Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

In Brief: On this site you will find pictures and information about some of the electronic, electrical and electrotechnical technology relics that the Frank Sharp Private museum has accumulated over the years .

Premise: There are lots of vintage electrical and electronic items that have not survived well or even completely disappeared and forgotten.

Or are not being collected nowadays in proportion to their significance or prevalence in their heyday, this is bad and the main part of the death land. The heavy, ugly sarcophagus; models with few endearing qualities, devices that have some over-riding disadvantage to ownership such as heavy weight,toxicity or inflated value when dismantled, tend to be under-represented by all but the most comprehensive collections and museums. They get relegated to the bottom of the wants list, derided as 'more trouble than they are worth', or just forgotten entirely. As a result, I started to notice gaps in the current representation of the history of electronic and electrical technology to the interested member of the public.


Following this idea around a bit, convinced me that a collection of the peculiar alone could not hope to survive on its own merits, but a museum that gave equal display space to the popular and the unpopular, would bring things to the attention of the average person that he has previously passed by or been shielded from. It's a matter of culture. From this, the Obsolete Technology Tellye Web Museum concept developed and all my other things too. It's an open platform for all electrical Electronic TV technology to have its few, but NOT last, moments of fame in a working, hand-on environment. We'll never own Colossus or Faraday's first transformer, but I can show things that you can't see at the Science Museum, and let you play with things that the Smithsonian can't allow people to touch, because my remit is different.

There was a society once that was the polar opposite of our disposable, junk society. A whole nation was built on the idea of placing quality before quantity in all things. The goal was not “more and newer,” but “better and higher" .This attitude was reflected not only in the manufacturing of material goods, but also in the realms of art and architecture, as well as in the social fabric of everyday life. The goal was for each new cohort of children to stand on a higher level than the preceding cohort: they were to be healthier, stronger, more intelligent, and more vibrant in every way.

The society that prioritized human, social and material quality is a Winner. Truly, it is the high point of all Western civilization. Consequently, its defeat meant the defeat of civilization itself.

Today, the West is headed for the abyss. For the ultimate fate of our disposable society is for that society itself to be disposed of. And this will happen sooner, rather than later.

OLD, but ORIGINAL, Well made, Funny, Not remotely controlled............. and not Made in CHINA.

How to use the site:

- If you landed here via any Search Engine, you will get what you searched for and you can search more using the search this blog feature provided by Google. You can visit more posts scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year,
or you can click on the main photo-page to start from the main page. Doing so it starts from the most recent post to the older post simple clicking on the Older Post button on the bottom of each page after reading , post after post.

You can even visit all posts, time to time, when reaching the bottom end of each page and click on the Older Post button.

- If you arrived here at the main page via bookmark you can visit all the site scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year pointing were you want , or more simple You can even visit all blog posts, from newer to older, clicking at the end of each bottom page on the Older Post button.
So you can see all the blog/site content surfing all pages in it.

- The search this blog feature provided by Google is a real search engine. If you're pointing particular things it will search IT for you; or you can place a brand name in the search query at your choice and visit all results page by page. It's useful since the content of the site is very large.

Note that if you don't find what you searched for, try it after a period of time; the site is a never ending job !

Every CRT Television saved let revive knowledge, thoughts, moments of the past life which will never return again.........

Many contemporary "televisions" (more correctly named as displays) would not have this level of staying power, many would ware out or require major services within just five years or less and of course, there is that perennial bug bear of planned obsolescence where components are deliberately designed to fail and, or manufactured with limited edition specificities..... and without considering........picture......sound........quality........

..............The bitterness of poor quality is remembered long after the sweetness of todays funny gadgets low price has faded from memory........ . . . . . .....
Don't forget the past, the end of the world is upon us! Pretty soon it will all turn to dust!

Have big FUN ! !
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©2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 Frank Sharp - You do not have permission to copy photos and words from this blog, and any content may be never used it for auctions or commercial purposes, however feel free to post anything you see here with a courtesy link back, btw a link to the original post here , is mandatory.
All sets and apparates appearing here are property of
Engineer Frank Sharp. NOTHING HERE IS FOR SALE !

Thursday, July 26, 2012

SELECO (ZANUSSI) SEC262 PAL/SECAM CHASSIS BS290.0 INTERNAL VIEW.

























The ZANUSSI BS290.0 here shown is a dual standard PAL AND SECAM BECAUSE OF THE PRESENCE OF THE BS273.1 UNIT.

The ZANUSSI BS290.0 is a modular chassis except for some parts.

It seems bigger than the cabinet containing it but is not and it's well organized and designed.

THE ZANUSSI BS290.0 IS THE FIRST ZANUSSI CHASSIS DEVELOPED THE USE OF THE INLINE PHILIPS 20AX CRT TUBE TECHNOLOGY and phasing out the previous BS250 with delta crt.


The serigraphy layout is showing a GERMAN language and in some cases shows little spelling errors. The German language was probabily used due to export reasons, but I think they exported very few of these.


The ZANUSSI BS290.0 is PARTLY derived from the BS250 which at his time was USING A CRT TUBE with delta GUN.


The chassis BS290.0 has a pretty nice service approach:


The unit which has to be serviced and analyzed can be plugged out of it's original position and plugged reversely on the PCB SIDE OF THE CHASSIS rendering easy and simple access to all components during any metering (see this photo sequence below).

































- BS249.5 IF Sound + Amplifier

- BS244.1 SYNCHRONIZATION + HOR OSC

- BS287.0 FRAME OSC UNIT

- BS247.1 HOR STABILIZATION + 12VOLT SOURCE

- BS286.1 E/W CORRECTION.

- BS243.1 MATRIX + RGB AMPLIFIER TBA530

- BS273.1 CHROMA + LUMINANCE TCA650 + TBA540 + TCA660B + TBA640.

SELECO REX ZANUSSI ZOPPAS CHASSIS BS290 - BS290.1 - BS290.1B SCHEMATIC ELECTRIC DIAGRAM.









NOTE:

Some units are coming from the old BS250 (DELTA TUBE) and others are coming from the BS290 (first 20AX Chassis) the rest are born toghether with this BS290.0
Basically Zanussi has re-used / shared the old things even for the CHASSIS BS290.0 and has developed for this only few specific units.


Philips TBA SERIES SINCE the last part in this series Philips have released details of a PAL -D decoder developed in their laboratories in which most of the circuitry has been integrated into four i.c.s a TBA560Q which undertakes the luminance and chrominance signal processing, a TBA540Q which provides the reference signal channel, a TBA990Q which provides synchronous demodulation of the colour -difference signals, G -Y signal matrixing and PAL V switching, and a TBA530Q which matrixes the colour -difference signals and the luminance signal to obtain the R, G and B signals which after amplification by single -transistor output stages drive the cathodes of the shadowmask tube.

The TBA540Q and TBA560Q and also the TBA500Q and TBA510Q which provide an alternative luminance and chrominance signal processing arrangement will be covered this time.
The internal circuits of the TBA530Q and TBA520Q (predecessor to the TBA990Q which shows how fast things are moving at present) were shown in Part 6 in order to give an idea of the type of circuitry used in these linear colour receiver i.c.s. The internal circuitry is not however of great importance to the user or service engineer: all we need to know about a particular i.c. are the functions it performs, the inputs and outputs it requires and provides and the external connections necessary. The i.c.s we shall deal with in this instalment are highly complex internally the TBA560Q for example contains some 67 integrated transistor elements alone. This time therefore we shall just show the immediate external circuitry in conjunction with a block diagram to indicate the functions performed within the i.c.

TBA540Q Reference Signal Channel:

A block diagram with external connections for this i.c. is shown in Fig. 1. In addition to providing the reference signal required for synchronous demodulation of the colour difference signals this i.c. incorporates automatic phase and amplitude control of the reference oscillator and a half line frequency synchronous demodulator which compares the phases and amplitudes of the burst ripple and the square waveform from the PAL V switch circuit in order to generate a.c.c., colour killer and ident outputs. The use of a synchronous demodulator for these functions provides a high standard of noise immunity in the decoder. The internal reference oscillator operates in conjunction with an external 4.43MHz crystal connected between pins 1 and 15. The nominal load capacitance of the crystal is 20pF. The reference oscillator output, in correct phase for feeding to the V signal synchronous demodulator, is taken from pin 4 at a nominal amplitude of 1.5V peak -to -peak. This is a low -impedance output and no d.c. load to earth is required here. The bifilar inductor Ll provides the antiphase signal necessary for push-pull reference signal drive to the burst detector circuit, the antiphase input being at pin 6. The U subcarrier is obtained from the junction of a 900 phase shift network (R1, C1) connected across Ll. The oscillator is controlled by the output at pin 2. This pin is fed internally with a sinewave derived from the reference signal and controlled in amplitude by the internal reactance control circuit. The phase of the feedback from pin 2 to the crystal via C2 is such that the value of C2 is effectively increased. Pin 2 is held internally at a very low impedance. Thus the tuning of the crystal is automatically controlled by the amplitude of the feedback waveform and its influence on the effective value of C2. The burst signal is fed in at pin 5. A burst waveform amplitude of 1V peak -to -peak is required (the minimum threshold is 0.7V) and this is a.c. coupled. The a.p.c. loop phase detector (burst detector) loads and filter (R2, C4, C5 and C6) are connected to pins 13 and 14. A synchronously -generated a.c.c. potential is produced at pin 9. The voltage at this pin is set by R3 to 4V with zero burst input. The synchronous demodu- lator producing this output is fed with the burst signal and the PAL half line frequency squarewave which is a.c. coupled at pin 8 at 2.5V peak -to -peak. If the phase of the squarewave is correct the potential at pin 9 will fall and normal a.c.c. action will commence. If the phase of the squarewave is incorrect the voltage at pin 9 will rise, providing the ident action as this rise will make the PAL switch miss a count thereby correcting its phase. A colour -killer output is provided at pin 7 from an internal switching transistor. If the ident conditions are incorrect this transistor is saturated and the output at pin 7 is about 250mV. When the ident conditions are correct (voltage at pin 9 below 2.5V) the transistor is cut off providing a positive -going turn -on bias at pin 7. The network between pins 10 and 12 provides filtering and a.c.c. level (R3) setting. The control connected to pin 11 is set so that in conjunction with the rest of the decoder circuitry the level of the burst signal at pin 5 under a.c.c. control is correct. The positive d.c. supply required is applied to pin 3 and the chassis connection is pin 16.

TBA560Q Chroma-Luminance IC:

A block diagram with external connections for this i.c. is shown in Fig. 2. The i.c. incorporates the circuits required to process the luminance and chrominance signals, providing a luminance output for the RGB matrix and a chrominance output for the PAL delay line circuit.
The luminance input is a.c. coupled from the luminance delay line terminating resistor at pin 3. This pin also requires a d.c. bias current which is obtained via the 22kI resistor shown. The brightness control is connected to pin 6: variation from OV to 1 2V at this pin gives a variation in the black level of the luminance output at pin 5 of from OV to 3V, which is a greater range than is needed in practice. The contrast control is connected to pin 2 and the potential applied here controls the gain of both the luminance and the chrominance channels so that the two signals track together correctly. Picture tube beam current limiting can be applied at either pin 6 or pin 2 (by taking the earthy side of one of the controls to a beam limiter network). To maintain correct picture black level it is preferable to apply the beam limiting facility to reduce the contrast. A positive going pulse timed to coincide with the back porch period is fed in at pin 10 to provide burst gating and to operate the black -level clamp in the luminance channel: the black -level clamp requires a charge storage capacitor which is connected to pin 4. The luminance output is obtained from an internal emitter follower at pin 5, an external load resistor of not less than 2kS2 being required here. The output has a nominal black level of 1.6V and 1V black -to -white amplitude. The chrominance signal is applied in push-pull to pins 1 and 15. A.c.c. is applied at pin 14, a negative going potential giving a 26dB control range starting at 1V and giving maximum gain reduction at 200mV. The saturation control is connected to pin 13 and the colour -killer potential is also applied to this pin : the chrominance channel is muted when the voltage at this pin falls below IV. The chrominance output, at an amplitude of about 2V peak -to -peak, is obtained at pin 9: an external network is required which provides d.c. negative feedback in the chrominance channel via pin 12. The burst output, at about 1V peak -to -peak, is obtained at pin 7. A network connected to this pin also provides d.c. feedback to the chrominance input transformer (connected between pins 1 and 15) to give good d.c. stability. Line and field blanking pulses are fed in at pin 8 to the luminance and chrominance channels : these negative -going pulses should not exceed -5V in amplitude. The d.c. supply is applied to pin 11 and pin 16 is the chassis connection.

TBA500Q Luminance IC:

A block diagram with external connections for this i.c. is shown in Fig. 3. This i.c. provides a colour receiver luminance channel incorporating luminance delay -line matching stages, a black -level clamp and a d.c. contrast control which maintains a constant black level over its range of operation. A beam current limiting facility which first reduces picture ,contrast and then picture brightness is provided and line and field flyback blanking can be applied. A video input signal of 2V peak -to -peak with negative -going sync pulses is required at pin 2, a.c. coupled. A clamp potential obtained from pin 13 via a smoothing circuit is fed to pin 2 to regulate the black level of the signal at pin 2 to about 10-4V. The smoothing network for the black -level control potential should have a time -constant which is less than the time constant of the video signal coupling network. The 3V peak -to -peak composite video output with positive -going sync pulses obtained at pin 3 from an emitter -follower can be used as a source of chroma signal: in Fig. 3 it is used as a source of sync pulses for the black -level clamp, fed in at pin 15. This pin requires positive -going sync pulses of 2V amplitude or greater for sync -cancelling the black -level clamp. The other input to the clamp consists of negative going back porch pulses fed in at pin 1 to operate the clamp. The timing of these pulses is not critical provided the pulse does not encroach on the sync pulse period and that it dwells for at least Zus on any part of the back porch-clamp pulse overlap into the picture line period is unimportant. A low-pass filter capacitor for the clamp is connected at pin 14 to prevent the operation of the clamp being affected by the bursts or h.f. noise. The contrast control is connected to pin 5 and is linked to the saturation control so that the two track together. A variation of from 2 to 4V at pin 5 gives a control range of at least 40dB, the relationship between the video at pin 4 and the potential at pin 5 being linear. An output to drive the luminance delay line is provided at pin 4. This is a low -impedance source and a luminance delay line with a characteristic impedance of 1-2.7161 can be used. The delayed luminance signal is fed back into the i.c. at pin 8. Line and field flyback banking pulses and the brightness control are also connected to this pin. The gain of the luminance channel is determined by the value of the resistor connected to pin 9. The luminance output is taken from an emitter -follower at pin 10, an external load resistor being required. The voltage output range available is from 0.7V to 5-5V. The potential of the black level of the output signal is normally set to 1.5V by appropriate setting of the potential at pin 8. A luminance signal output amplitude of 2.8V black to white at maximum contrast is produced : superimposed on this is the blanking waveform which remains of constant amplitude independently of the contrast and brightness control settings. A beam current limiting input is provided at pin 6. A rising positive potential at this pin will start to reduce the contrast at about 2V. Further increase in the voltage at this pin will continue to reduce the contrast until a threshold is reached, determined by the potential applied to pin 7, when the d.c. level of the video signal is reduced giving reduction in picture brightness. The d.c. supply is connected to pin 12 and pin 16 is the chassis connection.

