 1970 teaches that astigmatic aberration resulting in elliptical distortion of the focused screen spots of the two off-axis beams from an in-line gun, caused by the eccentricity of the in-line beams in a common focusing field between two hollow cylindrical focusing electrodes, can be partially corrected by forming the adjacent edges of the cylindrical electrodes with a sinusoidal contour including four sine waves. A similar problem is solved in a different manner in applicant's in-line gun.

Another problem that exists in a cathode ray tube having an in-line gun is a coma distortion wherein the sizes of the rasters scanned on the screen by a conventional external magnetic deflection yoke are different, because of the eccentricity of the two outer beams with respect to the center of the yoke. Messineo et al. U.S. Pat. No. 3,164,737 teaches that a similar coma distortion caused by using different beam velocities can be corrected by use of a magnetic shield around the path of one or more beams in a delta type gun. Barkow U.S. Pat. No. 3,196,305 teaches the use of magnetic enhancers adjacent to the path of one or more beams in a delta gun, for the same purpose. Krackhardt et al. U.S. Pat. No. 3,534,208 teaches the use of a magnetic shield around the middle one of three in-line beams for coma correction.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

In accordance with one aspect of the invention, at least two electron beams are generated along co-planar paths toward the screen of a cathode ray tube, e.g., a shadow mask type color picture tube, and the beams are converged near the screen by asymmetric electric fields established in the paths of two beams by two plate-like grids positioned between the beam generating means and the screen and having corresponding apertures suitably related to the beam paths. The apertures in the first grid (nearest the cathodes) are aligned with the beam paths. Two apertures in the second grid (nearest the screen) are offset outwardly with respect to the beam paths to produce the desired asymmetric fields. In the case of three in-line beams, the two outer apertures are offset, and the middle apertures of the two grids are aligned with each other. The pairs of corresponding apertures also provide separate focusing fields for the beams. In order to minimize elliptical distortion of one or more of the focused beam spots on the screen due to crowding of adjacent beam focusing fields, at least a portion of the second grid may be substantially cylindrically curved in a direction transverse to the common plane of the beams, and concave to the first grid. Each of the two outer beam paths of a three beam gun may be partially shielded from the magnetic flux of the deflection yoke by means of a magnetic ring surrounding each beam in the deflection zone of the tube, to minimize differences in the size of the rasters scanned on the screen by the middle and outer beams. Further correction for coma distortion may be made by positioning magnetic pieces on opposite sides of the middle beam path for enhancing one field and reducing the field transverse thereto.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a plan view, partly in axial section, of a shadow mask color picture tube in which the present invention is incorporated;

FIG. 2 is a front end view of the tube of FIG. 1 showing the rectangular shape;

FIG. 3 is an axial section view of the electron gun shown in dotted lines in FIG. 1, taken along the line 3--3 of that figure;

FIG. 4 is an axial section view of the electron gun taken along the line 4--4 of FIG. 3;

FIG. 5 is a rear end view of the electron gun of FIG. 4, taken in the direction of the arrows 5--5 thereof;

FIG. 6 is a transverse view, partly in section, taken along the line 6--6 of FIG. 4;

FIG. 7 is a front end view of the electron gun of FIGS. 1 and 4;

FIG. 8 is a similar end view with the final element (shield cup) removed; and

FIGS. 9 and 10 are schematic views showing the focusing and converging electric fields associated with two pairs of beam apertures in FIG. 4.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT

FIG. 1 is a plan view of a 17V-90° rectangular color picture tube, for example, having a glass envelope 1 made up of a rectangular (FIG. 2) faceplate panel or cap 3 and a tubular neck 5 connected by a rectangular funnel 7. The panel 3 comprises a viewing faceplate 9 and a peripheral flange or side wall 11 which is sealed to the funnel 7. A mosaic three-color phosphor screen 13 is carried by the inner surface of the faceplate 9. The screen is preferably a line screen with the phosphor lines extending substantially parallel to the minor axis Y-Y of the tube (normal to the plane of FIG. 1). A multi-apertured color selection electrode or shadow mask 15 is removably mounted, by conventional means, in predetermined spaced relation to the screen 13. An improved in-line electron gun 19, shown schematically by dotted lines in FIG. 1, is centrally mounted within the neck 5 to generate and direct three electron beams 20 along co-planar convergent paths through the mask 15 to the screen 13.

