Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

In Brief: On this site you will find pictures and information about some of the electronic, electrical and electrotechnical technology relics that the Frank Sharp Private museum has accumulated over the years .

Premise: There are lots of vintage electrical and electronic items that have not survived well or even completely disappeared and forgotten.

Or are not being collected nowadays in proportion to their significance or prevalence in their heyday, this is bad and the main part of the death land. The heavy, ugly sarcophagus; models with few endearing qualities, devices that have some over-riding disadvantage to ownership such as heavy weight,toxicity or inflated value when dismantled, tend to be under-represented by all but the most comprehensive collections and museums. They get relegated to the bottom of the wants list, derided as 'more trouble than they are worth', or just forgotten entirely. As a result, I started to notice gaps in the current representation of the history of electronic and electrical technology to the interested member of the public.


Following this idea around a bit, convinced me that a collection of the peculiar alone could not hope to survive on its own merits, but a museum that gave equal display space to the popular and the unpopular, would bring things to the attention of the average person that he has previously passed by or been shielded from. It's a matter of culture. From this, the Obsolete Technology Tellye Web Museum concept developed and all my other things too. It's an open platform for all electrical Electronic TV technology to have its few, but NOT last, moments of fame in a working, hand-on environment. We'll never own Colossus or Faraday's first transformer, but I can show things that you can't see at the Science Museum, and let you play with things that the Smithsonian can't allow people to touch, because my remit is different.

There was a society once that was the polar opposite of our disposable, junk society. A whole nation was built on the idea of placing quality before quantity in all things. The goal was not “more and newer,” but “better and higher" .This attitude was reflected not only in the manufacturing of material goods, but also in the realms of art and architecture, as well as in the social fabric of everyday life. The goal was for each new cohort of children to stand on a higher level than the preceding cohort: they were to be healthier, stronger, more intelligent, and more vibrant in every way.

The society that prioritized human, social and material quality is a Winner. Truly, it is the high point of all Western civilization. Consequently, its defeat meant the defeat of civilization itself.

Today, the West is headed for the abyss. For the ultimate fate of our disposable society is for that society itself to be disposed of. And this will happen sooner, rather than later.

OLD, but ORIGINAL, Well made, Funny, Not remotely controlled............. and not Made in CHINA.

How to use the site:

- If you landed here via any Search Engine, you will get what you searched for and you can search more using the search this blog feature provided by Google. You can visit more posts scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year,
or you can click on the main photo-page to start from the main page. Doing so it starts from the most recent post to the older post simple clicking on the Older Post button on the bottom of each page after reading , post after post.

You can even visit all posts, time to time, when reaching the bottom end of each page and click on the Older Post button.

- If you arrived here at the main page via bookmark you can visit all the site scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year pointing were you want , or more simple You can even visit all blog posts, from newer to older, clicking at the end of each bottom page on the Older Post button.
So you can see all the blog/site content surfing all pages in it.

- The search this blog feature provided by Google is a real search engine. If you're pointing particular things it will search IT for you; or you can place a brand name in the search query at your choice and visit all results page by page. It's useful since the content of the site is very large.

Note that if you don't find what you searched for, try it after a period of time; the site is a never ending job !

Every CRT Television saved let revive knowledge, thoughts, moments of the past life which will never return again.........

Many contemporary "televisions" (more correctly named as displays) would not have this level of staying power, many would ware out or require major services within just five years or less and of course, there is that perennial bug bear of planned obsolescence where components are deliberately designed to fail and, or manufactured with limited edition specificities..... and without considering........picture......sound........quality........

..............The bitterness of poor quality is remembered long after the sweetness of todays funny gadgets low price has faded from memory........ . . . . . .....
Don't forget the past, the end of the world is upon us! Pretty soon it will all turn to dust!

Have big FUN ! !
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©2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 Frank Sharp - You do not have permission to copy photos and words from this blog, and any content may be never used it for auctions or commercial purposes, however feel free to post anything you see here with a courtesy link back, btw a link to the original post here , is mandatory.
All sets and apparates appearing here are property of
Engineer Frank Sharp. NOTHING HERE IS FOR SALE !

