Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

In Brief: On this site you will find pictures and information about some of the electronic, electrical and electrotechnical technology relics that the Frank Sharp Private museum has accumulated over the years .

Premise: There are lots of vintage electrical and electronic items that have not survived well or even completely disappeared and forgotten.

Or are not being collected nowadays in proportion to their significance or prevalence in their heyday, this is bad and the main part of the death land. The heavy, ugly sarcophagus; models with few endearing qualities, devices that have some over-riding disadvantage to ownership such as heavy weight,toxicity or inflated value when dismantled, tend to be under-represented by all but the most comprehensive collections and museums. They get relegated to the bottom of the wants list, derided as 'more trouble than they are worth', or just forgotten entirely. As a result, I started to notice gaps in the current representation of the history of electronic and electrical technology to the interested member of the public.


Following this idea around a bit, convinced me that a collection of the peculiar alone could not hope to survive on its own merits, but a museum that gave equal display space to the popular and the unpopular, would bring things to the attention of the average person that he has previously passed by or been shielded from. It's a matter of culture. From this, the Obsolete Technology Tellye Web Museum concept developed and all my other things too. It's an open platform for all electrical Electronic TV technology to have its few, but NOT last, moments of fame in a working, hand-on environment. We'll never own Colossus or Faraday's first transformer, but I can show things that you can't see at the Science Museum, and let you play with things that the Smithsonian can't allow people to touch, because my remit is different.

There was a society once that was the polar opposite of our disposable, junk society. A whole nation was built on the idea of placing quality before quantity in all things. The goal was not “more and newer,” but “better and higher" .This attitude was reflected not only in the manufacturing of material goods, but also in the realms of art and architecture, as well as in the social fabric of everyday life. The goal was for each new cohort of children to stand on a higher level than the preceding cohort: they were to be healthier, stronger, more intelligent, and more vibrant in every way.

The society that prioritized human, social and material quality is a Winner. Truly, it is the high point of all Western civilization. Consequently, its defeat meant the defeat of civilization itself.

Today, the West is headed for the abyss. For the ultimate fate of our disposable society is for that society itself to be disposed of. And this will happen sooner, rather than later.

OLD, but ORIGINAL, Well made, Funny, Not remotely controlled............. and not Made in CHINA.

How to use the site:

- If you landed here via any Search Engine, you will get what you searched for and you can search more using the search this blog feature provided by Google. You can visit more posts scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year,
or you can click on the main photo-page to start from the main page. Doing so it starts from the most recent post to the older post simple clicking on the Older Post button on the bottom of each page after reading , post after post.

You can even visit all posts, time to time, when reaching the bottom end of each page and click on the Older Post button.

- If you arrived here at the main page via bookmark you can visit all the site scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year pointing were you want , or more simple You can even visit all blog posts, from newer to older, clicking at the end of each bottom page on the Older Post button.
So you can see all the blog/site content surfing all pages in it.

- The search this blog feature provided by Google is a real search engine. If you're pointing particular things it will search IT for you; or you can place a brand name in the search query at your choice and visit all results page by page. It's useful since the content of the site is very large.

Note that if you don't find what you searched for, try it after a period of time; the site is a never ending job !

Every CRT Television saved let revive knowledge, thoughts, moments of the past life which will never return again.........

Many contemporary "televisions" (more correctly named as displays) would not have this level of staying power, many would ware out or require major services within just five years or less and of course, there is that perennial bug bear of planned obsolescence where components are deliberately designed to fail and, or manufactured with limited edition specificities..... and without considering........picture......sound........quality........

..............The bitterness of poor quality is remembered long after the sweetness of todays funny gadgets low price has faded from memory........ . . . . . .....
Don't forget the past, the end of the world is upon us! Pretty soon it will all turn to dust!

Have big FUN ! !
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©2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 Frank Sharp - You do not have permission to copy photos and words from this blog, and any content may be never used it for auctions or commercial purposes, however feel free to post anything you see here with a courtesy link back, btw a link to the original post here , is mandatory.
All sets and apparates appearing here are property of
Engineer Frank Sharp. NOTHING HERE IS FOR SALE !

Saturday, August 4, 2012

INDESIT TC 22" SIM CHASSIS C 20AX VV025C INTERNAL VIEW.














































INDESIT TC 22" SIM CHASSIS VV025C 20AX THYRISTORS LINE DEFLECTION CIRCUIT CASE STUDY (Thyristor Horizontal Output Circuits)




INDESIT TC 22" SIM  CHASSIS  C 20AX VV025C  Deflection Supply circuit:

 A D.C. supply circuit for a television receiver which has a load circuit including at least one controllable semiconductor switch, the supply circuit comprising means for rectifying an alternating mains supply, a smoothing circuit connected between the rectifying means and load circuit and delay means for delaying the application of the full rectified and smoothed voltage to the load circuit when the receiver is initially turned on, wherein the delay means include means for inhibiting a certain number of cycles of the rectified A.C. voltage from being applied to the said smoothing means, so as to provide a D.C. voltage in which the number of cycles inhibited from reaching the smoothing means determines the delay with which the said D.C. voltage reaches the full value at the load circuit.

1. A D.C. supply circuit for a television receiver which has a load circuit, the supply circuit comprising rectifying means for rectifying an alternating mains supply, a smoothing circuit connected between the rectifying means and the load circuit of the television receiver, and delay means for delaying the application of the maximum voltage from the supply circuit to the load circuit when the receiver is initially turned on even if the receiver has just previously been turned on and then off, and said delay means comprising inhibiting means for inhibiting at least a portion of a certain number of cycles of the voltage from the supply circuit from being applied to said smoothing circuit so as to provide a D.C. voltage in which the number of cycles having portions inhibited from reaching the smoothing circuit determines the length of delay period provided before the said D.C. voltage reaches its maximum value at the load circuit.

2. A supply circuit as claimed in claim 1, in which said inhibiting means operates in a periodic fashion during a time interval corresponding to the required delay, said inhibiting means comprising a network of circuits with a preset time constant for determining said time interval.

3. A supply circuit as claimed in claim 2, in which the means for inhibiting includes a semiconductor device.

4. A supply circuit as claimed in claim 3, in which said semiconductor device is an electronic switch.

5. A supply circuit as claimed in claim 4, in which said electronic switch has a control terminal.

6. A supply circuit as claimed in claim 5, in which said electronic switch comprises a thyristor.

7. A supply circuit as claimed in claim 6, in which said thyristor is connected between the output of said rectifying means and the input of the load circuit.

8. A supply circuit as claimed in claim 7, in which clamping means are provided between the output of said rectifying means and the control terminal of the thyristor.

9. A supply circuit as claimed in claim 8, in which the control terminal of the thyristor receives a signal depending on the voltage at the terminals of said clamping means and the value of the D.C. voltage supplied to the load circuit.

10. A supply circuit as claimed in claim 8, in which said clamping means include a diode and capacitor.

11. A supply circuit as claimed in claim 8, in which said clamping means has no effect on circuit operation once the required delay has been achieved.

12. A supply circuit as claimed in claim 1, in which a circuit is provided for overload protection, which circuit cuts off current to the load circuit whenever the current supplied exceeds a preset threshold.

13. A D.C. supply circuit as claimed in claim 1, wherein said inhibiting means comprises a capacitor.

14. A D.C. supply circuit as claimed in claim 13, wherein said inhibiting means further comprises discharge means for quickly discharging said capacitor after the receiver has been turned off.

15. A D.C. supply circuit as claimed in claim 14, wherein said discharge means comprises a resistor coupled to said capacitor and adapted to be coupled to the load.

16. A supply circuit for supplying voltage to a load from A.C. power mains, said circuit comprising a controlled switch adapted to be coupled between the A.C. power mains and the load, and delay means for delaying the application of the maximum voltage to the load even if the supply circuit has just previously been turned on and then off, and said delay means comprising inhibiting means for controlling said controlled switch to inhibit at least a portion of a certain number of cycles of the A.C. power mains voltage from providing voltage to the load, said inhibited portions becoming successively shorter in time after said supply circuit is turned on, said certain number of cycles determining the delay until the load voltage reaches its maximum value.

Description:

The present invention relates to a D.C. supply circuit for a television receiver which has a load circuit including at least one controllable semiconductor switch, such as a thyristor, the supply circuit comprising means for rectifying an alternating mains supply, a smoothing circuit connected between the rectifying means and the load circuit and delay means for delaying the application of the full rectified and smoothed voltage to the load circuit when the receiver is initially turned on.

In circuits of this type, this delay is required to prevent the D.C. supply and pilot voltages from being applied simultaneously to the output and thyristor control terminals respectively when the television receiver is turned on. Without this delay, parasitic oscillations would be produced which, in the case of a circuit forming part of a television horizontal deflection circuit containing a large number of resonant circuits, would be serious enough to produce overvoltages capable of causing break-down the semiconductor.

One known way of providing this delay is to include in the circuit components whose characteristics vary according to temperature and, consequently, the current flowing through them. These components, whether PTC (positive temperature coefficient) or NTC (negative temperature coefficient), are connected so that, initially, they absorb most of the voltage directed to the thyristor output terminal, after which, the current flowing through them causes them to heat up and be cut out of the circuit.

One drawback of this type of circuit, however, is that it takes a long time for the initial operating condition to be restored (receiver off). This means that if the operator turns the receiver off and on in the space of a few minutes, there is a risk of damaging the thyristor in that the delay circuit has not yet returned to its initial condition. In fact, as long as the PTC or NTC is warm, the delay circuit does not work.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

With a view to mitigating the disadvantages encountered with the known circuits, the present invention provides a D.C. supply circuit for a television receiver which has a load circuit including at least one controllable semiconductor switch, the supply circuit comprising means for rectifying an alternating mains supply, a smoothing circuit connected between the rectifying means and load circuit and delay means for delaying the application of the full rectified and smoothed voltage to the load circuit when the receiver is initially turned on, wherein the delay means include means for inhibiting a certain number of cycles of the rectified A.C. voltage from being applied to the said smoothing means, so as to provide a D.C. voltage in which the number of cycles prevented from reaching the smoothing means determines the delay with which the said D.C. voltage reaches the full value at the load circuit.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES

The invention will now be described, by way of a non-limiting example, with reference to the attached drawings, in which:

FIG. 1 shows one possible application of the supply circuit embodying the principles of the present invention;

FIG. 2 shows the voltage curves, not to scale, at main points on the FIG. 1 circuit.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

Numerals 1 and 2 in FIG. 1 are used to designate two input terminals of the supply circuit which are intended for connection to the mains supply. Numeral 3 represents a current-limiting resistor connected between terminal 1 and one input of a full wave diode bridge rectifier formed of diodes 4, 5, 6 and 7. A filter capacitor 8, is connected between one D.C. output terminal of the diode bridge and the resistor 3 and a second capacitor 9 sharing the same function, is connected between the D.C. output of the bridge and input terminal 2. The output of the diode bridge is connected to the anode of thyristor 10 which has its cathode connected to ground by way of a smoothing capacitor 11 and its gate connected to the emitter of PNP transistor 12 which acts as protection. The collector of transistor 12 is connected to the cathode of thyristor 10. A diode 13 is also connected between the emitter and collector of transistor 12. The cathode of thyristor 10 is further connected, through a resistor 14, to a group of horizontal or line deflection circuits indicated schematically in the Figure by block 15, to the input of which a filter capacitor 16 is also connected.

To understand the description given below of how the circuit works, block 15 may be considered as providing a load equivalent to a 500 Ohm resistor.

The output of the diode bridge is also connected to the input of block 15 by way of a capacitor 17, resistor 18, a capacitor 19, a resistor 20 and a Zener diode 21, connected in series with one another.

A diode 22 and resistor 23 are also connected between the junction of capacitor 17 and resistor 18 and the input of block 15.

A capacitor 24 is connected between the cathode of diode 22 and ground.

A biasing resistor 25 is connected between the base of transistor 12 and the junction of capacitor 19 and resistor 20. A resistor 26 is connected in parallel with the capacitor 19.

Operation of the circuit will now be described with reference to the waveforms shown in FIG. 2 in which VC24 indicates the voltage curve at the terminals of condenser 24 and VC16 the voltage curve at the terminals of condenser C16 at corresponding times.

Under normal running conditions, the supply voltage from the mains supply is full wave rectified by diodes 4, 5, 6 and 7, and passes via the thyristor 10 be be smoothed by capacitors 11 and 16 and resistor 14, then applied to block 15. The thyristor 10 regulates the current supplied to block 15 and receives gating pulses via capacitor 17 and resistor 18, which introduce a suitable phase shift, and conducts in time with the conduction period of the bridge diodes 4 through 7.

The following are typical values of the components in the circuit of FIG. 1, given only by way of non-limiting example:
RATING TABLE
______________________________________
3 resistor 5.1 16 condenser 300 μF 4 diode 1N4007 17 condenser 470 nF 5 diode 1N4007 18 resistor 1.8 K 6 diode 1N4007 19 condenser 220 μF 7 diode 1N4007 20 resistor 8.2 K 8 condenser 1.5 nF 21 zener diode ZPY10 9 condenser 1.5 nF 22 diode 1N4007 10 thyristor F301 23 resistor 50 K 11 condenser 100 μF 24 condenser 8 μF 12 transistor BC307B 25 resistor 1K 13 diode BAV20 26 resistor 1.5 K 14 resistor 20
______________________________________

If the current delivered to the load 15 is too high, the voltage across the Zener diode 21 exceeds the threshold voltage and transistor 12 switches from the disabled to the saturated state. In this situation, thyristor 10 no longer receives the gating pulses and remains disabled as long as the overload condition persists. The function of diode 13 is to fix the voltage value at the terminals of transistor 12, during the period in which the thyristor is non-conductive, regardless of the parameters of thyristor 10.

Let is now consider how the circuit works when the receiver is first turned on. As capacitor 24 is discharged, the pulse current applied to resistor 18 and normally taken to trigger the thyristor 10 is instead used to charge the said capacitor 24. Consequently, the thyristor 10 only conducts when capacitor 24 is charged.

When this occurs, during the first rectified A.C. voltage cycle, the effect of the 2-3 μsec time constant created by capacitor 3, 8, 17 and 24 and resistor 3, connected in series, is that the voltage across the terminals of resistor 18 is sufficient to make thyristor 10 conduct. However, the moment thyristor 10 starts conducting, it charges capacitors 11 and 16 with a much higher voltage than that across the terminals of capacitor 24. The reason for this is that capacitor 24 was charged at only 1/16 of the peak value available at the terminals of capacitors 17 and 24, connected in series.

As the discharge time constant of capacitor 24 is approximately 1 second, the voltage at its terminals effectively remains fixed at the present value with the result that thyristor 10 is extinguished after the first half wave and is not fired again in that, in the meantime, the gate-cathode voltage has been inverted. The thyristor 10 remains disabled until its gate terminal once more receives a positive voltage, with respect to the cathode, sufficient to fire it. During the period in which the thyristor is disabled, capacitors 11 and 16 discharge partly through the load (block 15, roughly 500 Ohm equivalent resistance) and partly, through diodes 13 and 22 and resistor 18, to thereby charge capacitor 24 which rises to a new voltage value.

When the voltage across the terminals of capacitor 11 falls below the value that the capacitor 24 has been brought up to, thyristor 10 is fired once more to repeat the cycle. This time capacitors 11 and 16 are charged to a higher voltage than before since they were not fully discharged. As the voltage of capacitor 24 is higher than that set previously, in that during the period in which thyristor 10 is non-conductive, capacitor 24 is recharged through diodes 13 and 22 and resistor 18, the threshold at which thyristor 10 is restarted is also higher. This is repeated for a number of cycles. Each time, thyristor 10 is disabled for a shorter length of time as the voltage at the terminals of capacitor 24 gets closer to the nominal voltage capacitor 11 should have. When capacitor 24 reaches its own nominal voltage, which is higher than that of capacitor 11, thyristor 10 is no longer disabled and the circuit can be said to have reached its steady state operating condition. Capacitor 24 remains charged until the receiver is turned off. When this happens, the capacitor 24 discharges through resistor 23 and the load consisting of block 15. By means of careful selection of the rating of resistor 23, it is possible to regulate the time taken for the circuit to return to initial operating conditions after the receiver is turned off, so as to overcome the drawbacks mentioned previously in connection with the prior art circuit using temperature dependent components. In the circuit described, this time is roughly 400 ms.

FIG. 2 shows clearly the voltage curves at the terminals of capacitors 16 and 24. t1, t2, t3, t4 and t5 indicate the cycles, performed at various instants, by the circuit operating periodically.

The first cycle ranges from 0 to t1 and shows the above voltage curve during the first conduction-disabling cycle of thyristor 10. From t1 to t2 thyristor 10 performs another conduction-disabling cycle while the voltage across the terminals of capacitor 24 rises. This is repeated for a number of cycles until normal running (i.e. steady state condition) is reached. Each of these cycles is the same, the only difference being that the length of time thyristor 10 is disabled gets shorter as the voltage of capacitor 24 increases.


INDESIT TC26SIL CHASSIS VV025C 30AX INTEGRAL THYRISTOR-RECTIFIER DEVICE
A semiconductor switching device comprising a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) and a diode rectifier integrally connected in parallel with the SCR in a single semiconductor body. The device is of the NPNP or PNPN type, having gate, cathode, and anode electrodes. A portion of each intermediate N and P region makes ohmic contact to the respective anode or cathode electrode of the SCR. In addition, each intermediate region includes a highly conductive edge portion. These portions are spaced from the adjacent external regions by relatively low conductive portions, and limit the conduction of the diode rectifier to the periphery of the device. A profile of gold recombination centers further electrically isolates the central SCR portion from the peripheral diode portion.
That class of thyristors known as controlled rectifiers are semiconductor switches having four semiconducting regions of alternate conductivity and which employ anode, cathode, and gate electrodes. These devices are usually fabricated from silicon. In its normal state, the silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) is non-conductive until an appropriate voltage or current pulse is applied to the gate electrode, at which point current flows from the anode to the cathode and delivers power to a load circuit. If the SCR is reverse biased, it is non-conductive, and cannot be turned on by a gating signal. Once conduction starts, the gate loses control and current flows from the anode to the cathode until it drops below a certain value (called the holding current), at which point the SCR turns off and the gate electrode regains control. The SCR is thus a solid state device capable of performing the circuit function of a thyratron tube in many electronic applications. In some of these applications, such as in automobile ignition systems and horizontal deflection circuits in television receivers, it is necessary to connect a separate rectifier diode in parallel with the SCR. See, for example, W. Dietz, U. S. Pat. Nos. 3,452,244 and 3,449,623. In these applications, the anode of the rectifier diode is connected to the cathode of the SCR, and the cathode of the rectifier is connected to the SCR anode. Thus, the rectifier diode will be forward biased and current will flow through it when the SCR is reverse biased; i.e., when the SCR cathode is positive with respect to its anode. For reasons of economy and ease of handling, it would be preferable if the circuit function of the SCR and the associated diode rectifier could be combined in a single device, so that instead of requiring two devices and five electrical connections, one device and three electrical connections are all that would be necessary. In fact, because of the semiconductor profile employed, many SCR's of the shorted emitter variety inherently function as a diode rectifier when reverse biased. However, the diode rectifier function of such devices is not isolated from the controlled rectifier portion, thus preventing a rapid transition from one function to the other. Therefore, it would be desirable to physically and electrically isolate the diode rectifier portion from that portion of the device which functions as an SCR.





INDESIT TC 22" SIM CHASSIS VV025C 20AX LINE DEFLECTION WITH THYRISTOR SWITCH TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW.


Horizontal deflection circuit

(Thyristor Horizontalsteuerung UND ABLENKUNG)




























Description:



1. A horizontal deflection circuit for generating the deflection current in the deflection coil of a television picture tube wher
ein a first switch controls the horizontal sweep, and wherein a second switch in a so-called commutation circuit with a commutating inductor and a commutating capacitor opens the first switch and, in addition, controls the energy transfer from a dc voltage source to an input inductor, characterized in that the input inductor (Le) and the commutating inductor (Lk) are combined in a unit designed as a transformer (U) which is proportioned so that the open-circuit inductance of the transformer is essentially equal to the value of the input inductor (Le), while the short-circuit inductance of the transformer (U) is essentially equal to the value of the commutating inductor (Lk), and that the second switch (S2) is connected in series with the dc voltage source (UB) and a first winding (U1) of the transformer (U). 2. A horizontal deflection circuit according to claim 1, characterized in that the transformer (U) operates as an isolation transformer between the supply (UB) and the subcircuits connected to a second winding. 3. A horizontal deflection circuit according to claim 1, characterized in that the second switch (S2) is connected between ground and that terminal of the first winding (U1) of the transformer (U) not connected to the supply potential (+UB). 4. A horizontal deflection circuit according to claim 1, characterized in that a capacitor (CE) is connected across the series combination of the first winding (U1) of the transformer and the second switch (S2). 5. A horizontal deflection circuit according to claim 1, characterized in that the second winding (U2) of the transformer (U) is connected in series with a first switch (S1), the commutating capacitor (Ck), and a third, bipolar switch (S3) controllable as a function of the value of a controlled variable developed in the deflection circuit. 6. A horizontal deflection circuit according to claim 5, characterized in that the third switch (S3) is connected between ground and the second winding (U2) of the transformer. 7. A horizontal deflection circuit according to claim 2, characterized in that the isolation transformer carries a third winding via which power is supplied to the audio output stage of the television set. 8. A horizontal deflection circuit according to claims 2, characterized in that the voltage serving to control the first switch (S1) is derived from a third winding of the transformer.
Description:
The present invention relates to a horizontal deflection circuit for generating the deflection current in the deflection coil of a television picture tube wherein a first switch controls the horizontal sweep, and wherein a second switch in a so-called commutation circuit with a commutating inductor and a commutating capacitor opens the first switch and, in addition, controls the energy transfer from a dc voltage source to an input inductor.
German Aus
legeschrift (DT-AS) No. 1,537,308 discloses a horizontal deflection circuit in which, for generating a periodic sawtooth current within the respective deflection coil of the picture tube, in a first branch circuit, the deflection coil is connected to a sufficiently large capacitor serving as a current source via a first controlled, bilaterally conductive switch which is formed by a controlled rectifier and a diode connected in inverse parallel. The control electrode of the rectifier is connected to a drive pulse source which renders the switch conductive during part of the sawtooth trace period. In that arrangement, the sawtooth retrace, i.e. the current reversal, also referred to as "commutation", is initiated by a second controlled switch.
The first controlled switch also forms part of a second branch circuit where it is connected in series with a second current source and a reactance capable of oscillating. When the first switch is closed, the reactance, consisting essentially of a coil and a capacitor, receives energy from the second current source during a fixed time interval. This energy which is taken from the second current source corresponds to the circuit losses caused during the previous deflection cycle.
As can be seen, such a circuit needs two different, separate inductive elements, it being known that inductive elements are expensive to manufacture and always have a certain volume determined by the electrical properties required.


