Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

In Brief: On this site you will find pictures and information about some of the electronic, electrical and electrotechnical technology relics that the Frank Sharp Private museum has accumulated over the years .

Premise: There are lots of vintage electrical and electronic items that have not survived well or even completely disappeared and forgotten.

Or are not being collected nowadays in proportion to their significance or prevalence in their heyday, this is bad and the main part of the death land. The heavy, ugly sarcophagus; models with few endearing qualities, devices that have some over-riding disadvantage to ownership such as heavy weight,toxicity or inflated value when dismantled, tend to be under-represented by all but the most comprehensive collections and museums. They get relegated to the bottom of the wants list, derided as 'more trouble than they are worth', or just forgotten entirely. As a result, I started to notice gaps in the current representation of the history of electronic and electrical technology to the interested member of the public.


Following this idea around a bit, convinced me that a collection of the peculiar alone could not hope to survive on its own merits, but a museum that gave equal display space to the popular and the unpopular, would bring things to the attention of the average person that he has previously passed by or been shielded from. It's a matter of culture. From this, the Obsolete Technology Tellye Web Museum concept developed and all my other things too. It's an open platform for all electrical Electronic TV technology to have its few, but NOT last, moments of fame in a working, hand-on environment. We'll never own Colossus or Faraday's first transformer, but I can show things that you can't see at the Science Museum, and let you play with things that the Smithsonian can't allow people to touch, because my remit is different.

There was a society once that was the polar opposite of our disposable, junk society. A whole nation was built on the idea of placing quality before quantity in all things. The goal was not “more and newer,” but “better and higher" .This attitude was reflected not only in the manufacturing of material goods, but also in the realms of art and architecture, as well as in the social fabric of everyday life. The goal was for each new cohort of children to stand on a higher level than the preceding cohort: they were to be healthier, stronger, more intelligent, and more vibrant in every way.

The society that prioritized human, social and material quality is a Winner. Truly, it is the high point of all Western civilization. Consequently, its defeat meant the defeat of civilization itself.

Today, the West is headed for the abyss. For the ultimate fate of our disposable society is for that society itself to be disposed of. And this will happen sooner, rather than later.

OLD, but ORIGINAL, Well made, Funny, Not remotely controlled............. and not Made in CHINA.

How to use the site:

- If you landed here via any Search Engine, you will get what you searched for and you can search more using the search this blog feature provided by Google. You can visit more posts scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year,
or you can click on the main photo-page to start from the main page. Doing so it starts from the most recent post to the older post simple clicking on the Older Post button on the bottom of each page after reading , post after post.

You can even visit all posts, time to time, when reaching the bottom end of each page and click on the Older Post button.

- If you arrived here at the main page via bookmark you can visit all the site scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year pointing were you want , or more simple You can even visit all blog posts, from newer to older, clicking at the end of each bottom page on the Older Post button.
So you can see all the blog/site content surfing all pages in it.

- The search this blog feature provided by Google is a real search engine. If you're pointing particular things it will search IT for you; or you can place a brand name in the search query at your choice and visit all results page by page. It's useful since the content of the site is very large.

Note that if you don't find what you searched for, try it after a period of time; the site is a never ending job !

Every CRT Television saved let revive knowledge, thoughts, moments of the past life which will never return again.........

Many contemporary "televisions" (more correctly named as displays) would not have this level of staying power, many would ware out or require major services within just five years or less and of course, there is that perennial bug bear of planned obsolescence where components are deliberately designed to fail and, or manufactured with limited edition specificities..... and without considering........picture......sound........quality........

..............The bitterness of poor quality is remembered long after the sweetness of todays funny gadgets low price has faded from memory........ . . . . . .....
Don't forget the past, the end of the world is upon us! Pretty soon it will all turn to dust!

Have big FUN ! !
-----------------------

©2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 Frank Sharp - You do not have permission to copy photos and words from this blog, and any content may be never used it for auctions or commercial purposes, however feel free to post anything you see here with a courtesy link back, btw a link to the original post here , is mandatory.
All sets and apparates appearing here are property of
Engineer Frank Sharp. NOTHING HERE IS FOR SALE !

Monday, February 14, 2011

TELEFUNKEN PALCOLOR 6462J CHASSIS 615A1 INTERNAL VIEW.




































































































































The TELEFUNKEN CHASSIS 615A1 is a semi modular chassis type.

The basis of the TELEFUNKEN CHASSIS 615A1 is coming from TELEFUNKEN CHASSIS 714A From 1980 which you will see HERE !

Obviously the TELEFUNKEN CHASSIS 714A is higly different !

This type of chassis was fitted from 15 to 27 Inches screen formats and even in stereo versions !

When dismounted from the wooden cabinet it's a FLEXY monocarrier Chassis (Not a Flexy Girl Which is another thing !) ; since it has no metal bars soldered along his perimeter it's a very wobbling chassis.

This chassis was very reliable and durable but was suffering from a high rate of dry joint.
It runs very cold.

TDA1940 - SYNCHRONIZATION

TDA1870 - FRAME DEFLECTION


TELEFUNKEN  PALCOLOR  CHASSIS  615A Schaltnetzteil
 (AT 349354097), IN GERMAN:

1. Schaltnetzteil, insbesondere f·ur einen Fernsehempf·anger, mit einer Arbeitswicklung (5), einem Schalttransistor (6), einer R·uckkopplungswicklung (7) und einer Regelschaltung (ii) auf der Prim·arseite sowie mit Gleichrichtern (15,16, 20) zur Erzeugung von Betriebsspannungen (U11U2#U3) auf der Sekund·arseite eines Trenntransformators (1) gekenn zeichnet durch folgende Merkmale: a) An eine Wicklung (19) ist ein Thyristor (24) angeschlos sen, der f·ur die w·ahrend der siromf·uhrenden Phase der Schalttransistoren (6) an der Wicklung (19) auftreten de Spannung in Durchlassrichtung gepolt ist. b) An die Steuerelektrode des Thyristors (24) ist eine der Betriebsspannungen (U2) in solcher H·ohe angelegt, dass der Thyristor (24) im Normalbetrieb gesperrt bleibt und bei einem unzul·assigen Anstieg der Betriebs spannung (U3) z·undet.

2. Netzteil nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Betriebsspannung (U3) ·uber einen Spannungsteiler (25,26) an die Steuerelektrode des Thyristors (24) angelegt ist.

3. Netzteil nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Wicklung (19) eine Sekund·arwicklung des Trenntransforma tors (1) ist.