Sunday, March 13, 2011

PHONOLA (PHILIPS) 59KS6509 /08R CHASSIS K40 INTERNAL VIEW.

















































































































- Deflection Board on the right called large signal board. Line deflection output (BU508A) + EHT, E/W



Correction, FRAME Deflection Output with IC TDA3650 (PHILIPS)

- Signal processing board + Tuning control drive TRD (Tuning Remote Digital)


Chrominance + Luminance with TDA3561A,
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
The TDA3561A is a decoder for the PAL colour television standard. It combines all functions required for the identification
and demodulation of PAL signals. Furthermore it contains a luminance amplifier, an RGB-matrix and amplifier. These
amplifiers supply output signals up to 5 V peak-to-peak (picture information) enabling direct drive of the discrete output
stages. The circuit also contains separate inputs for data insertion, analogue as well as digital, which can be used for
text display systems (e.g. (Teletext/broadcast antiope), channel number display, etc. Additional to the TDA3560, the
circuit includes the following features:
· The peak white limiter is only active during the time that the 9,3 V level at the output is exceeded. The start of the
limiting function is delayed by one line period. This avoids peak white limiting by test patterns which have abrupt
transitions from colour to white signals.
· The brightness control is obtained by inserting a variable pulse in the luminance channel. Therefore the ratio of
brightness variation and signal amplitude at the three outputs will be identical and independent of the difference in gain
of the three channels. Thus discolouring due to adjustment of contrast and brightness is avoided.
· Improved suppression of the internal RGB signals when the device is switched to external signals, and vice versa.
· Non-synchronized external RGB signals do not disturb the black level of the internal signals.
· Improved suppression of the residual 4,4 MHz signal in the RGB output stages.
· Cascoded stages in the demodulators and burst phase detector minimize the radiation of the colour demodulator
inputs.
· High current capability of the RGB outputs and the chrominance output.
CHASSIS K40 Chrominance + Luminance with TDA3561A,
GENERAL DESCRIPTION

The invention relates to a video signal processing circuit for a color television receiver having inputs for a luminance signal, for color difference signals, and for external color signals, comprising a matrix circuit for combining a color difference signal with the luminance signal to form a color signal, a first clamping circuit for clamping an external color signal onto the corresponding color signal, a combining circuit for combining a clamped external color signal with the corresponding color signal, a second clamping circuit acting on an output signal of the combining circuit and a brightness setting circuit.
A video signal processing circuit of the type defined above is described in Philip Data Handbook for Integrated Circuits, Part 2, May, 1980 as IC TDA3560. The brightness setting, which is common for internal and external video signals, is obtained by means of a common direct current level setting of the second clamping circuits. The settings of the three electron guns of a picture display tube coupled to the outputs of the video signal processing circuit are changed to an equal extent by this direct current level setting as a result whereof, due to the mutual differences in the efficiency of the phosphors of the picture display tube, a color shift may occur at a brightness adjustment. It is an object of the invention to prevent this.

The TDA3561A is a decoder for the PAL colour television standard. It combines all functions required for the identification
and demodulation of PAL signals. Furthermore it contains a luminance amplifier, an RGB-matrix and amplifier. These
amplifiers supply output signals up to 5 V peak-to-peak (picture information) enabling direct drive of the discrete output
stages. The circuit also contains separate inputs for data insertion, analogue as well as digital, which can be used for
text display systems (e.g. (Teletext/broadcast antiope), channel number display, etc. Additional to the TDA3560, the
circuit includes the following features:
· The peak white limiter is only active during the time that the 9,3 V level at the output is exceeded. The start of the limiting function is delayed by one line period. This avoids peak white limiting by test patterns which have abrupt
transitions from colour to white signals.
· The brightness control is obtained by inserting a variable pulse in the luminance channel. Therefore the ratio of
brightness variation and signal amplitude at the three outputs will be identical and independent of the difference in gain
of the three channels. Thus discolouring due to adjustment of contrast and brightness is avoided.
· Improved suppression of the internal RGB signals when the device is switched to external signals, and vice versa.
· Non-synchronized external RGB signals do not disturb the black level of the internal signals.
· Improved suppression of the residual 4,4 MHz signal in the RGB output stages.
· Cascoded stages in the demodulators and burst phase detector minimize the radiation of the colour demodulator
inputs.
· High current capability of the RGB outputs and the chrominance output.