TBA510Q Chrominance IC:

A block diagram with external connections for this i.c. is shown in Fig. 4. It provides a colour receiver chrominance signal processing channel with a variable gain a.c.c. chroma amplifier circuit, d.c. control of chroma saturation which can be ganged to the opera- tion of the contrast control, chroma blanking and burst gating, a burst output stage, colour -killer circuit and PAL delay line driver stage. The chroma signal is a.c. coupled to pin 4, the a.c.c. control potential being applied at pin 2. The non - signal side of the differential amplifier used for the a.c.c. system is taken to pin 3 where a decoupling capacitor should be connected. A resistor can be connected between pins 2 and 3 to reduce the control sensitivity of the a.c.c. system to any desired level. The saturation control is connected to pin 15, the d.c. control voltage range required here being 1.5-4-5V. For chrominance blanking a negative -going line flyback pulse of amplitude not greater than 5V is fed in at pin 14. A series network is connected to pin 6 to decouple the emitter of one of the amplifying stages in the i.c.: the value of the resistor in this network influences the gain of both the burst and the chroma channels in the i.c. The chrominance signal outputs are obtained at pin 8 (collector) to drive the chroma delay line and pin 9 (emitter) to feed the chrominance signal matrix (undelayed signal). A resistive path to earth is essen- tial at pin 9. The colour -killer turn -on bias is applied to pin 5 : colour is "on" at 2.3V, "off" at 1.9V. Chroma signal suppression when killed is greater than 50dB. The burst signal output is at pin 11 (collector) or 12 (emitter). If a low -impedance output is required pin 11 is connected direct to the 12V supply rail and the output is taken from pin 12. An external load of 2kn connected to chassis is required here. The burst gating pulse is fed in at pin 13, a negative -going pulse of not greater than 5V amplitude being required. Pins 7 and 10 are connected to an internal screen whose purpose is to prevent unwanted burst and chroma outputs : the pins must be linked together and taken via a direct path to earth. Pin 1 is the d.c.
supply pin and pin 16 the chassis connection.

A TBA510 as example  is used in the Grundig 1500/3010 series and also the YR 1972 Grundig colour chassis (5010 / 5050  series) introduced in the70's. Grundig continue in these models to favour colour -difference tube drive. The 5010 series uses a TBA510 together with a TAA630 colour demodulator i.c. in the chrominance section and a TBA970 luminance i.c. which drives a single BF458 luminance output transistor operated from a 280V rail. As this series has been appearing more and more i.c.s have come to be used in television receivers, both monochrome and colour, and more and more i.c.s designed for television set use have been announced. Some of these have been mentioned in recent argumentations here in this Web Museum. There seems little doubt that a major increase in the use of integrated circuits in television receivers is about to occur in the future. Fully integrated i.f. and vision detector sections are already in use (PHILIPS K9-K11) and this is the likely area, together with the decoder in colour sets, in which integration will most rapidly spread. Elsewhere integrated line and field oscillators using circuits without inductors have been developed and a field output stage in integrated form is now feasible. Line output stages consisting of hybrid i.c. and thick film circuits (PHILIPS K12) have been built and there is a programme of work directed to the integration of the r.f. tuner, using digital frequency synthesisers to provide local oscillator action controlled by signals from a remote point.
We seem to have reached the position where the only part of the set which does not attract the i.c. manufacturers is the picture tube itself !


SELECO (ZANUSSI) SEC262 PAL/SECAM CHASSIS BS290.0 COLOR AMPLIFIER WITH Constant bandwidth RGB output amplifiers having simultaneous gain and DC output voltage control :
A color television receiver includes conventional circuitry for processing and detecting a received color television signal. Three chrominance-luminance matrices combine detected color difference and luminance signals forming color red, blue and green video signals. Emitter follower coupling stages apply the color video signals individually to each of three output amplifiers which in turn drive the cathode electrodes of a unitized gun CRT. Potentiometers couple the emitter electrodes of the output amplifiers to a source of operating potential providing a simultaneous signal gain and DC output voltage adjustment for each amplifier during CRT color temperature setup. A voltage divider controls the voltage applied to the common screen grid electrode of the CRT providing a master setup adjustment.

1. In a color televison receiver, for processing and displaying a received television signal bearing modulation components of picture information, having a cathode ray tube including a trio of electron source means producing individual electron beams impinging an image screen to form three substantially overlying images and in which the respective operating points and relative conduction levels of said electron source means determine the color temperature of the reproduced image, the combination comprising:
master conduction means, coupled to said trio of electron source means simultaneously varying said conduction levels;
a plurality of substantially equal bandwidth amplifiers, each coupled to a different one of said electron source means, separately influencing said conduction levels;
low output impedance signal translation means recovering said picture information and supplying it to each of said plurality of amplifiers; and
separate adjusting means individually coupled to at least two of said amplifiers for simultaneously producing predetermined same sense variations in gain and DC output voltage of its associated amplifier while preserving said bandwidths.
2. The combination set forth in claim 1, wherein the transconductance and cutoff voltage of each of said electron source means bear a predetermined relationship and wherein said simultaneous predetermined variations in gain and DC output voltage are determined by said transconductance-cutoff voltage relationship. 3. The combination set forth in claim 2, wherein said plurality of amplifiers each include a gain and DC output voltage determining impedance and wherein each of said separate adjusting means include:
a variable impedance, coupling said gain and DC output voltage determining impedance of said associated amplifier to a source of bias current and forming a shunt path for signals within said amplifier.
4. The combination set forth in claim 3, wherein each of said electron source means include a cathode electrode and wherein each of said amplifiers include:
a transistor having input, common, and output electrodes, said output electrode being coupled to said electron source means cathode.
5. The combination set forth in claim 4, wherein said gain and DC output voltage determining impedance is coupled to said common electrode. 6. The combination set forth in claim 5, wherein said input, common, and output electrodes of said transistors are defined by base, emitter, and collector electrodes, respectively. 7. The combination set forth in claim 6, wherein said gain and DC output voltage determining impedance includes a resistor coupling said emitter electrode to ground and wherein said variable impedance includes:
a resistive control, having a variable resistance, coupling said emitter electrode to a source of operating potential.
8. The combination set forth in claim 7, wherein said three electron source means include control grid and screen grid electrodes common to said three electron guns and wherein variations of cathode electrode voltages permit changes of said relative conduction levels and said respective operating points. 9. The combination set forth in claim 8, wherein said master conduction means includes a variable bias potential source coupled to said common screen grid electrode.
Description:
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
This invention relates to color television receivers and in particular to cathode ray tubes (CRT) drive systems therefor. Each of the several types of color television cathode ray tubes in current use includes a trio of individual electron sources producing distinct electron beams which are directed toward an image screen formed by areas of colored-light-emitting phosphors deposited on the inner surface of the CRT. The phosphors emit light of a given additive primary color (red, blue or green) when struck by high energy electrons. A "delta" electron gun arrangement, in which the electron sources comprise three electron guns disposed at the vertices of an equilateral triangle, having its base oriented in a horizontal plane and its apex above or below the base plane, may be used. Alternatively, the three electron sources may be "in line", that is, positioned in a horizontal line. In either case, the three beams produced are subjected to deflection fields and scan the image screen in both the horizontal and vertical directions thereby forming three substantially overlying rasters.
The phosphor deposits forming the image screen may alternatively comprise round dots, elongated areas, or uninterrupted vertical lines. A parallax barrier or shadow mask, defining apertures generally corresponding to the shape of the phosphor areas, is interposed between the electron guns and the image screen to "shadow" or block each phosphor area from electrons emitted from all but its corresponding electron gun.
A color television signal includes both luminance (monochrome) and chrominance (color) picture components. In the commonly used RGB drive systems the separately processed luminance and chrominance information is matrixed (or combined) before application to the CRT cathodes. Three output amplifiers apply the respective red, blue and green video signals thus produced for controlling the respective electron source currents.
The luminance components have substantially the same effect on all three electron sources whereas the color components are differential in nature, causing relative changes in electron source currents. In the absence of video signals, the combined raster should be a shade of grey. At high gun currents, the grey is very near white and at low settings, it is near black. The "color", commonly called color temperature, of the monochrome raster depends upon the relative contributions of red, blue and green light. At high color temperatures, the raster may appear blue and at low color temperatures it may appear sepia. While the most pleasing color temperature is largely a matter of design preference, ideally the receiver should not change color temperature under high and low brightness nor for high and low frequency picture information.
Generally, the electron sources comprise individual electron guns each including separately adjustable cathode, control grid and screen grid electrodes and a desired color temperature is achieved by adjustment of each electrode voltage during black and white setup. While the exact setup procedure employed varies with the manufacturer and specific CRT configuration, all manufacturers attempt to achieve consistent color temperature throughout the usable range of CRT beam current variations.
A typical color temperature adjustment involves setting the low light color temperature condition of each electron gun by adjusting its screen grid electrode voltage to produce the required DC conditions between electron guns at minimum beam currents. A high light or dive adjustment at increased CRT beam current is then made to insure consistent color temperature. In receivers utilizing CRT's with separately adjustable screen grid electrode voltages, the drive adjustment may take the form of a minor change in signal gain of the output amplifiers. The process is, in essence, one of configuring the operating points of the three electron guns to conform to three substantially identical output amplifiers.
The recently developed economical "unitized gun" type CRT has a combined electron source structure in which three common control grids and three common screen grids are used with the cathodes being the only electrically separate electrodes. The greatly simplified and more economical unitized gun structure, however, imposes some restrictions on the circuitry used to drive the electron sources. Perhaps most significant is the absence of the flexibility previously provided by individually adjustable screen grid electrode voltages. Due in part to the inverse relationship between electron source transconductance, which may be thought of as "gain" of the electron source, and cutoff voltage, the typical individual low level color temperature or equal cutoff adjustment described above also performs the additional function of establishing nearly equal transconductances for the three electron sources. As a result only minor relative changes in electron source currents occur at higher CRT beam currents.
Color temperature adjustment in a receiver with a unitized gun CRT involves a somewhat different process, namely, configuring the drive and bias applied to each of the gun cathodes to accommodate differences in relative electron source characteristics which, without the equalizing effect of separate screen electrode adjustments, may be considerable.
Initially television receivers using unitized gun CRT's utilized a variable DC voltage divider operative upon each output amplifier to provide adjustment of the DC cutoff voltage. Drive, or signal gain, adjustment to accommodate differences in electron source transconductances was generally accomplished by separate individual gain controls operative on each of the output amplifiers.
However, the more recently developed unitized gun systems combine the DC voltage (cutoff) and signal gain (drive) adjustments for each electron source by simultaneously varying the signal gain and DC voltage in the same direction in a predetermined relationship. One such system used three CRT coupling networks each of which includes a variable impedance simultaneously operative on both the amplitude of coupled signal and DC voltage. Another system uses a variable collector load impedance for each of the output amplifiers, making use of the changes in amplifier signal gain and DC output voltage resulting from collector load variations.
While such systems provide an adequate range of adjustment to achieve color temperature setup using a reduced number of controls, they often degrade image quality. Ideally, the luminance portion of the signal is applied uniformly to each of the three electron sources. Although the relative signal amplitudes may be varied to accommodate transconductance differences between electron sources, it is desirable that each applied signal be an otherwise identical replica of the others. The variable impedance elements in the voltage divider networks and variable collector loads of the prior art interact with the capacities inherent in the output amplifiers and electron gun structures to produce unequal bandwidths for the different color video signals, which cause color changes in their high frequency components (which correspond to detailed picture information). The resulting effect upon the displayed image is similar in appearance to the well-known "color fringing" or misconvergence effect.
OBJECTS OF THE INVENTION
It is an object of the present invention to provide an improved color television receiver.
It is a further object of this invention to provide a novel CRT color temperature setup system.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
In a color television receiver, for processing and displaying a received television signal bearing modulation components of picture information, a cathode ray tube includes three electron source means producing individual electron beams which impinge an image screen to form three substantially overlying images. The respective operating points and relative conduction levels of the electron source means determine the color temperature of the reproduced image. Master conduction means, coupled to the three electron source means, simultaneously vary the conduction levels and a plurality of substantially equal bandwidth amplifiers, each coupled to a different one of the electron source means, separately influence the conduction levels. Low output impedance signal translation means recover the picture information and supply it to each of the amplifiers. Separate adjusting means are individually coupled to at least two of the amplifiers for simultaneously producing predetermined variations in the gain and DC output voltage of the amplifiers while preserving the bandwidths.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING
The drawing shows a partial-schematic, partial-block diagram representation of a color television receiver constructed in accordance with the present invention.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT
Referring to the drawing, a signal processor 10 includes conventional circuitry (not shown) for amplifying a received television signal and detecting the modulated components of luminance and chrominance information therein. The output of signal processor 10 is coupled to a luminance amplifier 11 and a chrominance processor 30. Luminance amplifier 11 is conventional and includes circuitry controlling brightness and contrast of the luminance signal. The output of luminance amplifier 11 is coupled to three luminance-chrominance matrices 12, 13 and 14. Chrominance processor 30 includes conventional chrominance information detection circuitry for providing three color difference or color-minus-luminance output signals (R-Y, G-Y and B-Y) which are individually coupled to luminance-chrominance matrices 12, 13 and 14, respectively. The signal from luminance amplifier 11 is combined with the color-minus-luminance signals from chrominance processor 30 to form the respective red, green and blue video signals which are coupled to the R, G and B output amplifiers 15, 16 and 17, respectively. The outputs of amplifiers 15, 16 and 17 are coupled to the cathode electrodes 23, 24 and 25, respectively, of a CRT 20 having an image screen 21. A voltage divider, formed by a series combination of resistors 83 and 84, is coupled between a source of operating potential +V2 and ground. The junction of resistors 83 and 84 is connected to a common control grid electrode 28 and to ground by a filter capacitor 85 which provides a signal bypass. A potentiometer 80 and a resistor 81 are series coupled between a source of operating potential +V1 and ground, forming another voltage divider. The junction of potentiometer 80 and resistor 81 is connected to common screen grid electrode 29 and to ground by a bypass capacitor 82. Cathode electrodes 23-25, control grid electrode 28 and screen grid electrode 29 are part of a unitized gun structure in CRT 20 with the control grid and screen grid being common to each of the three electron sources defined by the separate cathode electrodes.
While luminance-chrominance matrices 12 and 13 are shown in block form, it should be understood that they are identical to the detailed structure of matrix 14. Similarly, red output amplifier 15 and green output amplifier 16 are identical to the detailed structure of blue output amplifier 17. Further, the receiver shown is understood to include conventional circuitry for horizontal and vertical electron beam deflection together with means deriving a CRT high voltage accelerating potential, all of which have, for clarity, been omitted from the drawing.
Luminance-chrominance matrix 14 includes a matrix transistor 40 having an emitter electrode 41 coupled to ground by a resistor 55 and by a series combination of resistors 46 and 47, a base electrode 42 coupled to the output of luminance amplifier 11, and a collector electrode 43 coupled to a source of operating potential +V3 by a resistor 45. The B-Y output of chroma processor 30 is connected to the junction of resistors 46 and 47. An emitter-follower transistor 50 has an emitter electrode 51 coupled to ground by a resistor 56, a base electrode 52 connected to the collector of matrix transistor 40, and a collector electrode 53 connected to +V3.
Blue amplifier 17 includes an output transistor 60 having an emitter electrode 61 coupled to ground by a series combination of resistors 67 and 68, a base electrode 62 connected to the emitter of transistor 50, and a collector electrode 63 coupled to +V2 by a resistor 66. A series combination of a potentiometer 70 and a resistor 69 couples the junction of resistors 67 and 68 to +V3. Collector 63, which is the output of amplifer 17, is connected to cathode 25 of CRT 20.
During signal reception, the separately processed luminance and B-Y color difference signals are applied to matrix transistor 40. The combined signal developed at its collector 43 forms the blue video signal which controls the blue electron beam in CRT 20 and represents the relative contribution of blue light in the image produced.
The blue video signal at collector 43 is coupled via transistor 50 to base 62 of output transistor 60. The low source impedance of emitter follower transistor 50 obviates any detrimental effects upon the blue video signal due to loading at the input to amplifier 17 caused by gain or frequency dependent input impedance variations of amplifier 17. The blue video signal applied to base 62 is amplified by transistor 60 to a level sufficient to control the conduction of its respective electron source.
During color temperature setup, a predetermined setup voltage (corresponding to black) is applied to matrices 12, 13 and 14. The voltage on common screen grid electrode 29 is adjusted, by varying potentiometer 80 which together with resistor 81 and capacitor 82 form master conduction means, to cause a low brightness raster to appear on image screen 21. As will be seen, adjustment of potentiometer 70 and the corresponding potentiometers in amplifiers 15 and 16 establish the correct combination of DC electron source cathode voltages and output amplifier gains to produce the selected color temperature at both low and high CRT beam currents.
Amplifier 17 includes a common emitter transistor stage in which the impedance coupled to emitter electrode 6 is a gain and DC output voltage determining impedance. Signal gain is approximately equal to the ratio of the collector impedance (resistor 66), to this gain and DC voltage determining impedance (ignoring the effects of capacities associated with the transistor and the electron gun which will be considered later). Because the source of operating potential +V3 coupled to potentiometer 70 forms a good AC or signal ground, the series combination of resistor 69 and potentiometer 70 are effectively in parallel with resistor 68 and the total impedance coupling emitter 61 to signal ground comprises resistor 67 in series with this combination of resistors 68 and 69 and potentiometer 70. Variations in this impedance caused by adjustment of potentiometer 70 changes the ratio of collector to emitter impedances and thereby the gain of amplifier 17. If potentiometer 70 is varied to present increased resistance, gain is reduced and if varied to present decreased resistance, gain is increased.
The DC voltage at collector 63 of transistor 60 is determined by the product of the collector resistance and quiescent collector current (current in the absence of applied signal) and V2. The voltage at base 62 is established by the emitter voltage of transistor 50. Variations in the resistance of potentiometer 70 cause variations in current flow in the series path including potentiometer 70 and resistors 69 and 68. The voltage developed across resistor 68 is supplied to emitter 61 through resistor 67.
In the absence of signal, the DC voltage at base 62 is constant and the relative voltage between base 62 and emitter 61, which controls the conduction level of transistor 60, is a function of the voltage at emitter 61. Increases in the resistance of potentiometer 70 reduce the emitter voltage, increase the relative base-emitter voltage of transistor 60, and increase collector current. The increased collector current develops a greater voltage drop across collector resistor 66 and reduces the DC voltage at collector 63 (and cathode 25). Conversely, a decrease in the resistance of potentiometer 70 increases the voltage at emitter 61, reducing the relative base-emitter voltage and decreasing collector current. The smaller voltage drop across resistor 66 increases the DC voltage at collector 63 and cathode 25.
Thus, increasing the resistance of potentiometer 70 produces proportionate simultaneous reduction of the DC voltage applied to cathode 25 and the voltage gain of amplifier 17, whereas decreasing the resistance of potentiometer 70 produces proportionate simultaneous increase of the DC voltage and signal gain. As mentioned above, amplifiers 15 and 16 are identical to amplifier 17. In practice only two of the three output amplifiers require adjustment to achieve color temperature setup. However, greater flexibility and optimum use of amplifier signal handling capability is realized if all three output amplifiers are adjustable.
As previously mentioned capacities associated with transistor 60, cathode 25 and corresponding interconnections (such as those used to couple collector 63 to cathode 25) are effectively in parallel with collector load resistor 66 forming a partially reactive "coupling network" which exhibits a frequency characteristic (bandwidth) affecting signals coupled therethrough. In practice, the other coupling networks have identical bandwidths and affect their signals in an equal manner. The setup control adjustments of the present invention do not change the characteristics of these coupling networks and the uniformity of signal coupling for the different color signals is preserved. In contrast, conventional adjustment circuitry (whether variable collector load or voltage divider) place variable impedances within these couplings. The varied adjustments of these impedances to effect color temperature control adjustment disturb the bandwidth characteristics of the coupling networks causing differential variations in the individual color video signals.
What has been shown is an RGB CRT drive system which includes output amplifiers each having a single control which simultaneously achieves changes of the DC output voltage and signal gain of the amplifier in a predetermined relationship. The bandwidths of all three output amplifiers and their associated coupling networks remain substantially undisturbed by these control adjustments during CRT color temperature setup.
While particular embodiments of the invention have been shown and described, it will be obvious to those skilled in the art that changes and modifications may be made without departing from the invention in its broader aspects, and, therefore, the aim in the appended claims is to cover all such changes and modifications as fall within the true spirit and scope of the invention.