The object of the invention is to reduce the amount of inductive elements required.
The invention is characterized in that the input inductor and the commutating inductor are combined in a unit designed as a transformer which is proportioned so that the open-circuit inductance of the transformer is essentially equal to the value of the input inductor, while the short-circuit inductance of the transformer is essentially equal to the value of the commutating inductor, and that the second switch is connected in series with the dc voltage source and a first winding of the transformer.
This solution has an added advantage in that, in mass production, both the open-circuit and the short-circuit inductance are reproducible with reliability.
According to another feature of the invention, the electrical isolation between the windings of the transformer is such that the transformer operates as an isolation transformer between the supply and the subcircuits connected to a second winding or to additional windings of the transformer. In this manner, the transformer additionally provides reliable mains isolation.
According to a further feature of the invention, the second switch is connected between ground and that terminal of the first winding of the transformer not connected to the supply potential. This simplifies the control of the switch.
According to a further feature of the invention, to regulate the energy supply, the second winding of the transf
ormer is connected in series with the first switch, the commutating capacitor, and a third, bipolar switch controllable as a function of the value of a controlled variable developed in the deflection circuit.

The advantage gained by this measure lies in the fact that the control takes place on the side separated from the mains, so no separate isolation device is required for the gating of the third switch. Further details and advantages will be apparent from the following description of the accompanying drawings and from the claims. In the drawings,
FIG. 1 is a basic circuit diagram of the arrangement disclosed in German Auslegeschrift (DT-AS) No. 1,537,308;
FIG. 2 shows a first embodiment of the horizontal deflection circuit according to the invention, and
FIG. 3 shows a development of the horizontal deflection circuit according to the invention.
FIG. 1 shows the essential circuit elements of the horizontal deflection circuit known from the German Auslegeschrift (DT-AS) No. 1,537,308 referred to by way of introduction.
Connected in series with a dc voltage source UB is an input inductor Le and a bipolar, controlled switch S2. In the following, this switch will be referred to as the "second switch"; it is usually called the "commutating switch" to indicate its function.
In known circuits, the second switch S2 consists of a controlled rectifier and a diode connected in inverse parallel.
The second switch S
2 also forms part of a second circuit which contains, in addition, a commutating inductor Lk, a commutating capacitor Ck, and a first switch S1. The first switch S1, controlling the horizontal sweep, is constructed in the same manner as the above-described second switch S2, consisting of a controlled rectifier and a diode in inverse parallel. Connected in parallel with this first switch is a deflection-coil arrangement AS with a capacitor CA as well as a high voltage generating arrangement (not shown). In FIGS. 1, 2, and 3, this arrangement is only indicated by an arrow and by the reference characters Hsp. The operation of this known horizontal deflection circuit need not be explained here in detail since it is described not only in the German Auslegeschrift referred to by way of introduction, but also in many other publications.
FIGS. 2 and 3 show the horizontal deflection circuit modified in accordance with the present invention. Like circuit elements are designated by the same reference characters as in FIG. 1.
FIG. 2 shows the basic principle of the invention. The two inductors Le and Lk of FIG. 1 have been replaced by a transformer U. To be able to serve as a substitute for the two inductors Le and Lk, the transformer must be proportioned in a special manner. Regardless of the turns ratio, the open-circuit inductance of the transformer is chosen to be essentially equal to the value of the input inductor Le, and the short-circuit inductance of the transformer is essentially equal to the value of the commutating inductor Lk.
To permit the second switch S2 to be utilized for the connection of the dc voltage source UB, it is included in the circuit of that winding U1 of the transformer connected to the dc voltage UB.
In principle, it is of no consequence for the operation of the switch S2 whether it is inserted on
that side of the winding U1 connected to the positive operating potential +UB or on the side connected to ground. In practice, however, the solution shown in FIGS. 2 and 3 will be chosen since the gating of the controlled rectifier is less problematic in this case.
In compliance with pertinent safety regulations, the transformer U may be designed as an isolation transformer and can thus provide mains separation, which is necessary for various reasons. It is known from German Offenlegungschrift (DT-OS) No. 2,233,249 to provide dc isolation by designing the commutating inductor as a transformer, but this measure is not suited to attaining the object of the present invention.
If the energy to be taken from the dc voltage source is to be controlled as a function of the energy needed in the horizontal deflection circuit and in following subcircuits, the embodiment of the horizontal deflection circuit of FIG. 3 may be used.
The circuit including the winding U2 of the transformer U contains a third controlled switch S3, which, too, is inserted on the grounded side of the winding U2 for the reasons mentioned above. This third switch S3, just as the second switch S2, is operated at the frequency of a horizontal oscillator HO, but a control circuit RS whose input l is fed with a controlled variable is inserted between the oscillator and the switch S3. Depending on this controlled variable, the controlled rectifier of the third switch S3 can be caused to turn on earlier. A suitable controlled variable containing information on the energy consumption is, for example, the flyback pulse capable of being taken from the high voltage generating circuit (not shown). Details of the operation of this kind of energy control are described in applicant's German Offenlegungsschrift (DT-OS) No. b 2,253,386 and do not form part of the present invention.
With mains isolation, the additional, third switch S3 shown here has the advantage of being on the side isolated from the mains and eliminates the need for an isolation device in the control lead of the controlled rectifier.
As an isolation transformer, the transformer U may also carry additional windings U3 and U4 if power is to be supplied to the audio output stage, for example; in addition, the first switch S1 may be gated via such an additional winding.
The points marked at the windings U1 and U2 indicate the phase relationship between the respective voltages. Connected in parallel with the winding U1 and the second switch S2 is a capacitor CE which completes the circuit for the horizontal-frequency alternating current; this serves in particular to bypass the dc voltage source or the electrolytic capacitors contained therein.
If required, a well-known tuning coil may be inserted, e.g. in series with the second winding U2, without changing the basic operation of the horizontal deflection circuit according to the invention.

INDESIT TC 22" SIM CHASSIS VV025C 20AX Electron beam deflection circuit including thyristors Further Discussion and deepening of knowledge, Thyristor horizontal output circuits:

1. An electron beam deflection circuit for a cathode ray tube with electromagnetic deflection by means of a sawtooth current waveform having a trace portion and a retrace portion, said circuit comprising: a deflection winding; a first source of electrical energy formed by a first capacitor;
first controllable switching means comprising a parallel combination of a first thyristor and a first diode connected together to conduct in opposite directions, for connecting said winding to said first source during said trace portion, while said first switching means is turned on; a second source of electrical energy including a first inductive energy storage means coupled to a voltage supply; reactive circuit means including a combination of inductive and capacitive reactances for storing the energy supplied by said second source; second controllable switching means, substantially similar to said first one, for completing a circuit including said reactive circuit means and said first switching means, when turned on before the end of said trace portion, so as to pass through said first switching means an oscillatory current in opposite direction to that which passes through said first thyristor from said first source and to turn said first thyristor off after these two currents cancel out, the oscillatory current flowing thereafter through said first diode for an interval termed the circuit turn-off time, which has to be greater than the turn-off time of said first thyristor; wherein the improvement comprises: means for drawing, during at least a part of said trace portion, a substantial amount of additional current through said first switching means, in the direction of conduction of said first diode, whereby to perceptibly shift the waveform of the current flowing through said first switching means towards the negative values by an amount equal to that of said substantial additional current and to lengthen, in proportion thereto, said circuit turn-off time, without altering the values of the reactances in the reactive circuit which intervene in the determination of both the circuit turn-off and retrace portion time intervals.

2. A deflection circuit as claimed in claim 1, wherein said amount of additional current is greater than or equal to 5 per cent of the peak-to-peak value of the current flowing through the deflection winding.

3. A deflection circuit as claimed in claim 1, wherein said means for drawing a substantial amount of additional current through said first switching means comprises a resistor connected in parallel to said first capacitor.

4. A deflection circuit as claimed in claim 1, wherein said means for drawing an additional current is formed by connecting said first and second energy sources in series so that the current charging said reactive circuit means forms the said additional current.

5. A deflection circuit as claimed in claim 1, further including a series combination of an autotransformer winding and a second high-value capacitor, said combination being connected in parallel to said first switching means, wherein said autotransformer comprises an intermediate tap located between its terminals respectively connected to said first switching means and to said second capacitor, said tap delivering, during said trace portion, a suitable DC supply voltage lower than the voltage across said second capacitor; and wherein said means for drawing a substantial amount of additional current comprises a load to be fed by said supply voltage and having one terminal connected to ground; and further controllable switching means controlled to conduct during at least part of said trace portion and to remain cut off during said retrace portion, said further switching means being connected between said tap and the other terminal of said load.

Description:
The present invention relates to electron beam deflection circuits including thyristors, such as silicon controlled rectifiers and relates, in particular, to horizontal deflection circuits for television receivers.










The present invention constitutes an improvement in the circuit described in U.S. Pat. No. 3,449,623 filed on Sept. 6, 1966, this circuit being described in greater detail below with reference to FIGS. 1 and 2 of the accompanying drawings. A deflection circuit of this type comprises a first thyristor switch which allows the conenction of the horizontal deflection winding to a constant voltage source during the time interval used for the transmisstion of the picture signal and for applying this signal to the grid of the cathode ray tube (this interval will be termed the "trace portion" of the scan), and a second thyristor switch which provides the forced commutation of the first one by applying to it a reverse current of equal amplitude to that which passes through it from the said voltage source and thus to initiate the retrace during the horizontal blanking interval.

A undirectional reverse blocking triode type thyristor or silicon controlled rectifier (SCR), such as that used in the aformentioned circuit, requires a certain turn-off time between the instant at which the anode current ceases and the instant at which a positive bias may be applied to it without turning it on, due to the fact that there is still a high concentration of free carriers in the vicinity of the middle junction, this concentration being reduced by a process of recombination independently from the reverse polarity applied to the thyristor. This turn-off time of the thyristor is a function of a number of parameters such as the junction temperature, the DC current level, the decay time of the direct current, the peak level of the reverse current applied, the amplitude of the reverse anode to cathode voltage, the external impedance of the gate electrode, and so on, certain of these varying considerably from one thyristor to another.

In horizontal deflection circuits for television receivers, the flyback or retrace time is limited to approximately 20 percent of the horizontal scan period, the retrace time being in the case of the CCIR standard of 625 lines, approximately 12 microseconds and, in the case of the French standard of 819 lines, approximately 9 microseconds. During this relatively short interval, the thyristor has to be rendered non-conducting and the electron beam has to be returned to the origin of the scan. The first thyristor is blocked by means of a series resonant LC circuit which is subject to a certain number of restrictions (limitations as to the component values employed) due to the fact that, inter alia, it simultaneously determines the turn-off time of the circuit which blocks the thyristor and it forms part of the series resonant circuit which is to carry out the retrace. To obtain proper operation of the deflection circuit of the aforementioned Patent, especially when used for the French standard of 819 lines per image, the values of the components used have to subject to very close tolerances (approximately 2%), which results in high costs.

The improved deflection circuit, object o
f the present invention, allows the lengthening of the turn-off time of the circuit for turning the scan thyristor off, without altering the values of the LC circuit, which are determined by other criteria, and without impairing the operation of the circuit.

According to the invention, there is provided an electron beam deflection circuit for a cathode ray tube with electromagentic deflection by means of a sawtooth current waveform having a trace portion and a retrace portion, said circuit comprising: a deflection winding; a first source of electrical energy formed by a first capacitor; first controllable switching means comprising a parallel combination of a first thyristor and a first diode, connected together to conduct in opposite directions, for connecting said winding to said first source during said trace portion when said first switching means is turned on; a second source of electrical energy including a first inductive energy storage means coupled to a voltage supply; reactive circuit means including a combination of inductive and capacitive reactances for storing the energy supplied by the said second source; a second controllable switching means, substantially identical with the first one, for completing a circuit including said reactive circuit means and said first switching means, when turned on, so as to pass through said first thyristor an oscillatory current in the opposite direction to that which passes through it from said first source and to turn it off after these two currents cancel out, the oscillatory current then flowing through said first diode for an interval termed the circuit turn-off time which has to be greater than the turn-off time of said first thyristor; and means for drawing duing at least a part of said trace portion a substantial amount of additional current from said first switching means in the direction of conduction of said first diode, whereby said circuit turn-off time is lengthened in proportion to the amount of said additional current, without altering the values of the reactances in the reactive circuit by shifting the waveform of the current flowing through said first switching means towards the negative by an amount equal to that of said additional current.

A further object of the invention consists in using the supplementary current in the recovery diode of the first switching means to produce a DC voltage which may be used as a power supply for the vertical deflection circuit of the television receiver, for example.

The invention will be better understood and other features and advantages thereof will become apparent from the following description and the accompanying drawings, given by way of example, and in which:

FIG. 1 is a schematic circuit diagram partially in bloc diagram form of a prior art deflection circuit according to the aforementioned Patent;

FIG. 2 shows waveforms of currents and voltages generated at various points in the circuit of FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of a deflection circuit according to the invention which allows the principle of the improvement to be explained;

FIG. 4 is a diagram of the waveforms of the current through the first switching means 4, 5 of the circuit of FIG. 3;

FIG. 5 is a circuit diagram of another embodiment of the circuit according to the invention;

FIG. 6 is a schematic representation of the preferred embodiment of the circuit according to the invention; and

FIG. 7 shows voltage waveforms at various points of the high voltage autotransformer 21 of FIG. 6.

In all these Figures the same reference numerals refer to the same components.

FIG. 1 shows the horizontal deflection circuit described and claimed in the U.S. Pat. No. 3,449,623 mentioned above, which comprises a first source of electrical energy in the shape of a first capacitor 2 having a high capacitance C 2 for supplying a substantially constant voltage Uc 2 across its terminals. A first terminal of the first capacitor 2 is connected to ground, whilst its second terminal which supplies a positive voltage is connected to one of the terminals of a horizontal deflection winding shown as a first inductance 1. A first switching means 3, consisting of a first reverse blocking triode thyristor 4 (SCR) and a first recovery diode 5 in parallel, the two being interconnected to conduct current in opposite directions, is connected in parallel with the series combination formed by the deflection winding 1 and the first capacitor 2. The assembly of components 1, 2, 4 and 5 forms the final stage of the horizontal deflection circuit in a television receiver using electromagnetic delfection.

The deflection circuit also includes a drive stage for this final stage which here controls the turning off of the first thyristor 4 to produce the retrace or fly-back portion of the scan during the line-blanking intervals i.e. while the picture signal is not transmitted. This driver stage comprises a second voltage source in the shape of a DC power supply 6 which delivers a constant high voltage E. The negative terminal of the power supply 6 is connected to ground and its positive terminal to one of the terminals of a second inductance 7 of relatively high value, which draws a substantially lineraly varying current from the power supply 6 to avoid its overloading. The other terminal of th
e second inductance 7 is connected, on the one hand, to the junction of the deflection winding 1 and the first switching means 3 by means of a second inductance 8 and a second capacitor 9 in series and, on the other hand, to one of the terminals of a second controllable bi-directionally conducting switching means 10, similar to the first one 3, including a parallel combination of a second thyristor 11 and a second recovery diode 12 also arranged to conduct in opposite directions.

The respective values of the third inductance 8 (L 8 ) and of the second capacitor 9 (C 9 ) are principally selected so that, on the one hand, one half-cycle of oscillation of the first series resonant circuit L 8 - C 9 , (i.e. π √ L 8 . C 9 ) is longer than the turn-off time of the first thyristor 4, but still is as short as possible since this time interval determines the speed of the commutation of the thyristor 4, and, on the other hand, one half-cycle of oscillation of another series resonant circuit formed by L 1 , L 8 and C 9 , i.e. π √ (L 1 + L 8 ) . C 9 , is substantially equal to the required retrace time interval (i.e. shorter than the horizontal blanking interval).

The gate (control electrode) of the second thyristor 11 is coupled to the output of the horizontal oscillator 13 of the television receiver by means of a first pulse transformer 14 and a first pulse shaping circuit 15 so that it is fed short triggering pulses which are to turn it on.

The gate of the first thyristor 4 fed with signals of a substantially rectangular waveform which are negative during the horizontal blanking intervals, is coupled to a winding 16 by means of a second pulse shaping circuit 17, the winding 16 being magnetically coupled to the second inductance 7 to make up the secondary winding of a transformer of which the inductance 7 forms the primary winding. It will be noted here that it is also possible to couple the secondary winding 16 magnetically to a primary winding connected to a suitable output (not shown) of the horizontal oscillator 13.

The operation of a circuit of this type will be explained below with reference to FIG. 2 which shows the waveforms at various points in the circuit of FIG. 1 during approximately one line period.

FIG. 2 is not to scale since one line period (t 7 - t 0 ) is equal to 64 microseconds in the case of 625 lines and 49 microseconds in the case of 819 lines, while the durations of the respective horizontal blanking intervals are approximately 12 and 9.5 microseconds.

Waveform A shows the form of the current i L1 passing through deflection winding 1, this current having a sawtooth waveform substantially linear from t 0 to t 3 and from t 5 to t 7 , and crossing zero at time instants t 0 and t 7 , and reaching values of + I 1m and - I 1m , at time instants t 3 and t 5 respectively, these being its maximum positive and negative amplitudes.

During the second half of the trace portion of the horizontal deflection cycle, that is to say from t 0 to t 3 , the thyristor 4 of the first switching means 3 is conductive and makes the high value capacitor 2 discharge through the deflector winding 1, which has a high inductance, so that current i L1 increases linearly.

A few microseconds (5 to 8 μ s) before the end of the trace portion, i.e. at time instant t 1 , the trigger of the second thyristor 11 receives a short voltage pulse V G11 which causes it to turn on as its anode is at this instant at a positive potential with respect to ground, which is due to the charging of the second capacitor 9 through inductances 7 and 8 by the voltage E from the power supply 6.

When thyristor 11 is made conductive at time t 1 , on the one hand, inductance 7 is connected between ground and the voltage source 6 and a linearly increasing current flows through it and, on the other hand, the reactive circuit 8, 9 forms a loop through the second and first switching means 10 and 3, thus forming a resonant circuit which draws an oscillatory current i 8 ,9 of frequency ##EQU1##

This oscillatory current i 8 ,9 will pass through the first switching means 3, i.e. thyristor 4 and diode 5, in the opposite direction to that of current i L1 . Since the frequency f 1 is high, current i 8 ,9 will increase more rapidly than i L1 and will reach the same level at time t 2 , that is to say i 8 ,9 (t 2 ) = -i L1 (t 2 ) and these currents will cancel out in the thyristor 4 in accordance with the well known principle of forced commutation. After time instant t 2 , current i 8 ,9 continues to increase more rapidly than i L1 , but the difference between them (i 8 ,9 - i L1 ) passes the diode 5 (see wave form B) until it becomes zero at time instant t 3 which is the turn off time instant of the first switching means 3, at which the retrace begins.

The interval between the time instant t 2 and t 3 , i.e. (t 3 -t 2 ), during which diode 5 is conductive and the thyristor is reverse biased will be termed in what follows the circuit turn-off time and it should
be greater than the turn-off time of the thyristor 4 itself since the latter will subsequently become foward biased (i.e. from t 3 to t 5 ) by the retrace or flyback pulse (see waveform E) which should not trigger it.

At time instant t 3 , the switching means 3 is opened (i 4 and i 5 are both zero -- see waveforms B and C) and the reactive circuit 8, 9 forms a loop through capacitor 2 and the deflection coil 1 and thus a series resonant circuit including (L 1 + L 8 ) and C 9 , C 2 being of high value and representing a short circuit for the flyback frequency ##EQU2## thus obtained.

The retrace which stated at time t 3 takes place during one half-cycle of the resonant circuit formed by reactances L 1 , L 8 and C 9 , i.e. during the interval between t 3 and t 5 . In the middle of this interval i.e. at time instant t 4 , both i L1 (waveform A) and i 8 ,9 (waveform D) pass through zero and change their sign, whereas the voltage at the terminals of the first switching means 3 (V 3 , waveform E) passes through a maximum. Thus, from t 4 onwards, thyristor 11 will be reverse biased and diode 12 will conduct the current from the resonant circuit 1, 8 and 9 in order to turn the second thyristor 11 off.

At time instant t 5 , when current i L1 has reached - I 1m and when voltage v 3 falls to zero, diode 5 of the first switching means 3 becomes conductive and the trace portion of scan begins.

Current i 8 ,9 nevertheless continues to flow in the resonant circuit 8, 9 through diodes 5 and 12, which causes a break to appear in waveform D at t 5 , and a negative peak to appear in waveform D and a positive one in waveform B in the interval between t 5 and t 6 , these being principally due to the distributed capacities of coil 1 or to an eventual capacitor (not shown) connected in parallel to the first switching means 3.

At time instant t 6 , diode 12 of the second switching means 10 ceases to conduct after having allowed thyristor 11 time to become turned off completely.

The level of current i 8 ,9 at time instant t 5 (i.e. I c ) as well as the negative peak I D12 in i 8 ,9 and the positive peak I D5 in i 5 depend on the values of L 8 and C 9 in the same way as does the turn-off time of the circuit (t 3 - t 2 ). If, for example, L 8 and C 9 , are increased I D5 increases towards zero and this could cause diode 5 to be cut off in an undesirable fashion. I c also increases towards zero, which is liable to cause diode 12 to be blocked and thyristor 11 to trigger prematurely.

From the foregoing it can be clearly seen that the choice of values for L 8 and C 9 is subject to four limitations which prevent the values from being increased to lengthen the turn-off time of the driver circuit of first switching thyristor 4 so as to forestall its spurious triggering.