The function is described against the corresponding pin
number.
1. + 12 V power supply
The circuit gives good operation in a supply voltage range
between 8 and 13,2 V provided that the supply voltage for
the controls is equal to the supply voltage for the
TDA3561A. All signal and control levels have a linear
dependency on the supply voltage. The current taken by
the device at 12 V is typically 85 mA. It is linearly
dependent on the supply voltage.
2. Control voltage for identification
This pin requires a detection capacitor of about 330 nF for
correct operation. The voltages available under various
signal conditions are given in the specification.
3. Chrominance input
The chroma signal must be a.c.-coupled to the input.
Its amplitude must be between 55 mV and 1100 mV
peak-to-peak (25 mV to 500 mV peak-to-peak burst
signal). All figures for the chroma signals are based on a
colour bar signal with 75% saturation, that is the
burst-to-chroma ratio of the input signal is 1 : 2,25.
4. Reference voltage A.C.C. detector
This pin must be decoupled by a capacitor of about 330
nF. The voltage at this pin is 4,9 V.
5. Control voltage A.C.C.
The A.C.C. is obtained by synchronous detection of the
burst signal followed by a peak detector. A good noise
immunity is obtained in this way and an increase of the
colour for weak input signals is prevented. The
recommended capacitor value at this pin is 2,2 mF.
6. Saturation control
The saturation control range is in excess of 50 dB.
The control voltage range is 2 to 4 V. Saturation control is
a linear function of the control voltage.
When the colour killer is active, the saturation control
voltage is reduced to a low level if the resistance of the
external saturation control network is sufficiently high.
Then the chroma amplifier supplies no signal to the
demodulator. Colour switch-on can be delayed by proper
choice of the time constant for the saturation control
setting circuit.
When the saturation control pin is connected to the power
supply the colour killer circuit is overruled so that the colour
signal is visible on the screen. In this way it is possible to
adjust the oscillator frequency without using a frequency
counter (see also pins 25 and 26).
7. Contrast control
The contrast control range is 20 dB for a control voltage
change from + 2 to + 4 V. Contrast control is a linear
function of the control voltage. The output signal is
suppressed when the control voltage is 1 V or less. If one
or more output signals surpasses the level of 9 V the peak
white limiter circuit becomes active and reduces the output
signals via the contrast control by discharging C2 via an
internal current sink.
8. Sandcastle and field blanking input
The output signals are blanked if the amplitude of the input
pulse is between 2 and 6,5 V. The burst gate and clamping
circuits are activated if the input pulse exceeds a level of
7,5 V.
The higher part of the sandcastle pulse should start just
after the sync pulse to prevent clamping of video signal on
the sync pulse. The width should be about 4 ms for proper
A.C.C. operation.
9. Video-data switching
The insertion circuit is activated by means of this input by
an input pulse between 1 V and 2 V. In that condition, the
internal RGB signals are switched off and the inserted
signals are supplied to the output amplifiers. If only normal
operation is wanted this pin should be connected to the
negative supply. The switching times are very short
(< 20 ns) to avoid coloured edges of the inserted signals
on the screen.
10. Luminance signal input
The input signal should have a peak-to-peak amplitude of
0,45 V (peak white to sync) to obtain a black-white output
signal to 5 V at nominal contrast. It must be a.c.-coupled to
the input by a capacitor of about 22 nF. The signal is
clamped at the input to an internal reference voltage.
A 1 kW luminance delay line can be applied because the
luminance input impedance is made very high.
Consequently the charging and discharging currents of the
coupling capacitor are very small and do not influence the
signal level at the input noticeably. Additionally the
coupling capacitor value may be small.

11. Brightness control
The black level of the RGB outputs can be set by the
voltage on this pin (see Fig.5). The black level can be set
higher than 4 V however the available output signal
amplitude is reduced (see pin 7). Brightness control also
operates on the black level of the inserted signals.
12, 14, 16. RGB outputs
The output circuits for red, green and blue are identical.
Output signals are 5,25 V (R, G and B) at nominal input
signals and control settings. The black levels of the three
outputs have the same value. The blanking level at the
outputs is 2,1 V. The peak white level is limited to 9,3 V.
When this level exceeded the output signal amplitude is
reduced via the contrast control (see pin 7).
13, 15, 17. Inputs for external RGB signals
The external signals must be a.c.-coupled to the inputs via
a coupling capacitor of about 100 nF. Source impedance
should not exceed 150 W. The input signal required for
a 5 V peak-to-peak output signal is 1 V peak-to-peak.
At the RGB outputs the black level of the inserted signal is
identical to that of normal RGB signals. When these inputs
are not used the coupling capacitors have to be connected
to the negative supply.
18, 19, 20. Black level clamp capacitors
The black level clamp capacitors for the three channels are
connected to these pins. The value of each capacitor
should be about 100 nF.
21, 22. Inputs (B-Y) and (R-Y) demodulators
The input signal is automatically fixed to the required level
by means of the burst phase detector and A.C.C.
generator which are connected to pin 21 and pin 22. As the
burst (applied differentially to those pins) is kept constant
by the A.C.C., the colour difference signals automatically
have the correct value.
23, 24. Burst phase detect
or outputs
At these pins the output of the burst phase detector is
filtered and controls the reference oscillator. An adequate
catching range is obtained with the time constants given in
the application circuit (see Fig.6).
25, 26. Reference oscillator
The frequency of the oscillator is adjusted by the variable
capacitor C1. For frequency adjustment interconnect pin
21 and pin 22. The frequency can be measured by
connecting a suitable frequency counter to pin 25.
28. Output of the chroma amplifier
Both burst and chroma signals are available at the output.
The burst-to-chroma ratio at the output is identical to that
at the input for nominal control settings. The burst signal is
not affected by the controls. The amplitude of the input
signal to the demodulator is kept constant by the A.C.C.
Therefore the output signal at pin 28 will depend on the
signal loss in the delay line.