The tube of FIG. 1 is designed to be used with an external magnetic deflection yoke, such as the yoke 21 schematically shown, surrounding the neck 5 and funnel 7, in the neighborhood of their junction, for subjecting the three beams 20 to vertical and horizontal magnetic flux, to scan the beams horizontally and vertically in a rectangular raster over the screen 13. The initial plane of deflection (at zero deflection) is shown by the line P--P in FIG. 1 at about the middle of the yoke 21. Because of fringe fields, the zone of deflection of the tube extends axially, from the yoke 21, into the region of the gun 19. For simplicity, the actual curvature of the deflected beam paths 20 in the deflection zone is not shown in FIG. 1.

The in-line gun 19 of the present invention is designed to generate and direct three equally-spaced co-planar beams along initially-parallel paths to a convergence plane C--C, and then along convergent paths through the deflection plane to the screen 13. In order to use the tube with a line-focus yoke 21 specially designed to maintain the three in-line beams substantially converged at the screen without the application of the usual dynamic convergence forces, which causes degrouping misregister of the beam spots with the phosphor elements of the screen, the gun is preferably designed with samll spacings between the beam paths at the convergence plane C--C to produce a still smaller spacing, usually called the S value, between the outer beam paths and the central axis A--A of the tube, in the deflection plane P--P. The convergence angle of the outer beams with the central axis is arc tan e/c+d, where c is the axial distance between the convergence plane C--C and the deflection plane P--P, d is the distance between the deflection plane and the screen 13, and e is the spacing between the outer beam paths and the central axis A--A in the convergence plane C--C. The approximate dimensions in FIG. 1 are c = 2.7 inches, d = 9.8 inches, e = 0.200 inch (200 mils), and hence, the convergence angle is 55 minutes and s = 157 mils.

The details of the improved gun 19 are shown in FIGS. 3 through 8. The gun comprises two glass support rods 23 on which the various electrodes are mounted. These electrodes include three equally-spaced co-planar cathodes 25, one for each beam, a control grid electrode 27, a screen grid electrode 29, a first accelerating and focusing electrode 31, a second accelerating and focusing electrode 33, and a shield cup 35, spaced along the glass rods 23 in the order named.

Each cathode 25 comprises a cathode sleeve 37, closed at the forward end by a cap 39 having an end coating 41 of electron emissive material and a cathode support tube 43. The tubes 43 are supported on the rods 23 by four straps 45 and 47 (FIG. 6). Each cathode 25 is indirectly heated by a heater coil 49 positioned within the sleeve 37 and having legs 51 welded to heater straps 53 and 55 mounted by studs 57 on the rods 23 (FIG. 5). The control and screen grid electrodes 27 and 29 are two closely-spaced (about 9 mils) flat plates having three pairs of small (about 25 mils) aligned apertures 59 centered with the cathode coatings 41 to initiate three equally-spaced coplanar beam paths 20 extending toward the screen 13. Preferably, the initial paths 20a and 20b are substantially parallel and about 200 mils apart, with the middle path 20a coincident with the central axis A--A.

Electrode 31 comprises first and second cup-shaped members 61 and 63, respectively, joined together at their open ends. The first cup-shaped member 61 has three medium-sized (about 60 mils) apertures 75 close to grid electrode 29 and aligned respectively with the three beam paths 20, as shown in FIG. 4. The second cup-shaped member 63 has three large (about 160 mils) apertures 65 also aligned with the three beam paths. Electrode 33 is also cup-shaped and comprises a base plate portion 60 positioned close (about 60 mils) to electrode 31 and a side wall or flange 71 extending forward toward the tube screen. The base portion 69 is formed with three apertures 73, which are preferably slightly larger (about 172 mils) than the adjacent apertures 67 of electrode 31. The middle aperture 73a is aligned with the adjacent middle aperture 67a (and middle beam path 20a) to provide a substantially symmetrical beam focusing electric field between apertures 67a and 73a when electrodes 31 and 33 are energized at different voltages. The two outer apertures 73b are slightly offset outwardly with respect to the corresponding outer apertures 67b, to provide an asymmetrical electric field between each pair of outer apertures when electrodes 31 and 33 are energized, to individually focus each outer beam 20b near the screen, and also to deflect each beam, toward the middle beam, to a common point of convergence with the middle beam near the screen. In the example shown, the offset of each beam aperture 73b may be about 6 mils.