Description:
Schaltnetzteil, insbesondere f·ur einen Fernsehempf·anger
Bei Ger·aten der Nachrichtentechnik wie z.B. einem Fernsehempf·anger ist es bekannt, die f·ur die einzelnen Stufen notwendigen Betriebsspannungen mit einem Schaltnetzteil aus der Netzspannung zu erzeugen (Funkschau 1975, Heft 5, Seite 40-43). Ein Schaltnetzteil erm·oglicht die f·ur den Anschluss ·ausserer Ger·ate und f·ur die Massnahmen zur Schutzisolierung vorteilhafte galvanische Trennung der Empf·angerschaltung vom Netz. Da ein Schaltnetzteil mit einer gegen·uber der Netzfrequenz hohen Frequenz von ca. 30 kHz arbeitet, kann der zur galvanischen Trennung dienende Trenntransformator gegen·uber einem Netztrafo f·ur 50 Hz wesentlich kleiner und leichter ausgebildet sein. Durch mehrere Wicklungen oder Wicklungsabgriffe und angeschlossene Gleichrichter k·onnen auf der Sekund·arseite des Trenntransformators Betriebs~ spannungen unterschiedlicher Gr·osse und Polarit·at erzeugt werden.
Ein solches Schaltnetzteil enth·alt eine Regelschaltung zur Stabilisierung der Amplitude der auf der Sekund·arseite erzeugten Betriebsspannungen. In dieser Regelschaltung wird eine durch Gleichrichtung der Impulsspannung am Trafo gewonnene Stellgr·osse erzeugt und mit einer Bezugsspannung verglichen. In Abh·angigkeit von der Abweichung wird der Schaltzeitpunkt des auf der Prim·arseite vorgesehenen elektronischen Schalters so gesteuert, dass die Amplitude der erzeugten Betriebsspannungen konstant bleibt.
Bei einem solchen Schaltnetzteil kann die genannte Regelschaltung z.B. durch ein fehlerhaftes Bauteil ausfallen. Die Regelung der Amplitude der erzeugten Betriebsspannungen ist dann unkontrolliert. Die Betriebsspannungen k·onnen dann auf den doppelten oder dreifachen Wert ansteigen. Dadurch besteht die Gefahr, dass das Schaltnetzteil oder die an die Betriebsspannungen angeschlossenen Verbraucher wie z.B. der Heizfaden der Bildr·ohre oder der Zeilenendstufentransistor zerst·ort werden. Der Anstieg der Betriebsspannungen kann dar·uberhinaus einen Anstieg der im Fernsehempf·anger erzeugten Hochspannung und dadurch eine R·ontgenstrahlung ausl·osen.
Es ist auch ein Schaltnetzteil bekannt (DE-OS 27 27 332), bei dem zum Schutz gegen einen zu starken Anstieg der erzeugten Betriebsspannungen aus der Impulsspannung an der Prim·arseite des Trafos eine Stellgr·osse gewonnen wird, die beim ·Uberschreiten eines Schwellwertes den R·uckkopplungsweg unwirksam steuert. Durch die Unterbrechung des R·uckkopplungsweges kann das Schaltnetzteil nicht mehr schwingen, so dass in erw·unschter Weise auch keine Betriebsspannungen mehr erzeugt werden. Diese Schaltung erfordert jedoch eine Vielzahl von Bauteilen und ist daher relativ teuer.
Der Erfindung liegt die Aufgabe zugrunde, eine sicher wirkende Schutzschaltung mit verringertem Schaltungsaufwand gegen die oben beschriebenen Gefahren zu schaffen.
Diese Aufgabe wird durch die im Anspruch 1 beschriebene Erfindung gel·ost. Vorteilhafte Weiterbildungen der Erfindung sind in den Unteranspr·uchen beschrieben.
Die Erfindung beruht auf folgender ·Uberlegung: Der Schalttransistor auf der Prim·arseite wird von der prim·arseitigen R·uckkopplungswicklung w·ahrend seiner stromleitenden Phase mit einem Basisstrom angesteuert. Wenn jetzt eine Sekund·arwicklung w·ahrend dieser stromleitenden Phase stark belastet, z.B. ·uber den Thyristor kurzgeschlossen wird, bricht auch die Spannung an der prim·arseitigen R·uckkopplungswicklung zusammen. Diese Wicklung kann dann f·ur den Schalttransistor nicht mehr einen f·ur den leitenden Betrieb ausreichenden Basis strom liefern. Das Schaltnetzteil schwingt dann nicht mehr, so dass die sekund·arseitigen Betriebsspannungen in erw·unschter Weise zusammenbrechen. Der schaltungstechni- sche Aufwand ist gering. Er besteht vorzugsweise aus einem Thyristor und zwei Widerst·anden.
Ein Ausf·uhrungsbeispiel der Erfindung wird anhand der Zeichnung erl·autert. Darin zeigen Figur 1 ein erfindungsgem·ass ausgebildetes Schaltnetzteil und Figur 2 Kurven zur Erl·auterung der Wirkungsweise. Dabei zeigen die kleinen Buchstaben, an welchen Punkten in Figur 1 die Spannungen gem·ass Figur 2 stehen.
Das Schaltnetzteil gem·ass Figur 1 enth·alt auf der Prim·arseite des Trenntransformators 1 den Netzgleichrichter 2, den Ladekondensator 3, den Strom-Messwiderstand 4, die Prim·arwicklung 5 den Schalttransistor 6, die zur Schwingungserzeugung dienende R·uckkopplungswicklung 7, den zur Steuerung des Schalttransistors 6 dienenden Thyristor 8, die Regelwicklung 9, den zur Erzeugung der Regelspannung dienenden Gleichrichter 10 sowie die zur Stabilisierung der Betriebsspannungen dienende Regelschaltung 11 mit dem Transistor 12 und der eine Referenzspannung lieferndenZenerdiode 13. Die Sekund·arwicklung 14 liefert ·uber den Gleichrichter 15 eine erste Betriebsspannung U1 von 150 V. Ein Abgriff der Wicklung 14 liefert ·uber den Gleichrichter 16 eine zweite Betriebsspannung U2 von 12 V f·ur einen Fernbedienungsempf·anger.
Eine weitere Sekund·arwicklung 19 liefert ·uber den Gleichrichter 20 eine dritte Betriebsspannung U3 von 12 V. Die Polung der Wicklungen 14,19 und der Gleichrichter 15,16,20 ist derart, dass die Gleichrichter 15,16,20 w·ahrend der Sperrphase des Schalttransistors 6 durch die sekund·arseitig auftretenden Impulsspannungen leitend gesteuert sind und die angeschlossenen Ladekondensatoren aufladen.
An das untere Ende der Wicklung 19 ist zus·atzlich der Thyristor 24 angeschlossen. An die Steuerelektrode b des Thyristors 24 ist die Betriebs spannung U2 ·uber den Spannungsteiler 25,26 angelegt.
Die Wirkungsweise der Schaltung wird anhand der Figur 2 erl·autert. Es sei angenommen, dass das Schaltnetzteil im Zeitpunkt tl in Betrieb genommen wird. Mit der Diode 21 wird aus der Netzspannung am Punkt d ein positiver Impuls erzeugt. Dieser gelangt ·uber den Kondensator 23 auf die Basis des Schalttransistors 6 und steuert diesen leitend. Dadurch beginnt das Schaltnetzteil zu schwingen, wobei die Schwingung durch die R·uckkopplungswicklung 7 aufrechterhalten wird. Am Punkt a entsteht dann eine m·aanderf·ormige Wechselspannung mit einer Frequenz von etwa 25-30 kHz.
Die daraufhin in den Sekund·arwicklungen 14,19 erzeugten Impulse erzeugen in der beschriebenen Weise die Betriebsspannungen U1,U2,U3. Der Spannungsteiler 25,26 ist so bemessen, dass der Thyristor 24 gesperrt bleibt, d.h. die Spannung am Punkt 6 jst kleiner als 0,7 V. Der Thyristor 24 hat dann keine Wirkung. Dir Amplitude der Spannungen Ui,U2,U3 wird ·uber die Regelschaltung 11 stabilisiert.
Es sei jetzt angenommen, dass durch einen Fehler in der Regelschaltung 11, z.B. durch Ausfall eines Bauteiles, die Regelung zur Stabilisierung der Betriebsspannungen U1,U2,U3 nicht mehr wirkt und diese Betriebsspannungen stark ansteigen. Dadurch steigt auch die Spannung am Punkt b an.
Im Zeitpunkt t2 erreicht diese Spannung den Wert von 0,7 V, so dass der Thyristor 24 z·undet. Der untere Teil der Wicklung 19 ist jetzt praktisch kurzgeschlossen. Das Netzteil ist dadurch sekund·arseitig so stark belastet, dass die R·uck kopplungswicklung 7 keinen ausreichenden Basisstrom zur Steuerung des Schalttransistors 6 in seine stromleitende Phase mehr liefert. Im Zeitpunkt t2 bricht die Schwingung des Schaltnetzteiles ab, so dass auch die Wechselspannung am Punkt a auf null abf·allt. Den Ladekondensatoren der Gleichrichter 15,16,20 wird kein Strom mehr zugef·uhrt, so dass die Betriebspannungen U1,U2,U3 nicht weiter ansteigen k·onnen, sondern entsprechend den wirksamen Entladezeitkonstanten abfallen. Das Schaltnetzteil w·urde auf diese Weise an sich beliebig lange ausgeschaltet bleiben.
Im Zeitpunkt t3 erscheint am Punkt b der n·achste aus der Netzspannung gewonnene Startimpuls, der den Schalttransistor 6 wieder leitend steuert, so dass die Wechselspannung am Punkt a wieder auftritt. Das Schaltnetzteil geht also in einen getakteten Betrieb ·uber, bei dem die ·ubertragene Leistung entsprechend dem Zeitverh·altnis zwischen Einschaltphase und Ausschaltphase der Spannung am Punkt a betr·achtlich verringert ist. Die Betriebsspannungen U11U2,U3 k·onnen nicht mehr unzul·assig hohe Werte annehmen.


CHASSIS   615A1  Simplified horizontal /  line deflection circuit.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

A horizontal deflection circuit makes a sawtooth
current flow through a deflection coil. The current
will have equal amounts of positive and negative
current. The horizontal switch transistor conducts
for the right hand side of the picture. The damper
diode conducts for the left side of the picture.
Current only flows through the fly back capacitor
during retrace time.



For time 1 the transistor is turned on. Current
ramps up in the yoke. The beam is moved from the
center of the picture to the right edge. Energy is
stored on the inductance of the yoke.
E=I2L/2


For time 2 the transistor is turned off. Energy
transfers from the yoke to the flyback capacitor. At
the end of time two all the energy from the yoke is
placed on the flyback capacitor. There is zero
current in the yoke and a large voltage on the
capacitor. The beam is quickly moved from the
right edge back to the middle of the picture.









During time 3 the energy on the capacitor flows
back into the yoke. The voltage on the flyback
capacitor decreases while the current in the yoke
builds until there is no voltage on the capacitor. By
the end of time 3 the yoke current is at it's
maximum amount but in the negative direction.
The beam is quickly deflected form the center to the
left edge.






Time 4 represents the left hand half of the picture.
Yoke current is negative and ramping down. The
beam moves from the left to the center of the
picture.












The current that flows when the horizontal switch is
closed is approximately:
Ipk ≅ Vcc T / Ldy
Ipk = collector current
T = 1/2 trace time
Ldy = total inductance (yoke + lin coil + size coil)
note:The lin coil inductance varies with current.
______
Tr ≅ 3.14 √ L C
The current that flows during retrace is produced by
the C and L oscillation. The retrace time is 1/2 the
oscillation frequency of the L and C.
I2L /2 ≅ V2C /2 or I2L = V2C As stated earlier the energy in the yoke moves to the
flyback capacitor during time 2.
V= the amount of the flyback pulse that is above the
supply voltage.


D.C. annualizes is inductors are considered
shores, capacitors are open and generally
semiconductors are removed. The voltage at the
point “B+” is the supply voltage. The collector
voltage of Q1 is also at the supply voltage. The
voltage across C2 is equal to the supply voltage.
When we A.C. annualize this circuit we will find
that the collector of Q1 has a voltage that ranges
from slightly negative to 1000 volts positive. The
average voltage must remain the same as the D.C.
value.
In the A.C. annualizes of the circuit, the
inductance of the yoke (DY) and the inductance of
the flyback transformer are in parallel. The
inductance of T2 is much larger than that if the
DY. This results is a total system inductance of
about 10% to 20% less than that of the DY it’s
self.
The voltage across the Q1 is a half sinusoid pulse during the flyback or retrace period and close to zero at
all other times. It is not possible or safe to observe this point on an oscilloscope without a proper high
frequency high voltage probe. Normally use a 100:1 probe suitable for 2,000V peak. The probe must have
been high frequency calibrated recently.


HORIZONTAL SIZE /  E/W AMPLITUDE - CORRECTION CIRCUIT:

There are several different methods of adjusting horizontal size.




SIZE COIL
Add a variable coil to the yoke current path
causes the total inductance to vary with the coils
setting.
The yoke current is related to supply voltage,
trace time and total inductance. This method
has a limited range!
The horizontal section uses a PWM to set the
horizontal size. One DAC sets the horizontal
size and another DAC sets the pincushion and
trap.
The Raster Centering (D.C. centering) is
controlled by a DAC.
On small monitors the retrace time is fixed. On
large monitors or wide frequency range monitors
two different retrace times are available. The flyback time is set by the micro computer by selecting two
different flyback capacitors. At slow frequencies the longer retrace time is selected.
Different S corrector capacitor values are selected by the micro computer. At the highest frequency the
smallest capacitor is selected.



SPLIT DIODE MODULATOR
This horizontal circuit consists of two parts. D1, C1, C2 and DY are the components as described above.
D2, C3, C4 and L1 are a second “dummy” horizontal section that does not cause deflection current. By the
D.C. analyzing this circuit the voltage across C2 + C4 must equal the supply voltage (B+). Deflection
current in the DY is related to the supply voltage minus the voltage across C4. For a maximum horizontal
size the control point must be held at ground. This causes the dummy section to not operate and the DY
section will get full supply voltage. If the control point is at 1/3 supply then the DY section will be
operating at 2/3 supply.
Note: The impedance of (D1,C1,C2 and DY) and (D2,C3,C4 and L1) makes a voltage divider. If the
control point is not connected then there is some natural voltage on C4. Most split diode monitors are built
to pull power from the dummy section through L2 to ground. A single power transistor shunts from the
control point to ground. It is true that power can be supplied from some other supply through L2 to rise the voltage on C4. For maximum range a bi-directional power amplifier can drive the control point.
The most exciting feature if the split diode modulator is that the flyback pulse, as seen by the flyback
transformer, is the same size at all horizontal size settings.


HORIZONTAL SWITCH/DAMPER DIODE
On the right hand side of the screen, the H. switch transistor conducts current through the deflection yoke.
This current comes from the S correction capacitors, which have a charge equal to the effective supply
voltage. The damper diode allows current for the left hand side of the screen to flow back through the
deflection yoke to the S capacitors.
FLYBACK CAPACITOR
The flyback capacitor connects the hot side of the yoke to ground. This component determines the size and
length of the flyback pulse. ‘Tuning the flyback capacitor’ is done to match the timing of the flyback pulse
to the video blanking time of the video signal. The peak flyback voltage on the horizontal switch must be
set to less that 80% if the Vces specification. The two conditions of time and voltage can be set by three
variables (supply voltage, retrace capacitor and yoke inductance) .
S CAPACITOR
The S capacitors corrects outside versus center linearity in the horizontal scan. The voltage on the S cap
has a parabola plus the DC horizontal supply. Reducing the value of S cap increases this parabola thus
reducing the size of the outside characters and increasing the size of the center characters.
S Capacitor value: Too low: picture will be squashed towards edges.
Too high: picture will be stretched towards edges.