PHONOLA (PHILIPS)  59KS6509 /08R  CHASSIS K40 PHILIPS RC-5 System and Command Codes:

While the protocol is well known and understood, what is not so well documented are the system number allocations and the actual RC-5 commands used for each system. The information provided below is the most complete and accurate information available at this time. It is from a printed document from Philips dated December 1992 that is unfortunately not available in electronic format (e.g., PDF), nor is an updated version available. This information is provided so that companies that wish to use the RC-5 protocol can use it properly, and avoid conflicts with other equipment that may or may not be using the correct system numbers and commands.

This code has an instruction set of 2048 different instructions and is divided into 32 address
of each 64 instructions. Every kind of equipment use his own address,
so this makes it possible to change the volume of the TV without change the volume of the hifi.
The transmitted code is a dataword wich consists of 14 bits and is defined as:


2 startbits for the automatic gain control in the infrared receiver.
1 toggle bit (change everytime when a new button is pressed on the ir transmitter)
5 address bits for the systemaddress
6 instructionbits for the pressed key.













The Philips RC5 IR transmission protocol uses Manchester encoding of the message bits. Each pulse burst (mark – RC transmitter ON) is 889us in length, at a carrier frequency of 36kHz (27.7us). Logical bits are transmitted as follows:
  • Logical '0' – an 889us pulse burst followed by an 889us space, with a total transmit time of 1.778ms
  • Logical '1' – an 889us space followed by an 889us pulse burst, with a total transmit time of 1.778ms

The pulse/pause ratio of the 36kHz carrier frequency is 1/3 or 1/4, which reduces power consumption.

When a key is pressed on the remote controller, the message frame transmitted consists of the following 14 bits, in order:
  • two Start bits (S1 and S2), both logical '1'.
  • a Toggle bit (T). This bit is inverted each time a key is released and pressed again.
  • the 5-bit address for the receiving device
  • the 6-bit command.

The address and command bits are each sent most significant bit first. Figure 1 illustrates the format of a Philips RC5 IR transmission frame, for an address of 05h (00101b) and a command of 35h (110101b).



Figure 1. Example message frame using the Philips RC5 IR transmission protocol.
From Figure 1 we can see that it takes:
  • 5.334ms to transmit the Start and Toggle bits (S1, S2 and T). Notice that, as the first half-bit of S1 is a space, the receiver will only notice the real start of the message frame after 889us.
  • 8.89ms to transmit the 5 bits for the address
  • 10.668ms to transmit the 6 bits for the command
  • 24.892ms to fully transmit the actual message frame.
The Toggle bit (T) is used by the receiver to distinguish weather the key has been pressed repeatedly, or weather it is being held depressed. As long as the key on the remote controller is kept depressed, the message frame will be repeated every 114ms. The Toggle bit will retain the same logic level during all of these repeated message frames. It is up to the receiver software to interpret this auto-repeat feature of the protocol.



Synchronization With TDA3576B.12V 70mA sync combination with transmitter identification and vertical 625 divider system

- Audio amplifier Unit.

- Power supply on the bottom of the cabinet (SOPS Supply).