The approximate configuration of the electric fields associated with the middle and outer apertures are shown in FIGS. 9 and 10, respectively, which show the equipotential lines 74 rather than the lines of force. Assuming an accelerating field, as shown by the + signs, the left half 75 (on the left side of the central mid-plane) of each field is converging and the right half 77 is diverging. Since the electrons are being accelerated, they spend more time in the converging field than in the diverging field, and hence, the beam experiences a net converging or focusing force in each of FIGS. 9 and 10. Since the middle beam 20a passes centrally through a symmetrical field in FIG. 9, it continues in the same direction without deflection. In FIG. 10, the outer beam 20b traverses the left half 75 of the field centrally, but enters the right half 77 off-axis. Since this is the diverging part of the field, and the electrons are subjected to field forces perpendicular to the equipotential lines or surfaces 74, the beam 20b is deflected toward the central axis (downward in FIG. 10) as it traverses the right half 77, in addition to being focused. The angle of deflection, or convergence, of the beam 20b can be determined by the choice of the offset of the apertures 73 b and the voltages applied to the two electrodes 31 and 33. For the example given, with an offset of 6 mils, electrode 33 would be connected to the ultor or screen voltage, about 25 K.V., and electrode 31 would be operated at about 17 to 20 percent of the ultor voltage, adjusted for best focus. The object distance of each focus lens, that is, the distance between the first cross-over of the beams near the screen grid 29 and the lens, is about 0.500 inch; and the image distance from the lens to the screen is about 12.5. inches.

The above-described outward offset of the beam apertures to produce beam convergence is contrary to the teaching of FIG. 3 of the Moodey patent described above, and hence, is not suggested by the Moodey patent.

The focusing apertures 67 and 73 are made as large as possible, to minimize spherical aberration, and as close together as possible, to obtain a desirable small spacing between beam paths. As a result, the fringe portions of adjacent fields interact to produce some astigmatic distortion of the focusing fields, which produces some ellipticity of the normally-circular focused beam spots on the screen. In a three-beam in-line gun, this distortion is greater for the middle beam than for the two outer beams, because both sides of the middle beam field are affected. In order to compensate for this effect, and minimize the elliptical distortion of the beam spots, the wall 69, or at least the surface thereof facing the electrode 31, is curved substantially cylindrically, concave to electrode 31, in the direction normal or transverse to the plane of the three beams, as shown at 79 in FIG. 3. Preferably, this curvature is greater for the middle beam path than for the outer beam paths, hence, the wall 69 may be made barrel-shaped. In the example given, the barrel shape may have a stave radius of 8 inches (FIG. 4) and a hoop radius of 2.28 inches (FIG. 3), with the curvature 79 terminating at the outer edges of the outer apertures 73b.

The shield cup 35 comprises a base portion 81, attached to the open end of the flange 71 of electrode 33, and a tubular wall 83 surrounding the three beam paths 20. The base portion 81 is formed with a large middle beam aperture 85 (about 172 mils) and two smaller outer beam apertures 87 (about 100 mils) aligned, respectively, with the three initial beam paths 20a and 20b.

In order to compensate for the coma distortion wherein the sizes of the rasters scanned on the screen by the external magnetic deflection yoke are different for the middle and outer beams of the three-beam gun, due to the eccentricity of the outer beams in the yoke field, the electron gun is provided with two shield rings 89 of high magnetic permeability, e.g., an alloy of 52 percent nickel and 48 percent iron, known as 52 metal, are attached to the base 81, with each ring concentrically surrounding one of the outer apertures 87, as shown in FIGS. 4 and 7. These magnetic shields 89 by-pass a small portion of the fringe deflection fields in the path of the outer beams, thereby making a slight reduction in the rasters scanned by the outer beams on the screen. The shield rings 89 may have an outer diameter of 150 mils, an inner diameter of 100 mils, and a thickness of 10 mils.

A further correction for this coma distortion is made by mounting two small discs 91 of magnetic material, e.g., that referred to above, on each side of the middle beam path 20a. These discs 91 enhance the magnetic flux on the middle beam transverse to the plane of the three beams and decrease the flux in that plane, in the manner described in the Barkow patent referred to above. The discs 91 may be rings having an outer diameter of 80 mils, an inner diameter of 30 mils, and a thickness of 10 mils.