THYRISTORS used in chassis ZANUSSI bs290 :

- RCA ITR17025
- RCA ITR17024

INTEGRAL THYRISTOR-RECTIFIER DEVICEA semiconductor switching device comprising a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) and a diode rectifier integrally connected in parallel with the SCR in a single semiconductor body. The device is of the NPNP or PNPN type, having gate, cathode, and anode electrodes. A portion of each intermediate N and P region makes ohmic contact to the respective anode or cathode electrode of the SCR. In addition, each intermediate region includes a highly conductive edge portion. These portions are spaced from the adjacent external regions by relatively low conductive portions, and limit the conduction of the diode rectifier to the periphery of the device. A profile of gold recombination centers further electrically isolates the central SCR portion from the peripheral diode portion.
That class of thyristors known as controlled rectifiers are semiconductor switches having four semiconducting regions of alternate conductivity and which employ anode, cathode, and gate electrodes. These devices are usually fabricated from silicon. In its normal state, the silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) is non-conductive until an appropriate voltage or current pulse is applied to the gate electrode, at which point current flows from the anode to the cathode and delivers power to a load circuit. If the SCR is reverse biased, it is non-conductive, and cannot be turned on by a gating signal. Once conduction starts, the gate loses control and current flows from the anode to the cathode until it drops below a certain value (called the holding current), at which point the SCR turns off and the gate electrode regains control. The SCR is thus a solid state device capable of performing the circuit function of a thyratron tube in many electronic applications. In some of these applications, such as in automobile ignition systems and horizontal deflection circuits in television receivers, it is necessary to connect a separate rectifier diode in parallel with the SCR. See, for example, W. Dietz, U. S. Pat. Nos. 3,452,244 and 3,449,623. In these applications, the anode of the rectifier diode is connected to the cathode of the SCR, and the cathode of the rectifier is connected to the SCR anode. Thus, the rectifier diode will be forward biased and current will flow through it when the SCR is reverse biased; i.e., when the SCR cathode is positive with respect to its anode. For reasons of economy and ease of handling, it would be preferable if the circuit function of the SCR and the associated diode rectifier could be combined in a single device, so that instead of requiring two devices and five electrical connections, one device and three electrical connections are all that would be necessary. In fact, because of the semiconductor profile employed, many SCR's of the shorted emitter variety inherently function as a diode rectifier when reverse biased. However, the diode rectifier function of such devices is not isolated from the controlled rectifier portion, thus preventing a rapid transition from one function to the other. Therefore, it would be desirable to physically and electrically isolate the diode rectifier portion from that portion of the device which functions as an SCR.


SELECO (ZANUSSI) SEC262 PAL/SECAM CHASSIS BS290.0 Horizontal deflection circuit with Thyristors.



























Description:



1. A horizontal deflection circuit for generating the deflection current in the deflection coil of a television picture tube wherein a first switch controls the horizontal sweep, and wherein a second switch in a so-called commutation circuit with a commutating inductor and a commutating capacitor opens the first switch and, in addition, controls the energy transfer from a dc voltage source to an input inductor, characterized in that the input inductor (Le) and the commutating inductor (Lk) are combined in a unit designed as a transformer (U) which is proportioned so that the open-circuit inductance of the transformer is essentially equal to the value of the input inductor (Le), while the short-circuit inductance of the transformer (U) is essentially equal to the value of the commutating inductor (Lk), and that the second switch (S2) is connected in series with the dc voltage source (UB) and a first winding (U1) of the transformer (U). 2. A horizontal deflection circuit according to claim 1, characterized in that the transformer (U) operates as an isolation transformer between the supply (UB) and the subcircuits connected to a second winding. 3. A horizontal deflection circuit according to claim 1, characterized in that the second switch (S2) is connected between ground and that terminal of the first winding (U1) of the transformer (U) not connected to the supply potential (+UB). 4.

A horizontal deflection circuit according to claim 1, characterized in that a capacitor (CE) is connected across the series combination of the first winding (U1) of the transformer and the second switch (S2). 5. A horizontal deflection circuit according to claim 1, characterized in that the second winding (U2) of the transformer (U) is connected in series with a first switch (S1), the commutating capacitor (Ck), and a third, bipolar switch (S3) controllable as a function of the value of a controlled variable developed in the deflection circuit. 6. A horizontal deflection circuit according to claim 5, characterized in that the third switch (S3) is connected between ground and the second winding (U2) of the transformer. 7. A horizontal deflection circuit according to claim 2, characterized in that the isolation transformer carries a third winding via which power is supplied to the audio output stage of the television set. 8. A horizontal deflection circuit according to claims 2, characterized in that the voltage serving to control the first switch (S1) is derived from a third winding of the transformer.
Description:
The present invention relates to a horizontal deflection circuit for generating the deflection current in the deflection coil of a television picture tube wherein a first switch controls the horizontal sweep, and wherein a second switch in a so-called commutation circuit with a commutating inductor and a commutating capacitor opens the first switch and, in addition, controls the energy transfer from a dc voltage source to an input inductor.
German Auslegeschrift (DT-AS) No. 1,537,308 discloses a horizontal deflection circuit in which, for generating a periodic sawtooth current within the respective deflection coil of the picture tube, in a first branch circuit, the deflection coil is connected to a sufficiently large capacitor serving as a current source via a first controlled, bilaterally conductive switch which is formed by a controlled rectifier and a diode connected in inverse parallel. The control electrode of the rectifier is connected to a drive pulse source which renders the switch conductive during part of the sawtooth trace period. In that arrangement, the sawtooth retrace, i.e. the current reversal, also referred to as "commutation", is initiated by a second controlled switch.
The first controlled switch also forms part of a second branch circuit where it is connected in series with a second current source and a reactance capable of oscillating. When the first switch is closed, the reactance, consisting essentially of a coil and a capacitor, receives energy from the second current source during a fixed time interval. This energy which is taken from the second current source corresponds to the circuit losses caused during the previous deflection cycle.
As can be seen, such a circuit needs two different, separate inductive elements, it being known that inductive elements are expensive to manufacture and always have a certain volume determined by the electrical properties required.
The object of the invention is to reduce the amount of inductive elements required.
The invention is characterized in that the input inductor and the commutating inductor are combined in a unit designed as a transformer which is proportioned so that the open-circuit inductance of the transformer is essentially equal to the value of the input inductor, while the short-circuit inductance of the transformer is essentially equal to the value of the commutating inductor, and that the second switch is connected in series with the dc voltage source and a first winding of the transformer.
This solution has an added advantage in that, in mass production, both the open-circuit and the short-circuit inductance are reproducible with reliability.
According to another feature of the invention, the electrical isolation between the windings of the transformer is such that the transformer operates as an isolation transformer between the supply and the subcircuits connected to a second winding or to additional windings of the transformer. In this manner, the transformer additionally provides reliable mains isolation.
According to a further feature of the invention, the second switch is connected between ground and that terminal of the first winding of the transformer not connected to the supply potential. This simplifies the control of the switch.
According to a further feature of the invention, to regulate the energy supply, the second winding of the transformer is connected in series with the first switch, the commutating capacitor, and a third, bipolar switch controllable as a function of the value of a controlled variable developed in the deflection circuit.