PHONOLA (PHILIPS) 59KS6509 /08R CHASSIS K40 Switched-mode self oscillating supply voltage circuit:POWER SUPPLY (SOPS - Self Oscillating Power Supply)

A switched-mode self-oscillating supply voltage circuit for converting an input voltage into an output d.c. voltage which is substantially independent of variations of the input voltage and/or a load connected to the output voltage. The circuit comprises a first controllable switch connected in series with a transformer winding and a second controllable switch for turning-off the first switch. The conduction period of the first switch is controlled by means of a control voltage present on a control electrode of the second switch. The circuit can be switched-over to a stand-up state in which the energy supplied to the load is reduced to zero. A starting network is connected between the input voltage and the second switch so that the current therein flows through the second switch during the period of time this switch conducts and does not flow to the control electode of the first switch in the stand-by state.

1. A switched-mode self-oscillating supply voltage circuit for converting an input voltage into an output d.c. voltage which is substantially independent of variations of the input voltage and/or of a load connected to the terminals of the output voltage, comprising a transformer having a primary and a feedback winding, a first controllable switch connected in series with the primary winding, the series arrangement thus formed being coupled between terminals for the input voltage, a second controllable switch coupled via a turn-off capacitor to the control electrode of the first switch to turn it off, means coupling the feedback winding to said control electrode, a transformer winding being coupled via a rectifier to an output capacitor having terminals which supply the output voltage, an output voltage-dependent control voltage being present on a control electrode of the second switch for controlling the conduction period of the first switch, the circuit being switchable between an operating state and a stand-by state in which relative to the operating state the supply energy supplied to the load is considerably reduced, a starting network connected to a terminal for the input voltage, means for adjusting the control voltage in the stand-by state to a value at which the first controllable switch is cut-off, a connection which carries current during the conduction period for the second controllable switch being provided between the starting network and said second switch, and means providing a connection between the starting network and the control electrode of the first switch, which connection does not carry current in the stand-by state.

2. A supply voltage circuit as claimed in claim 1, further comprising a resistor included between the connection of the starting network to the second switch and a turn-off capacitor present in the connection to the control electrode of the first switch.

3. A supply voltage circuit as claimed in claim 2, characterized in that the second controllable switch comprises a thyristor having a main current path included in the control electrode connection of the first controllable switch, said thyristor having a first control gate electrode for adjusting the turn-off instant of the first switch and a second control electrode to which the starting network and the resistor are connected.

4. A supply voltage circuit as claimed in claim 1, characterized in that a resistor is included in the connection to the control electrode of the second controllable switch so that a current flows through said resistor in the stand-by state of a value sufficient to cut-off the first controllable switch.

Description:
The invention relates to a switched-mode self-oscillating supply voltage circuit for converting an input voltage into an output d.c. voltage which is substantially independent of variations of the input voltage and/or of a load connected to the terminals of the output voltage. This circuit comprises a transformer having a primary and a feedback winding and a first controllable switch arranged in series with the primary winding. The series arrangement thus formed is coupled between the terminals of the input voltage. A second controllable switch which is coupled via a turnoff capacitor to the control electrode of the first switch to turn it off. The feedback winding is coupled to this control electrode and the primary winding is coupled via a rectifier to an output capacitor the terminals of which are the terminals for the output voltage. An output voltage-dependent control voltage is present on a control electrode of the second switch for controlling the conduction period of the first switch. The circuit is switchable between an operating state and a stand-by state in which relative to the operating state the energy supplied to the load is considerably reduced, and the circuit further comprises a starting network connected to a terminal for the input voltage.
Such a supply voltage circuit is disclosed in German Patent Application No. 2,651,196. With this prior art circuit supply energy can be applied in the operating state to the different portions of a television receiver. In the stand-by state the majority of the output voltages of the circuit are so low that the receiver is substantially in the switched-off condition. In the prior art circuit the starting network is formed by a resistor connected to the unstabilized input voltage and through which on turn-on of the circuit a current flows via the feedback winding to the control electrode of the first controllable switch, which is a switching transistor, and brings it to and maintains it in the conductive state, as a result of which the circuit can start.
In the stand-by state the transistor is non-conducting in a large part of the period of the generated oscillation so that little energy is stored in the transformer. However, the starting resistor is connected via a diode to the second controllable switch, which is a thyristor. As the sum of the voltages across these elements is higher than the base-emitter threshold voltage of the transistor, the diode and the thyristor cannot simultaneously carry current. This implies that current flows through the starting resistor to the base of the transistor via the feedback winding after a capacitor connected to the feedback winding has been charged.
The invention has for its object to provide an improved circuit of the same type in which in the stand-by state the supply energy applied to the load is reduced to zero. The prior art circuit cannot be improved in this respect without the use of mechanical switches, for example relays. According to the invention, the switched-mode self-oscillating supply voltage circuit does not comprise such relays and is characterized in that it further comprises means for adjusting the control voltage in the stand-by state to a value at which the first controllable switch is cut-off. A connection which carries current during the conduction period of the second controllable switch is provided between the starting network and said second switch while a connection present between the starting network and the control electrode of the first switch does not carry current in the stand-by state.
The invention is based on the recognition that the prior art supply voltage circuit cannot oscillate, so that the energy supplied by it is zero, if the control voltage obtains a value as referred to, while the starting network is connected in such a manner that in the stand-by state no current can flow through it to the control electrode of the first controllable switch.
It should be noted that in the said German Patent Application the starting network is in the form of a resistor which is connected to an unstabilized input d.c. voltage. It is, however, known, for example, from German Patent Specification No. 2,417,628 to employ for this purpose a rectifier network connected to an a.c. voltage from which the said input d.c. voltage is derived by rectification.