Waveform F shows the voltage v G4 obtained at the gate of thyristor 4 from the secondary winding 16 coupled to the inductor 7. This voltage is positive from t 0 to t 1 and from t 6 to t 7 and is negative between t 2 and t 6 i.e. while the second switching means 10 is conducting.

The present invention makes the lengthening of the turn-off time of thyristor 4 possible without altering the parameters of the circuit such as inductance 8 and capacitor 9.

In the circuit shown in FIG. 3, which illustrates the principle of the present invention, means are added to the circuit in FIG. 1 which enable the turn-off time to be lengthened by connecting a load to diode 5 so as to increase the current which flows through it during the time that it is conductive. These means are here formed by a resistor 18 connected in parallel with a capacitor 20 (which replaces capacitor 2) which is of a higher capacitance so that, in practice, it holds its charge during at least one half of the line period. FIG. 4, which shows the waveform of the current in the first switching means 3 for a circuit as shown in FIG. 3, makes it possible to explain how this lenthening of the turn-off time is achieved.

In FIG. 4, the broken lines show the waveform of the current in the first switch device 3 in the circuit of FIG. 1, this waveform being produced by adding waveforms B and C of FIG. 2. The current i 4 above the axis flows through thyristor 4 and current i 5 below the axis flows through diode 5. When the capacitance C 20 of the capacitor in series with the deflector coil is increased to some tens of microfarads (C 2 having been of the order of 1 μ F) and when there is connected in parallel with capacitor 20 a resistor 18 the value of which is calculated to draw a strong current I R18 from capacitor 20, that is to say a current at least equal to 0,1 I m (I m being of the order of some tens of amperes), current I R18 is added to that i 5 which flows through diode 5 without in any way altering the linearity of the trace portion nor the oscillatory commutation of thyristor 4 which is brought about by the resonant circuit L 8 , C 9 .

The fact of loading capacitor C 20 by means of a resistor 18 thus has the effect of permanently displacing the waveform of the current in the negative direction by I R18 . Thus, during the trace portion of the scan, the transfer of the current from the diode 5 to the thyristor 4 begins at time t 10 instead of t 0 , that is to say with a delay proportional to I R18 . The effect of the triggering pulse delivered by the horizontal oscillator (13 FIG. 1) to the second thyristor 11 at time instant t 1 , will be to start the commutation process of the first thyristor 4 when the current it draws is less by I R18 than that i 4 (t 1 ) which it would have been drawing had there been no resistor 18. Because of this, the turn-off time of the thyristor 4 proper, which as has been mentioned increases with the maximum current level passing throught it, is slightly reduced. Moreover, because the oscillatory current i 8 ,9 (FIG. 2) from circuit L 8 , C 9 which flows through thyristor 4 in the opposite direction is unchanged, it reaches a value equal to that of the current i L1 (FIG. 1) flowing in the coil 1 in a shorter time, that is to say at time t 12 . Diode 5 will thus take the oscillatory current i 8 ,9 (FIG. 2) over in advance with respect ro time instant t 2 and will conduct it until it reaches zero value at a time instant t 13 later than t 3 , the amounts of advance (t 2 - t 12 ) and delay (t 13 - t 3 ) being practically equal.

It can thus be seen in FIG. 4 that the circuit turn-off time T R of a circuit according to the invention and illustrated by FIG. 3 is distinctly longer than that T r of the circuit in FIG. 1. This increase in the turn-off time (T R - T r ) depends on the current I R18 and increases therewith.

It should be noted at this point that the current I R18 produces a voltage drop at the terminals of the resistor the only effect of which is to heat up the resistor since the level of this voltage (40 to 60 volts) does not necessarily have a suitable value to be used as a voltage supply for other circuits in an existing transistorised television receiver.

In accordance with one embodiment of the invention, illustrated in FIG. 5, an application is proposed for the additional current which is to be drawn through diode 5. In FIG. 5, the positive terminal of capacitor 20 is connected by a conductor 19 to the negative pole of the power supply 6 and the voltage at the terminals of capacitor 20 is thus added to that E from the source 6.

In the preferred embodiment of the present invention, which is shown in FIG. 6, it is possible to cause a supplementary current of a desired value to flow through the first diode 5 while obtaining a voltage which has a suitable value for use in another circuit in the television receiver.

If the voltage at the terminals of capacitor 20 in FIG. 3 is not a usable value, it is possible to connect in parallel with the series circuit comprising the deflector coil 1 and the capacitor 2 in FIG. 1, i.e. in parallel with the terminals of the first switching means 3, a series combination of an autotransformer 21 and a high value capacitor 22 (comparable with capacitor 20 in FIGS. 3 and 5). The autotransformer 21 has a tap 23 is suitably positioned between the terminal connected to capacitor 22 at the tap 24 connected to the first switching means 3. This autotransformer 21 may be formed by the one conventionally used for supplying a very high voltage to the cathode ray tube, as described for example in U.S. Pat. No. 3,452,244; such a transformer comprises a voltage step-up winding between taps 24 and 25, which latter is connected to a high voltage rectifier (not shown).

The waveform of the voltage at the various points in the autotransformer is shown in FIG. 7, in which waveform A shows the voltage at the terminals of capacitor 22, waveform B the voltage at tap 24 and waveform C the voltage at tap 23 of the autotransformer 21.

The voltage V c22 at the terminals of capacitor 22 varies slightly about a mean value V cm . It is increasing while diode 5 is conducting and decreasing during the conduction of the thyristor 4.

The voltage v 24 at tap 24 follows substantially the same curve as waveform E in FIG. 2, that is to say that during the retrace time interval from t 13 to t 5 to a positive pulse called the flyback pulse is produced and, during the time interval while the first switching means 3 is conducting, the voltage is zero. The mean valve of the voltage v 24 at tap 24 of the auto-transformer 21 is equal to the mean value V cm of the voltage at the terminals of capacitors 2 and 22.

Thus, there is obtained at tap 23 a waveform which is made up, during the retrace portion, of a positive pulse whose maximum amplitude is less than that of v 24 at tap 24 and, during the trace portion, of a substantially constant positive voltage, the level V of which is less than the mean value V cm of the voltage v c22 at the terminals of capacitor 22. By moving tap 23 towards terminals 24 the amplitude of the pulse during fly-back increases while voltage V falls and conversely by moving tap 23 towards capacitor 22 voltage V increases and the amplitude of the pulse drops.

In more exact terms, the voltage V at tap 23 is such that the means value of v 23 is equal to V cm . It has thus been shown that by choosing carefully the position of tape 23, a voltage V may be obtained during the trace portion of the scan, which may be of any value between V cm and zero.

This voltage V is thus obtained by periodically controlled rectification during the trace portion of the scan. For this purpose an electronic switch is used to periodically connect the tap 23 of trnasformer winding 21 to a load. This switch is made up of a power transistor 26 whose collector is connected to tap 23 and the emitter to a parallel combination formed by a high value filtering capacitor 27 and the load which it is desired to supply, which is represented by a resistor 28. The base of the transistor 26 receives a control voltage to block it during retrace and to unblock it during the whole or part of the trace period. A control voltage of this type may be obtained from a second winding 29 magnetically coupled to the inductance 7 of the deflection circuit and it may be transmitted to the base of transistor 26 by means of a coupling capacitor 30 and a resistor 31 connected between the base and the emitter of transistor 26.

It may easily be seen that the DC collector/emitter current in transistor 26 flows through the first diode 5 of the first switching means 3 via a resistor 28 and the part of the winding of auto-transformer 21 located between taps 23 and 24.

Experience has shown that a circuit as shown in FIG. 6 can supply 24 volts with a current of 2 amperes to the vertical deflection circuit of the same television set, the voltage at the terminals of capacitor 22 being from 50 to 60 volts.

It should be mentioned that, when the circuit which forms the load of the controlled rectifier 26, 27 does not draw enough current to sufficiently lengthen the circuit turn-off time T R , an additional resistor (not shown) may be connected between the emitter of transistor 26 and ground or in parallel to capacitor 22, which resistor will draw the additional current required.





INDESIT TC 22" SIM CHASSIS VV025C 20AX Gating circuit for television SCR deflection system AND REGULATION / stabilization of horizontal deflection NETWORK CIRCUIT with Transductor reactor / Reverse thyristor energy recovery circuit.In a television deflection system
employing a first SCR for coupling a deflection winding across a source of energy during a trace interval of each deflection cycle and a second SCR for replenishing energy to the source of energy during a commutation interval of each deflection cycle, a gating circuit for triggering the first SCR. The gating circuit employs a voltage divider coupled in parallel with the second SCR which develops gating signals proportional to the voltage across the second SCR.


1. In a television deflection system in which a first switching means couples a deflection winding across a source of energy during a trace interval of each deflection cycle and a second switching means replenishes energy to said source of energy during a commutation interval of each deflection cycle, a gating circuit for said first switching means, comprising:
capacitive voltage divider means coupled in parallel with said second switching means for developing gating signals proportional to the voltage across said second switching means; and
means for coupling said voltage divider means to said first switching means to provide for conduction of said first switching means in response to said gating signals.
2. A gating circuit according to claim 1 wherein said voltage divider includes first and second capacitors coupled in series and providing said gating signals at the common terminal of said capacitors. 3. A gating circuit according to claim 2 wherein said first and second capacitors are proportional in value to provide for the desired magnitude of gating signals. 4. A gating circuit according to claim 3 wherein said means for coupling said voltage divider means to said first switching means includes an inductor. 5. A gating circuit according to claim 4 wherein said inductor and said first and second capacitors comprise a resonant circuit having a resonant frequency chosen to shape said gating signal to improve switching of said first switching means.
Description:
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
This invention relates to a gating circuit for controlling a switching device employed in a deflection circuit of a television receiver.
























Various deflection system designs have been utilized in television receivers. One design employing two bidirectional conducting switches and utilizing SCR's (thyristors) as part of the switches is disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,452,244. In this type deflection system, a first SCR is








employed for coupling a deflection winding across a source of energy during a trace interval of each deflection cycle, and a second SCR is employed for replenishing energy during a commutation interval of each deflection cycle. The first SCR is commonly provided with gating voltage by means of a separate winding or tap of an input reactor coupling a source of B+ to the
second SCR.




Various regulator system designs have been utilized in conjunction with the afore described deflection system to provide for uniform high voltage production as well as uniform picture width with varying line voltage and kinescope beam current conditions.
One type regulator system design alters the amount of energy stored in a commutating capacitor coupled between the first and second SCR's during the commutating interval. A regulator design of this type may employ a regulating SCR and diode for coupling the input reactor to the source of B+. With this type regulator a notch, the width of which depends upon the regulation requirements, is created in the current supplied through the reactor and which notch shows up in the voltage waveform developed on the separate winding or tap of the input reactor which provides the gating voltage for the first SCR. The presence of the notch, even though de-emphasized by a waveshaping circuit coupling the gating voltage to the first SCR, causes erratic control of the first SCR.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
In accordance with one embodiment of the invention, a gating circuit of a television deflection system employing a first switching means for coupling a deflection winding across a source of energy during a trace interval of each deflection cycle and a second switching means for replenishing energy to said source of energy during a commutation interval of each deflection cycle includes a voltage divider means coupled in parallel with the second switching means for developing gating signals proportional to the voltage across the second switching means. The voltage divider means are coupled to the first switching means to provide for conduction of the first switching means in response to the gating signals.
A more detailed description of a preferred embodiment of the invention is given in the following description and accompanying drawing of which:
FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram, partially in block form, of a prior art SCR deflection system;
FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram, partially in block form, of an SCR deflection system of the type shown in FIG. 1 including a gating circuit embodying the invention;
FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram, partially in block form, of one type of a regulator system which employs an SCR as a control device and which is suitable for use with the SCR deflection system of FIG.2;
FIG. 4 is a schematic diagram, partially in block form, of another type of a regulator system suitable for use with the deflection circuit of FIG. 2; and
FIG. 5 is a schematic diagram, partially in block form, of still another type of a regulator system suitable for use with the SCR deflection system of FIG. 2.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT
FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram, partially in block form, of a prior art deflection system of the retrace driven type similar to that disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,452,244. This system includes a commutating switch 12, comprising a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) 14 and an oppositely poled damper diode 16. The commutating switch 12 is coupled between a winding 18a of an input choke 18 and ground. The other terminal of winding 18a is coupled to a source of direct current voltage (B+) by means of a regulator network 20 which controls the energy stored in the deflection circuit 10 when the commutating switch is off, during an interval T3 to T0' as shown in curve 21 which is a plot of the voltage level at the anode of SCR 14 during the deflection cycle. A damping network comprising a series combination of a resistor 22 and a capacitor 23 is coupled in parallel with commutating switch 12 and serves to reduce any ringing effects produced by the switching of commutating switch 12. Commutating switch 12 is coupled through a commutating coil 24, a commutating capacitor 25 and a trace switch 26 to ground. Trace switch 26 comprises an SCR 28 and an oppositely poled damper diode 30. An auxiliary capacitor 32 is coupled between the junction of coil 24 and capacitor 25 and ground. A series combination of a horizontal deflection winding 34 and an S-shaping capacitor 36 are coupled in parallel with trace switch 26. Also, a series combination of a primary winding 38a of a horizontal output transformer 38 and a DC blocking capacitor 40 are coupled in parallel with trace switch 26.
A secondary of high voltage winding 38b of transformer 38 produces relatively large amplitude flyback pulses during the retrace interval of each deflection cycle. This interval exists between T1 and T2 of curve 41 which is a plot of the current through windings 34 and 38a during the deflection cycle. These flyback pulses are applied to a high voltage multiplier (not shown) or other suitable means for producing direct current high voltage for use as the ultor voltage of a kinescope (not shown).
An auxiliary winding 38c of transformer 38 is coupled to a high voltage sensing and control circuit 42 which transforms the level of flyback pulses into a pulse width modulated signal. The control circuit 42 is coupled to the regulator network 20.
A horizontal oscillator 44 is coupled to the gate electrode of commutating SCR 14 and produces a pulse during each deflection cycle slightly before the end of the trace interval at T0 of curve 21 to turn on SCR 14 to initiate the commutating interval. The commutating interval occurs between T0 and T3 of curve 21. A resonant waveshaping network 46 comprising a series combination of a capacitor 48 and an inductor 50 coupled between a winding 18b of input choke 18 and the gate electrode of trace SCR 28 and a damping resistor 52 coupled between the junction of capacitor 48 and inductor 50 and ground shapes the signal developed at winding 18b (i.e. voltage waveform 53) to form a gating signal voltage waveform 55 to enable SCR 28 for conduction during the second half of the trace interval occurring between T2 and T1' of curve 41.
The regulator network 20, when of a type to be described in conjunction with FIG. 3, operates in such a manner that current through winding 18a of input choke 18 during an interval between T4 and T5 (region A) of curves 21, 53 and 55 is interrupted for a period of time the duration of which is determined by the signal produced by the high voltage sensing and control circuit 42. During the interruption of current through winding 18a a zero voltage level is developed by winding 18b as shown in interval T4 to T5 of curve 53. The resonant waveshaping circuit 46 produces the shaped waveform 55 which undesirably retains a slump in region A corresponding to the notch A of waveform 53. The slump in waveform 55 applied to SCR 28 occurs in a region where the anode of SCR 28 becomes positive and where SCR 28 must be switched on to maintain a uniform production of the current waveshape in the horizontal deflection winding 34 as shown in curve 41. The less positive amplitude current occurring at region A of waveform 55 may result in insufficient gating current for SCR 28 and may cause erratic performance resulting in an unsatisfactory raster.
FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram, partially in block form, of a deflection system 60 embodying the invention. Those elements which perform the same function in FIG. 2 as in FIG. 1 are labeled with the same reference numerals. FIG. 2 differs from FIG. 1 essentially in that the signal to enable SCR 28 derived from sampling a portion of the voltage across commutating switch 12 rather than a voltage developed by winding 18b which is a function of the voltage across winding 18a of input choke 18 as in FIG. 1. This change eliminates the slump in the enabling signal during the interval T4 to T5 as shown in curve 64 since the voltage across the commutating switch 12 is not adversely effected by the regulator network 20 operation.
A series combination of resistor 22, capacitor 23 and a capacitor 62 is coupled in parallel with commutating switch 12, one terminal of capacitor 62 being coupled to ground. The junction of capacitors 23 and 62 is coupled to the gate electrode of SCR 28 by means of the inductor 50. The resistor 52 is coupled in parallel with capacitor 62.
Capacitors 23 and 62 form a capacitance voltage divider which provides a suitable portion of the voltage across commutating switch 12 for gating SCR 28 via inductor 50. The magnitude of the voltage at the junction of capacitors 23 and 62 is typically 25 to 35 volts. It can, therefore, be seen that the ratio of values of capacitors 23 and 62 will vary depending on the B+ voltage utilized to energize the deflection system. Capacitors 23 and 62 and inductor 50 form a resonant circuit tuned in a manner which provides for peaking of the curve 64 between T4 and T5. This peaking effect further enhances gating of SCR 28 between T4 and T5.
Since the waveshape of the voltage across commutating switch 12 (curve 21) is relatively independent of the type of regulator system employed in conjunction with the deflection system, the curve 64 also is independent of the type of regulator system.
When commutating switch 12 switches off during the interval T3 to T0' curve 21, the voltage across capacitor 62 increases and the voltage at the gate electrode of SCR 28 increases as shown in curve 64. As will be noted, no slump of curve 64 occurs between T3 and T5 because there is no interruption of the voltage across commutating switch 12.



















FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram, partially in block form, of one type of a regulator system which may be used in conjunction with the invention. B+ is supplied through a regulator network 20 which comprises an SCR 66 and an oppositely poled diode 68. The diode is poled to provide for conduction of current from B+ to the horizontal deflection circuit 60 via winding 18a of input choke 18. Current flows through the diode during the period T3 to T4 of curve 21 FIG. 1 after which current tries to flow through the SCR 66 from the horizontal deflection circuit to B+ since the commutating capacitor 25 is charged to a voltage higher than B+.
The horizontal deflection circuit 60 produces a flyback pulse in winding 38a of the flyback transformer 38 which is coupled to winding 38c. The magnitude of the pulse on winding 38c determines how long the signal required to switch SCR 66 on is delayed after T4 curve 21 FIG. 1. If the flyback pulse is greater than desirable, the SCR 66 turns on sooner than if the flyback pulse is less than desirable and provides a discharge path for current in commutating capacitor 25 back to the B+ supply. In this manner a relatively constant amplitude flyback pulse is maintained.
FIG. 4 is a schematic diagram, partially in block form, of another well-known type of a regulator system which may be used in conjunction with the invention shown in FIG. 2. B+ is coupled through winding 18a of input choke 18 and through a series combination of windings 70a and 70b of a saturable reactor 70 and a parallel combination of a diode 72 and a resistor 74 to the horizontal deflection circuit 60. Diode 72 is poled to conduct current from the horizontal deflection circuit 60 to B+.
Flyback pulse variations are obtained from winding 38c of the horizontal output transformer 38 and applied to a voltage divider comprising resistors 76, 78 and 80 of the high voltage sensing and control circuit 42. A portion of the pulse produced by winding 38c is selected by the position of the wiper terminal on potentiometer 78 and coupled to the base electrode of a transistor 82 by means of a zener diode 84. The emitter electrode of transistor 82 is grounded and a DC stabilization resistor 85 is coupled in parallel with the base-emitter junction of transistor 82. When the pulse magnitude on winding 38c exceeds a level which results in forward biasing the base-emitter junction of transistor 82, current flows from B+ through a resistor 86, a winding 70c of saturable reactor 70 and transistor 82 to ground. Due to the exponential increase of current in winding 70c during the period of conduction of transistor 82, the duration of conduction of transistor 82 determines the magnitude of current flowing in winding 70c and thus the total inductance of windings 70a and 70b. The current in winding 70c is sustained during the remaining deflection period by means of a diode 88 coupled in parallel with winding 70c and poled not to conduct current from B+ to the collector electrode of transistor 82. A capacitor 90 coupled to the cathode of diode 88 provides a bypass for B+. Windings 70a and 70b are in parallel with input reactor 18a and thereby affect the total input inductance of the deflection circuit and thereby controls the transfer of energy to the deflection circuit. The dotted waveforms shown in conjunction with a curve 21' indicate variations from a nominal waveform provided at the input of horizontal deflection circuit 60 by the windings 70a and 70b.













FIG. 5 is a schematic diagram of yet another type of a regulator system which may be used in conjunction with the invention. B+ is coupled through a winding 92a and a winding 92b of a saturable reactor to the horizontal deflection circuit 60. Windings 92a and 92b are used to replace the input choke 18 shown in FIGS. 1 and 2 while also providing for a regulating function corresponding to that provided by regulating network 20.
Flyback pulse variations are obtained from winding 38c and applied to the high voltage sensing and control circuit 42 as in FIG. 4. Current flows from B+ through resistor 86, a winding 92c and transistor 82 to ground. As in FIG. 4 the duration of the conduction of transistor 82 determines the energy stored in winding 92c and thus the total inductance of windings 92a and 92b which control the amount of energy transferred to the deflection circuit during each horizontal deflection cycle. The variations in waveforms of curve 21', shown in conjunction with FIG. 4, are also provided at the input of horizontal deflection circuit 60 by windings 92a and 92b.
For various reasons including cost or performance, a manufacturer may wish to utilize a particular one of the regulators illustrated in FIGS. 3, 4 and 5. Regardless of the choice, the gating circuit according to the invention may be utilized therewith advantageously by providing improved performance and the possibility of cost savings by eliminating taps or extra windings on the wound components which heretofore normally provided a source of SCR gating waveforms.

TBA920 line oscillator combination
DESCRIPTION
The line oscillator combination TBA920 is a monolithic
integrated circuit intended for the horizontal deflection of the black and white
and colour TV sets
picture tube.