The advantage gained by this measure lies in the fact that the control takes place on the side separated from the mains, so no separate isolation device is required for the gating of the third switch. Further details and advantages will be apparent from the following description of the accompanying drawings and from the claims. In the drawings,
FIG. 1 is a basic circuit diagram of the arrangement disclosed in German Auslegeschrift (DT-AS) No. 1,537,308;
FIG. 2 shows a first embodiment of the horizontal deflection circuit according to the invention, and
FIG. 3 shows a development of the horizontal deflection circuit according to the invention.
FIG. 1 shows the essential circuit elements of the horizontal deflection circuit known from the German Auslegeschrift (DT-AS) No. 1,537,308 referred to by way of introduction.
Connected in series with a dc voltage source UB is an input inductor Le and a bipolar, controlled switch S2. In the following, this switch will be referred to as the "second switch"; it is usually called the "commutating switch" to indicate its function.
In known circuits, the second switch S2 consists of a controlled rectifier and a diode connected in inverse parallel.
The second switch S2 also forms part of a second circuit which contains, in addition, a commutating inductor Lk, a commutating capacitor Ck, and a first switch S1. The first switch S1, controlling the horizontal sweep, is constructed in the same manner as the above-described second switch S2, consisting of a controlled rectifier and a diode in inverse parallel. Connected in parallel with this first switch is a deflection-coil arrangement AS with a capacitor CA as well as a high voltage generating arrangement (not shown). In FIGS. 1, 2, and 3, this arrangement is only indicated by an arrow and by the reference characters Hsp. The operation of this known horizontal deflection circuit need not be explained here in detail since it is described not only in the German Auslegeschrift referred to by way of introduction, but also in many other publications.
FIGS. 2 and 3 show the horizontal deflection circuit modified in accordance with the present invention. Like circuit elements are designated by the same reference characters as in FIG. 1.
FIG. 2 shows the basic principle of the invention. The two inductors Le and Lk of FIG. 1 have been replaced by a transformer U. To be able to serve as a substitute for the two inductors Le and Lk, the transformer must be proportioned in a special manner. Regardless of the turns ratio, the open-circuit inductance of the transformer is chosen to be essentially equal to the value of the input inductor Le, and the short-circuit inductance of the transformer is essentially equal to the value of the commutating inductor Lk.
To permit the second switch S2 to be utilized for the connection of the dc voltage source UB, it is included in the circuit of that winding U1 of the transformer connected to the dc voltage UB.
In principle, it is of no consequence for the operation of the switch S2 whether it is inserted on that side of the winding U1 connected to the positive operating potential +UB or on the side connected to ground. In practice, however, the solution shown in FIGS. 2 and 3 will be chosen since the gating of the controlled rectifier is less problematic in this case.
In compliance with pertinent safety regulations, the transformer U may be designed as an isolation transformer and can thus provide mains separation, which is necessary for various reasons. It is known from German Offenlegungschrift (DT-OS) No. 2,233,249 to provide dc isolation by designing the commutating inductor as a transformer, but this measure is not suited to attaining the object of the present invention.
If the energy to be taken from the dc voltage source is to be controlled as a function of the energy needed in the horizontal deflection circuit and in following subcircuits, the embodiment of the horizontal deflection circuit of FIG. 3 may be used.
The circuit including the winding U2 of the transformer U contains a third controlled switch S3, which, too, is inserted on the grounded side of the winding U2 for the reasons mentioned above. This third switch S3, just as the second switch S2, is operated at the frequency of a horizontal oscillator HO, but a control circuit RS whose input l is fed with a controlled variable is inserted between the oscillator and the switch S3. Depending on this controlled variable, the controlled rectifier of the third switch S3 can be caused to turn on earlier. A suitable controlled variable containing information on the energy consumption is, for example, the flyback pulse capable of being taken from the high voltage generating circuit (not shown). Details of the operation of this kind of energy control are described in applicant's German Offenlegungsschrift (DT-OS) No. b 2,253,386 and do not form part of the present invention.
With mains isolation, the additional, third switch S3 shown here has the advantage of being on the side isolated from the mains and eliminates the need for an isolation device in the control lead of the controlled rectifier.
As an isolation transformer, the transformer U may also carry additional windings U3 and U4 if power is to be supplied to the audio output stage, for example; in addition, the first switch S1 may be gated via such an additional winding.
The points marked at the windings U1 and U2 indicate the phase relationship between the respective voltages. Connected in parallel with the winding U1 and the second switch S2 is a capacitor CE which completes the circuit for the horizontal-frequency alternating current; this serves in particular to bypass the dc voltage source or the electrolytic capacitors contained therein.
If required, a well-known tuning coil may be inserted, e.g. in series with the second winding U2, without changing the basic operation of the horizontal deflection circuit according to the invention.


SELECO (ZANUSSI) SEC262 PAL/SECAM CHASSIS BS290.0 Electron beam deflection circuit including thyristors Further Discussion and deepening of knowledge, Thyristor horizontal output circuits:
1. An electron beam deflection circuit for a cathode ray tube with electromagnetic deflection by means of a sawtooth current waveform having a trace portion and a retrace portion, said circuit comprising: a deflection winding; a first source of electrical energy formed by a first capacitor; first controllable switching means comprising a parallel combination of a first thyristor and a first diode connected together to conduct in opposite directions, for connecting said winding to said first source during said trace portion, while said first switching means is turned on; a second source of electrical energy including a first inductive energy storage means coupled to a voltage supply; reactive circuit means including a combination of inductive and capacitive reactances for storing the energy supplied by said second source; second controllable switching means, substantially similar to said first one, for completing a circuit including said reactive circuit means and said first switching means, when turned on before the end of said trace portion, so as to pass through said first switching means an oscillatory current in opposite direction to that which passes through said first thyristor from said first source and to turn said first thyristor off after these two currents cancel out, the oscillatory current flowing thereafter through said first diode for an interval termed the circuit turn-off time, which has to be greater than the turn-off time of said first thyristor; wherein the improvement comprises: means for drawing, during at least a part of said trace portion, a substantial amount of additional current through said first switching means, in the direction of conduction of said first diode, whereby to perceptibly shift the waveform of the current flowing through said first switching means towards the negative values by an amount equal to that of said substantial additional current and to lengthen, in proportion thereto, said circuit turn-off time, without altering the values of the reactances in the reactive circuit which intervene in the determination of both the circuit turn-off and retrace portion time intervals.










2. A deflection circuit as claimed in claim 1, wherein said amount of additional current is greater than or equal to 5 per cent of the peak-to-peak value of the current flowing through the deflection winding.

3. A deflection circuit as claimed in claim 1, wherein said means for drawing a substantial amount of additional current through said first switching means comprises a resistor connected in parallel to said first capacitor.

4. A deflection circuit as claimed in claim 1, wherein said means for drawing an additional current is formed by connecting said first and second energy sources in series so that the current charging said reactive circuit means forms the said additional current.

5. A deflection circuit as claimed in claim 1, further including a series combination of an autotransformer winding and a second high-value capacitor, said combination being connected in parallel to said first switching means, wherein said autotransformer comprises an intermediate tap located between its terminals respectively connected to said first switching means and to said second capacitor, said tap delivering, during said trace portion, a suitable DC supply voltage lower than the voltage across said second capacitor; and wherein said means for drawing a substantial amount of additional current comprises a load to be fed by said supply voltage and having one terminal connected to ground; and further controllable switching means controlled to conduct during at least part of said trace portion and to remain cut off during said retrace portion, said further switching means being connected between said tap and the other terminal of said load.

Description:
The present invention relates to electron beam deflection circuits including thyristors, such as silicon controlled rectifiers and relates, in particular, to horizontal deflection circuits for television receivers.

The present invention constitutes an improvement in the circuit described in U.S. Pat. No. 3,449,623 filed on Sept. 6, 1966, this circuit being described in greater detail below with reference to FIGS. 1 and 2 of the accompanying drawings. A deflection circuit of this type comprises a first thyristor switch which allows the conenction of the horizontal deflection winding to a constant voltage source during the time interval used for the transmisstion of the picture signal and for applying this signal to the grid of the cathode ray tube (this interval will be termed the "trace portion" of the scan), and a second thyristor switch which provides the forced commutation of the first one by applying to it a reverse current of equal amplitude to that which passes through it from the said voltage source and thus to initiate the retrace during the horizontal blanking interval.

A undirectional reverse blocking triode type thyristor or silicon controlled rectifier (SCR), such as that used in the aformentioned circuit, requires a certain turn-off time between the instant at which the anode current ceases and the instant at which a positive bias may be applied to it without turning it on, due to the fact that there is still a high concentration of free carriers in the vicinity of the middle junction, this concentration being reduced by a process of recombination independently from the reverse polarity applied to the thyristor. This turn-off time of the thyristor is a function of a number of parameters such as the junction temperature, the DC current level, the decay time of the direct current, the peak level of the reverse current applied, the amplitude of the reverse anode to cathode voltage, the external impedance of the gate electrode, and so on, certain of these varying considerably from one thyristor to another.

In horizontal deflection circuits for television receivers, the flyback or retrace time is limited to approximately 20 percent of the horizontal scan period, the retrace time being in the case of the CCIR standard of 625 lines, approximately 12 microseconds and, in the case of the French standard of 819 lines, approximately 9 microseconds. During this relatively short interval, the thyristor has to be rendered non-conducting and the electron beam has to be returned to the origin of the scan. The first thyristor is blocked by means of a series resonant LC circuit which is subject to a certain number of restrictions (limitations as to the component values employed) due to the fact that, inter alia, it simultaneously determines the turn-off time of the circuit which blocks the thyristor and it forms part of the series resonant circuit which is to carry out the retrace. To obtain proper operation of the deflection circuit of the aforementioned Patent, especially when used for the French standard of 819 lines per image, the values of the components used have to subject to very close tolerances (approximately 2%), which results in high costs.

The improved deflection circuit, object of the present invention, allows the lengthening of the turn-off time of the circuit for turning the scan thyristor off, without altering the values of the LC circuit, which are determined by other criteria, and without impairing the operation of the circuit.

According to the invention, there is provided an electron beam deflection circuit for a cathode ray tube with electromagentic deflection by means of a sawtooth current waveform having a trace portion and a retrace portion, said circuit comprising: a deflection winding; a first source of electrical energy formed by a first capacitor; first controllable switching means comprising a parallel combination of a first thyristor and a first diode, connected together to conduct in opposite directions, for connecting said winding to said first source during said trace portion when said first switching means is turned on;

a second source of electrical energy including a first inductive energy storage means coupled to a voltage supply; reactive circuit means including a combination of inductive and capacitive reactances for storing the energy supplied by the said second source; a second controllable switching means, substantially identical with the first one, for completing a circuit including said reactive circuit means and said first switching means, when turned on, so as to pass through said first thyristor an oscillatory current in the opposite direction to that which passes through it from said first source and to turn it off after these two currents cancel out, the oscillatory current then flowing through said first diode for an interval termed the circuit turn-off time which has to be greater than the turn-off time of said first thyristor; and means for drawing duing at least a part of said trace portion a substantial amount of additional current from said first switching means in the direction of conduction of said first diode, whereby said circuit turn-off time is lengthened in proportion to the amount of said additional current, without altering the values of the reactances in the reactive circuit by shifting the waveform of the current flowing through said first switching means towards the negative by an amount equal to that of said additional current.

A further object of the invention consists in using the supplementary current in the recovery diode of the first switching means to produce a DC voltage which may be used as a power supply for the vertical deflection circuit of the television receiver, for example.

The invention will be better understood and other features and advantages thereof will become apparent from the following description and the accompanying drawings, given by way of example, and in which:

FIG. 1 is a schematic circuit diagram partially in bloc diagram form of a prior art deflection circuit according to the aforementioned Patent;

FIG. 2 shows waveforms of currents and voltages generated at various points in the circuit of FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of a deflection circuit according to the invention which allows the principle of the improvement to be explained;

FIG. 4 is a diagram of the waveforms of the current through the first switching means 4, 5 of the circuit of FIG. 3;

FIG. 5 is a circuit diagram of another embodiment of the circuit according to the invention;

FIG. 6 is a schematic representation of the preferred embodiment of the circuit according to the invention; and

FIG. 7 shows voltage waveforms at various points of the high voltage autotransformer 21 of FIG. 6.

In all these Figures the same reference numerals refer to the same components.

FIG. 1 shows the horizontal deflection circuit described and claimed in the U.S. Pat. No. 3,449,623 mentioned above, which comprises a first source of electrical energy in the shape of a first capacitor 2 having a high capacitance C 2 for supplying a substantially constant voltage Uc 2 across its terminals. A first terminal of the first capacitor 2 is connected to ground, whilst its second terminal which supplies a positive voltage is connected to one of the terminals of a horizontal deflection winding shown as a first inductance 1. A first switching means 3, consisting of a first reverse blocking triode thyristor 4 (SCR) and a first recovery diode 5 in parallel, the two being interconnected to conduct current in opposite directions, is connected in parallel with the series combination formed by the deflection winding 1 and the first capacitor 2. The assembly of components 1, 2, 4 and 5 forms the final stage of the horizontal deflection circuit in a television receiver using electromagnetic delfection.

The deflection circuit also includes a drive stage for this final stage which here controls the turning off of the first thyristor 4 to produce the retrace or fly-back portion of the scan during the line-blanking intervals i.e. while the picture signal is not transmitted. This driver stage comprises a second voltage source in the shape of a DC power supply 6 which delivers a constant high voltage E. The negative terminal of the power supply 6 is connected to ground and its positive terminal to one of the terminals of a second inductance 7 of relatively high value, which draws a substantially lineraly varying current from the power supply 6 to avoid its overloading. The other terminal of the second inductance 7 is connected, on the one hand, to the junction of the deflection winding 1 and the first switching means 3 by means of a second inductance 8 and a second capacitor 9 in series and, on the other hand, to one of the terminals of a second controllable bi-directionally conducting switching means 10, similar to the first one 3, including a parallel combination of a second thyristor 11 and a second recovery diode 12 also arranged to conduct in opposite directions.

The respective values of the third inductance 8 (L 8 ) and of the second capacitor 9 (C 9 ) are principally selected so that, on the one hand, one half-cycle of oscillation of the first series resonant circuit L 8 - C 9 , (i.e. π √ L 8 . C 9 ) is longer than the turn-off time of the first thyristor 4, but still is as short as possible since this time interval determines the speed of the commutation of the thyristor 4, and, on the other hand, one half-cycle of oscillation of another series resonant circuit formed by L 1 , L 8 and C 9 , i.e. π √ (L 1 + L 8 ) . C 9 , is substantially equal to the required retrace time interval (i.e. shorter than the horizontal blanking interval).

The gate (control electrode) of the second thyristor 11 is coupled to the output of the horizontal oscillator 13 of the television receiver by means of a first pulse transformer 14 and a first pulse shaping circuit 15 so that it is fed short triggering pulses which are to turn it on.

The gate of the first thyristor 4 fed with signals of a substantially rectangular waveform which are negative during the horizontal blanking intervals, is coupled to a winding 16 by means of a second pulse shaping circuit 17, the winding 16 being magnetically coupled to the second inductance 7 to make up the secondary winding of a transformer of which the inductance 7 forms the primary winding. It will be noted here that it is also possible to couple the secondary winding 16 magnetically to a primary winding connected to a suitable output (not shown) of the horizontal oscillator 13.

The operation of a circuit of this type will be explained below with reference to FIG. 2 which shows the waveforms at various points in the circuit of FIG. 1 during approximately one line period.

FIG. 2 is not to scale since one line period (t 7 - t 0 ) is equal to 64 microseconds in the case of 625 lines and 49 microseconds in the case of 819 lines, while the durations of the respective horizontal blanking intervals are approximately 12 and 9.5 microseconds.

Waveform A shows the form of the current i L1 passing through deflection winding 1, this current having a sawtooth waveform substantially linear from t 0 to t 3 and from t 5 to t 7 , and crossing zero at time instants t 0 and t 7 , and reaching values of + I 1m and - I 1m , at time instants t 3 and t 5 respectively, these being its maximum positive and negative amplitudes.

During the second half of the trace portion of the horizontal deflection cycle, that is to say from t 0 to t 3 , the thyristor 4 of the first switching means 3 is conductive and makes the high value capacitor 2 discharge through the deflector winding 1, which has a high inductance, so that current i L1 increases linearly.

A few microseconds (5 to 8 μ s) before the end of the trace portion, i.e. at time instant t 1 , the trigger of the second thyristor 11 receives a short voltage pulse V G11 which causes it to turn on as its anode is at this instant at a positive potential with respect to ground, which is due to the charging of the second capacitor 9 through inductances 7 and 8 by the voltage E from the power supply 6.