The invention will now be further described by way of example with reference to the accompanying drawing, which shows a basic circuit diagram of a switched-mode self-oscillating supply voltage circuit.


The self-oscillating supply circuit shown in the FIGURE comprises a npn-switching transistor Tr1 having its collector connected to the primary winding L1 of a transformer T, while the emitter is connected to ground via a small resistor R1, for example 1.5 Ohm. Resistor R1 is decoupled for the high frequencies by means of a 150 nF capacitor C1. One end of winding L1 is connected to a conductor which carries an unstabilized input d.c. voltage V B of, for example, 300 V. Voltage V B has a negative rail connected to ground and is derived from the electric power supply by rectification. One end of a feedback winding L2 is connected to the base of transistor Tr1 via the parallel arrangement of a small inductance L3 and a damping resistor R2. A terminal of a 47 μF capacitor C2 is connected to the junction of the elements L2, L3 and R2. The series arrangement of a diode D1 and a 2.2 Ohm-limiting resistor R3 is arranged between the other terminal of capacitor C2 and the other end of winding L2 and the series arrangement of a resistor R4 of 12 Ohm and a diode D2 is arranged between the same end of winding L2 and the emitter of transistor Tr1. A 150 nF capacitor C3 is connected in parallel with diode D2. The anode of diode D1 is connected to that end of winding L2 which is not connected to capacitor C2, while the anode of diode D2 is connected to the emitter of transistor Tr1. In the FIGURE the winding sense of windings L1 and L2 is indicated by means of dots.
The junction of capacitor C2 and resistor R3 is connected to a 100 Ohm resistor R5 and to the emitter of a pnp-transistor Tr2. The base of transistor Tr2 is connected to the other terminal of resistor R5 and to the collector of an npn-transistor Tr3, whose emitter is connected to ground. The base of Tr3 is connected to the collector of transistor Tr2. Transistors Tr2 and Tr3 form an artificial thyristor, i.e. a controllable diode whose anode is the emitter of transistor Tr2 while the cathode is the emitter of transistor Tr3. The base of transistor Tr2 is the anode gate and the base of transistor Tr3 is the cathode gate of the thyristor formed. Between the last-mentioned base and the emitter of transistor Tr1 there is arranged the series network of a 2.2 kOhm resistor R6 with the parallel arrangement of a 2.2 kOhm resistor R7 and a 100 μF capacitor C4. The series arrangement of a diode D11 and a 220 Ohm limiting resistor R19 is arranged between the junction of components R6, R7 and C4 and the junction of components C2, L2, R2 and L3. The cathode of diode D11 is connected to capacitor C2.
Because of the feedback the described circuit oscillates independently as soon as the steady state is achieved. It will be described hereinafter how this state is obtained. During the time transistor Tr1 conducts the current flowing through the resistor R1 increases linearly. The resistor R4 then partly determines the base current of transistor Tr1. Capacitor C4 and resistor R7 form a voltage source the voltage of which is subtracted from the voltage drop across resistor R1. As soon as the voltage on the base of transistor Tr3 is equal to approximately 0.7 V this transistor becomes conductive, as a result of which the thyristor formed by transistors Tr2 and Tr3 becomes rapidly conductive and remains so. Across capacitor C2 there is a negative voltage by means of which transistor Tr1 is turned off. The inverse base current thereof flows through thyristor Tr2, Tr3. This causes charge to be withdrawn from capacitor C2, while the charge carriers stored in transistor Tr1 are removed with the aid of inductance L3. As soon as the collector current of transistor Tr1 has been turned off, the voltage across winding L2 reverses its polarity, which current recharges the capacitor. Now the voltage at the junction of components C2, R3 and R5 is negative, causing thyristor Tr2, Tr3 to extinguish.
Secondary windings L4, L5 and L6 are provided on the core of transformer T with the indicated winding senses. When transistor Tr1 is turned off, a current which recharges a smoothing capacitor C5, C6 or C7 via a rectifier D3, D4 or D5 flows through each of these windings. The voltages across these capacitors are the output voltages of the supply circuit for loads connectable thereto. These loads, which are not shown in the FIGURE, are, for example, portions of a television receiver.