FEATURES:
SYNC-PULSE SEPARATION
OPTIONAL NOISE INVERSION
GENERATION OF A LINE FREQUENCY VOL-
TAGE BY MEANS OF AN OSCILLATOR
PHASE COMPARISON BETWEEN SYNC-
PULSE AND THE OSCILLATOR WAVEFORM
PHASE COMPARISON BETWEEN THE OS-
CILLATOR WAVEFORM AND THE MIDDLE OF
THE LINE FLY-BACK PULSE
AUTOMATIC SWITCHING OF THE VARIABLE
TRANSCONDUCTANCE AND THE VARIABLE
TIME CONSTANT TO ACHIEVE NOISE SUP-
PRESSION AND, BY SWITCHING OFF, POS-
SIBILITY OF TAPE-VIDEO-REGISTERED RE-
PRODUCTION
SHAPING AND AMPLIFICATION OF THE OS-
CILLATOR WAVEFORM TO OBTAIN PULSES
FOR THE CONTROL OF DRIVING STAGES IN
HORIZONTAL, DEFLECTION CIRCUITS
USING EITHER TRANSISTORS OR THYRISTORS,

 THE TBA920 SYNC/TIMEBASE IC It has been quite common for some time for sync separation to be carried out in an i.c. but until 1971 this was as far as i.c.s had gone in television receiver timebase circuitry. With the recent introduction of the delta featured 110°  colour series however i.c.s have gone a step farther since this chassis uses a TBA920 as sync separator and line generator. A block diagram of this PHILIPS /Mullard  i.c. is shown in Fig. 1.
The video signal at about 2-7V peak -peak is fed to the sync separator section at pin 8, the composite sync waveform appearing at pin 7.
The noise gate switches off the sync separator when a positive -going input pulse is fed in at pin 9, an external noise limiter circuit being required .
The line sync pulses are shaped by R1 /C1 /C2/R2 and fed in to the oscillator phase detector section at pin 6.
The line oscillator waveform is fed internally to the oscillator phase detector circuit which produces at pin 12 a d.c. potential which is used to lock the line oscillator to the sync pulse frequency, the control potential being fed in at pin 15. The oscillator itself is a CR type whose waveform is produced by the charge and discharge of the external capacitor (C7) connected to pin 14. The oscillator frequency is set basically by C7 and R6 and can be varied by the control potential appearing at pin 15 from pin 12 and the external line hold control. Internally the line oscillator feeds a triangular waveform to the oscillator and flyback phase detector sections and the pulse width control section. The coincidence detector section is used to set the time constant of the oscillator phase detector circuit. It is fed internally with sync pulses from the sync separator section, and with line flyback pulses via pin 5. When the flyback pulses are out of phase with the sync pulses the impedance looking into pin 11 is high (21(Q). When the pulses are coincident the impedance falls to about 150Q and the oscillator phase detector circuit is then slow acting. The effect of this is to give fast pull -in when the pulses are out of sync and good noise immunity when they are in sync. The coincidence detector is controlled by the voltage on pin 10. When the sync and flyback pulses are in sync C3 is charged: when they are out of sync C3 discharges via R3. VTR use has been taken into consideration here. With a video recorder it is necessary to be able to follow the sync pulse phase variations that occur as a result of wow and flutter in the tape transport system, while noise is much less of a problem. For use with a VTR therefore the network on pin 10 can simply be left out so that the oscillator phase detector circuit is always fast acting. A second control loop is used to adjust the timing of the pulse output obtained from pin 2 to take into account the delay in the line output stage. The fly back phase detector compares the frequency of the flyback pulses fed in at pin 5 with the oscillator signal which has already been synchronised to the sync pulse frequency.
Any phase difference results in an output from pin 4 which is integrated and fed into the pulse width control section at pin 3. The potential at pin 3 sets the width of the output pulse obtained at pin 2: with a high positive voltage (via R11 and R12) at pin 3 a 1:1 mark -space ratio out- put pulse (32/us on, 32/us off) will be produced while a low potential at pin 3 (negative output at pin 4) will give a 16us output pulse at  the same frequency. The action of this control loop continues until the fly- back pulses are in phase with a fixed point on the oscillator waveform: the flyback pulses are then in phase with the sync pulses and delays in the line output stage are compensated. The output obtained at pin 2 is of low impedance and is suitable for driving valves, transistors or thyristors: R9 is necessary to provide current limiting.


INDESIT TC 22" SIM CHASSIS VV025C 20AX 1. A transformerless output vertical deflection circuit, comprising a vertical oscillator circuit for generating a vertical pulse train in response to
vertical synchronizing pulses applied thereto, a sawtooth signal generator for generating a series of sawtooth signals, each cycle of said sawtooth signal including a pulse component, a vertical output circuit coupled to said sawtooth generator for amplifying said sawtooth signal including said pulse component and loading a vertical deflection coil, and stabilizing means connected between said vertical oscillator and said sawtooth signal generator for varying the width of the pulse component
which is to be fed to said vertical output circuit in response to the average level of DC output voltage fed from the vertical output circuit. 2. A transformerless output vertical deflection circuit claimed in claim 1, wherein said stabilizing means comprises a control circuit means for receiving a series of pulses from the vertical oscillator and a feedback signal from the vertical output circuit and for varying the width of the pulse which is to be fed to the vertical output circuit in response to a DC control signal proportional to the width of the pulse component included in the vertical output signal and smoothing circuit means connected between said vertical output circuit and said stabalizing means for smoothing said feedback signal. 3. A transformerless output vertical deflection circuit claimed in claim 2, wherein said control circuit comprises a charging capacitor which is parallel to a transistor, said transistor being switched on in response to pulses fed from the vertical oscillator wherein said capacitor is charged by the voltage fed from said smoothing circuit, and discharged in response to conduction of the transistor, a differential amplifier circuit which receives the voltage on said capacitor and a fixed voltage, and a gating circuit for producing a pulse which has a width equal to the difference between the width of the pulse fed from the vertical oscillator circuit and the width of pulse fed from the differential amplifier circuit. 4. A transformerless output vertical deflection circuit claimed in claim 2, wherein said control circuit comprises a capacitor which is charged by a fixed power source and is discharged by means of a switching transistor operated by the pulses fed from the vertical oscillator circuit and a differential amplifier circuit receiving the voltage on the capacitor and the output of said smoothing circuit. 5. A transformable output vertical deflection circuit comprising a vertical oscillator for generating a vertical pulse train in response to vertical synchronizing pulses applied thereto, a sawtooth signal generator for generating a series of sawtooth signals each cycle of said sawtooth signal including a pulse component, a vertical output circuit for amplifying said sawtooth signal including said pulse component and loading a vertical deflection coil, and pulse stabilizing means coupled between the vertical oscillator circuit a
nd the sawtooth signal generator, said stabilizing means comprising a capacitor which is charged by a fixed power source and discharged by means of a discharging means operated in response to the vertical pulse fed from the vertical oscillator, a circuit means for generating a train of output pulses each starting at the time when the voltage appearing on the capacitor exceeds a predetermined value and terminating in synchronism with termination of the pulse fed from the vertical oscillator, and gating means for generating pulses having a width equal to the difference between the width of the pulse fed from the vertical oscillator and the width of the output pulse of the circuit means. 6. A transformerless output vertical deflection circuit, comprising a vertical oscillator circuit for generating a vertical pulse train in response to vertical synchronizing pulses applied thereto, a sawtooth signal generator for generating a series of sawtooth signals, each cycle of said sawtooth signal including a pulse component, a vertical output circuit coupled to said sawtooth generator for amplifying said sawtooth signal including said pulse component and loading a vertical deflection coil, and stabilizing means, comprising a control circuit connected between said vertical output circuit and said vertical oscillator circuit for varying the width of each pulse produced by the vertical oscillator circuit in response to a DC control signal having a value corresponding to the width of the pulse component applied to the vertical deflection coil of the vertical output circuit for controlling the pulse width of the output of said vertical oscillator circuit and thereby the pulse width of said pulse component.
Description:
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to a vertical deflection circuit for use in a television receiver and, more particularly, to a vertical deflection circuit of a type wherein no vertical output transformer is employed. This type of vertical deflection circuit with no output transformer is generally referred to as an OTL (Output Transformerless) type vertical deflection circuit.
It is known that variation of the pulse width of the flyback pulse produced in a vertical output stage of the vertical deflection circuit is the cause in the raster on the television picture tube, of a white bar, flicker, jitter, line crowding and/or other raster disorders. In addition thereto, in the vertical deflection output circuit where the output stage is composed of a single-ended push-pull amplifier having a vertical output transistor, an excessive load is often imposed on the output transistor and, in an extreme case, the output transistor is destroyed.



INDESIT TC 22" SIM CHASSIS VV025C 20AX Circuit arrangement for obtaining a sawtooth current in a coil :
Indesit Industria Elettrodomestici Italiana S.p.A. (IT)

A circuit arrangement for obtaining a periodic sawtooth current in a coil, particularly in a deflection coil of a kinescope, is described. The circuit arrangement comprises a first, unidirectional conductivity device, disposed in parallel to a circuit branch comprising the deflection coil, and a second, controllable switching device, having a control electrode connected to a source of periodic pulses which render conductive the second device during a part of the period of the sawtooth. The main feature of the circuit arrangement is to comprise a resonant series circuit disposed in parallel to the second device; the second device and the resonant series circuit are connected to the deflection coil and to the first device at least through a third, unidirectional conductivity device.

1. Circuit arrangement for obtaining a periodic sawtooth current in a coil (10), particularly in a deflection coil of a kinescope, comprising:
(a) a first diode (13) connected in parallel to a first circuit branch including said coil;
(b) a controllable switching device (16) having a control electrode (17) coupled to a source of periodic pulses which render said switching device conductive in a given conductive direction during a portion of the trace period of said sawtooth current;
(c) a second diode (15) connected in series with said switching device (16) with a conductive direction the same as said given conductive direction to form a second circuit branch connected in parallel to said first diode (13) with a conductive direction opposite to said given conductive direction;
(d) a resonant series circuit (33, 34; 43, 45) connected in parallel to said switching device (16); and
(e) means (11) for supplying electrical energy, said energy supplying means having a first connection to the side of said switching device (16) remote from said second diode (15) and a second connection through a first receive means (12) to one side of said second diode (15).
2. The arrangement of claim 1, wherein in parallel to said second diode (15) is connected a second reactive means (41, 42, 43) which includes a capacitor (41). 3. The arrangement of claim 2, wherein said second reactive means further includes a coil (42) which forms together with said capacitor (41) a resonant circuit. 4. The arrangement of claim 3, wherein said resonant circuit has a resonance frequency substantially matching the repetition frequency of the sawtooth current. 5. The arrangement of claim 1, wherein said switching device (16) is a thyristor. 6. The arrangement of claim 1, wherein in said first circuit branch there is disposed in series to said coil (10) a correcting capacitor (35) for introducing an "S" correction into the sawtooth current during the trace period thereof. 7. The arrangement of claim 1, wherein said first diode (13), said switching device (16) and said second diode (15) are respectively rendered conductive in sequence in the trace period (t0 ' - t4 '; t0 " - t5 ") of each cycle of said sawtooth current. 8. The arrangement of claim 1, wherein the sawtooth current obtained in said coil (10) has a return period comprising a first part (t4 ' - t5 '; t5 " - t6 ") and a second part (t5 ' - t6 '; t6 " - t7 "), and wherein only said second diode (15) is rendered conductive during the first part of said return period and said first diode (13), said switching device (16) and said second diode (15) are rendered non-conductive during the second part of said return period. 9. The arrangement of claim 1, wherein said coil (10) conducts said sawtooth current continuously throughout five successive stages of the trace period (t0 " - t5 ") of said sawtooth current, said first diode (13) conducting in the first stage (t0 " - t1 "), said first diode (13) and said switching device (16) conducting in the second stage (t1 " - t2 "), said switching device (16) conducting in the third stage (t2 " - t3 "), said switching device (16) and said second diode (15) conducting in the fourth stage (t3 " - t4 "), and said second diode (15) and first diode (13) conducting in the fifth stage (t4 " - t5 ").
Description:
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to a circuit arrangement for obtaining a periodic sawtooth current in a coil, particularly in a coil intended to provide the deflection of an electronic ray in a cathode-ray tube; said circuit arrangement is of the type comprising a first, unidirectional conductivity device and a second, controllable switching device whose control electrode is connected to a source of periodic drive pulses which render conductive the switching device during part of the sawtooth period. In particular, the present invention relates to a circuit in which said controllable switching device comprises a thyristor.
Circuits of this type, which take advantage of the sturdiness and firing easiness of the thyristors, are known long since.
However, it is known that the thyristors have two weak points:
THEY HAVE TO BE EXTINGUISHED BY OUTER MEANS AT HIGH POWER LEVELS;
THEY REQUIRE A CERTAIN RECOVERY TIME BETWEEN THE EXTINCTION OF THE ANODE CURRENT AND THE APPLICATION OF A POSITIVE VOLTAGE TO THE ANODE.
The known circuits are of two types:
CIRCUITS IN WHICH THE EXTINCTION OF THE THYRISTOR IS PRODUCED BY A RESONANT CIRCUIT CONNECTED IN SERIES OR IN PARALLEL TO THE THYRISTOR USED AS UNIDIRECTIONAL SWITCH WHICH "CHARGES" THE COIL, WHICH COIL THEN DISCHARGES THROUGH A DIODE TO RETURN ENERGY TO THE SUPPLY SOURCE (SEE, FOR EXAMPLE, S. A. Schwartz and L. L. Ornik, I.E.E.E. Transactions on BTR, November 1963, pages 9 ÷ 22).
The circuits of this type require a reactive energy circulation which is four times as high as the normal one, and therefore they have generally a rather low efficiency;
CIRCUITS IN WHICH A SECOND THYRISTOR SERVES TO EXTINGUISH THE FIRST ONE, GIVING RISE TO A SUITABLE OSCILLATING CURRENT. (See, for instance, Italian Pat. No. 812,759).
Obviously, circuits of this second type are complex, inasmuch as they require, among other things, a duplication of the drive signals, with a suitable phase displacement of the latter.
Moreover, thyristors in the known circuits are allowed very short recovery times (3 to 5 microseconds) with respect to the sawtooth period, so that particularly fast thyristors are required.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
It is an object of the present invention to provide a circuit arrangement for obtaining a sawtooth current in a coil, which will require the use of only one controllable switching device and grant to it relatively long recovery times with respect to the period of the sawtooth, and which, moreover, will be simple and such as not to have the described disadvantages of the known circuits.
Therefore, the object of the present invention is to provide a circuit arrangement for obtaining a periodic sawtooth current in a coil, particularly in a deflection coil of a kinescope, comprising: a first, unidirectional conductivity device, disposed in parallel to a circuit branch comprising said deflection coil; a second, controllable switching device, having a control electrode connected to a source of periodic pulses which render conductive said second device during a part of the period of said sawtooth; a resonant series circuit disposed in parallel to said second device; said second device and said resonant series circuit being connected to said deflection coil and to said first device at least through a third, unidirectional conductivity device.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
The invention will now be described in detail with reference to the accompanying drawings which are given by way of non limitative example only and in which:
FIG. 1 is a wiring diagram of a circuit arrangement for obtaining a sawtooth current in a coil, according to the principles of the invention;
FIG. 2 shows waveforms of some currents and of a voltage which are present in some points of the circuit of FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 shows a wiring diagram of a second circuit arrangement for obtaining a sawtooth current in a coil, according to the principles of the invention; and
FIG. 4 shows the behaviour of voltages and currents which are present in some points of the circuit of FIG. 3.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
In FIG. 1 there is shown a circuit according to the invention, for obtaining a sawtooth current in a coil 10.
A battery 11 is connected by its positive pole to an end of a supply decoupling coil (choke) 12. The other end of choke 12 is connected: to one end of coil 10, to the cathode of a diode 13, to one end of a capacitor 14 and to the anode of a diode 15. The cathode of diode 15 is connected to the anode of a thyristor (or SCR) 16, whose cathode is connected to the negative terminal of battery 11. Thyristor 16 is provided with a gate electrode 17 on which a conduction firing pulse from a source of pulses (not shown) is applied. Connected in parallel to thyristor 16 is the series of a coil 33 and a capacitor 34 which form a resonant series circuit. Connected to the other end of coil 10 is one end of a capacitor 35. The other end of capacitors 14, 34 and 35, the anode of the diode 13 and the cathode of the thyristor 16 are connected to the negative pole of battery 11.
The operation of the circuit shown in FIG. 1 will now be explained with reference to FIG. 2 in which there are shown, not to scale, the behaviours of some voltages and currents. FIG. 2 contains five superposed lines. On the first line there is shown the behaviour of the voltage V14 at the ends of the capacitor 14; on the second line there is shown the behaviour of the current I10 in the coil 10; on the third line there is shown the behaviour of the current I13 in the diode 13; on the fourth line there is shown the behaviour of the anodic current I16 of the thyristor 16; on the fifth line there is shown the behaviour of the current I15 in the diode 15.
In the abscissa there are shown the times; seven successive instants are indicated: t0 ', t1 ' . . . t6 '. The time interval from t0 ' to t6 ' corresponds to a complete cycle.
The operation of the circuit of FIG. 1 takes place as follows.
At the instant t1 ' a suitable firing pulse arrives at the gate electrode 17 of the thyristor 16. Since capacitor 34 is charged, an oscillating current I16 (see fourth line of FIG. 2) begins to flow within the circuit formed by thyristor 16, capacitor 34 and coil 33. However, diode 15 is open for the moment; ths sawtooth current I10 which circulates in the coil 10 closes, in fact, through diode 13 (third line of FIG. 2). At the instant t2 ' the current I13 in diode 13 reaches the value zero, diode 13 is cut-off, whilst diode 15 becomes conductive; the current I10 of the coil 10 circulates now in the diode 15 (fifth line of FIG. 2).
This behaviour continues up to the instant t3 ', i.e. till the conduction within thyristor 16 extinguishes because the oscillating current I16 passes through zero. At the instant t3 ' the diode 13 becomes conductive again, thereby allowing the oscillating current in the branch formed by coil 33 and capacitor 34 to circulate in the reverse direction, and consequently capacitor 34 to recharge itself.
Finally, at the instant t4 ' the diode 13 cuts off again thereby releasing the return oscillation which initially (interval t4 ' - t5 ') takes place according to the laws of the two-pole circuit formed by coils 10 and 33 and capacitors 14 and 34 (neglegting the capacitor 35 which has a much higher capacity and may, in first approximation, be considered a short circuit for the alternate currents).
The voltage V14 at the ends of the capacitor 14 rises rapidly towards a maximum to return then to zero (see first line of FIG. 2). At a certain point (instant t5 ') diode 15 is cut-off, thereby insulating the resonant circuit which comprises coil 33 and capacitor 34, and thus leaving charged capacitor 34 whilst capacitor 14 is discharged onto coil 10.
At the moment in which the voltage V14 at the ends of capacitor 14 is reversed (instant t6 '), diode 13 becomes conductive thereby terminating the return section and initiating the forward course of the scansion (instant t0 ').
The circuit described is simple; it requires only one thyristor (16) and two diodes (13 and 15) for realizing an electronic bipolar switch which will allow to obtain the desired sawtooth current in a coil (coil 10).
Owing to the particular circuit arrangement the self-extinction of the thyristor 16 and the external synchronization of the repetition frequency are ensured. The time available for the recovery of the thyristor 16 (interval t3 ' - t4 ') is considerable (15 ➝ 20 microseconds).
Moreover, capacitor 35 avoids the presence of an undesirable component of direct current in coil 10 and originates the so-called "S" correction of the current I10 in coil 10 to arrange that the current in coil 10 does not present a substantially linear behaviour (such correction is necessary if coil 10 is utilized to deflect an electronic ray of a kinescope having a substantially flat screen) in order to correct the so-called tangent error due to the fact that the centre of curvature of the screen and the deflection centre do not coincide.
The following Table shows the values of an embodiment of the circuit of FIG. 1 which has been experimented in practice:
Table of the values
coil 12: 5,2 mH
capacitor 14: 27 nF
deflection coil 10: 300 μH
coil 33: 430 μH
capacitor 34: 150 nF
capacitor 35: 1,8 μF.
FIG. 3 shows a different embodiment of the circuit according to the invention. In comparison with the circuit shown in FIG. 1, the cathode of diode 13 is connected to the anode of thyristor 16 also through the series of a capacitor 41 and two coils 42 and 43. The connection between coils 42 and 43 is connected to one end of a capacitor 45 whose other end is connected to the negative terminal of battery 11. Coil 12, one end of which is connected to the positive pole of the battery 11, has its other end connected to the cathode of the diode 15 and accordingly to the anode of the thyristor 16. Connected in parallel to thyristor 16 is the series of a resistor 46 with a capacitor 47.
To explain the operation of the circuit shown in FIG. 3 reference will be made to the waveforms represented to FIG. 4 which are not to scale.
FIG. 4 has five lines.
The first line shows the behaviour of the voltage V14 at the ends of capacitor 14; the second line shows the behaviour of the voltage V16 at the ends of the thyristor 16; the third line shows the behaviour of anodic current I16 of thyristor 16; the fourth line shows the behaviour of the current I15 in the diode 15; the fifth line shows the behaviour of the current I13 in the diode 13.
In the abscissa in FIG. 4 there are shown the times. Eight successive instants are indicated therein, namely: t0 ", t1 " . . . t7 ". The time interval from t0 " to t7 " corresponds to a complete cycle.
The circuit shown in FIG. 3 operates as follows.
At the instant t0 " the diode 13 is conductive whilst diode 15 and thyristor 16 are not conductive.
In the circuit formed by the elements 10, 35 and 13 there circulates a sawtooth current which decreases in an approximately linear fashion. At the same time, an oscillating current circulates in the circuit formed by the elements 41, 42 and 45. Also this current passes into the diode 13 and superimposes to the sawtooth current from deflection coil 10. The behaviour of the current I13 in the diode 13 can be seen on the fifth line of FIG. 4 between the instants t0 " and t2 ".
The behaviour of the voltage at the ends of capacitor 45 can be observed on the second line of FIG. 4 between instants t0 " and t1 "; in reality, on said line there is shown the voltage 16 on thyristor 16 which is a fraction, near to the unit, of the voltage on capacitor 45, owing to the division effected between coils 12 and 43.
At the instant t1 " a firing pulse is applied to the electrode 17 of the thyristor 16.
Thyristor 16 is fired, the voltage V16 on the anode drops suddenly almost to zero (FIG. 4, second line) and the current I16 of the thyristor 16 initiates increasing (FIG. 4, third line); the current I16 in the thyristor 16 is substantially the oscillating current which is produced in the resonant series circuit formed by elements 43 and 45. Said current I16 has a substantially sinusoidal behaviour, reaches a maximum value and returns to zero at the instant t4 ". In the meantime (instant t2 "), current I13 in the diode 13 has dropped to zero, so that the conduction in the diode 13 is interrupted; however, almost immediately after (instant t3 "), diode 15 becomes conductive (FIG. 4, fourth line), so that the current of the coil 10 may continue flowing within elements 16 and 15.
At the instant t4 " the oscillating current of the resonant series circuit formed by coil 43 and capacitor 45 inverts, so that the conduction in the thyristor 16 is interrupted, whilst diode 13 becomes conductive again and the current of said circuit formed by coil 43 and capacitor 45 flows within elements 35 and 13 (FIG. 4, fourth and fifth lines, instant from t4 " to t5 ").
At the instant t5 " the current of the resonant series circuit formed by coil 43 and capacitor 45 inverts again, so that diode 13 cuts off. Since also thyristor 16 is cut off, for the first time from instant t0 " there is no direct path for the current in the deflection coil 10.
Since diode 15 is still conductive and since we may in first approximation neglegt the branches represented by coil 12 and series circuit formed by coil 42 and capacitor 41, which has a high impedance with respect to the other circuits, the oscillating circuit, between the instants t5 " and t6 ", i.e. as long as diode 15 is conductive, results in being formed essentially by elements 10 and 14, which form a resonant parallel circuit, and by elements 43 and 45 which form a resonant series circuit.
This four element circuit has two poles; the voltage V14 at the ends of the capacitor 14 rises rapidly towards a maximum (FIG. 4, first line) to drop then again; said voltage results essentially from the sum of two sinusoids having different frequency; said frequencies are just those of the poles of the circuit.
At the instant t6 " the current I15 in the diode 15 reaches the zero value; diode 15 cuts off and therefore the circuit again changes configuration. Whilst the voltage V14 at the ends of the capacitor 14 shifts rapidly towards zero, the voltage on thyristor 16 rises again (because of the voltage which is present on capacitor 45), as can be seen in FIG. 4, second line, instant t6 ".
This short stage from t6 " to t7 " is important because during said stage the deflection circuit (elements 10 and 14) receives from the remaining part of the circuit (elements 41, 42 and 45) the energy which is necessary to make up for the losses.
It is the coupling formed by the elements 41 and 42 which allows to let flow the current within diode 15 during the first stage of the return section (t5 " - t6 ") and to give energy to the deflection circuit (10, 14) during the second part of the return section.
It has been found that it is suitable for said coupling branch (comprising the elements 41 and 42) to be tuned approximately at the repetition frequency of the sawtooth current which it is desired to generate.
At the instant t7 " when the voltage V14 at the ends of the capacitor 14 inverts, diode 13 becomes conductive again; thus we have again the initial situation (instant t0 ").
Resistor 46 and capacitor 47 form a network for the attenuation of the parassitic oscillations which would occur at the ends of thyristor 16 upon cutting-off of the diode 15 (instant t6 ").
The following Table shows by way of information the values of the components of an embodiment of the circuit of FIG. 3 which has been experimented in practice.
Table of the values
coil 12: 1,8 mH
resistor 46: 560 ohm
coil 43: 0,2 mH
capacitor 47: 3,3 nF
coil 42: 1,8 mH
capacitor 45: 68 nF
capacitor 41: 39 nF
capacitor 14: 39 nF
deflection coil 10: 0,3 mH
capacitor 35: 1,8 μF
The circuit of FIG. 3, in addition to the advantages described for the circuit of FIG. 1 has the advantage that the maximum voltage on thyristor 16 is equal to the maximum voltage on deflection coil 10, and that the ratio between said maximum voltages and the supplying voltage of battery 11 may be varied within a wide range by acting for example on the value of the coil 42 and/or on the value of the capacitor 41.
With the values shown in the above Table said ratio is about three.
Since there are commonly available thyristors suitable for maximum voltages of 700 Volts and deflection coils arranged to operate with voltages of the same order, the circuit shown in FIG. 3 is fit for operating with a supply voltage of 220 Volts which is easily obtainable from the domestic distribution network.
From the foregoing description, the advantages of the circuit arrangement according to the present invention are clearly apparent. Also clearly apparent is that variations of the circuits described hereinabove by way of example only will be possible to those skilled in the art without departing from the principles of novelty of the inventive idea.