By simply putting a capacitor in series with each coil, the sawtooth waveform is
modified into a slightly sine-wave shape. This reduces the scanning speed near the
edges where the yoke is more sensitive. Generally the deflection angle of the electron
beam and the yoke current are closely related. The problem is the deflection angle
verses the distance of movement on the CRT screen does not have a linear effect.




DEFLECTION NPN TRANSISTOR BASE DRIVE CURRENT
The base drive resistor determines the amount of
base drive. If the transistor is over driven the Vsat
looks very good, but the current fall time is poor.
If the base current is too small the current fall time is very fast. The problem is that the transistor will have many volts across C-E when closed.
The best condition is found by placing the transistor in the heaviest load condition. Adjust the base resistor for the least power consumption then increase the base drive a small amount. This will slightly over drive the base.

The Telefunken PPHV Flyback Horizontal Output Transformer Technology:


The current Telefunken 415/615 CTV chassis series like the here above shown tv is conventional in most respects, with its self oscillating chopper power supply which also provides mains isolation, TDA 3560 OR TDA3562A single -chip decoder, class AB RGB output stages, TDA1670 field timebase i.c. and BU208 line output transistor. The line output transformer is something quite new however.
Line output transformers are nowadays reliable components though a percentage of failures do occur. Tripler breakdown after some years' service is far more common, except in Japanese sets. The transformer is certainly one of the most expensive items in a TV receiver: the pulse windings and secondaries used to provide various supply lines add greatly to the manufacturing cost and increase the insulation problems. Telefunken decided to do something about this in designing the 415/615 chassis. The aims were to reduce the cost of the transformer, make it as small as possible, mountable without securing screws, and producible by automatic production methods whilst having a power handling capability, reliability and internal resistance equal to or better than conventional designs. To achieve these aims it was decided to use a half -wave e.h.t. rectifier arrangement. This in itself is not unique of course, but for CTV use the problem of a half -wave rectifier circuit is the high leakage inductance and internal capacitance in the transformer. The result is an e.h.t. system with a high internal resistance. It was decided therefore to use a transformer with just two windings, the primary and e.h.t. overwinding. The other supplies are derived from the chopper transformer, while a transistor to which the line flyback pulses are fed produces the feedback pulse for the flywheel sync system.
The latter is in the TDA1950 sync/line oscillator chip, which also produces the sandcastle pulse used by the TDA3560 or TDA3562A decoder i.c. for gating, blanking and clamping. This decision greatly simplifies the transformer of course, while collaboration with a specialist manufacturer or ferrite cores enabled the cross-sectional area of the core to be reduced by some 25 per cent. The result is a transformer which is extremely compact and light. The main design advance however is the use of what Telefunken call the "push-pull high-voltage concept". This uses two rectifier diodes, one at each end of the winding as shown in Fig. 1. The action of the circuit is shown in Fig. 2. D1 acts as a conventional peak rectifier when the positive going flyback pulse arrives at its anode, charging transformer George R. Wilding the e.h.t. reservoir capacitor C2 (tube capacitance). During this time D2 conducts, clamping the bottom end of the e.h.t. overwiding to chassis. At the end of the flyback pulse half cycle the bottom end of the winding swings positively and D2 cuts off. It conducts again when the voltage at its cathode (circuit oscillatory action) tries to swing negatively, thus charging the interwinding capacitance Cl. The next time the flyback pulse occurs, D1 sees an enhanced voltage at its anode, i.e. the sum of the flyback pulse and the charge on Cl. The circuit thus acts as a voltage multiplier, and the number of overwinding turns can be substantially reduced in comparison with a simple half -wave rectifier circuit. Even though it's on such a small former the primary winding has only two layers. These terminate in connec- tion pins which together with two snap-on springs hold the transformer securely to the board for soldering. The diodes and the e.h.t. connection are secured to the body of the overwinding and encapsulated in heat hardened epoxy resin. The focus supply is obtained via a bleed resistor in the tube's anode cap connector. Fig. 3 shows the feedback pulse generator stage.

Line end stage including transformer for a television receiver:

Der PPHV-Transformator", by Walter Goseberg, Funkshau 1/1981, pp. 70-71.
"Kaum zu fassen: 23.000 Volt zum Anfassen!-PPHV-Zeilentrafo der Zukunft. Aus Hannover."-Telefunken Heute, Aktuelle Information fur den Fachhandel.











A line end stage for a television receiver which comprises a transformer, a first high voltage rectifier and a second high voltage rectifier. The transformer has a primary winding coupled to the line sweep coils of the receiver, and a secondary winding. The secondary winding has one end coupled through the first high voltage rectifier to ground and through the second high voltage rectifier to the anode of the television receiver picture tube. The transformer comprises a core having a longitudinal axis. The primary winding is mounted on the core coaxial with the longitudinal axis and an insulating winding form surrounds the primary winding. The winding form is provided with spaced longitudinally-distributed radially-extending chambers and the secondary winding is located within these chambers. The thicknesses of the winding form between the bottoms of the chambers and the primary winding are greatest at the ends of the winding form and become progressively smaller toward the center of the form.


1. In a televison receiver having line sweep coils and a picture tube, a line end stage comprising
a transformer coupled to said line sweep coils including
a core having a longitudinal axis;
a single continuous untapped primary winding mounted on said core, said primary winding being coaxial with said longitudinal axis;
an insulating winding form surrounding said single primary winding, said winding form being coaxial with said longitudinal axis and being provided with spaced longitudinally-distributed radially-extending chambers; and
a single continuous untapped secondary winding located within the chambers of said winding form, the distances between the bottoms of the chambers within said winding form and said primary winding decreasing from the ends of said winding form toward the center thereof along said longitudinal axis;
a first high voltage rectifier having its anode connected to ground and its cathode connected to one end of said secondary winding; and
a second high voltage rectifier having its anode connected to the other end of said secondary winding and its cathode connected to the anode of said picture tube.


2. A line end stage as defined in claim 1 wherein the thickness of the insulation of said insulating winding form between said primary and secondary windings is a minimum along a line perpendicular to said longitudinal axis at the center of said core and increases toward the end of said core.

3. A line end stage as defined in claim 1 wherein the thickness of said winding form between the bottom of the chamber at the center of said winding form and said primary winding has a predetermined value, and the thicknesses of each of said chambers toward the ends of said winding form and said primary winding increases with respect to that at the center as a function of the distance from said center chamber.

4. A line end stage as defined in claim 1 wherein at least one of said chambers has parallel sides and the bottom thereof is perpendicular to said sides.

5. A line end stage as defined in claim 1 wherein the chambers at the ends of said winding form are empty, and said secondary winding is located within the chambers therebetween.

6. A line end stage as defined in claim 1 wherein the thicknesses of the secondary windings within said chambers are different, said thicknesses being selected to tune said secondary winding to a predetermined harmonic of the frequency of the return sweep oscillation of said television receiver.

7. A line end stage as defined in claim 1 wherein said primary winding extends in the direction of said longitudinal axis beyond said secondary winding.

8. A line end stage as defined in claim 1 wherein at least one of said chambers has parallel sides and the bottom thereof has a rounded fluted shape.

9. A line end stage as defined in claim 8 wherein the edge of said bottom adjacent one side of said chamber has a different radius of curvature than the edge adjacent the other side of said chamber.

10. A line end stage as defined in claim 9 wherein the chambers containing said secondary winding at the ends of the said winding form have said rounded fluted shape and wherein the edges of the bottoms of said chambers facing the ends of said winding form have a larger radius of curvature than the opposite edges of said chambers.