When thyristor 11 is made conductive at time t 1 , on the one hand, inductance 7 is connected between ground and the voltage source 6 and a linearly increasing current flows through it and, on the other hand, the reactive circuit 8, 9 forms a loop through the second and first switching means 10 and 3, thus forming a resonant circuit which draws an oscillatory current i 8 ,9 of frequency ##EQU1##

T
his oscillatory current i 8 ,9 will pass through the first switching means 3, i.e. thyristor 4 and diode 5, in the opposite direction to that of current i L1 . Since the frequency f 1 is high, current i 8 ,9 will increase more rapidly than i L1 and will reach the same level at time t 2 , that is to say i 8 ,9 (t 2 ) = -i L1 (t 2 ) and these currents will cancel out in the thyristor 4 in accordance with the well known principle of forced commutation. After time instant t 2 , current i 8 ,9 continues to increase more rapidly than i L1 , but the difference between them (i 8 ,9 - i L1 ) passes the diode 5 (see wave form B) until it becomes zero at time instant t 3 which is the turn off time instant of the first switching means 3, at which the retrace begins.

The interval between the time instant t 2 and t 3 , i.e. (t 3 -t 2 ), during which diode 5 is conductive and the thyristor is reverse biased will be termed in what follows the circuit turn-off time and it should be greater than the turn-off time of the thyristor 4 itself since the latter will subsequently become foward biased (i.e. from t 3 to t 5 ) by the retrace or flyback pulse (see waveform E) which should not trigger it.

At time instant t 3 , the switching means 3 is opened (i 4 and i 5 are both zero -- see waveforms B and C) and the reactive circuit 8, 9 forms a loop through capacitor 2 and the deflection coil 1 and thus a series resonant circuit including (L 1 + L 8 ) and C 9 , C 2 being of high value and representing a short circuit for the flyback frequency ##EQU2## thus obtained.

The retrace which stated at time t 3 takes place during one half-cycle of the resonant circuit formed by reactances L 1 , L 8 and C 9 , i.e. during the interval between t 3 and t 5 . In the middle of this interval i.e. at time instant t 4 , both i L1 (waveform A) and i 8 ,9 (waveform D) pass through zero and change their sign, whereas the voltage at the terminals of the first switching means 3 (V 3 , waveform E) passes through a maximum. Thus, from t 4 onwards, thyristor 11 will be reverse biased and diode 12 will conduct the current from the resonant circuit 1, 8 and 9 in order to turn the second thyristor 11 off.

At time instant t 5 , when current i L1 has reached - I 1m and when voltage v 3 falls to zero, diode 5 of the first switching means 3 becomes conductive and the trace portion of scan begins.

Current i 8 ,9 nevertheless continues to flow in the resonant circuit 8, 9 through diodes 5 and 12, which causes a break to appear in waveform D at t 5 , and a negative peak to appear in waveform D and a positive one in waveform B in the interval between t 5 and t 6 , these being principally due to the distributed capacities of coil 1 or to an eventual capacitor (not shown) connected in parallel to the first switching means 3.

At time instant t 6 , diode 12 of the second switching means 10 ceases to conduct after having allowed thyristor 11 time to become turned off completely.

The level of current i 8 ,9 at time instant t 5 (i.e. I c ) as well as the negative peak I D12 in i 8 ,9 and the positive peak I D5 in i 5 depend on the values of L 8 and C 9 in the same way as does the turn-off time of the circuit (t 3 - t 2 ). If, for example, L 8 and C 9 , are increased I D5 increases towards zero and this could cause diode 5 to be cut off in an undesirable fashion. I c also increases towards zero, which is liable to cause diode 12 to be blocked and thyristor 11 to trigger prematurely.

From the foregoing it can be clearly seen that the choice of values for L 8 and C 9 is subject to four limitations which prevent the values from being increased to lengthen the turn-off time of the driver circuit of first switching thyristor 4 so as to forestall its spurious triggering.

Waveform F shows the voltage v G4 obtained at the gate of thyristor 4 from the secondary winding 16 coupled to the inductor 7. This voltage is positive from t 0 to t 1 and from t 6 to t 7 and is negative between t 2 and t 6 i.e. while the second switching means 10 is conducting.

The present invention makes the lengthening of the turn-off time of thyristor 4 possible without altering the parameters of the circuit such as inductance 8 and capacitor 9.

In the circuit shown in FIG. 3, which illustrates the principle of the present invention, means are added to the circuit in FIG. 1 which enable the turn-off time to be lengthened by connecting a load to diode 5 so as to increase the current which flows through it during the time that it is conductive. These means are here formed by a resistor 18 connected in parallel with a capacitor 20 (which replaces capacitor 2) which is of a higher capacitance so that, in practice, it holds its charge during at least one half of the line period. FIG. 4, which shows the waveform of the current in the first switching means 3 for a circuit as shown in FIG. 3, makes it possible to explain how this lenthening of the turn-off time is achieved.

In FIG. 4, the broken lines show the waveform of the current in the first switch device 3 in the circuit of FIG. 1, this waveform being produced by adding waveforms B and C of FIG. 2. The current i 4 above the axis flows through thyristor 4 and current i 5 below the axis flows through diode 5. When the capacitance C 20 of the capacitor in series with the deflector coil is increased to some tens of microfarads (C 2 having been of the order of 1 μ F) and when there is connected in parallel with capacitor 20 a resistor 18 the value of which is calculated to draw a strong current I R18 from capacitor 20, that is to say a current at least equal to 0,1 I m (I m being of the order of some tens of amperes), current I R18 is added to that i 5 which flows through diode 5 without in any way altering the linearity of the trace portion nor the oscillatory commutation of thyristor 4 which is brought about by the resonant circuit L 8 , C 9 .

The fact of loading capacitor C 20 by means of a resistor 18 thus has the effect of permanently displacing the waveform of the current in the negative direction by I R18 . Thus, during the trace portion of the scan, the transfer of the current from the diode 5 to the thyristor 4 begins at time t 10 instead of t 0 , that is to say with a delay proportional to I R18 . The effect of the triggering pulse delivered by the horizontal oscillator (13 FIG. 1) to the second thyristor 11 at time instant t 1 , will be to start the commutation process of the first thyristor 4 when the current it draws is less by I R18 than that i 4 (t 1 ) which it would have been drawing had there been no resistor 18. Because of this, the turn-off time of the thyristor 4 proper, which as has been mentioned increases with the maximum current level passing throught it, is slightly reduced. Moreover, because the oscillatory current i 8 ,9 (FIG. 2) from circuit L 8 , C 9 which flows through thyristor 4 in the opposite direction is unchanged, it reaches a value equal to that of the current i L1 (FIG. 1) flowing in the coil 1 in a shorter time, that is to say at time t 12 . Diode 5 will thus take the oscillatory current i 8 ,9 (FIG. 2) over in advance with respect ro time instant t 2 and will conduct it until it reaches zero value at a time instant t 13 later than t 3 , the amounts of advance (t 2 - t 12 ) and delay (t 13 - t 3 ) being practically equal.

It can thus be seen in FIG. 4 that the circuit turn-off time T R of a circuit according to the invention and illustrated by FIG. 3 is distinctly longer than that T r of the circuit in FIG. 1. This increase in the turn-off time (T R - T r ) depends on the current I R18 and increases therewith.

It should be noted at this point that the current I R18 produces a voltage drop at the terminals of the resistor the only effect of which is to heat up the resistor since the level of this voltage (40 to 60 volts) does not necessarily have a suitable value to be used as a voltage supply for other circuits in an existing transistorised television receiver.

In accordance with one embodiment of the invention, illustrated in FIG. 5, an application is proposed for the additional current which is to be drawn through diode 5. In FIG. 5, the positive terminal of capacitor 20 is connected by a conductor 19 to the negative pole of the power supply 6 and the voltage at the terminals of capacitor 20 is thus added to that E from the source 6.

In the preferred embodiment of the present invention, which is shown in FIG. 6, it is possible to cause a supplementary current of a desired value to flow through the first diode 5 while obtaining a voltage which has a suitable value for use in another circuit in the television receiver.

If the voltage at the terminals of capacitor 20 in FIG. 3 is not a usable value, it is possible to connect in parallel with the series circuit comprising the deflector coil 1 and the capacitor 2 in FIG. 1, i.e. in parallel with the terminals of the first switching means 3, a series combination of an autotransformer 21 and a high value capacitor 22 (comparable with capacitor 20 in FIGS. 3 and 5). The autotransformer 21 has a tap 23 is suitably positioned between the terminal connected to capacitor 22 at the tap 24 connected to the first switching means 3. This autotransformer 21 may be formed by the one conventionally used for supplying a very high voltage to the cathode ray tube, as described for example in U.S. Pat. No. 3,452,244; such a transformer comprises a voltage step-up winding between taps 24 and 25, which latter is connected to a high voltage rectifier (not shown).

The waveform of the voltage at the various points in the autotransformer is shown in FIG. 7, in which waveform A shows the voltage at the terminals of capacitor 22, waveform B the voltage at tap 24 and waveform C the voltage at tap 23 of the autotransformer 21.

The voltage V c22 at the terminals of capacitor 22 varies slightly about a mean value V cm . It is increasing while diode 5 is conducting and decreasing during the conduction of the thyristor 4.

The voltage v 24 at tap 24 follows substantially the same curve as waveform E in FIG. 2, that is to say that during the retrace time interval from t 13 to t 5 to a positive pulse called the flyback pulse is produced and, during the time interval while the first switching means 3 is conducting, the voltage is zero. The mean valve of the voltage v 24 at tap 24 of the auto-transformer 21 is equal to the mean value V cm of the voltage at the terminals of capacitors 2 and 22.

Thus, there is obtained at tap 23 a waveform which is made up, during the retrace portion, of a positive pulse whose maximum amplitude is less than that of v 24 at tap 24 and, during the trace portion, of a substantially constant positive voltage, the level V of which is less than the mean value V cm of the voltage v c22 at the terminals of capacitor 22. By moving tap 23 towards terminals 24 the amplitude of the pulse during fly-back increases while voltage V falls and conversely by moving tap 23 towards capacitor 22 voltage V increases and the amplitude of the pulse drops.

In more exact terms, the voltage V at tap 23 is such that the means value of v 23 is equal to V cm . It has thus been shown that by choosing carefully the position of tape 23, a voltage V may be obtained during the trace portion of the scan, which may be of any value between V cm and zero.

This voltage V is thus obtained by periodically controlled rectification during the trace portion of the scan.

For this purpose an electronic switch is used to periodically connect the tap 23 of trnasformer winding 21 to a load.


This switch is made up of a power transistor 26 whose collector is connected to tap 23 and the emitter to a parallel combination formed by a high value filtering capacitor 27 and the load which it is desired to supply, which is represented by a resistor 28. The base of the transistor 26 receives a control voltage to block it during retrace and to unblock it during the whole or part of the trace period. A control voltage of this type may be obtained from a second winding 29 magnetically coupled to the inductance 7 of the deflection circuit and it may be transmitted to the base of transistor 26 by means of a coupling capacitor 30 and a resistor 31 connected between the base and the emitter of transistor 26.

It may easily be seen that the DC collector/emitter current in transistor 26 flows through the first diode 5 of the first switching means 3 via a resistor 28 and the part of the winding of auto-transformer 21 located between taps 23 and 24.

Experience has shown that a circuit as shown in FIG. 6 can supply 24 volts with a current of 2 amperes to the vertical deflection circuit of the same television set, the voltage at the terminals of capacitor 22 being from 50 to 60 volts.

It should be mentioned that, when the circuit which forms the load of the controlled rectifier 26, 27 does not draw enough current to sufficiently lengthen the circuit turn-off time T R , an additional resistor (not shown) may be connected between the emitter of transistor 26 and ground or in parallel to capacitor 22, which resistor will draw the additional current required.


SELECO (ZANUSSI) SEC262 PAL/SECAM CHASSIS BS290.0 Gating circuit for television SCR deflection system AND REGULATION / stabilization of horizontal deflection NETWORK CIRCUIT with Transductor reactor / Reverse thyristor energy recovery circuit.In a television deflection system employing a first SCR for coupling a deflection winding across a source of energy during a trace interval of each deflection cycle and a second SCR for replenishing energy to the source of energy during a commutation interval of each deflection cycle, a gating circuit for triggering the first SCR. The gating circuit employs a voltage divider coupled in parallel with the second SCR which develops gating signals proportional to the voltage across the second SCR.


1. In a television deflection system in which a first switching means couples a deflection winding across a source of energy during a trace interval of each deflection cycle and a second switching means replenishes energy to said source of energy during a commutation interval of each deflection cycle, a gating circuit for said first switching means, comprising:
capacitive voltage divider means coupled in parallel with said second switching means for developing gating signals proportional to the voltage across said second switching means; and
means for coupling said voltage divider means to said first switching means to provide for conduction of said first switching means in response to said gating signals.
2. A gating circuit according to claim 1 wherein said voltage divider includes first and second capacitors coupled in series and providing said gating signals at the common terminal of said capacitors. 3. A gating circuit according to claim 2 wherein said first and second capacitors are proportional in value to provide for the desired magnitude of gating signals. 4. A gating circuit according to claim 3 wherein said means for coupling said voltage divider means to said first switching means includes an inductor. 5. A gating circuit according to claim 4 wherein said inductor and said first and second capacitors comprise a resonant circuit having a resonant frequency chosen to shape said gating signal to improve switching of said first switching means.
Description:
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
This invention relates to a gating circuit for controlling a switching device employed in a deflection circuit of a television receiver.






























Various deflection system designs have been utilized in television receivers. One design employing two bidirectional conducting switches and utilizing SCR's (thyristors) as part of the switches is disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,452,244. In this type deflection system, a first SCR is









employed for coupling a deflection winding across a source of energy during a trace interval of each deflection cycle, and a second SCR is employed for replenishing energy during a commutation interval of each deflection cycle. The first SCR is commonly provided with gating voltage by means of a separate winding or tap of an input reactor coupling a source of B+ to the second SCR.