INDESIT TC 22" SIM  CHASSIS  VV025C  20AX RGB Amplifying circuit:
 An amplifier circuit suitable for use as a video amplifier in a color television circuit for driving the variable impedance load provided by a color television picture tube, in which the load impedance of the amplifier element of the circuit is also made variable. This is achieved, in one embodiment by using as the output stage of the amplifier two transistors with a complementary symmetrical configuration so that one is always substantially cut-off while the other conducts. In another embodiment a transistor in common collector configuration acts as the amplifier element and its emitter from which the output of the amplifier is taken is connected by a diode to the collector of a transistor which feeds the base of the common collector transistor.
 1. An electrical amplifier circuit for providing high voltages for driving a user load impedance, the impedance value of which varies with frequency, such as a video amplifier circuit for a television receiver, said amplifier circuit comprising: a first amplifier element (61) such as a transistor, having input and output terminals, and having an output impedance which is substantially lower than the minimum value of said load impedance within the frequency range of the signals fed to said amplifier circuit;
means for connecting said first amplifier output to said user load impedance;
a second amplifier element (85) such as a transistor, having input and output terminals;
means for connecting said second amplifier output terminal to said first amplifier input terminal;
a commutation element connected between the output terminal of said first amplifier element and the output element of said second amplifier element; and
a diode (59) connected to the input of said first amplifier and to the output element of said second amplifier for compensation of said first amplifier for temperature variations.


2. The electrical amplifier circuit of claim 1, further comprising: a negative feedback which is obtained by connecting the emitter of said first transistor to the base of said second transistor; and
a biasing circuit for the emitter of said second transistor including at least one transistor of opposite conductivity type with respect to said second transistor, said at least one transistor being connected in a circuit similar to the circuit of said second transistor so as to obtain compensation for the variation in the voltage due to the thermal drift effect, wherein said biasing circuit comprises a third transistor connected in common collector configuration and a fourth transistor connected in a circuit corresponding to that of said second transistor, and is fed from the same voltage source which is used for biasing the base of the second transistor.


3. The amplifier circuit of claim 1, wherein the said first amplifier element having a low output impedance is a first transistor connected in common collector configuration and said commutation element is a semiconductor diode; said second amplifier element is a second transistor and said commutator element is connected between the emitter of said first transistor and the collector output electrode of said second transistor; and there is provided a negative feedback circuit obtained connecting the emitter of said first transistor to the base of said second transistor.

Description:
The present invention relates to an amplifying circuit, and more particularly to an amplifying circuit suitable for forming part of a video circuit for a television receiver.
There are various known circuits capable of operating as video amplifiers, but all include transistors which operate under class A conditions and which dissipate a considerable amount of power. This is due to the fact that in order to obtain the required band width it is necessary to use only moderate load impedances. Thus, since for example the control voltage of a colour picture tube is of the order of 100-200 V the currents in the transistor at the impedance values normally used are in the region of tens of milliamps, and therefore the dissipated power is of the order of a few watts. It is therefore necessary to use power transistors which require a heat dissipator, and likewise the load resistors must be capable of dissipating several watts. All this means that rather costly components are required.
Furthermore, because all video amplifiers require a stabilised supply voltage in order to ensure correct operation and in particular in order to prevent any variation in contrast as the main supply voltage varies, it is usually necessary to provide stabilising circuits which further complicate the amplifier circuits. It is not possible to draw the required supply voltage directly from the stabilised horizontal deflection circuits because of the considerable power consumed by the amplifiers.
The present invention seeks therefore to provide a video amplifying circuit, for a television receiver, in which the disadvantages mentioned above are overcome, or at least reduced in effect.
According to the present invention, there is provided an electrical amplifier circuit having at least one amplifier element, for providing high voltages for driving a user device whose impedance varies with frequency, characterised by the fact that the load impedance of the said amplifier element is variable.
Various embodiments of the invention will now be described, by way of example, with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:

FIG. 1 is an electrical diagram of a video amplifier constructed as a first embodiment of the invention;
FIG. 2 is an electrical diagram of a video amplifier formed as a second embodiment of the invention;
FIG. 3 is an electrical diagram of a power supply circuit for the amplifier of FIG. 2; and
FIG. 4 is a block diagram of a part of a colour television receiver, comprising three amplifiers constructed as in FIG. 2 and a power supply circuit constructed as in FIG. 3.

Referring now to the drawings, in the amplifier circuit of FIG. 1, the input signal is fed to a terminal 1 and is fed through two series connected resistors 2 and 3 to be applied to the base of an NPN transistor 4 which is connected in a common collector configuration.
The collector of the transistor 4 is connected to a first supply voltage source +V1, whilst the emitter is earthed via a resistor 5. The junction between the two input resistors 2 and 3 is earthed via a resistor 6 and a Zener diode 7, in series and the junction between the resistor 6 and the diode 7 is connected to the voltage source +V1 through a resistor 8 and to earth through a capacitor 9. The network formed by the resistors 3, 6, 8 and by the Zener diode 7 is a biasing network for the transistor 4; it also serves as a limiter circuit to limit the maximum amplitude of the video signal, in particular, the amplitude of the synchronisation pulses, for the purpose of making the clamping operations, effected downstream, independent of any amplitude differences in the signal which is supplied to the video amplifier by the circuits upstream of it. The video signal output of the transistor 4, taken from the emitter, is fed through a resistor 10 to the emitter of a PNP transistor 11 connected in cascade with the transistor 4. The collector of the transistor 11 is connected to earth through an inductor 12 and a resistor 13 in series, and the base of the transistor 11 is connected to earth through a resistor 14 and a capacitor 15 in series. The LC and RC networks constituted by the resistors 13 and 14, the inductor 12 and capacitor 15 act as phase shifting networks to compensate for phase displacements introduced by the parasitic elements present in the circuit.

The base of the transistor 11 is also connected to the first terminal of a resistor 16, whose other terminal is connected to earth through a resistor 17 and a capacitor 18 in parallel and also to the collector of a PNP transistor 19 through a resistor 20 and a diode 21 in series. To the junction of the cathode of the diode 21 with the resistor 20 there is connected a resistor 23 and a capacitor 24 in series. The resistor 23 has a terminal 22 to which is fed the line return pulse. The emitter of the transistor 19 is connected to a supply voltage source +V2 through a resistor 25.
The base of the transistor 19 is earthed through a resistor 26 and a variable resistor 27 in series, and is also connected to a supply voltage source +V3 through two resistors 28 and 29 in series. Across the resistor 29 is connected a protection diode 49.
The junction between the resistors 28 and 29 is connected to the emitter of a transistor 11 through a resistor 30, a variable resistor 31, and a capacitor 32 in series. The transistor 19 with the associated components serves to control the bias of the final stage of the video amplifier, which latter is constituted by two transistors 33 and 34 respectively PNP and NPN, mounted in a complementary symmetrical configuration.
The emitter of the transistor 33 is connected to the voltage supply source +V3 through a resistor 35, the colector is connected to a resistor 36 which is connected in series with another resistor 37 which is connected to the collector of the transistor 34, the emitter of which is connected to earth through a resistor 38. The bases of the two transistors 33 and 34 are connected together through a capacitor 39, and the base of the transistor 34 is earthed through a resistor 42. The output from the circuit is taken from the junction between the two resistors 36 and 37.
The base of the transistor 34 is fed with the video signal from the collector of the transistor 11 via an RC circuit comprising a resistor 40 and a capacitor 41 in parallel, which acts to compensate for phase displacements present in the circuit.
The base of the transistor 33 is connected to the voltage supply +V3 via a resistor 43 having a diode 45 in parallel with it and a resistor 44 having a diode 47 and a capacitor 46 in parallel with it. The diode 47 serves to supply a bias voltage equal to the voltage between the base and the emitter of the transistor 33 so as to keep the transistor 33 ready to conduct when it has to change from a non-conducting to a conducting state. The junction between the resistors 43 and 44 is earthed via a resistor 48.
The diode 45, like the diode 49 in parallel with the resistor 29, is a protection diode. The base of the transistor 33 is connected to earth through a resistor 50.
The operation of the amplifier circuit described with reference to FIG. 1 is as follows:
The circuit of the transistors 4 and 11 is a control circuit which controls the final stage comprising the circuit of the transistors 33 and 34 which are connected in a complementary symmetrical configuration, such that the transistor 34 conducts during the positive half-wave of the signal whilst the transistor 33 conducts during the negative half-wave. In order to avoid crossover distortion the two transistors are not completely cut off during the periods of non-conduction, but are kept in a slightly conductive condition, so that when the polarity of the wave form innerts and the conducting transistor becomes cut-off, there is no delay in the start of conduction of the previously nonconducting conducting transistor. The pass-band is obtained in this case by the negative feed-back of the amplifier provided by the RC network composed of the resistors 30 and 31 and the capacitor 32. The negative feed-back is taken from the output of the final stage to the input of the transistor 11, which controls the final stage.
The power supply to the final stage is provided by the voltage source +V3 which does not require much stabilisation because of the stabilisation control of the transistor 19. In fact, the voltage at the output of the amplifier, which is taken from the terminal 79 is also fed to a voltage divider formed by the resistors 29, 28, 26 and 27 and thus controls the base of the transistor 19, which generates from it and the stabilised voltage +V2 a bias control voltage. The comparison of the stabilised voltage +V2 with the output on the terminal 79 of the amplifier circuit only occurs during the line returns so as not to be tied to the type of picture transmitted, and for this reason the line return pulses drawn, in a known manner, from the horizontal deflection circuits are taken to the collector of the transistor 19, so that the transistor conducts only during the line return period.
In dependence on the degree of conduction of the transistor, and therefore on the voltage at its base, there appears across the filter network comprising the resistors 20, 17 and the capacitor 18 a voltage which is representative of the voltage present at the output of the first stage of the amplifier. This voltage, amplified by the transistor 11, is taken to the base of the transistor 34 for the purpose of controlling its bias. In this manner, optimum stabilisation of the final stage is obtained without requiring complex stabilisation circuits in the power supply circuits of the television receiver.
From the above description, the advantages obtained over the prior art will be apparent to those skilled in the art particularly the avoidance of components which dissipate considerable power. This is possible because of the fact that the load impedance is greater than in known circuits and consequently the current in the stage is less. In the circuit shown in FIG. 1 the collector current is 8mA, whereas in previously known video amplifier circuits of this type the current is of the order of 30 mA: the improvement obtained can readily be appreciated. It is thus possible to use transistors of 1 W power dissipation instead of transistors of 5 W. Furthermore, because the power consumption of this stage is constant and sufficiently low, it is possible to draw the supply voltage from the horizontal deflection circuits, thus making use of a supply voltage which is already stabilised against the variations in consumption of the television receiver caused by the variations in the picture content and the control of contrast and brightness.
With respect to known circuits there is a further ecomony of components due to the fact that it is not necessary with this circuit, to provide compensation coils for the other frequencies at the output of the amplifier.
With regard to the load impedance, this is greater than in previous circuits because of the fact that the load resistance is provided largely by the resistance presented by the transistor which is not conducting at any one line, and the reactance is also greater because the parasitic capacities are less.
The following table indicates the values of the circuit elements of the circuit of FIG. 1, this being an embodiment of the invention which has been tested and proven in practice to operate successfully.
______________________________________
TABLE OF VALUES. RESISTORS CAPACITORS
______________________________________

2 47 Ohm 9 10μF
3 10 Ohm 15 56 pF
5 1 K ohm 18 22 μF
6 2.7 K ohm 24 0.1 μF
8 1 K ohm 32 10 μF
10 220 Ohm 39 4.7 μF
13 680 Ohm 41 330 pF
14 100 Ohm 46 0.1 μF
16 6.8 K ohm INDUCTORS
17 33 K ohm 12 0.2 nH
20 10 K ohm TRANSISTORS
23 100 Ohm 4 BC 148 B
25 180 Ohm 11 BC 158 B
26 3.3 K ohm 19 BC 158 B
27 2.2 K ohm 33 MPS A92
28 47 K ohm 34 MPS A42
29 56 K ohm SUPPLIES
30 6.8 K ohm +V1 = 26 V
31 4.7 K ohm +V2 = 11 V
35 180 Ohm +V3 = 200 V
36 1 Ohm
37 1 K ohm
38 180 Ohm
40 2.7 K ohm
42 2.7 K ohm
43 2.2 M ohm
44 2.2 M ohm
48 56 K ohm
50 4.7 M ohm
______________________________________

The embodiment illustrated in FIG. 2 has the advantages of the embodiment of FIG. 1, but achieves them in a simpler manner.
Referring now to FIG. 2 there is shown an amplifier circuit having an input terminal 51 which is connected by an input circuit comprising two capacitors 52 and 53 in series with one another and two resistors 54 and 55 in series with one another and in parallel with the capacitors 52 and 53 to the base of an NPN transistor 85 connected in common emitter configuration.
The emitter of the transistor 85 is in effect connected to a source of biasing voltage (terminal 56) through a resistor 57 of low value. The collector of the transistor 85 is connected to the junction point of the cathodes of two diodes 58 and 59; the anode of the diode 59 is connected to one terminal of a resistor 60 the other terminal of which is connected to a supply potential +V3 and to the base of a second NPN transistor 61. The collector of the transistor 61 is connected via a resistor 62, to the supply potential +V3. The emitter of transistor 61 is connected to the anode of the diode 58, to one terminal of a resistor 63 and to an output terminal 64. The other terminal of the resistor 63 is connected to the base of the transistor 85 and, through a resistor 65, to earth.
In the circuit of FIG. 3 a positive supply potential +V1 feeds the electrodes of the emitter and the base of a PNP transistor 66 through, respectively, a resistor 67 and two resistors 68 and 69, in series the former of which is a variable resistor.
The collector of the transistor 66 is connected to the anode of a diode 70, whose cathode is connected to the base of a second PNP transistor 71 and to one terminal of a resistor 72 the other terminal of which is connected to earth. The collector of the transistor 71 is also connected to earth through a resistor 73. The emitter of the transistor 71 is connected to an output terminal 56, to the emitter of the transistor 66 through a resistor 74 and to the base of the transistor 66 through a resistor 75.
Between the emitter of the transistor 66 and earth are connected in series a Zener diode 76 and two normal diodes 77 and 78.
The following table shows, by way of example, the values of the circuit elements in one embodiment each of the circuits of FIG. 2 and FIG. 3 which have proven in practice to be operative.
TABLE
______________________________________
RESISTORS CAPACITORS
______________________________________

54 2.2 KΩ 52 18 pF
55 1.5 KΩ 53 18 pF
57 6.8 Ω
60 47 KΩ
62 1 KΩ DIODES.
63 47 KΩ 58 1N 4148
65 3.3 KΩ 59 1N 4148
67 1.5 KΩ 70 1N 4148
68 10 KΩ 76 ZV 12
69 10 KΩ 77 1N 4148
72 4.7 KΩ 78 1N 4148
73 560 Ω
74 2.2 KΩ TRANSISTORS
75 4.7 KΩ 85 MPSA 42
SUPPLY 61 MPSA 42
VOLTAGES 66 BC 308
+V1
26 V 71 BC 308
+V3
220 V
______________________________________

The operation of the circuit of FIG. 2 is as follows:
The video signal to be amplified is fed to the terminal 51 and reaches the base of the transistor 85 through the compensating network constituted by the elements 52, 53, 54 and 55. The controllable element 54 can be used for adjusting the gain of the amplifier to the required value.
The signal appears amplified on the collector of the transistor 85 and, neglecting for the moment the two diodes 58 and 59, it is fed to the base of the transistor 61 and appears, amplified, at the emitter, and therefore at the output terminal 64.
The load resistor 63 of the transistor 61 provides a strong negative feed-back which serves to stabilise the gain of the amplifier and increase its band-width; with the values indicated the voltage gain is of the order of 26 and the band-width greater than 4 MHz.
The effect of the input capacitance of the picture tube which is fed from the terminal 64, is largely neutralised by the low output impedance of the transistor 61 and also by the strong negative feed-back.
The capacitance in parallel with the resistor 60 proves to be less than that present at the terminal 64. In consequence it is possible to select for the resistor 60 a relatively high value (for example 50 KΩ), thus reducing the current consumed by the transistor 85, and therefore the colour dissipation effect of this transistor and the resistor 60.
Likewise the resistor 63 can be of 50 KΩ and therefore the current and the power dissipation of the transistor 61 are comparable to those in the circuit of the transistor 85. Furthermore, when the maximum current passes through the transistor 85, the minimum current passes through the transistor 61 and vice versa, so that the total current absorbed is relatively constant.
The circuit of FIG. 2 as described so far would function very well in the transients when the current in the transistor 85 drops suddenly; in the transients of opposite sign (when the current in the transistor 85 increases suddenly) the transistor 61 becomes slower in cutting off and the operation is less satisfactory; it is during these transients that the diode 58 comes into action and, by becoming conductive, allows the terminal 64 to follow directly the voltage at the collector of the transistor 85 as it falls, short circuiting for a time the transistor 61.
The diode 59 serves to compensate for the variation of the Vbe of the transistor 61 with temperature variations, and the resistor 62 serves to protect the transistor 61 from sudden overvoltages at the point +V3, due to picture tube discharges.
The terminal 56 could be simply connected to a source of reference potential (for example a Zener), which has a suitable value in relation to the biasing voltage which is fed to the terminal 51 as well as the input signal mentioned above. The circuit of FIG. 3 is a possible power supply circuit for supplying an appropriate potential to the terminal 56 and, at the same time, for compensating for variations in the characteristics of the transistor 85 in dependence on the temperature.
The circuit of FIG. 3 is similar to that of the amplifier of FIG. 2, except that it uses PNP transistors and the emitter of the first transistor (transistor 66) is connected to a stabilised source represented by the three diodes 76, 77, 78; as known, by connecting in series a Zener (diode 76) and two or more normal silicon diodes (diodes 77, 78) a reference voltage can be obtained which varies little with the temperature.
The input voltage +V1 is the same as that which biases the input terminal 51 supplied with the video signal.
The voltage drift at the point 64 of the circuit of FIG. 2 is, for a temperature variation of + 15° to 50° C, of the order of 5 Volts if the point 56 of FIG. 2 is connected to a fixed voltage; and is of the order of about 1 Volt if the point 56 of FIG. 2 is connected to the point 56 of FIG. 3.
FIG. 4 is a block diagram of a part of a colour television receiver circuit using the circuits of FIG. 2 and FIG. 3. In FIG. 4 there are shown three amplifiers A1, A2, A3 identical to those of FIG. 2 for supplying the three colour picture tube with three primary signals R, G, B. The three amplifiers receive from a preamplifier-mixer P the three signals to be amplified. These also receive from a biassing source S, identical to that of FIG. 3, a stabilised and compensated bias voltage. The source S and the preamplifier P are fed by the voltage +V1 ; the preamplifier P also receives the luminance signals Y and the chrominance signals C. The three amplifiers A1, A2, A3, are also fed by the non-stabilised voltage source +V3.
The arrangement of FIG. 4, with the values indicated in the table, has a total consumption from the source +V3 of about 15 mA. Such a circuit arrangement lends itself easily to production by thick film techniques; it is possible to produce separately three identical modules A1, A2 and A3, and the module S, or they can all be produced as parts of a single circuit.
It is also possible to produce on a single small silicone chip the same four circuits in the form of a monolithic integrated circuit, in view of the low overall dissipation; only the resistors 60 and 63 would need to be left as separate circuit elements.
The arrangement also lends itself to use with television picture tubes of the P.I.L. (Precision In Line) type, in which it is necessary to vary the bias of the cathodes; for this purpose it is sufficient to make the resistor 65 controllable.
The module P may be provided by one of the integrated circuits available on the market, for example, the type MOTOROLA MC1327.
The embodiments illustrated and described relate to video amplifier circuits for colour television receivers; it is however clear that circuits for other purposes (for example video amplifiers for black and white television receivers) can be made in accordance with the principles of the present invention without departing from the scope of the present invention as defined in the following claims.
 