Each of the electrodes 27, 29, 31 and 33 are mounted on the two glass rods 23 by edge portions embedded in the glass. The two rods 23 extend forwardly beyond the mounting portion of electrode 33, as shown in FIG. 3. In order to shield the exposed ends 93 of the glass rods 23 from the electron beams, the shield cup 35 is formed with inwardly-extending recess portions 95 into which the rod ends 93 extend. The electron gun 19 is mounted in the neck 5 at one end by the leads (not shown) from the various electrodes to the stem terminals 97, and at the other end by conventional metal bulb spacers (not shown) which also connect the final electrode 33 to the usual conducting coating on the inner wall of the funnel 7.

VIDEOCOLOR A56-615X / A67-615X P.I.L. (Precision In Line) CRT TUBE ELECTRON GUN STRUCTURE TECHNOLOGY :
Plural gun cathode ray tube having parallel plates adjacent grid apertures:
n the tube gun, at least one of the two electrode grids nearest the screen has extensions on opposite sides of its apertures to distort an electrostatic field formed by the grid to at least partially compensate for distortion of an electron beam in the magnetic deflection field.

[ Inventors:Evans Jr. Deceased., John (LATE OF Lancaster, PA) ]

1. In a cathode-ray tube including an evacuated envelope comprising a faceplate and a neck connected by a funnel, a color phosphor screen on the inner surface of said faceplate, a multiapertured color selection electrode spaced from said screen, and electron gun means mounted in said neck for generating and directing a plurality of electron beams along paths through said electrode to said screen, said gun means including a plurality of cathodes and a plurality of grids spaced between said cathodes and said selection electrode, each of said grids having a plurality of apertures therein corresponding to the number of electron beams, and two of said grids forming a plurality of focusing fields corresponding to the number of electron beams, the improvement comprising,
at least one of said grids forming a plurality of focusing fields having attached parallel flat plates positioned on opposite sides of its apertures on its screen side, said plates being positioned to distort said plurality of focusing fields
to form a noncircular electron beam.


2. In a cathode-ray tube including an evacuated envelope comprising a faceplate and a neck connected by a funnel, a mosaic color phosphor screen on the inner surface of said faceplate, a multiapertured color selection electrode spaced from said screen, and in-line electron gun means mounted in said neck for generating and directing a plurality of electron beams along co-planar paths through apertures in said electrode to said screen, said gun means including a plurality of cathodes and a plurality of apertured grids spaced between said cathode and said selection electrode, two of said grids forming a focusing field, wherein said beams are subjected to vertical and horizontal magnetic deflection fields during operation of said tube for scanning said beams horizontally and vertically over said screen within a deflection zone located in the vicinity of the junction between said neck and said funnel, said electron beams tend to be distorted into a horizontally elliptical shape when they strike the screen as deflection angle increases by the magnetic deflection fields the improvement comprising,
at least one of said grids forming a focusing field having attached parallel flat plates positioned on opposite sides of its apertures on its screen side,
whereby the focusing field is distorted to at least partially compensate for distortion of the beam in the magnetic deflection field.


3. The tube as defined in claim 2 wherein said at least one grid is the second closest grid to the screen.

4. The tube as defined in claim 3 wherein said plates are positioned one between each pair of adjacent apertures and one outside of each outer aperture of the grid second closest to the screen.

5. The tube as defined in claim 2 wherein said at least one grid is the closest grid to the screen.

6. The tube as defined in claim 5 wherein said plates are positioned above and below the apertures of the grid closest to the screen.