Various regulator system designs have been utilized in conjunction with the afore described deflection system to provide for uniform high voltage production as well as uniform picture width with varying line voltage and kinescope beam current conditions.
One type regulator system design alters the amount of energy stored in a commutating capacitor coupled between the first and second SCR's during the commutating interval. A regulator design of this type may employ a regulating SCR and diode for coupling the input reactor to the source of B+. With this type regulator a notch, the width of which depends upon the regulation requirements, is created in the current supplied through the reactor and which notch shows up in the voltage waveform developed on the separate winding or tap of the input reactor which provides the gating voltage for the first SCR. The presence of the notch, even though de-emphasized by a waveshaping circuit coupling the gating voltage to the first SCR, causes erratic control of the first SCR.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
In accordance with one embodiment of the invention, a gating circuit of a television deflection system employing a first switching means for coupling a deflection winding across a source of energy during a trace interval of each deflection cycle and a second switching means for replenishing energy to said source of energy during a commutation interval of each deflection cycle includes a voltage divider means coupled in parallel with the second switching means for developing gating signals proportional to the voltage across the second switching means. The voltage divider means are coupled to the first switching means to provide for conduction of the first switching means in response to the gating signals.
A more detailed description of a preferred embodiment of the invention is given in the following description and accompanying drawing of which:
FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram, partially in block form, of a prior art SCR deflection system;
FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram, partially in block form, of an SCR deflection system of the type shown in FIG. 1 including a gating circuit embodying the invention;
FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram, partially in block form, of one type of a regulator system which employs an SCR as a control device and which is suitable for use with the SCR deflection system of FIG.2;
FIG. 4 is a schematic diagram, partially in block form, of another type of a regulator system suitable for use with the deflection circuit of FIG. 2; and
FIG. 5 is a schematic diagram, partially in block form, of still another type of a regulator system suitable for use with the SCR deflection system of FIG. 2.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT
FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram, partially in block form, of a prior art deflection system of the retrace driven type similar to that disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,452,244. This system includes a commutating switch 12, comprising a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) 14 and an oppositely poled damper diode 16. The commutating switch 12 is coupled between a winding 18a of an input choke 18 and ground. The other terminal of winding 18a is coupled to a source of direct current voltage (B+) by means of a regulator network 20 which controls the energy stored in the deflection circuit 10 when the commutating switch is off, during an interval T3 to T0' as shown in curve 21 which is a plot of the voltage level at the anode of SCR 14 during the deflection cycle. A damping network comprising a series combination of a resistor 22 and a capacitor 23 is coupled in parallel with commutating switch 12 and serves to reduce any ringing effects produced by the switching of commutating switch 12. Commutating switch 12 is coupled through a commutating coil 24, a commutating capacitor 25 and a trace switch 26 to ground. Trace switch 26 comprises an SCR 28 and an oppositely poled damper diode 30. An auxiliary capacitor 32 is coupled between the junction of coil 24 and capacitor 25 and ground. A series combination of a horizontal deflection winding 34 and an S-shaping capacitor 36 are coupled in parallel with trace switch 26. Also, a series combination of a primary winding 38a of a horizontal output transformer 38 and a DC blocking capacitor 40 are coupled in parallel with trace switch 26.
A secondary of high voltage winding 38b of transformer 38 produces relatively large amplitude flyback pulses during the retrace interval of each deflection cycle. This interval exists between T1 and T2 of curve 41 which is a plot of the current through windings 34 and 38a during the deflection cycle. These flyback pulses are applied to a high voltage multiplier (not shown) or other suitable means for producing direct current high voltage for use as the ultor voltage of a kinescope (not shown).
An auxiliary winding 38c of transformer 38 is coupled to a high voltage sensing and control circuit 42 which transforms the level of flyback pulses into a pulse width modulated signal. The control circuit 42 is coupled to the regulator network 20.
A horizontal oscillator 44 is coupled to the gate electrode of commutating SCR 14 and produces a pulse during each deflection cycle slightly before the end of the trace interval at T0 of curve 21 to turn on SCR 14 to initiate the commutating interval. The commutating interval occurs between T0 and T3 of curve 21. A resonant waveshaping network 46 comprising a series combination of a capacitor 48 and an inductor 50 coupled between a winding 18b of input choke 18 and the gate electrode of trace SCR 28 and a damping resistor 52 coupled between the junction of capacitor 48 and inductor 50 and ground shapes the signal developed at winding 18b (i.e. voltage waveform 53) to form a gating signal voltage waveform 55 to enable SCR 28 for conduction during the second half of the trace interval occurring between T2 and T1' of curve 41.
The regulator network 20, when of a type to be described in conjunction with FIG. 3, operates in such a manner that current through winding 18a of input choke 18 during an interval between T4 and T5 (region A) of curves 21, 53 and 55 is interrupted for a period of time the duration of which is determined by the signal produced by the high voltage sensing and control circuit 42. During the interruption of current through winding 18a a zero voltage level is developed by winding 18b as shown in interval T4 to T5 of curve 53. The resonant waveshaping circuit 46 produces the shaped waveform 55 which undesirably retains a slump in region A corresponding to the notch A of waveform 53. The slump in waveform 55 applied to SCR 28 occurs in a region where the anode of SCR 28 becomes positive and where SCR 28 must be switched on to maintain a uniform production of the current waveshape in the horizontal deflection winding 34 as shown in curve 41. The less positive amplitude current occurring at region A of waveform 55 may result in insufficient gating current for SCR 28 and may cause erratic performance resulting in an unsatisfactory raster.
FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram, partially in block form, of a deflection system 60 embodying the invention. Those elements which perform the same function in FIG. 2 as in FIG. 1 are labeled with the same reference numerals. FIG. 2 differs from FIG. 1 essentially in that the signal to enable SCR 28 derived from sampling a portion of the voltage across commutating switch 12 rather than a voltage developed by winding 18b which is a function of the voltage across winding 18a of input choke 18 as in FIG. 1. This change eliminates the slump in the enabling signal during the interval T4 to T5 as shown in curve 64 since the voltage across the commutating switch 12 is not adversely effected by the regulator network 20 operation.
A series combination of resistor 22, capacitor 23 and a capacitor 62 is coupled in parallel with commutating switch 12, one terminal of capacitor 62 being coupled to ground. The junction of capacitors 23 and 62 is coupled to the gate electrode of SCR 28 by means of the inductor 50. The resistor 52 is coupled in parallel with capacitor 62.
Capacitors 23 and 62 form a capacitance voltage divider which provides a suitable portion of the voltage across commutating switch 12 for gating SCR 28 via inductor 50. The magnitude of the voltage at the junction of capacitors 23 and 62 is typically 25 to 35 volts. It can, therefore, be seen that the ratio of values of capacitors 23 and 62 will vary depending on the B+ voltage utilized to energize the deflection system. Capacitors 23 and 62 and inductor 50 form a resonant circuit tuned in a manner which provides for peaking of the curve 64 between T4 and T5. This peaking effect further enhances gating of SCR 28 between T4 and T5.
Since the waveshape of the voltage across commutating switch 12 (curve 21) is relatively independent of the type of regulator system employed in conjunction with the deflection system, the curve 64 also is independent of the type of regulator system.
When commutating switch 12 switches off during the interval T3 to T0' curve 21, the voltage across capacitor 62 increases and the voltage at the gate electrode of SCR 28 increases as shown in curve 64. As will be noted, no slump of curve 64 occurs between T3 and T5 because there is no interruption of the voltage across commutating switch 12.



















FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram, partially in block form, of one type of a regulator system which may be used in conjunction with the invention. B+ is supplied through a regulator network 20 which comprises an SCR 66 and an oppositely poled diode 68. The diode is poled to provide for conduction of current from B+ to the horizontal deflection circuit 60 via winding 18a of input choke 18. Current flows through the diode during the period T3 to T4 of curve 21 FIG. 1 after which current tries to flow through the SCR 66 from the horizontal deflection circuit to B+ since the commutating capacitor 25 is charged to a voltage higher than B+.
The horizontal deflection circuit 60 produces a flyback pulse in winding 38a of the flyback transformer 38 which is coupled to winding 38c. The magnitude of the pulse on winding 38c determines how long the signal required to switch SCR 66 on is delayed after T4 curve 21 FIG. 1. If the flyback pulse is greater than desirable, the SCR 66 turns on sooner than if the flyback pulse is less than desirable and provides a discharge path for current in commutating capacitor 25 back to the B+ supply. In this manner a relatively constant amplitude flyback pulse is maintained.
FIG. 4 is a schematic diagram, partially in block form, of another well-known type of a regulator system which may be used in conjunction with the invention shown in FIG. 2. B+ is coupled through winding 18a of input choke 18 and through a series combination of windings 70a and 70b of a saturable reactor 70 and a parallel combination of a diode 72 and a resistor 74 to the horizontal deflection circuit 60. Diode 72 is poled to conduct current from the horizontal deflection circuit 60 to B+.
Flyback pulse variations are obtained from winding 38c of the horizontal output transformer 38 and applied to a voltage divider comprising resistors 76, 78 and 80 of the high voltage sensing and control circuit 42. A portion of the pulse produced by winding 38c is selected by the position of the wiper terminal on potentiometer 78 and coupled to the base electrode of a transistor 82 by means of a zener diode 84. The emitter electrode of transistor 82 is grounded and a DC stabilization resistor 85 is coupled in parallel with the base-emitter junction of transistor 82. When the pulse magnitude on winding 38c exceeds a level which results in forward biasing the base-emitter junction of transistor 82, current flows from B+ through a resistor 86, a winding 70c of saturable reactor 70 and transistor 82 to ground. Due to the exponential increase of current in winding 70c during the period of conduction of transistor 82, the duration of conduction of transistor 82 determines the magnitude of current flowing in winding 70c and thus the total inductance of windings 70a and 70b. The current in winding 70c is sustained during the remaining deflection period by means of a diode 88 coupled in parallel with winding 70c and poled not to conduct current from B+ to the collector electrode of transistor 82. A capacitor 90 coupled to the cathode of diode 88 provides a bypass for B+. Windings 70a and 70b are in parallel with input reactor 18a and thereby affect the total input inductance of the deflection circuit and thereby controls the transfer of energy to the deflection circuit. The dotted waveforms shown in conjunction with a curve 21' indicate variations from a nominal waveform provided at the input of horizontal deflection circuit 60 by the windings 70a and 70b.













FIG. 5 is a schematic diagram of yet another type of a regulator system which may be used in conjunction with the invention. B+ is coupled through a winding 92a and a winding 92b of a saturable reactor to the horizontal deflection circuit 60. Windings 92a and 92b are used to replace the input choke 18 shown in FIGS. 1 and 2 while also providing for a regulating function corresponding to that provided by regulating network 20.
Flyback pulse variations are obtained from winding 38c and applied to the high voltage sensing and control circuit 42 as in FIG. 4. Current flows from B+ through resistor 86, a winding 92c and transistor 82 to ground. As in FIG. 4 the duration of the conduction of transistor 82 determines the energy stored in winding 92c and thus the total inductance of windings 92a and 92b which control the amount of energy transferred to the deflection circuit during each horizontal deflection cycle. The variations in waveforms of curve 21', shown in conjunction with FIG. 4, are also provided at the input of horizontal deflection circuit 60 by windings 92a and 92b.
For various reasons including cost or performance, a manufacturer may wish to utilize a particular one of the regulators illustrated in FIGS. 3, 4 and 5. Regardless of the choice, the gating circuit according to the invention may be utilized therewith advantageously by providing improved performance and the possibility of cost savings by eliminating taps or extra windings on the wound components which heretofore normally provided a source of SCR gating waveforms.





SELECO (ZANUSSI) SEC262 PAL/SECAM CHASSIS BS290.0 CONTACTLESS TOUCH SENSOR PROGRAM CHANGE KEYBOARD CIRCUIT ARRANGEMENT FOR ESTABLISHING A CONSTANT POTENTIAL OF THE CHASSIS OF AN ELECTRICAL DEVICE WITH RELATION TO GROUND :



Circuit arrangement for establishing a reference potential of a chassis of an electrical device such as a radio and/or TV receiver, such device being provided with at least one contactless touching switch operating under the AC voltage principle. The device is switched by touching a unipole touching field in a contactless manner so as to establish connection to a grounded network pole. The circuit arrangement includes in combination an electronic blocking switch and a unidirectional rectifier which separates such switch from the network during the blocking phase.


1. A circuit arrangement for establishing, at the chassis of an electrical device powered by a grounded AC supply network, a reference potential with relation to ground, said device having at least one contactless touching switch operating on the AC voltage principle, the switch being operated by touching a unipole touching field in a contactless manner, said arrangement comprising an electronic switch for selectively blocking the circuit of the device from the supply network, a half-wave rectifier including a pair of diodes individually connected in series-aiding relation between the terminals of the supply network and the terminals of the device for separating the electronic blocking switch from the supply network during a blocking phase defined by a prescribed half period of the AC cycle, and a pair of condensers individually connected in parallel with the respective diodes. 2. A circuit arrangement according to claim 1, wherein the capacitances of the two condensers are of equal magnitude.
Description:
This invention relates to a circuit arrangement for establishing a constant reference potential on the chassis of an electrical instrument such as a radio and/or a TV receiver. Such instrument includes at least one contactless touching switch operating under the AC voltage principle, whereby by touching a single pole touching field the contactless switch is operated.

In electronic devices, for example TV and radio receivers, there are used in ever increasing numbers electronic touching switches for switching and adjusting the functions of the device. In one known embodiment of this type of touching switch, which operates on a DC voltage principle, the function of the electronic device, is contactlessly switched by touching a unipole touching field, the switching being carried out by means of an alternating current voltage. When using such a unipole touching electrode, one takes advantage of the fact that the AC current circuit is generally unipolarly grounded. In order to close the circuit by touching the touching surface via the body of the operator to ground, it is necessary to provide an AC voltage on the touching field. In one special known embodiment there is employed a known bridge current rectifier for the current supply. This type of arrangement has the drawback that the chassis of the device changes its polarity relative to the grounded network pole with the network frequency. With such construction considerable difficulties appear when connecting measuring instruments to the device, such difficulties possibly eventually leading to the destruction of individual parts of the electronic device.

In order to avoid these drawbacks, the present invention provides a normal combination of a unidirectional rectifier with an electronic blocking switch that separates the chassis of the electronic device from the network during the blocking phase. In accordance with the present invention, the polarity of the chassis of the electronic device does not periodically change, because the electronic device is practically separated from the network during the blocking phase of the unidirectional rectifier by means of the electronic blocking switch.

In a further embodiment of the invention a further rectifier is connected in series with the unidirectional rectifier in the connection between the circuit and the negative pole of the chassis. Such further rectifier is preferably a diode which is switched in the transfer direction of the unidirectional rectifier. According to another feature of the invention there are provided condensers, a respective condenser being connected parallel with each of the rectifiers. Preferably the two condensers have equal capacitances. Because of the use of such condensers, which are required because of high frequency reasons, during the blocking phase there is conducted to the chassis of the electronic device an AC voltage proportional to the order of capacitances of the condensers. Thus there is placed upon the touching field in a desired manner an AC voltage, and there is thereby assured a secure functioning of the adjustment of the device when such touching occurs.

In the embodiment of the invention employing two rectifiers there is the further advantage that over a bridging over of the minus conduit of the rectifier that is connected between the network and the negative pole of the chassis connection, no injuries can be caused by a measuring instrument in the electronic device itself and in the circuit arrangement connected thereto.

In the accompanying drawing:

The sole FIGURE of the drawing is a circuit diagram of a preferred embodiment of the invention.

In the illustrated embodiment the current supply part of the device, shown at the left, is connected via connecting terminals A and B to an AC voltage source, the terminal B being grounded at 8. The current supply part consists of a unidirectional rectifier in the form of a diode 1 with its anode connected to the terminal I, the cathode of diode 1 being connected to one input terminal 9 of an electronic device 2. In the device 2 there is also arranged a sensor circuit 3, shown here mainly as a block, circuit 3 being shown as including a pnp input transistor the emitter of which is connected to an output terminal 11 of the device 2. The collector of such transistor is connected to the other output terminal 12 of the device 2. The base of the transistor is connected by a wire 13 to a unipolar touching field 4 which may be in the form of a simple metal plate instead of the pnp transistor shown, the sensor circuit itself may consist of a standard integrating circuit which controls, among other things, the periodic sequential switching during the touching time of the touching field 4. All of the circuits of the electronic device 2 are isolated in a known manner from the chassis potential. Between the network terminal B and the negative pole 10 of the chassis there is arranged in the direction opposite that of diode 1 a further diode 5, the anode of diode 5 being connected to the terminal 10, and the cathode of diode 5 being connected to the terminal B of the current supply. To provide for HF type bridging of the diodes 1 and 5 there are arranged condensers 6 and 7 respectively, which are connected in parallel with such diodes.