Description:
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
This invention relates to a line end stage for a television receiver and, in particular, to a transformer comprising a component of this stage. A line end stage for a television receiver includes, among other components, a transistor which functions as a switch, a high voltage rectifier, and a transformer having a primary winding and a high voltage secondary winding. The line end stage produces the high voltage required to energize the picture tube.
A conventional line end stage of this type is a relatively expensive and heavy part of the receiver, whih must withstand high voltages and currents on the order of 25,000 volts and two to three amperes. It performs several functions such as controlling the line sweep coils, and generating the high voltage for the picture tube, pulses for gating purposes and the direct operating voltages. Consequently, the stage must satisfy a number of different requirements.
More specifically, the line end stage should be as small as possible, light in weight and easy to manufacture. A low internal impedance is desirable and, despite the relatively high power involved, the stage should operate over long periods without malfunctioning.
It is known that a low internal impedance can be attained by tuning the stray inductance of the high voltage winding and the effective capacitance to certain oddnumbered harmonics of the frequency of the retrace or return sweep oscillation of the line transformer. In this way, the pulse shape of the retrace pulse is broadened so as to reduce the internal impedance of the high voltage source, it being of particular advantage to tune to the ninth harmonic of the return sweep oscillation frequency. However, tuning to such a high frequency presents a number of technical problems because of the design of the line end stage, and because the effective inductances and capacitances must not exceed certain values. Maintaining these values and simultaneously meeting the other requirements is often difficult in practice.
It is an object of the present invention to provide a line end stage having a particularly simple design and which provides a fixed coupling between the primary and high voltage windings, the stray inductance of the high voltage winding being particularly low. This stage permits tuning to the desired harmonic of the frequency of the return sweep oscillation.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
In accordance with the present invention, a line end stage for a television receiver is provided which comprises a transformer, a first high voltage rectifier and a second high voltage rectifier. The transformer has a primary winding coupled to the line sweep coils of the receiver, and a secondary winding. The secondary winding has a first end coupled through the first high voltage rectifier to ground and a second end coupled through the second high voltage rectifier to the anode of the television receiver picture tube.
The transformer comprises a core having a longitudinal axis. The primary winding is mounted on the core coaxial with the longitudinal axis, and an insulating winding form surrounds the primary winding. The winding form is provided with spaced, longitudinally-distributed, radially--extending chambers, the secondary winding being located within these chambers. The thickness of the winding form between the bottoms of the chambers and the primary winding is greatest at the ends of the winding form and become progressively smaller toward the center of the form.
The present invention offers a plurality of advantages with respect to the design, insulation and voltage distribution of the line transformer. In order to obtain a desired high voltage for the picture tube, a pulse voltage of a particular amplitude must be present across the high voltage winding, and with a given primary this determines the number of turns in the winding. In the present invention, the amplitude of the pulse voltage across the high voltage winding is the same as in prior art circuits in which the high voltage winding is directly grounded at one end. However, several advantages are obtained which are not realized with conventional circuits.
Since the first end of the high voltage winding is grounded through the first high voltage rectifier, it is maintained at a voltage having a direct component and an alternating component. An alternating voltage component is also present at the second end of the high voltage winding, this component having the same amplitude and being of opposite polarity from the alternating voltage component present at the first end of the winding. Accordingly, the alternating voltage component is zero at the center of the high voltage winding thereby producing an alternating voltage symmetry in the high voltage winding relative to the primary winding.
In prior art circuits having one end of the high voltage winding directly grounded, the alternating voltage has the required amplitude only at the ungrounded end of the winding. In contrast, in the present invention, the alternating voltages present at both ends of the coil are in phase opposition and at half the amplitude with respect to ground as compared to the alternating voltage at the ungrounded end of the conventional high voltage winding. The amplitude of the maximum alternating voltage is thus divided approximately in half compared to the maximum alternating voltage in the prior art circuit. This symmetry and reduction of voltage compared to the prior art circuit has several advantages.
The maximum amplitude of the alternating voltage is less than in the prior art circuit and therefore the thickness of the insulation between the high voltage winding and the primary winding can be reduced. This results in tighter coupling between the two windings, reduction in the stray inductance and simplifies tuning to the ninth harmonic.
The reduced amplitude of the alternating voltage across the high voltage winding is also beneficial because the capacitive currents flowing between the high voltage and primary windings are reduced in amplitude. In the prior art circuit, these capacitive currents are practically zero at the grounded end of the high voltage winding but increase toward the ungrounded end to a value corresponding to the amplitude of the alternating voltage at that end. In contrast, in the circuit according to the present invention, the amplitude of the capacitive current is zero at the center of the high voltage winding because the amplitude of the alternating voltage at this point is zero. The capacitive currents increase towards the ends of the high voltage winding to approximately equal and opposite values; however, these values are about half the maximum value of the capacitive current in the prior art circuit. Also, the integrated sum of the capacitive reactive currents flowing across the distributed winding capacitances is lower in the circuit according to the present invention than in the prior art circuit.
The fact that the amplitude of the alternating voltage at the center of the high voltage winding is zero can be utilized to advantage in the design of the winding form for the high voltage winding by making the insulating space at the center smaller than at the ends of the high voltage winding. According to one embodiment of the invention, the insulating space between the two windings is determined by the amplitude distribution of the effective alternating voltage across the high voltage winding.
In the present invention, the high voltage winding has about the same alternating voltage load at both ends, and the alternating voltages appearing at these two ends have the same shape and amplitude but are of opposite polarity. Accordingly, the interfering radiation emanating from the line transformer is reduced because the voltages at the ends of the high voltage winding partially cancel each other.
The primary and secondary sides of the transformer each contain only a single winding and are not provided with taps, thereby greatly simplifying the design of the transformer. In particular, this simple design permits fixed coupling and attainment of a low stray inductance for the high voltage winding which enhances tuning to a high harmonic of the frequency of the return sweep oscillation.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
FIG. 1 is a schematic circuit diagram of the invention.
FIG. 2 shows voltage curves for explaining the operation of the circuit of FIG. 1.
FIG. 3 is an embodiment of the coil assembly of the transformer.
FIGS. 4 and 5 illustrate additional embodiments of the chambers of the winding form depicted in FIG. 3.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of the line end stage of a television receiver which includes a switching transistor 2 having its base connected to an input terminal for switching by a square-wave input signal 1, a transformer 3 having a primary winding 4 and a high voltage secondary winding 5, two high voltage rectifiers 6 and 7, a smoothing capacitor 8, a picture tube 9, a coupling capacitor 10 which also serves as a tangential equalizer and line sweep coils 11. The anode of diode 6 is grounded and its cathode is connected to one end 12 of the secondary winding 5. The anode of diode 7 is connected to the other end 14 of secondary winding 5, its cathode being grounded for alternating voltages by capacitor 8 which is formed essentially by the capacitance of the anode coating of the picture tube 9. With these connections, the two ends 12 and 14 of the secondary winding 5 carry substantially the same load.
Referring to FIG. 2, the diode 6 prevents the return sweep voltage 13a at point 12 from becoming negative by clamping the negative peak of that voltage at ground potential. A direct voltage U 1 is generated at point 12 and also at point 14. Since the winding 5 is inductive, the return sweep voltage 13b at point 14 is of opposite polarity with respect to the voltage 13a at point 12. Thus, the alternating voltage at the center 15 of the winding is equal to zero and the distribution of the alternating voltage about the line 32 is symmetrical with respect to ground.
The voltage present at point 14 is rectified by rectifier 7 so that the voltage U 2 at terminal 16 functions as the anode voltage for the picture tube 9. If the terminal 12 were grounded, approximately the same direct voltage U 2 would be produced at terminal 16 but the advantages of the present invention would not be obtained.
The amplitude of the alternating voltage component across winding 5 differs greatly from one end to the other. That is, the alternating voltage between winding 5 and ground is zero at the center of the winding and reaches maximum values of opposite polarities at the ends 12 and 14. This permits the insulation space between the high voltage winding 5 and primary winding 4 of transformer 3 to be a function of its position along the winding.
Referring to FIG. 3, the structure of transformer 3 is shown in which the primary winding 4 surrounds a core 17 having a longitudinal axis 30. An insulating winding form 18 having a plurality of chambers 20 surrounds winding 4. The high voltage winding 5 comprises partial windings 19 disposed in those chambers 20 designated by the letters B through L, chambers A and M not having windings placed therein.
All of the partial windings 19 lying within the chambers 20 are wound one after another without any interruption of the wire. The wire is fed through slots within the walls forming the chambers 20. That means that all of the partial windings 19 are series-connected without any interruption, and form together the winding 5 of FIG. 1.
The thickness d of the winding form 18 at the bottom of each of the respective chambers 20 is a minimum at the center of the form along radial axis 32 where the amplitude of the alternating voltage is substantially equal to zero, the thickness increasing symmetrically along a parabolic curve toward the two ends of the winding form 18. In an actual embodiment tested, the wall thickness d of chambers A-M had the following values:
______________________________________
Chamber d in mm
______________________________________


A 2.0 (empty)

B 1.6

C 1.3

D 1.2

E 1.1

F 1.0

G 1.0

H 1.0

I 1.1

J 1.2

K 1.3

L 1.6

M 2.0 (empty)

______________________________________
The wall thickness d, which determines the insulating space between the high voltage winding 5 and the primary winding 4, corresponds to the amplitude of the alternating voltage distribution along the longitudinal axis of the winding form.
Chambers A and M are intentionally not provided with a winding 19. This has the advantage that the space between the first winding in chamber B and the sharp edge of end 21 of primary winding 4 is relatively large, thereby reducing the danger of arcing at the edge of the winding. Similarly, the distance between the winding in chamber L and the edge of end 22 of the primary winding 4 is relatively large to reduce the possibility that arcing will occur at this end of the transformer.
As shown in FIG. 3, the number of turns of the windings 19 in the individual chambers 20 are, in general, not the same. That is, the radial thicknesses of the windings in chambers F, G and H are equal but the thickness of the windings in the chambers on either side of chambers F and H decrease significantly and are at a minimum in chambers B and L, the stray inductance being controlled to permit tuning to a desired harmonic.
If, for example, the winding is distributed so that there are more turns at the center of the winding form 18 where the distance between the high voltage winding 5 and the primary winding 4 is smaller than at the edges, the coupling is closer at the center thereby changing the stray inductance compared to that which would have been obtained with a uniform winding distribution.
It is desirable that the stray inductance of the winding 5 together with all effective capacitances be tuned to a frequency corresponding to the ninth harmonic of the frequency of the line fly back pulse in order to achieve a low value of internal resistance at terminal 16 of the high voltage source. The stray inductance of the winding 5 which is necessary for achieving this resonant frequency can be obtained by a proper distribution of the partial windings 19 within the chambers 20. In particular the stray inductance can be kept low because the distance between the partial windings 19 in the middle region of form 18, i.e. around chamber G can be made very small. This is possible as the value of the ac-voltage in this region corresponding to center 15 in FIG. 2 is zero.
FIG. 4 shows an embodiment of the winding form in which the edges along the bottom of the chamber 20 are rounded so as to have a fluted shape in order to reduce arcing, rounding the circumferential edges reducing the probability that arcing will take place. Moreover, the wire comprising the turns of the high voltage winding can more conveniently be placed in the chambers 20 during winding.
In FIG. 5, the radii or curvature at the two edges of the chambers 20 are different. This configuration is employed for the first and last chambers B and L having a winding 19 placed therein, the edge 23 having the larger radius of curvature being located at the end of the winding form. Thus, a chamber shaped as shown in FIG. 5 would be used for chamber L to reduce the chance of arcing between edge 22 and the coil placed in chamber L. The embodiment of FIG. 5 is preferably provided only for chambers B and L.
It will be understood that the above description of the present invention is susceptible to various modifications, changes and adaptations, and the same are intended to be comprehended within the meaning and range of equivalents of the appended claims.









 
TELEFUNKEN  PALCOLOR  6462J  CHASSIS 615A1   PLL MICROCOMPUTER Frequency synthesizer tuning system for television receivers:TFK u3870M



" A method for tuning a television receiver having automatic frequency control to the carrier frequency of a selected broadcast channel with an associated channel number including generating a variable frequency signal by means of a local oscillator, generating a reference frequency signal by means of a reference oscillator, and generating a local oscillator correction signal for matching an intermediate frequency signal derived from said local oscillator signal and the carrier frequency signal with a predetermined nominal intermediate frequency signal, said method being characterized by the use of a microcomputer and comprising:
generating binary signals representing first and second digital tune words, said digital tune words representing a selected channel;
storing said first and second digital tune words in a first data memory in said microcomputer;
reading said first and second digital tune words from said first memory and generating a divided-down local oscillator frequency by the use of said first digital tune word and a divided-down reference oscillator frequency by the use of said second digital tune word;
comparing said divided-down local oscillator and reference frequencies and generating a control signal representative of the difference in frequency of said divided-down local oscillator and reference frequencies;
coupling said control signal to said local oscillator for causing it to be locked to the frequency of said received carrier signal;
mixing the local oscillator frequency signal and the carrier frequency signal to generate an intermediate frequency signal;
comparing said intermediate frequency signal with said predetermined nominal intermediate frequency signal and providing a tuning voltage to said microcomputer, said tuning voltage being indicative of the magnitude and direction of a tuning error between said intermediate frequency signal and said predetermined nominal intermediate frequency signal;
incrementally adjusting the reference oscillator frequency by means of a tuning signal provided to said reference oscillator by said microcomputer in response to said tuning voltage;
detecting when the incrementally changing, divided-down reference oscillator frequency causes the intermediate frequency signal to pass said predetermined nominal intermediate frequency signal; and
incrementally stepping the divided-down reference oscillator frequency back a predetermined number of steps following the passage of said predetermined nominal intermediate frequency signal by said intermediate frequency signal in tuning said television receiver to the selected channel.
"

A television tuning system employs a frequency synthesizer system for establishing the tuning of the receiver. A programmable frequency divider counter is connected between the output of a reference oscillator and a phase comparator to which the output of the local oscillator in the tuner also is applied. The phase comparator output provides a tuning voltage for controlling the tuning of the local oscillator. A microprocessor is used to control the count of the programmable frequency divider and initially to set a count corresponding to the selected channel in a counter connected between the output of the local oscillator and the phase comparator. The tuning consists of three discrete time periods. First, a settling time to allow channel change transients to settle; second, a short period of forced search at a relatively rapid rate to insure proper tuning; and third, a slower rate of step-by-step correction to accomodate for station drift and the like during reception. This third time period is initiated either by the passage of a fixed length of time following the start of the forced search period or by sensing a preestablished number of changes of state in the output of the frequency discriminator during the forced/search period.