Description:
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to an improvement in electron guns for cathode ray tubes. The improved gun is primarily intended for use in a color tube having a line type color phosphor screen, with or without light absorbing guard bands between the color phosphor lines, and a mask having elongated apertures or slits. However, the gun improvement could be used in the well known dot-type color tube having a screen of substantially circular color phosphor dots and a mask with substantially circular apertures. The invention may also be applied to other types of cathode-ray tubes such as penetration or focus-grill tubes.
An in-line electron gun is one designed to generate or initiate at least two, and preferably three, electron beams in a common plane, for example, by at least two cathodes, and direct those beams along convergent paths in that plane to a point or small area of convergence near the tube screen.
There has been a general trend toward color picture tubes with greater deflection angles in order to provide shorter tubes. In the transition to a wider deflection tube, e.g., 90° deflection to 110° deflection, it has been found that the electron beam becomes increasingly more distorted as it is scanned toward the outer portions of the screen. Such distortions may be due, at least in part, to variations in the deflection field formed by a yoke mounted on the tube. It is the purpose of the present invention to at least partially compensate for these distortions.
Although the present invention may be applied to several different types of tubes, it is hereinafter described as an improvement on a tube having an in line gun, such as disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,772,554 issued to Hughes on Nov. 13, 1973. For the purpose of gun construction and operation, U.S. Pat. No. 3,722,554 is hereby incorporated by reference. Additionally, for the purpose of yoke construction and operation U.S. Pat. No. 3,721,930 issued to Barkow et al on Mar. 20, 1973 also hereby incorporated by reference as describing a representative yoke.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
A cathode-ray tube comprises an evacuated envelope, a cathodoluminescent screen within the envelope and electron gun means for generating and directing at least one electron beam toward the screen. The gun means includes at least one cathode and a plurality of apertured grids spaced between the cathode and screen. At least one of the apertured grids has extensions located on opposite sides of an aperture therein. These extensions cause distortion of the electrostatic field formed by the grid to form a noncircular electron beam.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
FIG. 1 is a plan view, partly in axial section, of a shadow mask color picture tube in which the present invention is incorporated;
FIGS. 2 and 3 are schematic views showing beam spot shapes without and with the invention respectively;
FIGS. 4 and 5 are enlarged axial section views of the electron gun shown in dotted lines in FIG. 1 taken along mutually perpendicular planes axially through the gun;
FIG. 6 is a perspective view of an electrode of the gun of FIGS. 4 and 5 including horizontally oriented slats or plates;
FIG. 7 is a perspective view of another electrode embodiment including vertically oriented plates;
FIG. 8 is a schematic view illustrating the focusing and converging electric fields associated with a pair of beam apertures without using plates;
FIG. 9 is a schematic side view showing the focusing and converging electric fields associated with a pair of beam apertures utilizing horizontal plates;
FIG. 10 is a schematic top view showing the focusing and converging electric field associated with a pair of beam apertures utilizing vertical plates.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT
FIG. 1 is a plan view of a rectangular color picture tube, having a glass envelope 1 comprising a rectangular panel or cap 3 and a tubular neck 5 connected by a rectangular funnel 7. The panel 3 comprises a viewing faceplate 9 and a peripheral flange or sidewall which is sealed to the funnel 7. A mosaic three-color phosphor screen 13 is located on the inner surface of the faceplate 9. As shown in FIGS. 2 and 3, the screen 13 is preferably a line screen i.e., comprised of an array of parallel phosphor lines or strips, with the phosphor lines extending substantially parallel to the vertical minor axis Y--Y of the tube. A multiapertured color selection electrode or shadow mask 15 is removably mounted, by conventional means, in predetermined spaced relationship to the screen 13. An improved in-line electron gun 19, shown schematically by dotted lines in FIG. 1, is mounted within the neck 5 to generate and direct three electron beams 20B, 20R and 20G along co-planar convergent paths through the mask 15 to the screen 13.
The tube of FIG. 1 is designed to be used with an external magnetic deflection yoke 21, surrounding the neck 5 and funnel 7, in the vicinity of their junction. When appropriate voltages are applied to the yoke 21, the three beams 20B, 20R and 20G are subjected to vertical and horizontal magnetic fields that cause the beams to scan horizontally and vertically in a rectangular raster over the screen 13.
The initial plane of deflection (at zero deflection) is shown by the line P--P in FIG. 1 at about the middle of the yoke 21. Because of fringe fields, the zone of deflection of the tube extends axially, from the yoke 21, into the region of the gun 19. For simplicity, the actual curvature of the deflected beam paths 20 in the deflection zone is not shown in FIG. 1.