The invention functions by reason of the fact that in an AC network separate devices radiate electromagnetic waves which produce freely traveling fields in the body of the person who is operating and/or adjusting the device, thereby producing an alternating current through his body to ground, as indicated by the - line at the right of the circuit diagram. If now the person operating the device touches the switching field 4, then the pnp type input transistor of the sensor circuit 3, which is placed on a definite reference potential (for example 12 Volts) and is connected with the negative halfwave of the AC voltage potential, is made conductive. There is thereby released a control command in the sequential switching, for example, for switching the electronic device to the next receiving channel. It is understood that the most suitable connection is formed between ground and the touching field 4 by means of a wire. By the use of such wires it would be assured that in all cases the base of the transistor in circuit 3 is connected to ground. This would, however, not permit anyone to operate the switch without the use of an auxiliary means such as a wire. It will be assumed that the touching almost always results directly via the almost isolated human body. For this reason the AC current fields are necessary, because otherwise there cannot always be provided a ground contact. Thus this connection is established via the body resistance of the person carrying out the touching of the switch.

The positive half wave of the alternating current travels to the terminal 9 of the electronic device 2 after such current has been rectified and smoothed by the devices 1, 6. Such positive halfwave is also conducted to the sensor circuit 3. The thus formed current circuit is closed by way of the chassis of the electronic device 3, the diode 5, and the terminal B. When there is a negative halfwave of the alternating current delivered by the current supply, both diodes 1 and 5 remain closed so that the chassis of the device 2 remains separated from the network during the blocking phase. Nevertheless, by means of condensers 6 and 7 the chassis is placed in a definite network potential, which depends on the relationship of the order of magnitude of the two condensers 6 and 7. When the capacitances of such condensers are equal, there is placed upon the chassis of the device 2 the constant reference potential, and simultaneously there is present via the sensor circuit 3 the required AC voltage at the touching field 4 for adjusting the function or functions of the device 2 upon the touching of the touching field 4.

The reference character 15 indicates a terminal or point at which the potential of the chassis of the device 2 may be measured. As above explained, the diode 5 causes the potential of the chassis at 15 to be separated from the network ground when a negative AC halfwave arrives. It will be noted that the return conduit of the circuit is held at a fixed chassis potential. The input transistor of the sensor circuit 3 remains, however, locked because it is subjected to a DC current of about 12 volts. If now, by means of touching the touching field 4, the chassis potential is connected to ground, then the transistor switches through and releases a switching function.

If the connecting terminals AB of the current source are exchanged, as by changing the plug, then there is still secured the condition that the chassis of the device is separated from the network ground via the diode, in this case the diode 1. The reference potential of the chassis consequently remains constant and the changing AC fields which are superimposed on the condensers can produce in the touching human body an AC current voltage due to the fields which are radiated by the device.

A suitable sensor which may be employed for the circuit 3 herein may be a sensor known as the "SAS 560 Tastatur IS," manufactured and sold by Siemens AG.

It is to be understood that the present invention is not limited to the illustrated environment. They can also be used in electronic blocking switch including a Thyristor circuit, which in the same manner separates the electronic device during the blocking phase from the network rectifier. With such Thyristor circuit the drawbacks described in the introductory portion of the specification of known circuit arrangements are also avoided.

Although the invention is illustrated and described with reference to a plurality of preferred embodiments thereof, it is to be expressly understood that it is in no way limited to the disclosure of such a plurality of preferred embodiments, but is capable of numerous modifications within the scope of the appended claims.

SELECO (ZANUSSI) SEC262 PAL/SECAM CHASSIS BS290.0 FRAME DEFLECTION OUTPUT:2N3055
The 2N3055 transistor is a silicon NPN power transistor intended for general purpose applications. It was introduced in the early 1960's by RCA using their "hometaxial" power transistor process. It was one of the first silicon power transistors, offered unrivalled second breakdown immunity and found many applications particularly in audio power amplifiers and linear power supplies.

The exact specs depend on the manufacture, it is important to reference the datasheet for the exact device and brand you are dealing with.

Packaged in a TO3 can, it is a 15A amp, 60V volt, 115W watt power transistor with a Beta of 20 to 70 at a collector current of 4A. It gained popularity because it had 100 % safe-operating-area, (SOA), meaning that it could dissipate 115W at a collector voltage of 60V (Ic=1.9A), provided the case temperature did not exceed 25 deg.C. It was designed for medium current and high power circuits. Commercially, it was used in many linear power supplies, audio amplifiers and low frequency power converters. One limitation was that its frequency response was rather slow (typically the unity-gain frequency was 1 MHz) The 2N3055 power transistor was the first multi-amp silicon transistor to sell for less than one dollar! It was a huge success in the power supply market..

With changes to the technology, the original process became uneconomical and a similar device, now using the name 2N3055 transistor, was supplied using epitaxial base technology. The maximum voltage and current ratings of this device are the same as the original, but the power handling (safe operating area) is limited at high voltage to a lower current than the original. However, the cut-off frequency is higher, so allowing the newer type of 2N3055 transistor to be more efficient in switching power supplies. Also the higher frequency response improves the performance when used in audio amplifiers. Some suppliers offer a high safe-operating-area version of the 2N3055 power transistor using the "H" suffix.

The 2N3054 transistor is a lower power version of the 2N3055 transistor, rated at 25W, 55V and 4A, but became almost obsolete about the late 1980's when many TO-66 devices were withdrawn from mainstream manufacturers's lists. In many cases a TO-220 packaged version, such as MJE3055T, can be used instead of the 2N3054 as well as in some 2N3055 power transistor applications. An MJ2955 is a complementary (PNP) transistor for the 2N3055 transistor, which is also manufactured using the epitaxial process today.


SELECO (ZANUSSI)  SEC262  PAL/SECAM  CHASSIS BS290.0  COLOUR SIGNAL SEPARATING ARRANGEMENT FOR A PAL-SECAM COLOUR TELEVISION RECEIVER The invention relates to a colour signal separating arrangement for a multisystem colour television receiver including a system selector switch having at least a PAL position and a SECAM position for adapting the receiver to the nature of the colour signal to be handled, a delay circuit having at least an input and an output, a switching circuit and a combination circuit having at least a first input for applying an undelayed colour signal, a second input for applying a colour signal delayed by one line period, and two outputs.

Colour television receivers which must be suitable for handling a SECAM signal generally include a colour signal separating arrangement having a delay circuit to convert a line-sequential frequency-modulated SECAM colour signal into two simultaneously occurring frequency-modulated colour difference signals of a different kind.

Colour television receivers-which must be suitable for handling a PAL signal often include a colour signal separating arrangement including a delay circuit in order to obtain a phase error compensation. With the aid thereof the colour signal alternately turning left and right and modulated in quadrature on a subcarrier is converted into the two quadrature components each associated with a different colour signal component.

For a colour television receiver which must at least be suitable for handling both a PAL and a SECAM signal the object of the invention is to provide a colour signal separating arrangement which permits an economic use of switching elements.

According to the invention a colour'signal separating arrangement of the kind described in the preamble is characterized in that it includes a balancing circuit having at least one input and two outputs, while the switching circuit includes two inputs each line period the polarity of the voltages at which is connected to a different output of the balancing circuit, two outputs and two switching members for alternately connecting directly and crosswise each of the two inputs to a different one of the two outputs of the switching circuit, the input of the delay circuit being connectable through a switching element of the system selector switch in the PAL position to the said first input of the combination circuit, the output of the delay circuit being connected to the said second input of the combination circuit and a first output of the combination circuit, from which in the PAL position a colour signal component alternating 180 in phase from line to line can be derived, being connected to the said input of the balancing circuit.

The invention is based on the recognition of the fact that when using a balancing circuit one input thereof may remain permanently connected to one of the outputs of the combination circuit and the outputs thereof may be connected to the inputs of the switching circuit. This switching circuit may then be used for reception of both PAL. and SECAM signals without additional switching elements being required therefor. As a result the number of switching elements of both the system selector switch and of the switching circuit can be limited so that an economic setup of a'colour signal separating arrangement can be obtained.


CHROMINANCE DEMODULATOR
FOR SECAM OR PAL/SECAM DECODERS
The TCA650 is an integrated synchronous demodulator for both the SECAM and PAL
chrominance signals.
Switching of the standard is performed internally, controlled by an external applied
d.c. signal.
In addition to the synchronous demodulator, which delivers colour difference signals,
the circuit also incorporates:
- a PAL matrix, used for adding the delayed and non-delayed signals to obtain separately
the (R-Y) and (B-Y) components of the chrominance signal.
- a PAL switch, which reverses the phase of the (R-Y) component of the chrominance
signal on alternating lines.
- a SECAM switch, which performs the separation of the Dr and Db components of the
chrominance signal by switching the delayed and non-delayed signals.
- a SECAM limiter.
Pinning
1. Chrominance input
2. Earth (negative supply)
3. Chrominance input
4. System switch input
5. Reference (R-Y) input SECAM
6. Reference (R-Y) input PAL
7. Reference (B-Y) input PAL
8. Reference (B-Y) input SECAM
9.
Chrominance (B-Y), Dg input
10. Colour difference (B-Y) output
11. Chrominance (R-Y), D r input
12. Colour difference (R-Y) output
13. Chrominance (R-Y) , D r output
14. Supply voltage (12 V)
15. Chrominance (B-Y) , Dg output
16. Square wave input.

APPLICATION INFORMATION

The function is quoted against the corresponding pin number
1.
Chrominance input
The blanked composite chrominance signal from pin 1 of the TCA640 is applied to
this input via a resistive divider.
2.
Negative supply (earth)
3.
Chrominance input
The blanked composite chrominance signal from pin 15 of the TCA640 is applied to
this input via a delay-line, which has a delay time of 64 (is.
4.
System switch input
The control voltage for switching the standard is applied to this input via a resistor
of 2, 7 kQ (± 10%). A decoupling capacitor of at least 10 nF is recommended. Between
7 V and the supply voltage the circuit operates in the PAL mode, whereas between
0 V and 1 V the mode SECAM is selected.
5.
Reference input for the (R-Y) demodulator
The SECAM reference signal is applied to this pin. The reference signal is obtained
from pin 11 via a tank circuit. The tank circuit is tuned such that the level at the
(R-Y) output (pin 12) during black (f0 = 4, 4 MHz) equals the level during blanking (no
signal). The output voltage amplitude at pin 12 can be adjusted by damping the tank
circuit.
6.
Reference input for the (R-Y) demodulator
A PAL reference signal having (R-Y) phase is applied to this pin.
7.
Reference input for the (B- Y) demodulator
A PAL reference signal having(B-Y) phase is applied to this pin.
8.
Reference input for the (B-Y) demodulator
The SECAM reference signal is applied to this pin. The reference signal is obtained
from pin 15 via a tank circuit. The tank circuit is tuned such that the level at the
(B-Y) output (pin 10) during black (fD = 4, 25 MHz) equals the level during blanking (no
signal). The output voltage amplitude at pin 10 can be adjusted by damping the tank
circuit.
9.
Chrominance input to the (B-Y), Db demodulator
The output signal of pin 15 is applied via a coupling capacitor of 4, 7 nF.
10. Output of the (B-Y) demodulator
The output signal of the balance demodulator contains an r.f. ripple of twice the
chrominance frequency to be filtered by a 7r filter. At SECAM the required de-
emphasis circuit should be applied.
11. Chrominance input to the (R-Y), Dr demodulator
The output signal of pin 13 is applied via a coupling capacitor of 4, 7 nF,

12. Output of the (R-Y) demodulator
See pin 10.
13. Chrominance (R-Y), DR output
The (R-Y) component of the chrominance signal (DR component at SECAM) is present
at this pin.
The signal is applied to the input of the (R-Y) demodulator (pin 11) and to the tank
circuit for the SECAM reference signal.
The emitter follower output should be loaded with a 2, 7 kQ resistor to obtain an
output impedance of <100 br="" q.="">14. Supply voltage (12 V)
Correct operation occurs within the range 10, 2 to 13, 2 V.
The power dissipation must not exceed 510 mW at 65 °C ambient temperature.
15. Chrominance (B-Y), Dr output
The (B-Y) component of the chrominance signal (Dg component at SECAM) is present
at this pin.
The signal is applied to the input of the (B-Y) demodulator (pin 9) and to the tank
circuit for the SECAM reference signal.
The emitter follower output should be loaded with a 2,7 kQ resistor to obtain an
output impedance of <100 br="" q.="">16. Square wave input
A square wave with an amplitude of 3 V drives the PAL switch or the SECAM
permutator.
The square wave is available at pin 12 of the TCA640.


CONTRAST, SATURATION AND BRIGHTNESS
CONTROL CIRCUIT FOR COLOUR DIFFERENCE AND
LUMINANCE SIGNALS
TheTCA660B is an integrated circuit performing the control functions of contrast, satu-
ration and brightness in colour television receivers.
Contrast is controlled by three tracking electronic potentiometers; one for the luminance
signal and the other two for the (R—Y) and (B—Y) colour difference signals.
In addition two tracking electronic potentiometers provide the saturation control of the
colour difference signals.
Brightness is controlled by varying the black level of the luminance signal at the output.
An inverting amplifier is also included for matrixing the (G—Y) signal fromthe(R—Y)and
(B—Y) colour difference signals.

Pinning
l. Luminance signal output 9. (R-Y) signal input
2. Black level clamp pulse input 10. (R-Y) signal output
3. Blanking pulse input 11. (G-Y) signal input
4. Earth (negative supply) 12. (G‘Y) signal output
5. Contrast control input 13. Supply voltage (12 V)
6. Saturation control input 14. Brightness control input
7. (B—Y) signal output 15. Black level clamp capacitor
8. (B—Y) signal input 16. Luminance signal input.