INDESIT TC 22" SIM CHASSIS VV025C 20AXElectronic tuning circuit arrangement for direct and indirect station selection using a memory circuit :Indesit Industria Elettrodomestici Italiana, S.p.A. (Rivalta, IT)

A circuit arrangement for selecting the tuning of a radioelectric signal in a signal receiving set, in particular a television set, comprises a memory circuit having a plurality of cells for storing in digital form information relating to a plurality of tunable signals with means in the circuit arrangement for sequentially scanning the cells of the memory circuit and for obtaining the stored information for the desired selection of a receiving signal.

1. An electronic tuning circuit arrangement comprising:
(a) a control panel (101) having a plurality of push-buttons or sensors;
(b) first means (104) actuable by at least one of said push-buttons or sensors to produce digitally coded information identifying respective ones of a plurality of tunable signals;
(c) second means (128) which receive said digitally coded information and correspondingly supply a respective number (N) in digital form for tuning each signal;
(d) a counter divider (126) connected to receive the digital output of said second means (128) as a divider, and a clock signal (f) derived from a voltage-controlled oscillator (130) as a dividend, for producing a quotient signal (f/N) representing the clock signal frequency divided by said respective number;
(e) means (133) for comparing said quotient signal (f/N) with a frequency reference oscillation (fr) and producing a resultant signal which is supplied in controlling relation to said voltage-controlled oscillator (130) for causing said oscillator to produce a tuning signal (fo) directly proportional to said respective number;
(f) a memory circuit (108) having a plurality of cells; said first means (104) supplying to said memory circuit (108), and storing in each of said cells, under the action of push-buttons or sensors of said control panel (101) the digitally coded information relating to each of a plurality of preferred signals preselected by the user from among said plurality of tunable signals; said first means (104) under the action of push-buttons or sensors of said control panel (101) selectively supplying to said counter divider (126) from said second means (128) only one desired respective number in digital form for the tuning of each signal, either through digitally coded information directly supplied to said second means (128) from said first means (104) or through digitally coded information supplied from said memory circuit (108) to said second means (128); and
(g) third means (113) supplying said counter divider (126) from said second means (128) with said respective number in digital form, by sequentially scanning one after another said cells of said memory circuit (108) and then supplying said second means (128) with the stored digitally coded information obtained from each cell scanned.
2. The circuit arrangement of claim 1, wherein said third means (113) comprises an electronic counter whose outputs are connected through gate means (109) to address inputs of said memory circuit (108), and control logic circuits included in said first means (104) which control said gate means (109) and said memory circuit (108) in such a manner that, when the third means (113) are activated, the digitally coded information received by said second means (128) will only be that stored in the cell scanned of said memory circuit (108). 3. The circuit arrangement of claim 2, wherein said counter (113) is a binary counter operable both up and down. 4. The circuit arrangement of claim 3, wherein said counter (113) supplies a four bit output. 5. The circuit arrangement of claim 3, wherein further logic circuits (115, 117, 120, 121) are provided which are activated by manually actuating a push-button or sensor of said control panel (101) for causing the output of said counter (113) to advance or to recede by one step at a time. 6. The circuit arrangement of claim 3, wherein a clock signal of predetermined frequency is fed to the input of said counter (113) upon manually actuating a push-button or sensor of said control panel (101), the output of said counter progressively increasing (or progressively decreasing) by one step at a time as long as said push-button or sensor is actuated. 7. The circuit arrangement of claim 2, wherein second control logic circuits included in said first means (104) are provided which control, through second gate means (122) connected at the outputs of said electronic counter (113), the utilization of said counter (113) for at least a second function. 8. The circuit arrangement of claim 7, wherein, in being utilized for said second function, said electronic counter (113) supplies digit correction signals to said second means (128) and to said counter divider (126), said digit correction signals being also supplied to said memory circuit (108) for storage in a cell corresponding to stored digitally coded information relating to a tunable signal, whereby the stored digitally coded information relating to a tunable signal and the stored digit correction signals from each cell are supplied to said second means (128) and to said counter divider (126) either by said first means (104) or by said third means (113). 9. The circuit arrangement of claim 8, wherein fourth means (112, 124) are provided for stopping said counter in the stage in which it supplies said digit correction signals, when the count reached by said counter, in counting up and down, corresponds to predetermined numbers, said fourth means (112, 124) being inactive during the stage in which said third means (113) operates for sequentially scanning the cells of said memory circuit (108). 10. The circuit arrangement of claim 8, wherein said counter divider (126) receives twelve bits at its input.
11. The circuit arrangement of claim 8, wherein said plurality of push-buttons or sensors includes at least ten push-buttons or sensors numbered from 0 to 9 which are connected to said first means (104) for producing said digitally coded information, at least one push-button or sensor connected to a control circuit for said counter (113) in order to make it advance or recede on command, a push-button or sensor connected to said first means (104) for supplying to said memory circuit (108) and for storing in each cell the digitally coded information preselected by the user from among the information relating to said plurality of preferred signals, and at least a switching-over push-button or sensor connected to said first means (104) for passing from a direct selection condition, in which said first means directly supplies the digitally coded information for a desired one of the tunable signals to said second means (128) whereby the tuning of a signal is selectable by forming a code number of two digits by means of said numbered buttons and in which said counter (113) may supply the digit correction signals, to an indirect selection condition, in which said first means (104) supplies to said second means (128) the digitally coded information for a desired one of the tunable signals stored in a cell of said memory circuit (108), as well as the stored digit correction signals, in response to actuation of one of said numbered buttons, or in which said third means (113) sequentially scan the cells of said memory circuit for supplying the stored digitally coded information and the digit correction signals. 12. The circuit arrangement of claim 1, wherein said memory circuit (108) is a random access memory with memory cells of twelve bits. 13. The circuit arrangement of claim 1, comprising a double binary-seven segments converter (107) for a double seven-segments display (106), the digitally coded information for said second means (128) being supplied from said first means (104) or from said memory circuit (108) in driving relationship to said converter (107).
Description:
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
This invention relates to a circuit arrangement for the selection of one among a plurality of radioelectric signals receivable in a signal receiving set, particularly television signals, comprising a memory circuit in which information relating to a plurality of tunable signals can be stored in digital form. A circuit arrangement of this type is described in copending U.S. patent application Ser. No. 729,757 filed on Oct. 5, 1976 in the name of Mario Malerba and of common assignment herewith.
Such circuit arrangement, applied, for example, to a television set, comprises a voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) whose output signal has a frequency determined by a control loop as a function of a number N different for each one of the frequencies of the selectable signals and obtained from a memory circuit. To select a frequency of a television channel, the number of the channel is set, for example, by means of a push button panel having ten push buttons numbered from 0 to 9, as that of a pocket calculator, and is sent as an address to the memory circuit which substantially produces the number N corresponding to the frequency to be selected. In this way, it is possible to select directly any one of 100 tunable channels, by forming a number of two figures from 00 to 99 on the push button panel. Moreover, it is possible to apply to the tuning thus obtained, which is the theoretical tuning, a manual correction by means of two further push buttons, which determines a variation of the less significant digits of the number N. Thus, it is possible to store in one of the cells of a second memory circuit the information for forming the number N, which is relative to the tuned channel, and to correlate it to a chosen one of the ten push buttons of the panel, so that it will then be possible to read out the ten stored channels with the tunings already corrected.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
It is an object of the present invention to provide an improved electronic tuning circuit arrangement which, by adding a further possibility of selection of stored channels, ameliorates the convenience of tuning for the user.
It is also an object of the invention to provide for the above object to be attained in a very economical way by utilizing devices already existing in the circuit of the receiving set.
A further object of the present invention is to provide an electronic tuning circuit arrangement for a signal receiving set, in particular a television set, comprising a memory circuit having a plurality of cells for storing in digital form information relating to a plurality of tunable signals; and means for sequentially scanning the cells of the memory circuit and for obtaining the stored information for the desired selection of a tunable signal.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
For a better understanding of the invention, it will now be described in detail with reference to the accompanying drawings given by way of example and in which:
FIG. 1 shows a diagram of a circuit arrangement for a digital control tuner in a television signal receiving set, embodying the principles of the present invention; and
FIGS. 2 and 3 respectively show in detail the control unit and processing unit depicted as blocks in FIG. 1.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
In FIG. 1, there is diagramatically shown a control board 101 having ten push buttons or touch sensors numbered from 0 to 9, and having, moreover, four additional push buttons or sensors distinguished by the indications D, M, +, -.
Each of the ten push buttons numbered from 0 to 9 is connected to the input of a decimal-binary converter logic circuit 102 having four output conductors on which the information corresponding to the number of the actuated push button appears in binary code.
These four conductors, together with two conductors connected to the push buttons D and M and with a further output conductor from an AND gate 103, arrive at respective inputs 500, 501, 502, 503, 519, 520 and 521 of a control unit 104 comprising a plurality of logic circuits which operate on the input signals in a manner to be described later. Unit 104 may be of the type described in the aforementioned copending U.S. patent application Ser. No. 729,757 and it possesses fifteen outputs 504-518, the first eight (504-511) of which are connected to the inputs of:
a circuit converter 105, converting the data in BCD code into data in binary code, which converts into a single binary number (of seven bits) two binary numbers (of four bits each) which it receives, giving to them the respective weight;
a double seven-segments display 106, through a double binary-seven segments converter 107; and to eight of the twelve inputs-outputs of a RAM (Random Access Memory) 108 having ten memory cells of twelve bits and preferably of the non-volatile type.
The subsequent four outputs 512-515 of the control unit 104 are connected to four address inputs of RAM 108 to which are also connected four outputs of a separator (or buffer) circuit 109 which has an enabling input CE (Chip Enable) connected to the output of gate 103. Separator circuit 109 may conveniently be represented by four AND gates.
The remaining three outputs 516-518 of control unit 104 are connected:
the first: to an input of AND gate 103, to the read-write (R/W) input of RAM memory 108, to the input of an inverting gate 111 and finally to an input of an OR gate 112 having four inputs;
the second: to the enabling input CE of RAM memory 108;
the third: to the reset input R of a four bit counter 113 capable of counting up and down, from zero to nine.
The push button + of control board 101 is connected, through a conductor 114, to an input of an AND gate 115; the push button - is connected, through a conductor 116, to an input of an AND gate 117. The outputs of the gates 115 and 117 are connected to two inputs SET 118 and RESET 119 of a bistable multivibrator 120 and also to the two inputs of an OR gate 121. One output of multivibrator 120 is connected to a count inversion input U/D (UP-DOWN) of counter 113; the output of gate 121 is connected to the second input of gate 103 and to the clock input of counter 113. The four outputs of counter 113 are connected both to the inputs of separator circuit 109 and to the inputs of another identical separator circuit 122. Circuit 122 has an enabling input CE which is connected to the output of inverting gate 111, which output is connected also to an input of a four input NAND gate 124.
Separator circuit (or buffer) 122 has three outputs (of which one, which corresponds to the most significant input, is free) which are connected to the remaining inputs both of gate 112 and of gate 124. The output of NAND gate 124 is connected to the second input of AND gate 115; the output of OR gate 112 is connected to the second input of AND gate 117.
The three outputs of buffer 122 are connected also to three of the remaining inputs-outputs of RAM 108. The two less significant outputs of buffer 122 are connected also to two (the less significant) of twelve inputs of a twelve bit binary counter-divider 126; the third output of buffer 122 is also connected to an input 127 of a processing unit 128 which comprises a plurality of logic circuits and an adder circuit and whose operation will be described later. Processing unit 128 may conveniently be of the type described in my copending U.S. patent application Ser. No. 735,564 filed on Oct. 26, 1976 and of common assignment herewith. The seven outputs of converter circuit 105 are connected to as many inputs 530-536 of processing unit 128 which has ten outputs 540-549 connected to the remaining ten most significant inputs of counter 126. A voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) 130 supplies to the tuner (not shown) a local frequency oscillation fo for frequency conversion and supplies this local oscillation also to a frequency divider (or prescaler) 131 which divides in the ratio 1:256.
At the output of divider 131, there is present a frequency oscillation f which arrives as a clock signal at counter 126 which produces a frequency signal f/N, where N is the number in binary code which is present at the twelve inputs of counter 126. The output of counter 126 is connected to a first input 132 of a phase comparator 133 which has a second input 134 which receives from a circuit 135 of well-known type a frequency reference oscillation fr. Circuit 135 may comprise, for example, a line frequency oscillator, tuned by line synchronism pulses, followed by a frequency divider circuit which divides, for example, in the ratio 1:16.
The output of comparator 133 is connected to the input of oscillator 130, and it controls the frequency fo so that: f/N=fr
and consequently, with the hypotheses assumed: fo =256 N fr (1)
The processing unit 128 has another two outputs 140 and 141 which supply to the tuner the informations relative to band change.
Control unit 104 of FIG. 1 is shown in detail in FIG. 2, and it represents a part of the circuit disclosed in the aforementioned copending U.S. patent application Ser. No. 729,757. In the diagrammatic representation of FIG. 2, the groups of conductors which follow the same path of connection are shown by a single line, by the side of which a numeral indicates how many conductors the group contains; where no numeral is present, it means that the line is formed by a single conductor.
The inputs 500, 501, 502, 503 of control unit 104 are connected through four conductors to inputs of three identical latches, indicated in FIG. 2 by reference numerals 611, 612 and 613, each of which is provided with four inputs and with an enabling input IE (Input Enable). The outputs of latches 611 and 612 are connected, through two lines of four conductors each, and through a separator circuit (or buffer 649) to the two groups of four outputs of circuit 104, respectively 504, 505, 506, 507 and 508, 509, 510, 511.
The inputs 500, 501, 502 and 503 are also connected to inputs of an OR gate 605. The input 520 is connected to a further input of the gate 605 and to an input of a bistable multivibrator (flip-flop) 608 provided with a reset input R. The input 519 is connected to an input of a bistable multivibrator (flip-flop) 609 and to an input of an OR gate 610 having two inputs.
The output of gate 605 is connected to the input of a bistable multivibrator (flip-flop) 615 provided with a reset input R, this latter being connected to the output of the gate 610. Multivibrator 615, as well as multivibrators 608 and 609, have two outputs, one of which is at the opposite logic level of the other. For simplicity of representation, only one output is shown in FIG. 2; however, it can be seen that said output arrives sometimes to negative inputs of gates or to inverter circuits, such as that indicated by reference numeral 617. It is clear that, actually, the corresponding circuits are connected to the negative output of the respective multivibrator.
Thus, the negative output of multivibrator 615 is connected through a delay circuit 618 to:
one input of an AND gate 619 having two inputs;
one input of an AND gate 620 having two inputs;
and, through an additional delay circuit 622, to a differentiator circuit 623.
The positive output of multivibrator 615 is, in turn, connected to an input of an AND gate 624 having two inputs, also through a delay circuit 618 (the delay circuit 618, instead of being disposed at the outputs, may be disposed at the input of multivibrator 615).
The positive output of multivibrator 608 is connected to:
a light source 602, for illuminating the push button M
and, through a delay circuit 625, to the other input of the AND gate 620.
The delay circuits 618, 625 and 622, which produce a time delay equal to τ1, τ2 and τ3 respectively, are such that τ123.
The negative output of multivibrator 608 is connected:
to the other input of AND gate 619, and to
the other input of AND gate 624.
The outputs of gates 619 and 624 are connected to enabling inputs IE of latches 611 and 612, respectively.
The output of AND gate 620 arrives at an input of an OR gate 626 having two inputs.
The positive output of multivibrator 609 is connected to:
a light source 603, for illuminating the push button D; and
to the enabling input CE of the buffer 649.
The negative output of multivibrator 609 is connected to:
the other input of gate 626; and
through the inverter 617, to the output 516.
The output of gate 626 is connected to the output 517 and, through an inverter 651, to an input of an OR gate 650; the output of latch 613 is connected, through a four conductor line, to the outputs 512, 513, 514 and 515.
A terminal S which receives the external supply voltage is connected, through a switch 641 of the receiving set, to a differentiator circuit 642 whose output is connected:
to the reset input R of multivibrator 609;
to the other input of gate 610; and
to an input of an OR gate 643 having two inputs.
The other input of gate 643 is connected to the output of differentiator circuit 623; the output of gate 643 is connected to the reset input R of multivibrator 608 and to the output 518. The input 521 is connected to the other input of gate 650. The output of gate 650 is connected to an output disable terminal OD of latch 613.
The processing unit 128 is shown, in detail, in FIG. 3, and it represents a part of the circuit disclosed in the aforementioned copending U.S. patent application 735,564. The seven inputs 530, 531, 532, 533, 534, 535 and 536 are connected to seven wires indicated by I, II, III, IV, V, VI and VII.
Wires I and II are connected to the inputs of an OR gate 701 whose output, together with a connection from wire III, is connected to the inputs of an OR gate 702. The output of OR gate 702 is connected to an input of an OR gate 703, to an input of an AND gate 704 and to an input of an OR gate 705. Wires VI and VII are connected to the two inputs of an OR gate 706 whose output, together with a connection from wire V, is connected to the two inputs of an AND gate 707. The output of this AND gate 707, together with a connection from wire IV, is connected to the two inputs of a NOR gate 708 whose output is connected to the other input of OR gate 703. The output of OR gate 703 is connected both to an input of an AND gate 709, and to an inverter 710. The output of AND gate 707 is connected also to an input of an OR gate 711, the other input of which having connected thereto the output of OR gate 701. The output of OR gate 711 is connected to an input of an OR gate 712, the other input of which has connected thereto the output of an exclusive NOR gate 713 whose two inputs are connected to the wires III and IV. The output of OR gate 712 is connected to the other input of AND gate 709. The output of AND gate 709 is connected to the other input of AND gate 704, to the input of an inverter 714, to an input of an AND gate 715, to an input of a NOR gate 729 and to an input 17 of an adder 716 which effects the addition of a first addend of nine binary digits, which it receives at inputs numbered from 11 to 19, with a second addend of ten binary digits which it receives at inputs numbered from 21 to 30. The output of AND gate 704 is connected to an input of an OR gate 717, to an input of NOR gates 718, 719 and 720 respectively, and to the input 19 of adder 716. The output of inverter 714 is connected to an input of an OR gate 721, to an input of an AND gate 722 and to the input 18 of adder 716. The other input of gates 721 and 722 is connected to a wire to which is applied a signal at logic level "0". The output of the AND gate 722 is connected to the other input of the OR gate 717 and to an input of an AND gate 723.
The wire α is connected also to an input of exclusive OR gates 725, 726, 727 and 728 respectively. Gate 725, whose other input is connected to the wire IV, has its output connected to the other input of NOR gate 729. Gate 726, whose other input is connected to the wire V, has its output connected to the other input of gate 720. Gate 727, whose other input is connected to the wire VI, has its output connected to the other input of gates 719 and 723. Gate 728, whose other input is connected to the wire VII, has its output connected to the other input of gate 718. The wire V is connected to an input of two AND gates 730 and 731 respectively. Gate 730, whose other input is connected to the output of gate 723, has its output connected to an input of an OR gate 732, whose output is connected to the other input of gate 731 and to the input of an inverter 733. Connected to the other input of gate 715 is the wire α, and the output of gate 715 is connected to the other input of OR gates 705 and 732. The output of gate 718 is connected to the input 11 of adder 716. The outputs of gates 719 and 731 are connected to the two inputs of an OR gate 735, whose output is connected to the input 12 of adder 716. The output of gate 720 is connected to the input 13 of adder 716. To the inputs 14, 15 and 16 of adder 716 are connected, respectively, the outputs of NOR gate 729, of OR gate 705 and of inverter 710. To the inputs 21, 22 and 23 of adder 716 there are connected the outputs of inverter 733, of OR gate 721 and of OR gate 717, respectively. The inputs from 24 to 30 of adder 716 are connected, respectively, to the wires VII, VI, V, IV, III, II and I.
Adder 716 has ten outputs, indicated progressively by reference numerals 41 to 50, which are respectively connected to the ten outputs (540, 541, 542, 543, 544, 545, 546, 547, 548, 549) of processing unit 128.
The input 127 is connected to an additional input 62 of adder 716.
The outputs of inverter 714 and of gate 704 are respectively connected to outputs 140 and 141.
The operation of the circuit arrangement of FIG. 1 will now be explained.
Control unit 104 comprises a plurality of logic circuits which operate on the various input signals so as to supply, in the various stages of operation which will be listed, the following levels of the output signals:
(I)--At the switching on of the receiving set:
"zero" on all the first twelve outputs 504-515;
"one" on the thirteenth output 516 (the RAM memory 108 therefore disposes itself to be "read", and the buffer circuit 122 is disabled);
"one" on the fourteenth output 517 (the RAM memory 108 is enabled);
a pulse on the fifteenth output 518, which pulse causes the output of the counter 113 to assume the value which has been set and which is equal to four.
In fact, at the moment of switching on the receiving set, by means of the switch 641, the three multivibrators 608, 609 and 615 are reset by means of differentiator circuit 642 and gates 610 and 643, and the outputs of said three multivibrators become "zero" level (reference is made here, as well as hereinafter, unless otherwise stated, to the normal, not negative, outputs), so that the circuit arrangement is prepared for indirect selection as will be better explained later. For accomplishing indirect access by switching on the receiving set, however, it is assumed that memory 108 has been pre-loaded by the user with the desired channels. It will, however, be useful to initiate the explanation by referring to the operation on direct station selection.
(II)--By actuating the push button D and then a couple of numbered push buttons of the control board 101 (for example the one with the digit 1 and then the one with the digit 2), whereby the signals corresponding to said two digits arrive at the control unit 104 successively, through the converter 102;
the digit (in binary code) which corresponds to the first numbered push button which has been actuated (i.e. 1) appears on the first four outputs 504-507;
the digit (in binary code) which corresponds to the second numbered push button which has been actuated (i.e. 2) appears on the second four outputs 508-511; moreover, there is:
"zero" on the third group of four outputs 512-515;
"zero" on the thirteenth output 516 and fourteenth output 517 (the memory RAM 108 is disabled and the buffer circuit 122 is enabled);
a reset pulse on the fifteenth output 518, which pulse causes the output of the counter 113 to assume the value of +4.
In fact, by pressing push button D of panel 101, a "one" signal is produced at input 519. Accordingly, multivibrator 609, which has been reset at the moment of switching on the receiving set, changes state and its output becomes high, thereby producing the switching on of light source 603, the signal "zero" at output 516, and the signal "zero" at output 517. Actually, gate 620 has an input at low level (the one connected to the output of multivibrator 608 through delay circuit 625) and, accordingly, gate 626 has both inputs at low levels. Then, when the number of the channel to be selected is formed (in this case, the number 12), the user presses first the push button having the numeral 1 and then the push button having the numeral 2 (should he want to select a channel having a number less than 10, it is necessary to form 01, 02, etc.). The corresponding signals in binary code arrive at inputs 500 . . . 503 of control unit 104, and the output of multivibrator 615, which is reset by pressing push button D, becomes high level when the push button bearing the numeral 1 is pressed, and returns to low level when the push button bearing the numeral 2 is pressed.
After having pressed push button D, the latch 611, after the time τ1 has elapsed, becomes enabled and therefore receives in binary code the number 1 from inputs 500 . . . 503 of control unit 104, but after elapsing of the time τ1 from the moment at which the push button having numeral 1 has been pressed, latch 611 is disabled and latch 612 is enabled and thus receives the number 2.
Therefore, the numbers 1 and 2 appear, in binary codes, at the outputs 504 . . . 507, and 508 . . . 511 respectively, the buffer 649 being enabled.
After the time (τ13) has elapsed, a pulse appears at output 518 (through differentiator circuit 623 and gate 643). The signal "zero" at the output of gate 626, through gate 650, produces a "one" signal at input OD of latch 613 which disables the outputs of latch 613 which remain at level "zero".
At this point, oscillator 130 is caused by the loop formed by circuits 131, 126, 133 and 130 to supply an oscillation frequency fo given by the relation (1), i.e. at the theoretical frequency required for receiving channel 12. In fact, processing unit 128 receives the number 12 in binary code from converter 105, and moreover, counter 113 supplies the number four. Processing unit 128, through buffer circuit 122 which is enabled, receives therefore an additional "1" at the input 127; and processing unit 128, which supplies a number suitable for each channel, supplies at its outputs 540-549 for channel 12 the number 263 (see the following Tables I and II) which arrives in binary code at the ten most significant inputs of counter 126.
TABLE I
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EUROPEAN CHANNELS BAND (K) fo (MHz)
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I 02 87