FIGS. 2 and 3 are views of the tube screen 13 showing electron beam spot shapes as a beam 20R strikes the screen without and with the present invention, respectively. As shown in FIG. 2, without the present invention the shape of the electron beam at the center of the screen is substantially round but has a horizontally elliptical or elongated shape at the sides of the screen. Horizontal ellipticity is defined as an ellipse having its major axis horizontal.
This elongation of the beam is undesirable because of its adverse effect on video resolution. The elongation occurs because the beam is under-focused in the horizontal dimension. By using the present invention, however, the shape of the beam at the sides of the screen is made substantially rounder or at least less elongated in the horizontal direction. The compensation that makes the beam rounder at the edges, however, may make the beam at the center of the screen vertically elongated, i.e. elliptical with the major axis of the ellipse vertical. This vertical ellipticity causes no resolution problem since vertical resolution is limited by the number of scan lines.
The horizontal ellipticity problem is one encountered with some yokes, such as the self-converging yoke disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,721,930, when designed for wide-angle (e.g. 90°, 110°) deflection. Because of tube geometry, deflection yokes used with horizontally inline circular beams and designed to produce self-convergence along the horizontal axis of the tube must have a deflection field which diverges the beams as horizontal deflection angle increases. This horizontal divergence is achieved with a yoke capable of forming an astigmatic field, that, while diverging the beams in the horizontal plane with horizontal deflection, also causes vertical convergence of the electrons within each individual beam. Taken alone, this vertical convergence of electrons in each beam has no effect on horizontal beam spacing, however, the astigmatic field also diverges or defocuses each individual beam horizontally as it converges or focuses it vertically. A typical resultant electron beam spot produced at the center of the screen on a 25V°-110° in-line tube when subjected to an astigatic field is a round spot 4.6 mm. in diameter. However, corner spots are elongated in the horizontal direction having a horizontal length of 7.9 mm. and a vertical height of 2.7 mm. The corner spot ellipticity is thus 2.9/1.0.
The horizontal dimension of the electron beam spot can be reduced by increasing the focus voltage, however, such voltage adjustment has an adverse effect on the beam in the vertical direction causing it to be over focussed vertically, thereby degrading vertical video resolution. Adjustment of the focus voltage alone does not provide an acceptable electron spot. Therefore, a change in focus voltage must be accompanied by some other means or method that will alter the shape of the electron beam. A means for providing such alteration includes providing sufficient astigmatism in the electron gun so that a focus voltage can be obtained that provides optimum focusing of the electron beam in both the vertical and horizontal directions. Such optimum focus voltage may be compromised between the ideal voltages required for perfect focusing in each of the two orthogonal directions. With focus voltage set to provide optimum focus at the edge of the screen, the undeflected spot at the center of the screen becomes vertically elongated. In effect then, the present invention is a structure which provides sufficient astigmatism in the electron gun to reduce the beam spot distortion problem at the edges of the screen caused by the yoke by providing a compensating opposite distortion in the gun in the form of a preshaping of the beam before it enters the yoke field. This preshaping involves somewhat compromising the spot shape at the center of the screen.
The details of the improved gun 19 are shown in FIGS. 4, 5 and 6. For illustration, the inventive improvement is shown as being added to the gun disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,773,554. The gun 19 comprises two glass support rods 23 on which the various grid electrodes are mounted. These electrodes include three equally-spaced co-planar cathodes 25 (one for each beam), a control grid electrode 27, a screen grid electrode 29, a first accelerating and focusing electrode 31, a second accelerating and focusing electrode 33, and a shield cup 35. All of these components are spaced along the glass rods 23 in the order named.
Each cathode 25 comprises a cathode sleeve 37, closed at the forward end by a cap 39 having an end coating 41 of electron emissive material. Each sleeve is supported in a cathode support tube 43. The tubes 43 are supported on the rods 23 by four straps 45 and 47. Each cathode 25 is indirectly heated by a heater coil 49 positioned within the sleeve 37 and having legs 51 welded to heater straps 53 and 55 mounted by studs 57 on the rods 23.
The control and screen grid electrodes 27 and 29 are two closely-spaced (about 0.23 mm. apart) flat plates, each having three apertures 59G, 59R and 59B and 60G, 60R and 60B, respectively, centered with the cathode coatings 41 and aligned with the apertures of the other along a central beam path 20R and two outer beam paths 20G and 20B extending toward the screen 13. The outer beam paths 20G and 20B are equally spaced from the central beam path 20R. Preferably, the initial portions of the beam paths 20G, 20R and 20B are substantially parallel and about 5 gm. apart, with the middle path 20R coincident with the central axis A--A.