In parallel with winding L1 there is the series network of a 2.2 nF tuning capacitor C8 and a 100 Ohm limiting resistor R8. The anode of a diode D6 is connected to the junction of components R8 and C8, while the cathode is connected to the other terminal of resistor R8. Winding L1 and capacitor C8 form a resonant circuit across which an oscillation is produced after windings L4, L5 and L6 have become currentless. At a later instant the current through circuit L1, C8 reverses its direction. As a result thereof a current is generated in winding L2 which flows via diode D2 and resistor R4 to the base of transistor Tr1 and makes this transistor conductive and maintains it in this state. The dissipation in resistor R8 is reduced by means of diode D6. A clamping network formed by the parallel arrangement of a 22 kOhm resistor R9 and a 120 nF capacitor C9 is arranged in series with a diode D7. This whole assembly is in parallel with winding L1 and cuts-off parasitic oscillations which would be produced during the period of time in which transistor Tr1 is non-conductive. The output voltages of the supply circuit are kept substantially constant in spite of variations of voltage V B and/or the loads, thanks to a control of the turning-on instant of thyrisistor Tr2, Tr3. For this purpose the emitter of a light-sensitive transistor Tr4 is connected to the base of transistor Tr3. The collector of transistor Tr4 is connected via a resistor R10 to the conductor which carries the voltage V B and to a Zener diode Z1 which has a positive voltage of approximately 7.5 V, while the base is unconnected. The other end of diode Z1 is connected to ground. A light-emitting diode D8, whose cathode is connected to the collector of an npn-transistor Tr5, is optically coupled to transistor Tr4. By means of a potentiometer R11 the base of transistor Tr5 can be adjusted to a d.c. voltage which is derived from the voltage V 0 of approximately 130 V across capacitor C6. The anode of diode D8 is connected to a d.c. voltage V 1 of approximately 13 V. A resistor R12 is also connected to voltage V 1 , the other end of the resistor being connected to the emitter of transistor Tr5, to the cathode of a Zener diode Z2 which has a voltage of approximately 7.5 V and to a smoothing capacitor C10. The other ends of diode Z2 and capacitor C10 are connected to ground. Voltage V1 can be generated by means of a transformer connected to the electric AC supply and a rectifier, which are not shown for the sake of simplicity, more specifically for a remote control to which constantly supply energy is always applied, even when the majority of the components of the receiver in what is referred to as the stand-by state are not supplied with supply energy.
A portion of voltage V 0 is compared with the voltage of diode Z2 by means of transistor Tr5. The measured difference determines the collector current of transistor Tr5 and consequently the emitter current of transistor Tr4. This emitter current produces across resistor R6 a voltage drop whose polarity is the opposite of the polarity of the voltage source formed by resistor R7 and capacitor C4. Under the influence of this voltage drop the turn-on instant of thyristor Tr2, Tr3 is controlled as a function of voltage V 0 . If, for example, voltage V 0 tends to decrease owing to an increasing load thereon and/or in response to a decrease in voltage V B , then the collector current of transistor Tr5 decreases and consequently also the said voltage drop. Thyristor Tr2, Tr3 is turned on at a later instant than would otherwise be the case, causing transistor Tr1 to be cut-off at a later instant. The final value of the collector current of this transistor is consequently higher. Consequently, the ratio of the time interval in which transistor Tr1 is conductive to the entire period, commonly referred to as the duty cycle, increases, while the frequency decreases.
The circuit is protected from overvoltage. This is ensured by a thyristor which is formed by a pnp-transistor Tr6 and an npn-transistor Tr7. The anode of a diode D9 is connected to the junction of components R3 and C2 and the cathode to the base of transistor Tr6 and to the collector of transistor Tr7. The base of transistor Tr7, which base is connected to the collector of transistor Tr6, is connected via a zener diode Z3 to a voltage which, by means of a potentiometer R13 is adjusted to a value derived from the voltage across capacitor C7. The emitter of transistor Tr6 also is connected to the voltage of capacitor C7, more specifically via a resistor R14 and a diode D10. If this voltage increases to above a predetermined value then thyristor Tr6, Tr7 becomes conductive. Since the emitter of transistor Tr7 is connected to ground, the voltage at its collector becomes very low, as a result of which diode D9 becomes conductive, which keeps transistor Tr1 in the non-conducting state. This situation is maintained as long as thyristor Tr6, Tr7 continues to conduct. This conduction time is predominantly determined by the values of capacitor C7, resistor R14 and a resistor R15 connected between the base and the emitter of transistor Tr6. A thyristor is advantageously used here to render it possible to switch off a large current even with a low level signal and to obtain the required hysteresis.