1. A tuning system for the tuner of a television receiver capable of receiving a composite television signal and including frequency discriminator (AFT) circuit means, said system including in combination:
a reference oscillator providing a reference signal at a predetermined frequency;
a local oscillator in the tuner providing a variable output frequency in response to the application of a control signal thereto;
a programmable frequency divider means having first and second inputs coupled respectively to the output of said reference oscillator and said local oscillator for producing signals on first and second outputs having frequencies which are a programmable fraction of the frequency of the signals applied to the inputs thereto;
phase comparator means having one input coupled with the first output of said programmable frequency divider means and having another input coupled with the second output of said programmable frequency divider means for developing a control signal and applying such control signal to said local oscillator for controlling the output frequency thereof;
counter circuit means coupled with said programmable frequency divider means for initially setting said divider means to a predetermined division ratio and operating to change the programmable fraction of division thereof in accordance with changes in the count in said counter circuit means;
control circuit means coupled with the output of said frequency discriminator means and further coupled with said counter circuit means for causing said counter circuit means to count at a first rate in a predetermined direction determined by the state of the output signal from said discriminator means in the absence of a predetermined signal output from said frequency discriminator means until a predetermined maximum count is attained, thereupon resetting said counter circuit means to a count which is a predetermined amount less than said maximum predetermined count and continuing to count at said first rate in the same predetermined direction from said new count to continuously change the programmable fraction of said frequency divider means in accordance with the state of operation of said counter circuit means, said control means operating in response to said predetermined signal output from the frequency discriminator means for terminating operation of said counter circuit means; and
further means for terminating operation of said counter circuit means at said first rate and causing operation thereof at a second slower rate.
2. The combination according to claim 1 wherein said further means includes timing means initiated into operation simultaneously with the setting of said divider means to a predetermined division ratio, and after a predetermined time interval said timing means producing an output signal applied to said counter circuit means to cause operation thereof to take place at said second slower rate. 3. The combination according to claim 1 wherein said counter circuit means includes a reversible digital counter coupled with said programmable frequency divider, means and said control circuit means causes said counter circuit means to count in said predetermined direction when the output of said frequency discriminator is of a first state and to count in the opposite direction when the output of said frequency discriminator is of second state; and said further means comprises means coupled with the output of said frequency discriminator and with said counter circuit means to take place at said second slower rate in response to a predetermined number of changes of state of frequency discriminator. 4. The combination according to claim 3 further including means responsive to the selection of a new channel in said television receiver for resetting said further means to an initial condition of operation. 5. The combination according to claim 4 wherein said further means comprises a search termination counter means operative to provide an output signal applied to said counter circuit means in response to a count thereby of a predetermined number of changes of state of said frequency discriminator to cause said counter circuit means to be operated at said second slower rate.
Description:
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
Both of the above mentioned patents are directed to frequency synthesizer tuning systems for use with television receivers to enable operation of the receivers with minimal viewer fine tuning adjustments. By the utilization of the frequency synthesizer tuning systems of these patents, the fine tuning adjustment which is necessary with conventional types of television receiver tuning systems has been substantially eliminated. The system employed in the '953 patent permits utilization of a frequency synthesizer tuning system which correctly tunes to a desired television station or channel even if the transmitted signals from that station are not precisely maintained at the proper frequencies. The '535 patent is directed to a signal seek tuning system adaptation of the frequency synthesizer tuning system of the '953 patent which still permits implementation of all of the desired wide-band pull in range of the frequency synthesizer system of the '953 patent.
The systems of the foregoing patents operate effectively to correct automatically for frequency offsets in a frequency synthesizer tuning system without affecting the operation of the conventional frequency synthesizer used in the system. The systems of these patents are in widespread use commercially and permit direct selection, with automatic fine tuning adjustment, of any desired VHF channel which the viewer wishes to observe. In addition, the signal seek adaptation disclosed in the '535 patent couples all of the advantages of the frequency synthesizer tuning system of the '953 patent with the desirability of providing bidirectional signal seek operation.
While the systems disclosed in the foregoing patents operate in a highly satisfactory manner to accomplish the desired results of accurate tuning without the necessity of fine tuning adjustments, the circuitry for accomplishing the desired results is somewhat complex. It is desirable to reduce the circuit complexity and the number of signal detectors for accomplishing these results without compromising the accuracy of operation of the system.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
Accordingly, it is an object of this invention to provide an improved tuning system for a television receiver.
It is an additional object of this invention to provide an improved frequency synthesizer tuning system for a television receiver.
It is another object of this invention to provide an improved frequency synthesizer tuning system for a television receiver which includes a provision for adjusting the synthesizer loop for frequency offsets in the received signal with a minimum number of signal detectors.
It is a further object of this invention to tune the local RF oscillator of a television receiver to the correct frequency for a selected channel with a frequency synthesizer tuning system, and automatically to change the reference frequency of the synthesizer system, or adjust the count of a programmable divider that produces a signal that divides the frequency of the local oscillator of the tuner, if the AFT signal produced by the AFT frequency discriminator of the receiver is outside a predetermined range corresponding to correct tuning.
It is still another object of this invention to provide an improved frequency synthesizer tuning system for a television receiver which operates to adjust the synthesizer loop for frequency offsets in the received signal over a relatively wide pull in range in response to the output of the receiver frequency discriminator by changing the division ratio of a programmable frequency divider in the reference oscillator leg or local oscillator leg of the synthesizer loop at a first relatively high rate from an initial nominal value to a pre-established maximum in one direction, and then resetting the division ratio to a second nominal value once the maximum is reached and continuing to incrementally change the division ratio in the same direction from the second nominal value until a properly tuned condition is indicated by the output of the receiver AFT frequency discriminator, followed by control at a lower rate of operation to maintain tuning during transmitting station drifts.
In accordance with a preferred embodiment of this invention, the frequency synthesizer tuning system for a television receiver includes a stable reference oscillator and a voltage controlled local oscillator in the tuner. A programmable frequency divider is connected between the output of the reference oscillator and one input to a phase comparator, the other input of which is supplied by the output of the local oscillator. The output of the phase comparator then comprises a control signal which is supplied to the local oscillator to control the frequency of its operation.
A counter circuit is connected to the programmable frequency divider for initially setting the divider to a predetermined division ratio upon selection of a desired channel by the viewer. The counter then operates to change the programmable fraction of the division ratio at a first relatively high rate in a direction controlled by the output from the receiver picture carrier discriminator in the absence of a predetermined signal output derived from the discriminator. A control means causes the counter circuit to count in this direction until it is determined that a station is tuned or a predetermined maximum count is attained if no station is correctly tuned, thereupon resetting the counter circuit to a count which is a predetermined amount less than the maximum predetermined count. Counting is continued in the same predetermined direction from the new lesser count to continuously change the programmable fraction of the frequency divider in accordance with the state of operation of the counter.
The high rate operation of the counter is terminated by the control means in response to a predetermined signal from the output of the discriminator, indicating that a station is correctly tuned, or after a fixed time-out interval; so that the system automatically adjusts for frequency offsets of the received signal which otherwise would cause the station to be mistuned if a conventional frequency synthesizer tuning system were used. After termination of the high rate operation of the counter, it is switched to a lower rate operation for maintaining tuning during transmitting station drifts.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
FIG. 1 is a block diagram of a television receiver employing a preferred embodiment of the invention;
FIG. 2 is a detailed block diagram of a portion of the circuit of the preferred embodiment shown in FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a detailed circuit diagram of a portion of a circuit shown in FIG. 1;
FIG. 4 is a flow chart of the control sequence of operation of the circuit shown in FIG. 1 and 2; and
FIG. 5 shows a waveform and time/frequency chart, respectively, useful in explaining the operation of the circuit shown in FIGS. 1, 2 and 3.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION
Referring now to the drawings, the same reference numbers are used throughout the several figures to designate the same or similar components.
FIG. 1 is a block diagram of a television receiver, which may be a black and white or color television receiver. Most of the circuitry of this receiver is conventional, and for that reason it has not been shown in FIG. 1. Added to the conventional television receiver circuitry of FIG. 1, however, is a frequency synthesizer tuning system, in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the invention, which is capable of automatically changing the reference frequency when a frequency offset exists in the received signal for a particular channel.
Transmitted composite television signals, either received over the air or distributed by means of a master antenna TV distribution system, are received by an antenna 10 or on antenna input terminals to the receiver. As is well known, these composite signals include picture and sound carrier components and synchronizing signal components, with the composite signal applied to an RF and tuner stage 11 of the receiver. The stage 11 includes the conventional RF amplifiers and tuner sections of the receiver, including a VHF oscillator section and a UHF oscillator section. Preferably, the UHF and VHF oscillators are voltage controlled oscillators, the freuency of operation of which are varied in response to a tuning voltage applied to them to effect the desired tuning of the receiver.
The output of the RF and tuner stages 11 is applied to the remainder of the television receiver 14, which includes the IF amplifier stages for supplying conventional picture (video) and sound IF signals to the video and sound processing stages of the receiver 14. The circuitry of the receiver 14 may be of any conventional type used to separate, amplify and otherwise process the signals for application to a cathode ray tube 16 and to a loudspeaker 17 which reproduce the picture and sound components, respectively, of the received signal.
The receiver 14 also includes a conventional AFT or automatic fine tuning discriminator circuit and additionally may include a synch separator circuit for producing an output in response to the presence of vertical synchronizatin pulses, a picture carrier detection circuit, and an automatic gain control (AGC) amplifier. Outputs representative of these sensor components are shown as being coupled over a group of lead 20 to sensory circuitry 22, which in turn couples outputs representative of the operation of these various sensor circuits to a microprocessor unit 23 for controlling the operation of the microprocessor unit.
The microprocessor unit 23 is utilized in the system of FIG. 1 for controlling the operation of a frequency synthesizer tuning system capable of automatic offset correction. When the viewer desires to select a new channel, he enters the desired channel number into a channel selection keyboard 25. There are a number of different keyboards which may be employed to accomplish this function, and the particular design is not important to this invention. The channel selector keyboard 25 also may include switches or keys for initiating a signal seek function in either the "up" or "down" direction.
Information represented by the selection of channel numbers on the keyboard 25 is supplied to the microprocessor unit 23 which provides output signals over a corresponding set of leads 27 to the tuners (local oscillators) 11 to effect the appropriate band switching control for the tuners 11 in accordance with the particular channel which has been selected. In addition, the keyboard 25, operating through the microprocessor unit 23, provides output signals which operate a channel number display 29 to provide an appropriate display of the selected channel number to the viewer.
The microprocessor M3870 unit 23 also processes the signals which are used to operate the channel number display 29 through a multiplexing circuit operation to decode the selected channel number into a parallel encoded signal. This signal is applied to corresponding inputs of the count-down counter or programmable frequency divider 31 to cause the division number of the divider 31 to relate to the divided down frequency of the tuner local oscillators connected to the input of the divider 31 through a prescaler divider circuit 32 to the frequency of the reference oscillator 34. Thus, the division number or division ratio of the local oscillator frequency obtained from the output of the programmable divider 31 is appropriately related to the frequency of the reference crystal oscillator 34.