03 94

04 101

III 05 214

06 221

07 228

08 235

09 242

10 249

11 256

12 263

... ...

20 319

UHF 21 510

22 518

23 526

24 534

... ...

... ...

67 878

68 886

69 894

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TABLE II
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Channel lst Addend 2nd Addend input Outputs (k) Code inputs 11... inputs 21... 62 41...(fo)
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3 03 0001000100 0000011001

1 94

10 10 0010100101 0001010011

1 249

12 12 0010100011 0001100011

1 263

18 18 0010011101 0010010011

1 305

21 21 0101010000 0010101101

1 510

69 69 0101010000 1000101101

1 894

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Counter 126 results therefore in being set (since it receives also two "zeroes" from buffer circuit 122) to divide by N=263×4=1052. For the relation (1) it results thus, if fr =15625/16=976.5625 Hz; fo =256×976.5625×1052=263×106 Hz
which, assuming the intermediate frequency of the receiving set to be calibrated for a value of 38.75 MHz, is just the theoretical frequency of oscillator 130 which is necessary to receive channel 12 whose video carrier has the frequency of 224.25 MHz.
Let us see now how one gets the value of adder 716 to be equal to frequency fo.
At wires I . . . VII of processing unit 128 are applied, from inputs 530 . . . 536, signals representing in binary code (0-1) the number 12, the signal on wire VII being of the less significant digit, while that on wire I is of the most significant digit.
Referring to FIG. 3, it can be seen that the circuit formed by logic OR gates 701 and 702 supplies a signal at level 1 for all those circuits whose number is greater than 15; the further circuit formed by OR gate 706, AND gate 707, NOR gate 708, OR gate 703, and by inverter 710 supplies, in combination with the preceding circuits, a signal at level 1 for channels whose number is between 5 and 15; the circuit formed by gates NOR exclusive 713, or 711, OR 712 and AND 709 and by inverter 714 supplies, in combination with the preceding circuits, a signal at level 1 for the channels having a number between 5 and 20; finally, AND gate 704 supplies, in combination with the preceding circuits, a signal at level 1 for all those channels whose number is greater than 20. All this will be clearly apparent from the following Table III.
TABLE III
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Output gate signal Input of at high level (1) produced by input adder 716 signals on wires I, II, III, IV, V, VI connected Output VII determined by the selection of to gates: channels: output gate
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701 32 to 99

702 16 to 99

703 0 to 4; 16 to 99

704 21 to 99 19

705 16 to 99 15

706 1 to 3; 5 to 7; 9 to 11; 13 to 15; 17 to 19;

21 to 23; and so on.

707 5 to 7; 13 to 15; 21 to 23; 29 to 31;

37 to 39; and so on.

708 0 to 4; 16 to 20, 32 to 36; 48 to 52; and so on.

709 0 to 4; 21 to 99 17

710 5 to 15 16

711 5 to 7; 13 to 15; 21 to 23; 29 to 99

712 0 to 7; 13 to 15, 21 to 99

713 0 to 7; 24 to 31; 48 to 55; 72 to 79; 96 to 99

714 5 to 20 18

715 --

717 21 to 99 23

718 even channels from 0 to 20

11

719 0, 1, 4, 5, 8, 9, 12, 13, 16, 17, 20

720 0 to 3; 8 to 11; 16 to 19

13

721 5 to 20 22

722 --

723 --

725 8 to 15; 24 to 31; 40 to 47; and so on.

726 4 to 7; 12 to 15; 20 to 23; 28 to 31;

36 to 39; and so on.

727 2, 3, 6, 7, 10, 11, 14, 15, 18, 19,

22, 23, and so on.

728 odd channels

729 5 to 7; 16 to 20 14

730 --

731 --

732 --

733 0 to 99 21

735 0, 1, 4, 5, 8, 9, 12, 13, 16, 17, 20

12

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It has to be noted that, with the hypotheses which have been made and with reference to Table I, which is an internationally established table setting forth for each channel number a predetermined value of frequency assigned for the video carrier, the frequency fo is bound to the number K of the television channel by the following relations, for the various ranges:
BI (channels 2 to 4): fo =73+7K=[64+(7-K)]+[8K+1]+1
BIII (channels 5 to 15): fo =179+7K=[160+(15-K)]+[8K+3]+1
BIII (channels 16 to 20): fo =179+7K=[144+(31-K)]+[8K+3]+1
UHF (channels 21 to 99): fo =342+8K=[336]+[8K+5]+1
Said relations, for the various ranges of tunable signals, are seen to be of the type fo =M+RK, where R is a number indicative of the channel's step frequency in a predetermined range and M is indicative of a basic value of frequency which has to be fixed in said range. These relations, which give the value of fo, are not calculated directly in the circuit, but are obtained by calculating the second expressions comprising the terms shown above in square brackets. It should be noted also that for multiplying a binary number by eight it is sufficient to add three zeroes to it, and that the expressions (7-K); (15-K); (31-K) are obtained from the last three or four inverted digits of the number K expressed in binary code, as shown by the following examples (the last three digits in band I, the last four digits in band III)
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K = 3 = 011 7-K = 4 = 100 K = 10 = 1010 15-K = 5 = 0101 K = 18 = 10010 31-K = 13 = 1101
______________________________________
If the first expression between square brackets of the relations written hereinabove is sent to the inputs 11 to 19 of adder 716 and the second expression between square brackets is sent to the inputs 21 to 30 of adder 716, there remains to be added only the digit outside the square brackets, which is always 1, and it is added on the additional input 62. The first expression between square brackets, which is of the type (P-K) for the European VHF channels and P for the channels in UHF, is formed and sent to the inputs 11 to 19 in the following manner.
The number P is obtained from a series of logic gates, as will be explained hereinafter; the term -K or zero is obtained by connecting wires IV, V, VI and VII (which correspond to the four less significant digits of the number K) to the four less significant inputs of the left-hand side of adder 716, i.e. 11, 12, 13 and 14 through the four OR exclusive gates 725, 726, 727 and 728 and through the four NOR gates 729, 720, 719 and 718. Said NOR gates act as inverters (to obtain the minus sign for the European channels in the VHF range). As can be seen from FIG. 3, OR gate 729 is blocked in the UHF range and in Band I (in which three digits only have to be inverted). The other three gates 718, 719 and 720 are blocked in the UHF range, so that in the UHF range at the inputs 11, 12, 13 and 14 of adder 716 there arrive four zeroes.
The second expression between square brackets, which is of the type [8K+S], is obtained in a simple way by connecting the seven most significant inputs of the right hand side of adder 716, i.e. from 24 to 30, to the seven wires I-VII corresponding to the seven digits of the number K of the channel, and by connecting the remaining three inputs 21, 22 and 23 to logic gates for obtaining the number S (which is always less than 8).
The annexed Table II summarizes the functions of adder 716 on six European channels taken as an example.
Observing Table II, it can be seen that the first digit (starting from the right) of the second addend is always 1, said first digit is obtained by means of AND gates 730, 723 and 715, OR gate 732 and inverter 733. The second digit of the second addend is 1 in Band III, this being obtained by means of OR gate 721. The third digit is 1 in UHF; this is obtained by means of AND gate 722 and OR gate 717. In the first addend, the fifth digit is 1 in the channels over 15, which is obtained by means of OR gate 705; the sixth digit is 1 in the channels between 5 and 15, which information is already available from inverter 710; the seventh digit is always 1, except in Band III, while the eighth digit, instead, is 1 in Band III (such information being available upstream and downstream of inverter 714); the ninth digit is 1 in the UHF range and is obtained by means of AND gate 704.
Moreover, inverter 714 supplies a signal at level "1" when the selected channel is in Band III of the VHF range, and said signal is available at output 140; while the output of AND gate 704 supplies a signal at level "1" when the selected channel is in the UHF range, and said signal is available at output 141. The signals at outputs 140 and 141 are supplied to the tuner of the receiving set for controlling its band switch-over members. Processing unit 128 is also suitable for use with a tuner designed to recieve the signals of American television channels instead of European ones, as American channels are spaced by a 6 MHz step both in VHF and in UHF. Thus, the expressions of fo are all of the type fo =T+6K, where T is a fixed number, which expressions are obtainable easily by breaking the factor 6 into (4+2), i.e. fo =T+4K+2K, and where it is clear that to multiply by two in binary code it is sufficient to add a zero, and to multiply by 4 it is sufficient to add two zeroes; or, it is possible to obtain the factor 6 as (8-2), and so on.
Therefore, it is sufficient to send the signals representing said number K to a first counter whose least significant input receives a zero and to a second counter having two least significant inputs each of which receives a zero and then add to the binary signals representing said number T the binary outputs of the first and second counters.
At this point the set is therefore tuned to the theoretical frequency corresponding to channel 12.
If it is desired to effect a correction of the tuning, it is sufficient to press the push button + or the push button - of control panel 101. By pressing the push button +, a signal arrives at AND gate 115, which is enabled by the output at level "1" of NAND gate 124, so that counter 113 increases the count by one unit, i.e. the output passes from four to five. By pressing the push button -, a signal arrives at AND gate 117, which also is enabled by the output at level "1" of OR gate 112, and counter 113 shifts down the output by one unit, i.e. passes to three. Therefore, through buffer 122, the output of the counter, varied by one unit, arrives at processing unit 128 and at counter 126, whereby the number N correspondingly increases or decreases by one unit. As a result, the frequency fo increases or decreases by 0.25 MHz.
Gates 115, 117, 112 and 124 prevent counter 113 from rising above 7 and from dropping below zero, to avoid sudden jumps of tuning. In fact, with the output of counter 113 at the value 7, the output of NAND gate 124 passes to the value "0", so that gate 115 is blocked, thereby inhibiting the action of further pulses on connection 114 to increase the count.
When, instead, the output of counter 113 is at the value zero, the output of OR gate 112 passes to "0" and gate 117 is blocked, thereby inhibiting the action of further pulses on connection 116 to reduce the count.
(III)--If now one actuates push button M and then a numbered push button (for instance, the push button 3), control unit 104, which receives the signals, supplies in output:
on the first group 504-507 and second group 508-511 of four outputs, always the same digit as before, i.e. 1 and 2 respectively;
on the third group 512-515 of four outputs, the digit corresponding to the last push button actuated, i.e. 3;
"zero" on the thirteenth output 516 (buffer circuit 122 is enabled) and also on the fifteenth output 518 (the output of counter 113 is not varied);
"one" on the fourteenth output 517 (memory 108 is enabled to be "written").
More particularly, on pressing push button M, there is produced a signal at input 520, the light source 602 is switched on, the enabling inputs of latches 611 and 612 are disabled and, after the time τ2, the output of gate 620 becomes at level 1 together with output 517, as soon as the output of multivibrator 615 becomes at its low level again. Moreover, the output of multivibrator 615 becomes at its high level as soon as the push button M has been pressed and after having pressed the push button which bears the numeral 3, the number 3 is stored in latch 613 (always enabled) and after the time τ1 has elapsed (to ensure that latch 613 is charged), output 517 becomes at level 1, there being "zero" at input OD of latch 613 so that the number 3 appears at outputs 512 . . . 515.
The number 12, which arrives at the first eight inputs of memory 108, is therefore stored at the address three, the number 3 arriving from control unit 104 at the address inputs of memory 108, and moreover, by means of the last three inputs of memory 108, there is stored the number which corresponds to the tuning correction (for example, the number five, if the push button + has been pressed once before starting the storage stage).
When, after a suitable period of time, memory 108 has stored said information, the last seven outputs 512-518 of control unit 104 automatically return to zero, so that memory 108 is disabled, and moreover there is a pulse on the fifteenth output 518 for restoring the output of counter 113 on the present value of four.
More particularly, after a time (τ13), there is a pulse at output 518, and multivibrator 608 is reset (through differentiator circuit 623 and through gate 643), light source 602 is extinguished to indicate that the storage has been accomplished and, after a further time τ2, the output of gate 626 returns to "zero" as does output 517 and the signal at input OD of latch 613, which brings to zero the outputs 512-515.
At this point, if a different pair of numbered push buttons of control panel 101 is pressed, the receiving set is thereby tuned to the corresponding frequency (i.e. the case in paragraph II recurs). Thus, it is possible to correct tuning by means of the push buttons + or - and, if desired, the new channel, with the tuning corrections, can be stored at another address of memory 108, i.e. the operation in case (III) recurs.
It is thus possible to select up to 100 different channels (00 to 99) and to store up to ten of them (in the addresses from 0 to 9 memory 108).
(IV)--By again actuating the push button D, the circuit arrangement returns to the situation previously described herein in paragraph (I) so that it is prepared for indirect station selection.
By then pressing one of the numbered push buttons of control panel 101 (for instance, the push button having the number 3), indirect station selection becomes operative and control unit 104 supplies the following outputs:
the first eight outputs 504-511 are insulated;
the digit corresponding to the actuated push button (for example 3) appears on the third group of four outputs 512-515;
on the thirteenth (516), fourteenth (517) and fifteenth (518) outputs there are present the same signals of the case in paragraph (I), i.e. "1", "1", and a short pulse.
More particularly, by pressing push button D, there is produced a signal at input 519, thus the output of multivibrator 609 returns to zero, light source 603 is extinguished, outputs 516 and 517 become "1" and the outputs of latch 613 are enabled, while buffer 649 is disabled and the outputs 504-507 and 508-511 are insulated. In this condition, by pressing push button 3 of control panel 101, the corresponding number is stored in latch 613 from inputs 500-503 and appears at outputs 512-515.
Under these conditions, the two buffer circuits 109 and 122 are both disabled and all the information to processing unit 128 and to counter 126 is supplied by memory 108 which is enabled to be read, this information being that which was previously stored in the case of paragraph (III) at the selected address, which in this case is the third address. Therefore, the receiving set becomes tuned to channel 12 (whose number is indicated also by display 106), with the tuning correction effected some time before. At this point, a different numbered push button of control panel 101 may be actuated, whereby memory 108 will supply new information to processing unit 128 and to counter 126 in order to obtain the tuning of the channel which has been stored therein.
(V)--The selection of the channels stored in memory 108 may, however, be effected also in the following different way. By pressing the push button + (or the push button -) of control panel 101, counter 113 increases by one unit (or reduces by one unit) the value of the output and, by means of gate 103, buffer 109 is enabled. Moreover, by means of the connection from the output of gate 103 to input 521 of control unit 104, a signal "one" arrives at input OD of latch 613 and the third group of outputs 512-515 of control unit 104 is insulated. Accordingly, memory 108 receives at the address inputs the number formed by counter 113 (for example, the number 5) and supplies to processing unit 128 and to counter 126, in the same manner as in case (IV), the information of the channel stored at the address five.
By successive actuations of the push button + (or -) it is possible to automatically scan sequentially up (or down) the ten addresses of memory 108, i.e. to tune in successively the ten stored channels.
The output of counter 113 no longer stops at seven or at zero, because when the thirteenth output of control unit 104 is at level "1" (i.e. memory 108 is conditioned to be read) gates 112 and 124 supply always signals at level "1", so that gates 115 and 117 are never locked. The number supplied by counter 113 remains at the address input of memory 108 even after the push button + or - has been released (and consequently buffer 109 is disabled again), inasmuch as it is maintained by a special latch conveniently contained in control unit 104.
Said special latch, designated in FIG. 2 by the numeral 560, has its input and output connected at control unit outputs 512, 513, 514 and 515, its IE terminal (Input Enable) connected at control unit input 521, and its OD terminal (Output Disable) connected at the output of gate 650. In this manner, when the push button + (or -) is actuated and there is a signal at level 1 at input 521, special latch 560 holds the number present at outputs 512, 513, 514 and 515 from counter 113, without transferring it to its output. When the push button + or - has been released, and the signal at input 521 becomes zero, the input of special latch 560 is insulated and the signal zero at its OD terminal transfers to the output and then to outputs 512, 513, 514 and 515, and therefore to the addresses of memory 108, the number previously stored from counter 113.
For a clearer explanation, the following Table IV is presented to show a recapitulatory scheme relating to the various cases described hereinabove.
TABLE IV
______________________________________
Outputs of control Enablings of the unit 104 Memory 108 set circuits case 516 517 to be: enabling 103 109 122
______________________________________


II 0 0 written

no no no yes

III 0 1 written

yes no no yes

I-IV-V

1 1 read yes yes x no

______________________________________
(x) is enabled by pressing one of the push buttons + or -.
Hence, the circuit arrangement according to the present invention affords a considerable convenience for the user, since in order to scan the various channels stored in memory 108 it is sufficient to actuate the push buttons + or -.
From the foregoing description, the advantages of the circuit arrangement according to the present invention are clearly apparent; of course, variations in what has been described by way of example will be possible to those skilled in the art, without departing from the scope of the invention.

Thus, for instance, it is possible to send to counter 113 a signal at clock frequency (derived, for example, from a division of the frequency produced by circuit 135) and to cause it to reach the input of counter 113 only when the output of gate 121 is at high level. In this way, as long as the push button + is pressed, the output of counter 113 increases, and as long as the push button - is pressed said output decreases. This occurs up to the value 7 (or down to zero) if a direct selection is carried out (as in case II, correction of tuning); and if an indirect selection is effected (as in case V, automatic rescan), the output of counter 113 will, instead, continue to cyclically vary from 0 to 9 in one or the other direction as long as one maintains the push button + or - pressed.
Therefore, with the circuit arrangement according to the present invention, it is possible to have: a direct station selection by selecting a channel with two digits of control panel 101 and with eventual correction of tuning, as per case (II); a storing of a selected channel, as per case (III); and an indirect station selection, either by selecting a desired cell of memory 108, as per case (IV), or by sequentially scanning the cells of memory 108, as per case (V).