The circuit comprises a 1 MOhm starting resistor R16, one end of which is connected to the base of transistor Tr2 and the other end to the conductor which carries the voltage V B . Upon turn-on of the circuit current flows through resistors R16 and R5 and through capacitor C2, which has as yet no charge, to the base of transistor Tr1. The voltage drop thus produced across resistor R5 keeps transistor Tr2, and consequently also transistor Tr3, in the non-conductive state, while transistor Tr1 is made conductive and is maintained so by this current. Current also flows through winding L2. In this manner the circuit can start as energy is built up in transformer T.
The supply circuit can be brought into the stand-by state by making an npn-transistor Tr8, which is non-conductive in the operating state, conductive. The emitter of transistor Tr8 is connected to ground while the collector is connected to the collector of transistor Tr5 via a 1.8 kOhm resistor R17. A resistor R18 has one end connected to the base of transistor Tr8 and the other end, either in the operating state to ground, or in the stand-by state to a positive voltage of, for example, 5 V. Transistor Tr8 conducts in response to this voltage. An additional, large current flows through diode D8 and consequently also through transistor Tr4, resulting in thyristor Tr2, Tr3 being made conductive and transistor Tr1 being made non-conductive and maintained so. So to all appearances a large control current is obtained causing the duty cycle to be reduced to zero. A condition for a correct operation is that the emitter current of transistor Tr4 be sufficiently large in all circumstances, which implies that the voltage drop produced across resistor R6 by this current is always higher than the sum of the voltage across voltage source R7, C4, of the base-emitter threshold voltage of transistor Tr3 in the conductive state thereof, and of the voltage at the emitter of transistor Tr1. So the said voltage drop must be higher than the sum of the first two voltages, which corresponds to the worst dimensioning case in which the stand-by state is initiated while transistor Tr1 is in the non-conductive state.
If thyristor Tr2, Tr3 conducts, either in the operating state or in the stand-by state, current flows through resistor R16 via the collector emitter path of transistor Tr3 to ground. This current is too small to have any appreciable influence on the behaviour of the circuit. When thyristor Tr2, Tr3 does not conduct, the voltage on the left hand terminal of capacitor C2 is equal to approximately 1 V, while the voltage across the capacitor is approximately -4 V. So transistor Tr1 remains in the non-conductive state and a premature turn-on thereof cannot occur. If in the operating state transistor Tr1 conducts while thyristor Tr2, Tr3 is cut-off, then the current flows through resistor R16 in the same manner as it flows during the start to the base of transistor Tr1, but has relatively little influence as the base current caused by the energy stored in winding L2 is many times larger. If both transistor Tr1 and thyristor Tr2, Tr3 are non-conductive, then the current through resistor R16 flows through components R5, C2, L2, R4, C3 and R1. In this stand-by state capacitor C2 has indeed substantially no negative charge any longer but, in spite thereof, transistor Tr1 cannot become conductive since no current flows to its base. It will furthermore be noted that the circuit is protected in the event that thyristor Tr2, Tr3 has an interruption. Namely, in such a case the circuit cannot start.
In the foregoing a circuit is described which may be considered to be a switched-mode supply voltage circuit of the parallel ("flyback") type. It will be obvious that the invention may alternatively be used in supply voltage circuits of a different type, for example converters of the type commonly referred to as up-converters. It will also be obvious that transistor Tr1 may be replaced by an equivalent switch, for example a gate-turn-off switch.


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