The output of the oscillator 34 also is applied through a countdown circuit or programmable frequency divider 35. Conventional frequency synthesizer techniques are employed; and the microprocessor unit 23 automatically compensates, through appropriate code converter circuitry, for the non-uniform channel spacing of the television signals. It has been found most convenient to cause the programmable frequency divider 31 to divide by numbers corresponding directly to the oscillator frequency of the selected channel, for example, 101, 107, 113 . . . up to 931.
In accordance with the time division multiplex operation of the microprocessor 23, the count of the programmable frequency divider 35 initially is adjusted to a fixed count by the application of appropriate output signals from the microprocessor unit 23 to a point selected to be at or near the mid-point of the operating range of the programmable frequency divider 35. Thus, the output of the divider 35 is a stable reference frequency (because the input is from the reference crystal oscillator 34) which is used to establish initially and to maintain tuning of the receiver to the selected channel.
The output of the programmable divider 35 is applied to one of two inputs of a phase comparator circuit 37. The other input to the phase comparator circuit 37 is supplied from the selected one of the VHF or UHF oscillators in the tuner stages 11 through the programmable frequency divider 31. The phase comparator circuit 37 operates in a conventional manner to supply a DC tuning control signal through a phase locked loop filter circuit 39 and over a lead 40 to the oscillators in the tuner system 11 to change and maintain their operating frequency.
With the exception of the use of the microprocessor unit 23, the operation of the system which has been described thus far is that of a relatively conventional frequency synthesizer system incorporated into a television receiver. This system is similar to the system of the '953 patent. As in the system of that patent, the system shown in FIG. 1, when the transmitted station or station received on a master antenna distribution system provides the station or channel signals at the proper frequency, operates as a relatively conventional frequency synthesizer system. If, however, there is a frequency offset in the received signal to cause the carrier of the received signal to be displaced from the frequency which it should have to some other frequency, it is possible that the system would give the appearance of mistuning to the received station. The microprocessor 23, operating in conjunction with the sensory circuitry 22, is employed in conjunction with the countdown or programmable frequency divider circuit 35 to eliminate this disadvantage and still retain the advantages of frequency synthesizer tuning.
Reference now should be made to FIG. 2 which shows details of the interface between the keyboard 25, the microprocessor unit 23, and the circuitry used in the frequency synthesizer portions of the system. A commercially available microprocessor which has been used for the microprocessor 23, and which forms the basis for the diagramatic representation of the microprocessor in FIG. 2, is the Matsushita Electronics Corporation MN1402 four-bit single-chip microcomputer. This microcomputer has two, four-bit parallel input ports labeled "A" and "B". In addition, three output ports, a five-bit output port "C" and two four-bit output ports "D" and "E" are provided. The internal configuration of the microcomputer 23 includes an arithmetic logic unit (ALU), a read only memory (ROM) for storing instructions and constants, and a random access memory (RAM) used for data memory, arranged into four files, each file containing 16 four-bit words. These words are selected by X and Y registers and this memory is used, for example, for timers, counters, etc., and also is used to hold intermediate results. To facilitate an understanding of the operation of the system, a portion of this memory is shown in FIG. 2 as a clock 81 and a reversible counter 82 connected between the "B" input port and the "D" output port. The microcomputer 23 is programmed to permit it to operate in conjunction with the remainder of the circuits shown in FIG. 2. The programming techniques are standard, and the microcomputer 23 itself is a standard commercially available circuit component.
There are several system parameters that must be selected in the operation of the system shown in FIG. 2. The selection of the nominal frequency of the two signals that feed the phase comparator circuit 37 is an example. Channel selection is provided by changing the frequency division ratio of the selector counter 31 which divides the local oscillator signal after this signal is passed through a prescaler circuit 32 and a divide-by-two divider circuit 41. The nominal frequency from the programmable frequency divider 31 (selector counter) is selected so that the local oscillator (tuner) 11 can be set exactly on frequency for all channels.
Since the frequency divider 31 is able to divide only by integer numbers, one distinct frequency possibility in the range of one KHz is obtained, another in the range of two KHz, etc. A choice must be made as to which of these values is optimum. Each value yields the nominal frequency of all of the 82 channels by simply multiplying by an appropriate integer for each channel. To simplify the phase locked loop filtering problem by the filter 39, it is desirable that the frequencies of the signals supplied to the phase comparator 37 are as high as possible. This permits rapid acquisition of a new channel along with a very clean DC control signal to adjust the local oscillator. A trade-off for this, however, must be made to permit fine tunning adjustment of the local oscillator automatically to correctly tune in stations which are off their assigned frequency, or to manually provide this feature, if desired. The two-speed operation of the system in accordance with the present invention allows a better trade-off to be made by allowing rapid acquisition and then a slower speed for precise tuning.
A compromise solution which is utilized in the circuit of FIG. 2 is to cause the frequency division chain from the local oscillator 11 in the tuner to the phase comparator 37 to be composed of the fixed divide-by-256 prescaler 32, and a fixed divide-by-4 division, which is accomplished by the divider 41 at the input of the counter 31 and a second divider 42 at the output of the counter 31. The variable frequency divider counter 31 then is loaded by means of three latch circuits 44, 45 and 46 at an appropriate time by the time division multiplex operation of the microcomputer 23 and a number that programs the programmable frequency divider counter 31 to divide by the numerical value of the frequency of the local oscillator in MHz for the channel selected. For example, if the receiver is to be tuned to channel 2, which has a nominal local oscillator frequency of 101 MHz, the programmable frequency divider 31 is set to divide by 101. If the receiver is to be tuned to channel 83, which has a nominal local oscillator frequency of 931 MHz, the programmable frequency divider 31 is set to divide by 931. In both cases, the variable divider 31 produces a 1 MHz signal. However, because of the fixed divide-by-256 and the two fixed divide-by-two dividers in series with the programmable divider 31, an output frequency of 976.5625 Hz is supplied from the output of the divider 42 to the upper input of the phase comparator 37.
The division ratio of the selector counter 31 is established by appropriate output signals from the latch circuits 44, 45 and 46, as mentioned above. The initial operation for changing, or maintaining, the division ratio of the divider 31 is established by an entry of the two digits of the selected channel number in the keyboard 25. The microcomputer 23 operates as a time division multiplex system for continuously monitoring the input ports and the output ports to control the operation of the remainder of the system. The selection of the two digits of the desired channel number is affected by a time division multiplex iscanning of the outputs of the D output port of microcomputer 23 and providing that information at the A input port. From here the information is translated again to the D output ports to the appropriate drivers of the channel number display circuit 29 and to the latches 44, 45 and 46, and to a pair of similar four bit latches 49 and 50 which control the divider ratio of the counter 35.
Although the D output ports of the microcomputer 23 are connected in common to all of these various portions of the circuit, the selection of which of the latches are enabled to respond to the particular output signals appearing on the D output ports at any given time is effected through the C and E output ports of the microcomputer 23 in a time division multiplex fashion. A decoder circuit 52, connected to the lowermost three outputs of the E output port of the microcomputer 23, is used to apply unique decoding signals at different times in the time division multiplex sequence of operation of the microcomputer 23 to the five latch circuits 44, 45, 46, 49 and 50, respectively. At any given time in the sequence, only one of these latch circuits is enabled for operation. A latch load signal is applied from the upper output (EO3) at each cycle of operation of the signals appearing on the E output port to set the latch circuit which is enabled by the output of the decoding circuit 52 with the data appearing on the other inputs to the latch circuit. This data simultaneously appears on the four outputs of the D output port of the microcomputer 23.
Thus, in rapid sequence, the latch circuits 44, 45 and 46 are set to store the division number corresponding to the selected channel entered onto the keyboard 25, and the latch circuits 49 and 50 are each operated to set the programmable divider reference counter 35 to a center or nominal count, which is always the same upon the selection of a new channel on the keyboard 25. Similarly, the two right-hand outputs of the C output port (CO6 and CO5) enter the two digits of the selected channel number in the drivers of the display circuit 29 at the proper time in the binary encoded sequence when these digits appear on the four-bit binary encoded representation of the D output port. This results in a visual display of the channel number selected.
In addition to the selection of a channel number directly by the keyboard 25, the keyboard also may include an additional switch 56, which is scanned in the time division multiplex sequence to determine if the receiver is placed in a "seek" mode of operation (when the signal seek capability is incorporated into such a receiver). Operating in conjunction with the signal seek switch 56 are a pair of "up" and "down" seek direction input switches shown with a graphic representation of the seek directions on the keyboard 25. A further provision is provided by two keys labeled "U" and "D", which are used for "manual" fine tuning of the receiver in the "up" or "down" directions depending upon which of the two keys U or D has been operated. The keyboard 25 includes one additional switch 58 which may be used to disable the automatic fine tuning (AFT) portion of the circuit by rendering the microcomputer insensitive to the signal output from the AFT circuit, in a manner described more fully subsequently.
As is apparent from the foregoing, the microcomputer 23 provides the intelligence, decision making, and control for the system operation. It is a complete self contained computer. The decisions or signal inputs upon which the microcomputer 23 bases its operation include, in addition to the inputs from the keyboard 25, inputs on sensory inputs into the B input port and into the SNS1 and SNS0 inputs as shown in FIG. 2. These input signals are used to provide an indication to the microcomputer 23 of the presence or absence of a received signal; and if the presence of such a signal is indicated, the inputs provide a further indication of the accuracy of the tuning of the receiver to that signal. If the system is being operated solely in a manual mode of operation (AFT switch 58 open), the microcomputer 23 disregards all of this sensory information and tunes to the frequency allocation of the channel selected in the manner described above. The system will stay tuned to this condition, operating as a conventional frequency synthesizer, whether or not a station is present in the received signal.
When the system is placed in its automatic mode of operation (similar to the mode of operation of the above mentioned '953 patent), the counter 82, integrally formed as part of the microcomputer 23, continuously adds or subtracts one number at a time from the nominal value or programmable division fraction entered into the programmable frequency divider 35 at the outset of each new channel number selection when frequency offset (mistuning) is present. The counter 82 is driven at a relatively high counting rate by clock pulses from the clock 81 during this initial or forced search mode of operation. Thus, automatic offset correction is provided for any channel which is off its assigned frequency. The offset correction automatically adjusts the frequency of the local oscillator by changing the division ratio of the signal from the reference oscillator 35 applied to the lower input of the phase comparator 37. By doing this, the output of the phase comparator 37 applied to the local oscillator 11 varies to cause the oscillator to be tuned in the proper direction to compensate for the transmitting station mistuning.
When the system is operating in its automatic mode of operation, the microcomputer 23 responds to the sensor information applied to it on its B input ports and on the S1 input port shown in FIG. 2. These inputs are obtained from the various outputs of the operational amplifiers shown connected to the corresponding input ports in the detailed circuit of FIG. 3. Depending upon whether the receiver is provided with a signal seek feature or not, one or more of the sensory inputs of the circuit of FIG. 3 are used. The system shown in the drawings has a capability of correcting for frequency offsets larger than 1.5 MHz on channels 2 and 7 and approximately 2 MHz on channels 6 and 13. The remainder of the channels have a range between these two values.
If the receiver is not tuned properly, the micromputer 23 executes the localized search of the tuning range mentioned above. Since there is a necessary settling down time for the tuning of a television receiver immediately following selection of a new channel, a time interval of 250 milliseconds has been selected to prevent any localized search or offset frequency correction until the expiration of this "settling down" time period. If, at the end of this 250 millisecond time interval, a properly tuned station is present, this is indicated by the sensory outputs from the television receiver and no localized search is effected to change the division ratio or programmable divider count in the reference counter 35 for a system that also has signal seek.
A system with no signal seek capability is described later that requires less sensory input but which uses a time period where a forced search is required directly after the settling time interval.
Upon termination of the 250 millisecond settling down period, the microcomputer 23 is rendered responsive to the sensory input signals on its sensory input signal ports. In the simplest form, only the output of the frequency discriminator 60 (FIG. 3) applied to three comparators 61, 62 and 63 is used to provide the necessary tuning information to the microcomputer 23. The outputs of these comparators are applied to the B12 and B11 inputs of the microcomputer.