The function is quoted against the corresponding pin number
l.
Luminance signal output
A positive video signal of 3 V peak-to—pcakis available atnominal contrast setting.
The black level is clamped internally on the back porch.
By means of the brightness control the black level can be varied between 2.2 V and
5.2 V. The blanking level of the output signal will assume a value of 3,0 to 3.4 V.
Black level clamp pulse input
A positive pulse with a peak value between +1 V and +12 V will clamp the blacklevel
of the video signal to a nominal level of 4.2 V. The pulse may only be present during
the back porch and should have a duration of about 3 |JS.
Blanking pulse input
Two modes operation can be selected by the choice ofthe amplitude ofthe pulse applied:
— blanking
‘ black level reinsertion ;
Blanking of the luminance output signal is obtained when the peak value of the pulse ;
ranges from —1. 5 to —10 V. An artificial black level of nominally + 4.2 V is inserted
in the luminance output signal during the blanking period when the peak value of the
pulse ranges from +2 to + 12 V.
During scan the amplitude at pin 3 should remain between +0. 7 V and —O, 7 V to
avoid blanking.
Negative supply (earth)
Contrast control input
The contrast curve is given on page 4. To avoid damaging of the circuit by flash—
over pulses. picked—up by the leads. it is recommended that a capacitor of
100 nF be connected between this pin and earth.
Saturation control input
The control curve is given on page 4. To avoid damaging of the circuit by flash-
over pulses.picked—up by the leads, it is recommended that a capacitor of
100 nF be connected between this pin and earth.
(B—Y) sigal output
The aniplitidc of this signal is controlled by the contrast setting and the saturation
setting simultaneously. At nominal contrast and nominal saturation setting an ampli—
tude of l, 6 V peaketo'peak is obtained at an input amplitude of O, 9 V peak—to—peak.
The average level is typically 6. l V.
(B—Y) signal input
The signal has to be a. c. coupled to the input.
To cope with the variation of picture contents on input voltage margin of i O. 8 V is
provided. \\hCI'GHS the input signal has a typical value of ’1 0,45 V for a saturated
colour bar signal.

CHROMINANCE AMPLIFIER
FOR SECAM OR PAL/SECAM DECODERS
The TCA640 is an integrated chrominance amplifier for either a SECAM decoder or a
double standard PAL/SECAM decoder.
Switching of the standard is performed internally, controlled by an external applied d. c.
signal.
In addition to the chrominance amplifier the circuit also incorporates a 7, 8 kHz flip-flop
and an identification circuit for SECAM.
For PAL identification the circuit included in the TBA540 should be used.
Furthermore, the TCA640 incorporates a blanking circuit, a burst gating circuit and a
colour killer detector.

Pinning
1. Chrominance output
2. Earth (negative supply)
3. Chrominance input
4. System switch input
5. Chrominance input
6. Line fly-back pulse input
7. Field identification pulse input
8. Colour killer output
9.) Identification integrating
10.| capacitor (SECAM)
11. Identification tank circuit (SECAM)
12. Flip-flop output
13. Burst output (PAL)
14. Supply voltage (12 V)
15. Chrominance output
16. A.C.C. input.

APPLICATION INFORMATION
The function is quoted against the corresponding pin number
1. Chrominance output (in conjunction with pin 15)
A balanced output is available at pins 1 and 15.
At SECAM reception a limited signal of 2 V peak-to-peak is available, starting from
an input voltage of 15 mV peak-to-peak.
At PAL reception the output signal is 500 mV peak-to-peak for a burst signal of 1 V
peak-to-peak.
An external d.c. network is required which provides negative feedback to pin 3. The
same holds for the feedback from pin 15 to pin 5.
The figures for input and output signals are based on a 100% saturated colour bar signal.
2. Negative supply (earth)
3. Chrominance input (in conjunction with pin 5)
The input signal is derived from a bandpass filter which provides the required "bell"
shape bandpass for the SECAM signal and a flat bandpass for the PAL signal.
The input signal can be supplied either in a balanced mode or single ended. Both inputs (pins 3 and 5) require a d. c. potential of about 2 , 5 V obtained from a resistive divider connected to output pins 1 and 15. The figures for the input signals are based on a 100% saturated colour bar signal and a burst-to-chrominance ratio of 1:3 of the input signal (PAL)
4. System switch input Between 7 V and the supply voltage, the gain of the chrominance amplifier is controlled by the a.c.c. voltage at pin 16.
The chrominance amplifier then provides linear amplification required for the PA L s ignal.
Between 0 V and IV the chrominance amplifier operates as a limiter for the SECAM signal.
5. Chrominance input (see pin 3)
6. Line fly-back pulse input (in conjunction with pin 11)
Positive going pulses provide
- blanking of the chrominance signal at the outputs (pins 1 and 15).
- burst gating for both PAL and SECAM.
The carrier signal present during the second half of the back porch of the SECAM signal is gated. It provides line identification when the circuit L j C j  is tuned to 4,25 MHz (at Cj = 470 pF).
- trigger signal for the flip-flop.
7. Field identification pulse input (in conjunction with pin 11)
Like the line fly-back pulses, positive going identification pulses provide blanking and burst gating.
To operate the TCA640 on the identification lines (SECAM) in the field blanking period the circuit L^Ci  should be tuned to 3, 9 MHz and the capacitor C^ should be increased to 1 nF. The field fly-back pulse should be shaped so that its amplitude exceeds 4 V during the identification lines.

8.
Colour killer output
This pin is driven from the collector of an internal switching transistor and requires
an external load resistor connected to the supply voltage. The killer is operative
when the a.c.c. voltage exceeds the threshold . when the SECAM chrominance
signal at the input is below the limiting level or when the flip-flop operates in the
wrong phase.
9.
Identification integrating capacitor (SECAM)
10. Identification integrating capacitor (SECAM)
11. Identification detector tank circuit (see pins 6 and 7)
12. Flip-flop output
A square w; ve of 7, 8 kHz with an amplitude of 3 V is available at this pin.
An external load resistor is not required.
13. Burst output (PAL)
A 1 V peak-to-peak burst (kept constant by the a.c. c. system) is produced here.
14. Supply volt: ge (12 V)
Correct operation occurs within the range 10,2 to 13,2 V.
The power dissipation must not exceed 625 mW at 65 °C ambient temperature.
15. Chrominance output (see pin 1)
16. A.C.C. input
With the system switch input (pin 4) connected for PAL operation, a negative going
potential gives a 26 dB range of a. c. c. starting at + 1,2 V
During SECAM operation, the voltage at the input should not exceed +0,5 V, other-
wise the SECAM identification circuit and the colour killer become inoperative.


TBA530
RGB MATRIX PRE AMPLIFIER
The TBA530 is an integrated R - G - B matrix pre-amplifier for colour television receivers incorporating a
matrix pre-amplifier for R—G—B cathode or grid drive of the picture tube without clamping circuits. The chip layout
has been designed to ensure tight thermal coupling between all transistors in each channel to minimise thermal drifts
between channels. Also, each channel follows an identical layout to ensure equal frequency behaviour of the three
channels. This integrated circuit has been designed to be driven from the TBA520 synchronous demodulator integrated
circuit.


TBA540 Monolithic Integrated Circuit
Application:
Reference oscillator for PAL-colour television receivers

Features:
• Wide catching and holding range of reference oscillator
• Controlled oscillator amplitude.


Circuit description TBA540
The reference-frequency for the chroma demodulator is generated by synchronizing a crystal-oscillator with the average burst phase.
The burst signal phase, alternating from  line-to-line, produces a square wave from the phase detection circuit and must
therefore, be smoothed over several lines in order to be usable for the controlling of the oscillator phase.
The unsmoothed square wave is further processed to get the half-line synchronized PAL-ldentification, which is  responsible for the correct PAL-switching in TBA 520.
The ACC-voltage  for controlling the chroma amplifier in TBA 560 depends on the burst- amplitude. The ACC-voltage in combination with the PAL-ldentification voltage drives the colour-killer, which is also integrated in TBA 560.
THE  Philips TBA SERIES

 The TBA series of i.c.s developed by Philips for use in TV receivers comprises the TBA500Q, TBA510Q, TBA520Q, TBA530Q, TBA540Q, TBA550Q, TBA560Q, TBA750Q and TBA990Q, the Q signifying that the lead out pins are in zig-zag form as illustrated in other posts here at  Obsolete Technology Tellye !
 The operations the various i.c.s in this series perform are as follows:
 TBA500Q: Luminance Combination. Luminance amplifier for colour receivers incorporating luminance delay line matching stages, gated black level clamp and a d.c. contrast control which maintains a constant black level over its range of operation. A c.r.t. beam limiter facility is incorporated, first reducing the picture contrast and then the brightness. Line and field flyback blanking can also be applied.
 TBA510Q: Chrominance Combination. Chrominance amplifier for colour receivers incorporating a gain  controlled stage, a d.c. control for saturation which can be ganged to the receiver's contrast control, burst gating and blanking, a colour killer, and burst output and PAL delay line driver stages.
 TBA520Q: Chrominance Demodulator. Incorporates U and V synchronous demodulators, G-Y matrix and PAL V switch. This type will be superseded by
 the TBA990Q (development of which was nearing completion in 1972) listed later.
 TBA530Q: RGB Matrix. Luminance and colour difference signal matrix incorporating preamplifiers.
 TBA540Q: Reference Combination. Decoder reference oscillator (with external crystal) and a.p.c. loop. Also provides a.c.c., colour killer and ident outputs. TBA550Q: Video signal processor for colour or monochrome receivers. This i.c. is the successor to the TAA700. It is very similar electrically to the TAA700. TBA560Q: Luminance and Chrominance Combination. Provides luminance and chrominance signal channels for a colour receiver. Although not equivalent to the TBA500Q and TBA510Q it performs similar functions to those i.c.s.
 TBA750Q: Intercarrier Sound Channel. Incorporates five stage intercarrier sound limiter/amplifier plus quadrature detector and audio preamplifier. External
 TBA990Q: Chrominance Demodulator. Incorporates U and V synchronous demodulators, G -Y matrix and PAL V switch. This is at the time  in the final stages of development and was been available from March 1972 onwards. As I have given information previously on the TBA550Q and TBA750Q we  may concentrate in this and the concluding post in the series on the colour receiver i.c.s. such as multistandard sets or bistandard color decoders here at  Obsolete Technology Tellye !

 Fig. 1 shows in block diagram form their application for luminance and chrominance signal processing. We will look first at the TBA520Q and TBA530Q which are in use for example in the Philips G8 single standard colour chassis.

TBA530Q RGB Matrix Preamplifier:
The internal circuitry of this i.c. is shown in Fig. 2 while Fig. 3 shows the immediate external connections as used in the Philips G8 chassis. The chip layout is designed to ensure tight thermal coupling between all transistors to minimise thermal drift between channels and each channel has an identical layout to the others to ensure equal frequency response characteristics. The colour -difference signals are fed in at pins 2, 3 and 4 and the luminance input is at pin 5. Trl and Tr2 form the matrix in each channel, driving the differential amplifiers Tr3, Tr4, Tr5. The operating conditions are set by Tr5 and Tr7, using an external current -determining resistor connected to pin 7. Pin 6 is the chassis connection and pin 8 the 12V supply line connection (maximum voltage permitted 13.2V, approximate current consumption 30mA). External load resistors are connected to pins 1, 14 and 11 from a 200V line and the outputs are taken from pins 16, 13 and 10. The output pins are internally connected to the load resistor pins via Tr6 which provides a zener-type junction giving a level shift appropriate for driving the bases of the external output transistors directly. External l0kpF capacitors are required between the output and load resistor pins to bypass these zener junctions at h.f. Feedback from the external output stages is fed in at pins 15, 12 and 9. A common supply line should be used for this and any other i.c.s in the series used in the decoder, to ensure that any changes in the black level caused by variations in the supply voltage occur in a predictable way : the stability of the supply should be not worse than ±3% due to operational variations to limit changes in picture black level during receiver operation. To reduce the possibility of patterning on the picture due to radiation of the harmonics of the demodulation process the leads carrying the drive signals to the tube should be kept as short as possible : resistors (typically 1.51J) connected in series with the leads and mounted close to the collectors of the out- put transistors provide useful additional filtering of these harmonics.






   
TBA520Q Chrominance Demodulator:
In addition to U and V balanced synchronous detectors this i.c. incorporates a PAL switch which inverts on alternate lines the V reference signal fed to the V synchronous detector. The PAL switch is controlled by an integrated flip-flop circuit which is driven by line frequency pulses and is under the control of an ident input to synchronise the V switching. Outputs from the U and V demodulators are matrixed within the i.c. to obtain the G-Y signal so that all three colour difference signals are available at pins 4, 5 and 7. The internal circuit of this i.c. is shown in Fig. 4 while Fig. 5 shows the immediate external circuitry as used in the Philips G8 chassis. The separated U and ±V chrominance signals from the PAL delay line/matrix circuit are fed in at pins 9 and 13 respectively. The U and V reference signals, in phase quadrature, are fed in at pins 8 and 2. Taking the U channel first we see that the U chrominance signal is fed to Tr18 base. This transistor with Tr19 forms a differential pair which drives the emitters of the transistors-Tr4, Try, Tr6 and Tr7-which comprise the U synchronous demodulator. The U reference signal is fed to Tr12 base, this transistor with Tr13 forming a further differential pair which drive the bases of the synchronous demodulator transistors. The B -Y signal is developed across R3 and appears at output pin 7. A similar arrangement is followed in the V channel except that here the V reference signal fed in at pin 2 to the base of Tr22 is routed to the V synchronous demodulator (Tr8-Tr11) via the PAL switch Tr14-Tr17. This switch is controlled by the integrated flip-flop (bistable) Tr24 and Tr25 (with diodes DI and D2). The bases of the transistors in the flip-flop circuit are driven by negative going line frequency pulses fed in at pins 14 and 15. As a result half line frequency antiphase squarewaves are developed across R13 and R14 and fed to the PAL switch via R57 and R58. The ident signal is fed into the base of Tr32 at pin 1. A positive -going input to pin 1 drives Tr32 on so that the base of Tr24 is shorted and the flip-flop rendered inactive until the positive input is removed. In the Philips circuit a 4V peak -to -peak 7.8kHz sinewave ident signal is fed in at pin 1 to synchronise the flip-flop. The squarewave signal is externally available at pin 3 from the emitter -follower Tr39 which requires an external load resistor. The R-Y signal developed across R9 is fed via R10 to output pin 4. The G-Y signal appears at the output of the matrix network R4, R5 and R6 and is fed via R7 to pin 5. The d.c. voltages applied to pins 11 and 12 establish the correct G -Y and R-Y signal levels relative to the B -Y signal. Pin 10 is internally connected and no external connection should be made to this pin. The U and V reference carrier inputs should be about IV p -p, via a d.c. blocking capacitor in each feed. These inputs must not be less than 0-5V. The flip-flop starts when the voltage at pin 1 is reduced The amplitudes of the pulses fed in at pins 14 and 15 below 0.4V : it should not be allowed to exceed -5V. to drive the flip-flop should be between 2.5 and 5V p-p.
For a colou bar signal a U input of approximately 360mV is required at pin 9 and a V input of approximately 500mV is required at pin 13. The supply is fed in at pin 6 and this also sets the d.c. level of the B-Y output signal. The maximum voltage allowed at this pin is 13.2V. In early versions of the Philips G8 chassis a TAA630 i.c. was used in place of the TBA520Q.

HERE BELOW ONLY FOR REFERENCE THE OLDER SELECO REX ZANUSSI ZOPPAS CHASSIS BS250 - BS250.1  SCHEMATIC ELECTRIC DIAGRAM. 

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