The first accelerating and focusing electrode 31 comprises first and second cup-shaped members 61 and 63, respectively, joined together at their open ends. The first cup-shaped member 61 has three medium sized (about 1.5 mm.) apertures 65G, 65R and 65B close to the grid electrode 29 and aligned respectively with the three beam paths 20G, 20R and 20B, as shown in FIG. 5. The second cup-shaped member 63 has three large (about 4 mm.) apertures 67G, 67R and 67B also aligned with the three beam paths.
The second accelerating and focusing electrode 33 is also cup-shaped and comprises a base plate portion 69 positioned close (about 1.5 mm) to the first accelerating electrode 31 and a side wall or flange 71 extending forward toward the tube screen. The base portion 69 is formed with three apertures 73G, 73R and 73B which are preferably slightly larger (about 4.4 mm) than the adjacent apertures 67G, 67R and 67B of electrode 31. The middle aperture 73R is aligned with the adjacent middle aperture 67R (and middle beam path 20R) to provide a substantially symmetrical beam focusing electric field between apertures 67R and 73R when electrodes 31 and 33 are energized at different voltages. The two outer apertures 73G and 73B are slightly offset outwardly with respect to the corresponding outer apertures 67G and 67B, to provide an asymmetrical electric field between each pair of outer apertures when electrodes 31 and 33 are energized, to individually focus each outer beam 20G and 20B near the screen, and also to deflect each outer beam toward the middle beam 20R to a common point of convergence with the middle beam near the screen. In the example shown, the offset of the beam apertures 73G and 73B may be about 0.15 mm.
In order to provide correction for the aforementioned beam flattening as horizontal deflection angle is increased, each beam is predistorted in the gun so that it is vertically defocused at the center of the screen resulting in vertical elongation of the undeflected beam spot. This predistortion, or pre-shaping, of the beams is accomplished by the inclusion of horizontal parallel plates positioned on opposite sides of each beam and extending toward the screen from one of the focusing electrodes. In the embodiment shown in FIGS. 4, 5 and 6, two horizontally oriented parallel slats or plates 75 are attached to an inner wall of the cup-shaped second accelerating and focusing electrode 33. The plates 75 are coextensive with and separated by the electrode apertures 73G, 73R and 73B. The purpose of so positioning the plates 75 is to cause defocusing about vertical axes passing through each of the apertures 73G, 73R and 73B.
Alternately, rather than defocusing the focusing field about a vertical axis, the focusing field can be overfocused or strengthened about a horizontal axis. Such strengthening can be accomplished by placement of vertically oriented plates 77 on opposite sides of each aperture in the cup-shaped member 63 of the first accelerating and focusing electrode 31 as shown in FIG. 7.
The concept of the present invention can be better understood with reference to the schematics of FIGS. 8, 9, and 10. FIG. 8 illustrates a vertical cross-section of an electron lens of the prior art formed by the two electrodes 33 and 66 without the plates 75. Electron lens equipotential lines are shown and the effect of the electron lens on two electron paths 79 and 81 is illustrated. Electron path 79 is on the center line of the lens and electron path 81 is off-center. The electron lens has no effect on the center electron path 79 but causes electrons in off-center paths to converge toward the center of the lens. When plates 75 are added to the electrode 33 the equipotential lines are stretched in the direction of the plates 75, as shown in FIG. 9, thereby defocusing or distorting the electrostatic field of the electron lens in the vertical plane passing through the electrodes. This distorting of the electron lens has no effect on the center electron path 79, but reduces the convergence of the off-centered electron paths 81 to the center of the lens. Since the plates 75 only affect an electron beam along the vertical axis, the distortion of the electron lens along this axis provides a planar defocusing which results in an electron beam that is vertically elongated.
In the alternate embodiment wherein vertical plates 77 are positioned between the apertures 67G, 67R and 67B in the electrode 31, the concept changes from defocusing vertically to increased focusing horizontally. As illustrated in FIG. 10, the addition of the plates 77 causes a concentration of equipotential lines which results in increased convergence of an off-centered electron beam path 83. This increased horizontal focusing provides a horizontal concentration of an electron beam so that the resultant beam is again vertically elongated.
Although the present invention has been described with respect to an in line electron gun, it is to be understood that the basic inventive concept of the present invention may also be applied to delta type electron guns, penetration tube guns and focus grill tube guns, to similarly shape electron beams.



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