The comparator 61 simply is a conventional comparator for determining whether or not the output of the frequency discriminator is positive or negative, as indicated in the upper waveform of FIG. 5. The comparators 62 and 63 are each adjusted with appropriate reference input levels to provide a narrow window centered about the center tuning frequency (fc) of the receiver. If the tuning of the receiver, as indicated by the output of the frequency discriminator 60, is outside this window on either side of the central axis shown in FIG. 5, one output condition is indicated on the input terminal B11 of the microcomputer. Only when the tuning frequency is within the tuning window, indicative of a properly tuned receiver, is the appropriate input applied to the microcomputer input terminal B11. This input overrides any other input that may be present on the input terminal B12 and is indicative of a properly tuned receiver. The input from the frequency discriminator 60, as applied to the microcomputer on its input port B12, is used to determine the direction of operation of the counter 82 of the microcomputer for the localized search count signals applied to the latch circuits 49 and 50 to change the count of the reference programmable divider counter 35 on a step-by-step basis.
The lower graph of FIG. 5 plots the relative frequency of the local oscillator 11 to the received signal frequency with respect to time. The various arrows are used to indicate the manner of operation of the counter 82 in the microcomputer 23 in conjunction with the reference counter 35 for adjusting for any mistuning conditions which may exist after the initial station selection has been effected in the manner described above.
If the receiver is properly tuned, the outputs from the comparators 62 and 63 of FIG. 3 which are combined together and applied to the input port B11 of the microcomputer 23, provide an indication that the tuning is within the properly tuned center frequency window. As a consequence, no further operation of the microcomputer to change any of the outputs applied to the latch circuits 49 and 50 for the duration of this condition is effected. On the other hand, if the receiver is mistuned on either side of the proper tuning frequency, the various operating characteristics shown in FIG. 5 are effected.
Assume initially that the receiver is capable of making tuning adjustments over a range of fc plus Δf to fc minus Δf, as indicated in the top waveform of FIG. 5. Three specific examples of mistuning will then be considered. Initially, assume that the local oscillator is mistuned relative to the received signal to a frequency f1 as shown in the lower graph of FIG. 5. In this condition, the outout of the frequency discriminator 60 is positive since this signal frequency lies to the lefthand side of the center or properly tuned region of operation of the discriminator. Under this condition of the operation, the input signal applied to the sensor port B12 of the microcomputer 23 is such that the microcomputer counter 82 is caused to advance in a positive direction to change the programmable division ratio or count of the reference counter 35 in a manner to force the output of the phase comparator 37 to adjust the frequency of the local oscillator until the proper tuning indicated at point B in the lower graph of FIG. 5 is reached. The time interval for accomplishing this result is measured from the upper end of the arrow representative of the frequency f1 to the point B.
Now assume that the receiver mistuning is to a frequency f2 which as shown in FIG. 5 as located on the righthand-side of the center axis fc. In this condition, the discriminator output is negative. This is reflected in the output of the comparator 61 applied to the input port B12 of the microcomputer 23. The polarity of this signal is identified by the microcomputer 23 to cause the counter 82 in it to operate in the reverse direction. As this count is applied on a step-by-step basis through the latch circuits 49 and 50 to the reference counter 35, the division ratio or count of the reference counter (divider) 35 is changed. As a result, the reference oscillator signal applied to the phase comparator 37 causes the phase comparator 37 output to drive the local oscillator frequency in a direction opposite to that considered in the first example. This is shown by the vector interconnecting the top of the arrow representative of f2 to point A on the time/frequency graph of FIG. 5.
As discussed in the general discussion above, whenever the tuning frequency reaches the narrow window on either side of fc, the outputs of the comparators 62 and 63 provide the necessary indication on the sensory input port terminal B11 to cause termination of the operation of the counter 82 in the microcomputer 23. Then the reference counter 35 remains set to the count attained just prior to the appearance of this input signal on the input port B11 of the microcomputer 23.
A third mistuning condition can exist, and ordinarily this condition results in an ambiguity which cannot be corrected simply by responding to the signal polarity at the output of the frequency discriminator. This is indicated by the mistuned condition where the difference between the local oscillator frequency f3 and the transmitter frequency is such that the signal f3 lies in the range to the right of the negative portion of the discriminator output shown in the upper waveform of FIG. 5. In this condition, the associated sound causes the discriminator output to be positive; so that the television receiver normally would attempt to tune toward the next adjacent channel and away from the properly tuned center frequency of the channel which is desired. The output of the discriminator 60 in this situation is the same as it was in the first example considered for frequency f1; so that the counter 82 of the microprocessor 23 operates to change the count in the reference counter 35 in a manner to cause the local oscillator frequency to go higher toward a frequency f3 +Δf, as shown in FIG. 5.
A predetermined number of counts of the counter 82 in the microcomputer 23 are necessary for the microcomputer to count through the frequency range Δf, and this range is selected to be within the pull in or operating range of the system. Once this count has been attained, the microcomputer counter 82 immediately is reset back to a count which corresponds to a frequency 2 Δf lower than the frequency attained by the maximum count. This is indicated in FIG. 5 by the frequency f3-Δf. Because the microcomputer counter 82 is limited to counting a number of counts equal to Δf, this new frequency now is on the lefthand side of the center line fc, shown in both waveforms of FIG. 5. This places the local oscillator frequency at a point such that the frequency discriminator output is the positive output shown on the lefthand-side of the upper waveform of FIG. 5. Counting continues in the same direction as previously. This time, however, it is in a proper direction to bring about correct tuning; and when the center frequency is reached, the output of the comparators 62 and 63 cause the microcomputer 23 to stop its count. The proper tuning point attained is indicated at point C on the graph of the lower part of FIG. 5.
Because the counter 82 of the microcomputer is limited to a maximum count equivalent to Δf above its initial count and thereupon is reset to a new count equivalent to 2 Δf lower than the maximum count, it is not necessary to utilize any other sensory inputs in order to properly tune the receiver over a wide pull in range (as much as plus or minus 2 MHz). Only the output of the conventional frequency discriminator 60 is used to provide the necessary sensory inputs.
The counter 82 of the microcomputer 23 is operated by the clock 81 during the foregoing sequence of operation, immediately following the selection of a new channel by the operation of the keyboard 25, at a fast or high speed operation. Typically, the counter steps are 10 milliseconds per step; so that there are no initial visual effects which can be noticed by an observer of the television screen of the receiver being tuned. The maximum forced search period is approximately 900 milliseconds in duration. At the end of this time interval, a timer in the microcomputer 23 causes a signal to be applied through the outputs of the E output port to the decoder circuit 52 indicative of the completion of this time interval. The decoder 52 then applies a pulse on an output lead connected to the B13 input of the B input port of the microcomputer 23. This pulse is sensed by the microcomputer 23 and is applied to the clock 81 to change the clock rate to a much slower rate, approximately one-third (1/3) or one-fourth (1/4) the rate used previously during the forced search mode of operation. This then permits the system to accomodate station drifts which normally occur at a very slow rate during the transmission and reception of a television signal. As a consequence, it is possible to use more filtering in the filter 39 on the tuning line (FIG. 1) and employ a smaller frequency window for the channel verification sensed by the circuitry shown in FIG. 3. The result is a more precise tuning from the receiver than is otherwise possible if only a high speed operation of the clock 81 is utilized.
When the channel once again is changed by operation of the keys in the keyboard 25 or operation of the channel selection circuitry from a remote control unit, this new channel input is sensed by the microcomputer 23 from the signals applied to the A input port and the clock 81 is reset to its fast time or the forced search mode of operation; and the process resumes.
Instead of employing an additional decoding function in the decoder 52, a separate decoder also could be connected to the outputs of the D output ports to feed back the signal to the B13 input terminal of the B input port of the microcomputer 23. The operation of the system to change the rate or frequency of the pulses applied by the clock 81 to the counter 82 otherwise is the same as described above.
Although applicant has found that it is preferable to correct for mistuning or frequency offsets by adjusting the count or division ratio of the counter 35, such offset adjustments also could be effected by adjusting the count in the counter 31 in the local oscillator signal line. The operation in such a case is the same as described above for adjusting the count in the counter 35.
If the receiver is to be used with an automatic signal seek mode of operation, however, additional sensory inputs are necessary. These inputs operate in conjunction with the output of the frequency discriminator 60. The operation of the microcomputer 23 in controlling the count of the reference programmable frequency counter divider 35 is the same as described above. The additional sensory inputs simply are used in conjunction with the outputs of the comparators 62 and 63 to signal the microcomputer 23 to assure that tuning is to a picture channel rather than an adjacent sound channel. This is accomplished by utilizing the output of the synchronizing signal separator 65 which is applied to a comparator 67 to produce an output signal to the SNS1 sensory input of the microcomputer 23 only when vertical synchronizing signal components are present.
In addition, the output of a picture carrier detector 69 is applied to the input of a comparator 70 to produce an output to the B10 sensory input of the microcomputer 23. If the picture carrier detector 69 is producing an output indicative of the presence of a carrier, but no output is being obtained from the vertical synch separator 65 at the same time, the system is mistuned to a sound carrier and the microcomputer 23 is permitted to continue its localized search until a properly tuned station is found. Only when there is coincidence of signals from the picture carrier detector 69, the synch signal separator 65, and the automatic frequency discriminator window as determined by the comparators 62 and 63, is the microcomputer operation terminated to indicate that a properly tuned channel is present.
Further insurance of tuning the receiver only to a strong signal also can be provided by the addition of an AGC amplifier 72. This is connected to a comparator 74 coupled to the B10 input port along with the output of the picture carrier detector comparator 70. When the AGC amplifier 72 is used as a sensory input, the microcomputer operation, when the system is used in a signal seek mode, is only terminated to indicate reception of a valid signal when that signal is strong enough to produce the desired output from the comparator 74. The signal level which is acceptable is set by a potentiometer 75.
It should be noted that when the system is operated in a signal seek mode, the sensory inputs must indicate the reception of a properly tuned signal within a pre-established time period. If no signal is sensed by the various sensory input circuits operating in conjunction with one another as described above, the microcomputer 23 automatically steps to the next channel number and repeats the sequence of operation described above. This is when it is placed in its signal seek mode of operation. If signal seek is not employed, the additional sensory circuits 65, 69 and 72 are not necessary, and the inputs to the microcomputer which are provided from these sensory circuits are not utilized. The sensory signal input which is used both for a receiver without a signal seek capability of operation and for a receiver which has a signal seek mode of operation in it, is the output of the frequency discriminator 60 operating in conjunction with the comparators 61, 62 and 63 as described above.
As indicated above, the wideband method of tuning precisely to an incoming signal that is at the wrong frequency described here only needs the frequency discriminator sensory information. The method that uses the additional sensors described above is needed to make this system operate compatibly with signal seek but it is not restricted to seek operation.
For a system that does not use signal seek operation, only the frequency discriminator sensory input is required for proper operation. The discriminator 60 is used for both fine tuning direction information and to produce a frequency window to indicate the presence of a correctly tuned station (channel verification). Initially, after a channel change, there is a 250 millisecond settling time, the same as the operation described above with compatible seek. After that, however, comes a period of time where a forced localized search is produced by the microcomputer 23. The forced search is needed to insure that the system will correctly tune to stations that initially may be tuned to the undesired zero voltage crossover in the right half of the upper curve of FIG. 5. Such signals may be within the frequency window of the discriminator 60; and if a search is not forced, this system will not correctly tune. The compatible seek system described previously correctly tunes the local oscillator without a forced search, because the picture carrier detector and vertical detector do not give an output for this situation and the system automatically goes into its search mode of operation. However, the non-seek system does not have a picture carrier sensor input and must be forced to search for an initial period of time sufficient to allow the system to tune up to its maximum frequency and then reset (loop) back to a frequency of 2 Δf lower. Then it is tuned to the positive left half portion of the discriminator curve (FIG. 5) and the frequency window created by the discriminator 60 is sufficient to insure proper tuning. If the discriminator output produced by the desired incoming signal created an initial situation that produces the correct tuning direction information, i.e., in the left half of the curve of FIG. 5, or in the right half portion that gives the correct direction and

frequency window information, the forced search would not be needed. However, the forced search will produce a correct tuning situation anyway. In these cases, the tuning either is correct to begin with or correct tuning is reached quickly. Then, even though the forced search is active, it simply alternates up and down through the correct tuning point because each time the receiver is tuned a little high in frequency, it produces a negative output from the discriminator 60; and the tuning direction signal causes the system to tune down in frequency.

Then, a positive discriminator output is produced, and the system tunes up in frequency. This continues until the forced search is removed by time-out of the microcomputer 23 (a fraction of a second). At such time, the receiver is correctly tuned by the frequency window of the discriminator to be very near fc. The system cannot tune to the undesired discriminator crossover shown in the right half portion of FIG. 5 because the polarity of the tuning direction signal always causes it to tune away from that point.
The fast time or forced search operation of the system can be terminated in a different way other than the preestablished time-out period described above in conjunction with the operation of the circuit shown in FIG. 2. Generally, it is desirable to build into the system (or program into the system by means of software) such a maximum time-out period to effect the operation which has been described above to terminate the search and cause the clock 81 thereafter to operate in a low speed mode of operation. Termination also can be accomplished by sensing the number of changes in the direction sensor input applied to the B12 terminal of the B input port to cause the search to be terminated when this direction changes three times (or more). By doing this, any flicker that might be observed on the screen of the television receiver is minimized, since the forced search still takes place at the high rate of application of clock pulses from the clock 81 to the counter 82 in the same manner described above.
Termination of the search, however, also may be effected by means of a search terminate counter 78 (FIG. 3), which is advanced by pulses applied to it each time the output of the comparator 61 changes its sign (indicative of a change in direction for the counter 82) as applied to it through the B12 input port, as described earlier. After three of these changes, or some other number if desired, an output pulse is obtained from the search terminate counter 78 and is applied to the SNS0 input of the microcomputer 23. This causes the operation of the clock 81 to be switched to its low speed mode of operation to terminate the fast or "forced search" mode of operation. The next time a new channel number is entered on the keyboard 25, a reset pulse is applied to the search terminate counter 78 to reset it to its original or zero count, thereby readying it for another sequence of operation. It is apparent that the search terminate counter 78 may not always be operated to terminate the count, since the time-out interval which is sensed by the decode circuit 52 and applied to the B13 input port of the microcomputer 23 may occur before there are three changes of direction of the search. In any event, the next time a new channel number is entered into the keyboard 25, the search terminate counter 78 is reset; so that it is irrelevant whether this counter reaches a full count or not to effect the termination of the forced search operation of the system.
FIG. 4 shows the control sequence of the system which is stored in the ROM (Read Only Memory) of the microcomputer 23. The microcomputer 23 operates by always running through the flow sequence, via loops L1, L2 and L3. Loop L1 corresponds to a new channel selection by two digit number entry. Loop L2 corresponds to channel number increment or decrement by an up or down key operation, respectively, or by seek operation. Loop L3 corresponds to fine tuning, either manual or automatic. To obtain exact timing for system control, the microcomputer 23 receives a standard timing pulse from the output of the reference counter 35 divided in a divide-by-five counter 80 and applied to the A13 input port of the microcomputer 23. The control functions which are programmed into the microcomputer 23, as indicated in the flow chart of FIG. 4, are outlined in the following paragraphs.
Channel Number Correction: An invalid two digit channel number entry (0, 1, 84, 99) is corrected. When the operation of the receiver is in the signal seek mode, the next channel up from 83 is channel 2, and the next lower channel from channel 2 is 83.
PLL Control I: For a given channel number, a corresponding binary code for the PLL selector counter 31 is derived as described previously. For UHF channels, the local oscillator frequency separation between two adjacent channels is 6 MHz and the code for PLL is generated by the microcomputer 23 through means of a simple calculation. This code then is transferred from the microcomputer 23 to the latches 44, 45 and 46 as described previously.
PLL Control II: This routine of the microcomputer 23 is used to transfer the fine tuning data to the latches 49 and 50 which control the count of the reference counter 35 in the PLL circuit.
Channel Number Display: The channel number is transferred from the microcomputer 23 to the driver latches of the display driver circuit 29.
Key Input Detection: The keyboard is arranged as the matrix circuit shown in FIG. 2. ROM programming for scanning and acknowledging a keyboard entry only after successive indications provides protection against false entry due to contact bounce. The four data output lines of the D output port of the microcomputer 23 are used to transfer data to the phase lock loop section of the circuit and to the display circuit 29, as well as for scanning the keyboard matrix circuit.
Time Count: The microcomputer 23 receives a basic timing pulse of approximately 200 Hz from the output of the divider 80 and performs various controls for each timing pulse. By way of example, sensing for the vertical synch input (when the system is used with a signal seek capability) on the input port SNS1 takes place every 2.5 milliseconds. Automatic seek timing is selected to be 133 milliseconds for UHF channels. All of these timing pulses are derived from the basic synchronization timing pulse applied to the microcomputer on the A13 input port from the output of the divider 80. Various other timing values used in the microcomputer to properly time multiplex sequence the operation are derived from this basic timing pulse.
Sensor Input Detection: As described previously, the output of the comparators shown in FIG. 3 reflect the status of the tuning of the television receiver. If no signal seek mode of operation is used, only the frequency discriminator or AFT discriminator 60 is necessary. When a system is being used in a signal seek mode, a proper television signal receipt is indicated by the presence of a vertical synch signal at the output of the synch signal separator 65 and corresponding outputs are applied to the input leads B10 and B11 (high level input signals) indicative of tuning to the "correct tuned" frequency discriminator window and reception of a picture carrier. As stated previously, the signal present on the B12 input lead is used to determine the direction of tuning when the receiver is operated in its automatic mode.
Mode Detection: The status of the seek and automatic/manual (A/M) switches are detected. If the A/M switch (not shown) is in its automatic position, automatic seek and offset correction are active. If only the seek switch is on, only seek is performed. If the A/M switch is in manual, manual fine tuning (MFT) is active.
Automatic Mode: If the TV receiver is not properly tuned for VHF channels in automatic, the local oscillator frequency is shifted automatically toward proper tuning. The fine tuning data is generated in the microcomputer 23 and is transferred to the latches 49 and 50 for the reference counter 35 in the PLL circuit.
Manual Fine Tuning (MFT) Control: The local oscillator frequency is shifted by pushing the fine tuning up (U) or down (D) pushbutton or switch. This MFT control can be applied to VHF channels as well as to UHF channels.
Channel Up/Down: When a channel up (upward pointing arrow) or down (downward pointing arrow) key closure in the keyboard 25 is detected, or upon a direct access to an unused channel, this routine is activated and the system will advance to the next channel in the selected direction.
The foregoing embodiment of the invention which has been described above and which is illustrated in the drawings is to be considered illustrative of the invention, which is not limited to the specific embodiment selected for this purpose. For example, hard-wired logic could be used to achieve the various circuit operations which are accomplished by the microcomputer 23 in conjunction with the other portions of the system. The relative ease of programming and debugging the microcomputer 23, however, make it much simpler to implement the system operation with the microcomputer than with hard-wired logic. With respect to the sensor circuit inputs to the system, an added degree of operating assurance can be provided by the addition of a sound carrier sensor in addition to the picture carrier sensor shown in FIG. 3. If this feature is desired, the output of the comparator for the sound carrier is combined with the outputs of the comparators 70 and 74 at the input terminal B10 of the B input port of the microcomputer 23. Because of the manner of the circut operation which has been described previously, however, the addition of a sound carrier detector to the system is not considered necessary, even for a system operating in the signal seek mode of operation. This is in contrast to conventional television receivers having a signal seek operation, in which detection of the sound carrier generally is a necessity to insure that mistuning of the receiver to an adjacent sound carrier does not take place.

No comments:

Post a Comment

The most important thing to remember about the Comment Rules is this:
The determination of whether any comment is in compliance is at the sole discretion of this blog’s owner.

Comments on this blog may be blocked or deleted at any time.
Fair people are getting fair reply. Spam and useless crap and filthy comments / scrapers / observations goes all directly to My Private HELL without even appearing in public !!!

The fact that a comment is permitted in no way constitutes an endorsement of any view expressed, fact alleged, or link provided in that comment by the administrator of this site.
This means that there may be a delay between the submission and the eventual appearance of your comment.

Requiring blog comments to obey well-defined rules does not infringe on the free speech of commenters.

Resisting the tide of post-modernity may be difficult, but I will attempt it anyway.

Your choice.........Live or DIE.
That indeed is where your liberty lies.