 
INDESIT TC 22" SIM CHASSIS VV025C 20AX TV remote controller:
SHOWN M193 IC AND MC6529 (MOTOROLA)

An asynchronous receiver system for remotely controlling an apparatus and capable of being substanti
ally completely constructed on a single integrated circuit chip. This system includes an input stage means for receiving during successive receiving cycles an incoming signal comprising repetitive groups of serially received frequency bursts. Each burst is composed of one of a plurality of frequencies and the frequency of the incoming signal lies between harmonic frequencies of interfering signals. A frequency divider means sequentially generates a plurality of localizer frequencies at a first output terminal and a plurality of timing signals at a second plurality of output terminals. Each timing signal is associated with one of the plurality of localizer frequencies. A mixer receives inputs from the input stage and from the first output terminal and generates sum and difference signals in response to the incoming signal and to the plurality of localizer frequencies. A detector is coupled to the mixer and transmits signals of a selected frequency and amplitude range. A gating means is coupled to the detector and to the second plurality of output terminals. Each gating means is responsive to one of the plurality of timing signals and generates during successive receiving cycles successive groups of digital signals. Each of these digital signals represents one of the plurality of received frequency bursts. A memory means is coupled to the gating means and stores the digital signals. An error checking circuit is coupled to the output of the memory means and compares successive groups of digital signals in order to provide error-free operation.

Peripheral Controller - Remote Control Rec,Up to 26 Contr Cha
V(IL) Max.(V)Lo Level In.Volt.=1.5
V(IH) Min.(V)Hi Level In.Volt.=4.0
P(D) Max.(W) Power Dissipation=600m
Vsup(-) Nom.(V) Neg.Sup.Volt.=4.0
Vsup(+) Nom.(V) Pos.Sup.Volt.=12
Status=Discontinued
Package=DIP
Pins=28
Military=N
Technology=NMOS


This invention relates to remote control operation of a complex apparatus, and more particularly, to a 22 channel remote control receiver operating in the ultrasonic sound spectrum for controlling a television receiver.
Most present day remote control systems for television receivers operate in the ultrasonic frequency range. The ultrasonic signal is typically generated by causing a mechanical hammer to strike a metallic rod which is tuned to be resonant at a certain frequency. The receiver typically utilizes a transducer to convert this ultrasonic sound wave into an electrical signal which is then amplified. The ultrasonic receiver generally contains a number of resonant reed devices each of which is tuned to be resonant at a frequency corresponding to one of the transmitted signals. When one of the transmitter tuned rods is struck it sends out an ultrasonic sound wave of a predetermined frequency which is picked up by the remote control receiver where the corresponding resonant reed is energized. This causes the remote control receiver to execute the desired command. A system like this is quite simple in concept, but is expensive. A great deal of mechanic
al assembly is required to construct the transmitter tuning rods and hammer mechanisms as well as constructing and individually tuning each of the resonant tuned circuits in the receiver. A system like this is very limited in the number of functions which it can control since only about five tuned rods can be contained in a transmitter case of reasonable size. When changing from channel to channel the user is only able to remotely control either an up command or a down command to the channel changer. For example, to change from channel 5 to channel 10, the user must transmit the up command to sequentially run through channels 6, 7, 8, 9 until arriving at channel 10. This system also has inherent difficulties with preventing randomly generated noise signals from activating the remote control receiver. This is normally circumvented by greatly reducing the sensitivity of the remote control receiver so that only a very strong input signal will cause the remote control receiver to operate. Due to this low sensitivity the user must often transmit the desired command several times or must come closer to the television set to ensure that a sufficient signal strength is received by the remote control receiver.
Some very recently developed remote control systems utilize a continuous wave (C.W.) transmitter capable of generating 15-30 discrete ultrasonic frequencies each of which is able to control a separate function. The difficulty with this system is that each transmitter frequency must be very closely controlled requiring the use of crystals and high accuracy components. Due to the close frequency spacing Doppler shift caused by motion, incorrect commands will be executed if the user moves the transmitter while it is transmitting. Also, since this system has no error checking circuit, it is sensitive to random noise in the ultrasonic range. Noise of this type is often generated by jingling keys on a keychain.
OBJECTS OF THE INVENTION
It is an object of this invention to provide a 22 channel ultrasonic remote control receiver system substantially completely constructed on a single integrated circuit chip.
It is another object of the invention to provide a 22 channel ultrasonic remote control receiver system having a heterodyne frequency conversion stage.
A further object of this invention is to provide a 22 channel ultrasonic remote control receiver system having an error checking circuit and a narrow bandwidth of operation.
It is still another object of this invention to provide a 22 channel ultrasonic remote control receiver system having only two tuned circuits, one of which is a bandpass filter.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
Briefly described, a 22 channel ultrasonic remote control receiver system is provided for receiving an incoming signal composed of repetitive groups of serially transmitted frequency bursts, where each burst has one of a plurality of frequencies and where each group of bursts corresponds to a predetermined transmitted command. This received series of frequenc
y bursts is mixed with a sequentially incremented local oscillator signal to produce sum and difference signals at the output of a mixer. The mixer output is coupled to a detector stage which transmits only signals having a selected frequency and amplitude range. The detected signal is then fed to a gating circuit which converts the detected signal into a plurality of digital signals where each of the digital signals corresponds to one of the plurality of frequencies of the incoming frequency bursts. The output of the gating circuit is coupled to a memory. An error checking circuit is coupled to the memory to compare successive outputs of the gating circuit. If the error checking circuit senses a consistent digital signal during a predetermined number of receiving cycles, it transmits that digital signal on to an instruction decoder. The instruction decoder then distributes the received command to one of three control circuits which directly control selected functions.


The circuits operate in conjunction with the M193 (Electronic Program Memory), from which they take the voltage and band information in a digital serial mode. The 7 most significant digits of voltage information coming from the M193 are digitally converted into a 64 step variable pulse width giving either positive and negative polarity outputs for easy and versatile interfacing. The variable length strip is displayed over 11 lines of a half frame picture with nine vertical graduations of 31 lines. The vertical position of the strip can be adjusted with an external potentiometer over the whole screen. The 2 digits of band information determine the number of rectangles appearing on the screen under the tuning strip. The rectangles are displayed over 11 lines of a half frame picture. Automatic display is provided when the Electronic Program Memory is in the Search Mode;display on manual command is also possible. The M191 is the standard version. The M091 is alternatively for displaying the tuning voltage when the automatic search is made by scanning the band in a reverse way (i.e. from 30 to OV) as is required by the French standard. The M091 displays 30V (maximum length of the strip) when the M193 Electronic Program Memory transmits information corresponding to OV. It displays OV when the M193 transmits information corresponding to 30V. It displays OV when the M193 transmits information corresponding to 30V. The M091 and M191 are constructed in N-channel silicon gate technology and are available in a 16 pin dual in-line plastic package. ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS* Vdd* Supply voltage -0.3 to 20 V v, Input voltage -0.3 to 20 V I. Input current -5 mA Vo (off) Off-state output voltage 20 V lo Output current (except pins 12-13) 5 mA (pins 12-13) 15 mA Pfot Total package power dissipation 500 mW Tstg Storage temperature -65 to 150 °C Top Operating temperature 0 to 70 °C * Stresses above those listed under "Absolute Maximum Ratings" may cause permanent damage to the device. This is a stress rating only and functional operation of the device at these or any other condition above those indicated in the operational sections of this specification is not implied. Exposure to absolute maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability. * All voltages are with respect to Vss (GND).


M 191 DESCRIPTION Pins 1,2- Horizontal synchronization Two Horizontal sync inputs are provided to allow for positive or negative pulses from the TV receiver. Pin 1 is designed to accept a positive pulse derived from the line flyback through an interface. The circuit is triggered on the negative edge of the incoming pulse. Fig. 4 - Pin 1 >3 5v i-1 trigger edge < 0,8 v -1 i- s 3 2 35/' The negative flyback pulses must be applied to pin 2. In this case the circuit is triggered on the positive edge of the pulse. Fig. 5 - Pin 2 3.5v - < 0 8v TRIGGER EDGE The display is delayed for a time corresponding to 32 clock periods after the triggering. With a clock frequency of 1.8 MHz the delay is 9 jUsec. When pin 1 is used, pin 2 must be connected to Vss (GND); when using pin 2, pin 1 must be at VDD. Pin 3 - Field blanking output An open drain transistor is disabled during the lines which correspond to the display of the tuning scale and band information. This makes it possible to write the tuning scale and the band identification rectangles on a dark or alternative colour area. The signal is present for the full line period. Pin 4 - Display time input The display is automatically enabled when the M193 (Electronic Program Memory) is in the Search mode. The RC network applied to pin 4 determines the time the display will last after a station is found. When identification occurs the capacitor is undamped and allowed to be charged by the external resistor. The display is disabled when an internal threshold is reached. The display is also enabled if the capacitor is discharged by connecting this pin to Vss (GND) with an external clamp. If a capacitor > 10 //F is used a 1 Ksi resistor must be placed in series with pin 4. Pin 5 - 1/2 frequency clock output The clock frequency divided by two is present on this pin for measurement purposes. To allow this, connect temporarily pin 1 to Vss and pin 2 to VDn The output is open drain and an external pull-up re-sistoi is needed. If the output is not used it must be connected to Vss. 39
M 091 M191 DESCRIPTION Pin 6 - Clock oscillator input This pin is connected to a RC network as shown in fig. 1. The clock frequency determines the horizontal width on the screen of the tuning scale, of the rectangles and the distance of the display from the left edge of the screen. Fine adjustment of the clock frequency is obtained by the trimming resistor. Typical clock frequency is 1.8 MHz. Pin 7 - VDD Pin 8 - Band display enable When this pin is connected to Vss (GND) a band display with the following format is enabled, on command, together with the tuning voltage display. Fig. 6 BAND VHF ! BAND AV BAND VHF II] BAND UHF If this pin is connected to VDD only the tuning voltage will be displayed. Pin 9 - Latching time constant An RC time constant must be applied to this pin to generate the internal latching signal. The content of the internal shift register is transferred to the internal decoding circuit only at the end of the clock burst to avoid noise on the display during data transfer. This is made by integrating the incoming clock burst with the RC time constant connected to pin 9 as shown -40 M091 M191 DESCRIPTION Pin 10 - Clock input This pin accepts the burst containing the 15 clock pulses available from the M193. The burst is used to load the serial Data on pin 11 into the internal 15 bit shift register.

INDESIT TC 22" SIM  CHASSIS  VV025C  20AX Control circuit:

 A circuit device for a television receiver having a tuner device with a tuner memory operable to control the tuning of the receiver to stations selected by a user, in which there are further provided means for automatically adjusting the controls of the receiver whenever the station to which the receiver is tuned is changed, this means comprising one or a plurality of random access memories addressed by signals from the tuner memory which are characteristic of each individual station, the output signal from the RAM, (or the enabled RAM if there are a plurality of them) representing the contents thereof at the location addressed, is fed to a digital-to-analogue converter which produces an output voltage signal for adjusting the associated receiver control; changes to the content of the RAM can be made by means of an associated counter controlled to count up or down by a push button panel.

 1. In a circuit device for carrying out and memorising adjustments to the tuning of a television receiver for a plurality of transmitter stations, of the type incorporating tuner memory means for memorising the value of control signals determining the tuning of the receiver,
the improvement wherein:
said tuner memory means are also operable to produce an output signal characteristic of the station to which the receiver is tuned,
there are provided further memory means and
there are further provided means for feeding said output signal from said tuner memory means which is characteristic of the station to which the receiver is tuned as an address signal to said further memory means,
said further memory means storing signals determining the adjustment to at least one of the controls of said receiver other than the tuning control for every station to which the receiver can be tuned,
means for effecting adjustment of this control of said receiver automatically in dependence on said stored signals in said further memory means when the tuning of said receiver is changed to select a different station, and
means for selectively changing the signals stored at any one address in said further memory means whereby to change the adjustment to said one control of said television receiver in respect of any one station.


2. The circuit device of claim 1, wherein said further memory means has a plurality of sets of address locations containing information on the adjustment of a plurality of the controls of said television receiver, and there are provided means for adjusting each of these controls automatically in dependence on the value of the signals stored in the said further memory means upon each change of tuning of said receiver from one station to another.


3. The circuit device of claim 1, wherein said further memory means and said tuner memory means are formed as parts of a common memory device.

4. The circuit device of claim 1, wherein said means for adjusting the associated control of the receiver in dependence on the contents of said further memory means includes a digital-to-analogue coverter to the output of said further memory means, said digital-to-analogue converter generating a voltage signal for adjustment of said associated control of said receiver.

5. The circuit device of claim 1, wherein said further memory means comprise at least one RAM memory in non volatile NMOS technology.

6. The circuit device of claim 1, wherein said further memory means comprise at least one MOS random access memory.

7. The circuit device of claim 6, wherein said at least one RAM memory has a voltage supply from a cell battery independent from the main voltage supply to said receiver.

8. The circuit device of claim 1, wherein said means for selectively changing the signals stored at any one address in said further memory means comprise: processor means, and
selector means operable to produce output signals which are fed to said processor means, the output signals from said processor means comprising digital control signals for feeding to said further memory means at an address determined at any one time by said characteristic output signal from said tuner memory means.


9. The circuit device of claim 8, wherein said further memory means comprises an individual memory device for each control of said receiver to be adjusted by said device, and there is provided a respective counter at the input of each said memory device, and a respective analogue-to-digital converter at the output of each said memory device.

10. The circuit device of claim 8, wherein said processing means comprise a single counter to the output of which are connected switching means operable to connect this output to any one of a plurality of said further memory devices in dependence on which of said buttons of said control panel are depressed.

11. The circuit device of claim 8, wherein said selector means comprise a push-button control panel having a pair of push-buttons for each said receiver control to be adjusted by said device.

12. The circuit device of claim 11, wherein said processor means comprise at least one pre-settable up/down counter which counts up or down in dependence on which button of said panel is depressed.

13. The circuit device of claim 12, wherein the counting of said at least one counter is controlled by an oscillator circuit.

14. The circuit device of claim 12, wherein the output of said at least one counter is connected to the input of said further memory means and there are provided means for setting said further memory means into a "write" mode upon depression of one of the push buttons of the said push-button control panel.

15. The circuit device of claim 12, wherein the output of said further memory means is connected to the pre-set input of said at least one associated counter.

Description:
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to a circuit device for effecting and memorising adjustments to the setting of the controls of a television signal receiver, especially of a colour television receiver; such controls as the volume, brightness, contrast, colour saturation etc. must often be adjusted when changing stations in order to obtain optimum setting of the controls for each station to which the receiver can be tuned in order to account for differences in the signals from each station. Conventionally, television controls are mechanical control systems using potentiometers inserted into the path of the electric signal to be controlled (direct control) or else supplying a D.C. voltage by means of which electronic voltage control is effected (indirect control).
Such mechanical systems have considerable disadvantages, not only from the point of view of durability, since the potentiometers, being mechanical, are subject to wear, but also from that of performance due to non-linearity and discontinuity in the response. Moreover, such mechanical systems are not easily adaptable to the use of remote controls.
For this reason wholly electronic control systems, which operate indirectly, have been recently introduced. These usually comprise a series of counters which are able to count both up and down, each followed by a suitable digital-to-analogue converter. By energising a counter, selected by operation of one of a number of pairs of push buttons, it is possible to increase or reduce the content of this counter and thereby to cause the corresponding control voltage to vary: such variation is discontinuous, but has sufficient resolution for most purposes.
This latter system eliminates many of the disadvantages of the conventional mechanical controls but it is still not wholly satisfactory because, since each station to which a receiver can be tuned usually has modulation characteristics which are different from those of the others, with every change of station it is necessary to readjust, systematically, the controls of the receiver, that is the volume, brightness, contrast (and colour controls in the case of colour transmission).
In fact at present it is possible in many places to receive a large number of transmitter stations (in some cases more than twenty), and hence television receivers have to allow changeover from one station to another with the greatest simplicity. The technical problem which this invention seeks to solve is the provision of a circuit device which is able to effect adjustment of the controls of a receiver upon changes in the tuning thereof to receive signals from different transmitters, which does not suffer from the disadvantages of known systems.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
According to the present invention there is provided a circuit device for carrying out and memorising adjustments to the tuning of a television receiver for a plurality of transmitter stations, of the type having memory means for memorising the value of control signals determining the tuning of the receiver, in which the said memory means are also operable to produce an output signal characteristic of the station to which the receiver is tuned, and there are means for feeding this signal as an address signal to further memory means in which are stored signals determining the adjustment to at least one of the controls of the receiver, other than the tuning control, means for effecting adjustment of this control automatically in dependence on the said stored signals when the tuning of the receiver is changed to select a different station, and means for selectively changing the signal stored at any one address in the said further memory means whereby to change the adjustment to the said one control of the television receiver.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
Two embodiments of the invention will now be more particularly described, by way of example, with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:
FIG. 1 is a schematic electrical diagram of an adjustment and memorisation circuit for the controls of a television receiver, constructed and arranged as a first embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a schematic electrical diagram of a second embodiment of the present invention, which is somewhat simpler than the circuit shown in FIG. 1.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
Referring now to FIG. 1 of the drawings there is shown a control panel 1 which is provided with six adjustment buttons or keys 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. The buttons or keys 2, 4, 6, are connected each to a first input of respective OR gates 8, 9, 10, to respective inputs of a six input OR gate 11, and each to an UP/DOWN input (which controls the counting direction) of a respective one of three counters 16, 17 and 18. The buttons 3, 5, 7 are connected, respectively, to the second inputs of the OR gates 8, 9, 10 and to the remaining three inputs of the OR gate 11.
The output of the OR gate 11 is connected to a first input of an AND gate 12 and, through a differentiator circuit comprising a capacitor 13 which is earthed via a resistance 14, to the reset inputs (R) of the three counters 16, 17, 18; the second input of the AND gate 12 is fed with a signal from a clock generator 15, and the output of the AND gate 12 is connected to the clock inputs (CP) of the three counters 16, 17, 18. The outputs of the three counters 16, 17, 18 are connected, selectively by means of respective switch circuits 19, 20, 21, to the input/output terminals of three random access memories 22, 23, 24 and at the same time to the inputs of three digital-to-analogue converters 25, 26, 27 and, also at the same time to the preset inputs (PS) of the said three counters 16, 17, 18. The outputs of the three OR gates 8, 9, 10, are connected via respective delay circuits 28, 29, 30, to the "enable" inputs (CE) of respective switch circuits 19, 20, 21 and at the same time to the read-write (R/W) inputs of the random access memories 22, 23, 24. Address signals are fed to the three RAMs 22, 23, 24 from a terminal N fed from the output of a tuning control memory 49 having also an input/output line fed from a processor circuit 48 which receives control signals from a tuning control panel 47 having a plurality of push buttons or keys 47a selectively operable to choose the station to which the receiver is to be tuned. The terminal N line of the memory 49 also feeds a tuning control circuit 50 incorporating a digital-to-analogue converter and operating in a known way to control tuning of the receiver in dependence on the station selected. This system operates in a known way and does not form part of the inventive concept of the present invention, and therefore will not be further described.
The outputs of the digital-to-analogue converters 25, 26, 27, indicated by V, L and S, supply the adjustment voltages for the volume, brightness and colour controls.
The circuit described above operates as follows:
When any receivable transmitter station is selected by operation of the station selector panel 47 of the television receiver, there is applied to the input N, by the memory 49 associated therewith, a binary signal representing the selected transmitter station: this binary signal addresses the three random access memories 22, 23, 24 so that at the output thereof there is reproduced the information at present stored in those cells of the memories associated with that transmitter station, which represents the levels of the adjustment signals which were selected on a previous occasion when the receiver was tuned to that transmitter station.
The pairs of buttons 2, 3; 4, 5; and 6, 7 may be used to adjust any three of the controls of the receiver: in this example the controls to be adjusted thereby are the volume, brightness and colour saturation respectively, although they may be connected to control contrast or fine tuning of the receiver instead. The buttons 2, 4 and 6 select adjustment of the associated control in one direction, for example increasing volume, increasing brightness and increasing colour saturation, and the buttons 3, 5 and 7 select adjustment in the opposite direction, decreasing the volume, brightness or colour saturation respectively.
Upon depression, for example, of the key 2 a rest impulse is applied, through the gate 11 and the differentiator circuit comprising the capacitor 13 and resistor 14, to each of the three counters 16, 17, 18 which are then predisposed to count, starting from respective numbers which are preset, at the PS inputs thereof, from the outputs of the respective memories 22, 23, 24. The output signal from the gate 11 also enables the gate 12 to pass the clock pulses, generated by the generator 15, to the clock inputs of the three counters.
Depression of the key 2 also feeds a signal to the OR gate 8 which thus provides an output signal which, after a time delay T introduced by the delay circuit 28, sets the memory 22 to the write mode and opens the switch circuit 19 to pass on signals received from the counter 16 to the memory 22, which records them. The counters 16, 17 and 18 are predisposed to count DOWN and depression of the key 2 passes a signal to the U/D input of the counter 16 to set this in the count UP mode. When the counter 16 receives the preset signal from the RAM 22 it then starts to count up, and this is recorded simultaneously, in that cell of the memory 22 at the address, corresponding to the selected station, determined by the address signal on the input N, and the D/A converter 25 therefore supplies an increasing voltage which causes the volume to increase until the key 2 is released. During this operation, since none of the keys 4, 5, 6 or 7 have been depressed, the gates 9 and 10 have given no signal, and the content of the memories 23 and 24 has not changed.
Upon depressing the key 3, operation of the circuit is identical to that described above, except that no signal is fed to the U/D input of the counter 16 and hence the counter stays set to count down; there is thus produced a reduction in the content of the RAM 22 at the selected address with a corresponding reduction of the output voltage V, and hence a reduction in the volume of the receiver until the key 3 is released.
The pairs of keys 4, 5 and 6, 7 operate in exactly the same way to control, respectively, the counters 17 and 18 and thus the content of the memories 23 and 24. In the absence of any adjusting control effected by depression of the keys of the control panel 1 the digital-to-analogue converters 25, 26, 27 are fed with signals representing the content of the random access memories at the addresses determined by the signal at the input N and the receiver controls remain set at values determined by these.
In the embodiment of FIG. 2, components fulfilling the same function as corresponding components in the embodiment of FIG. 1 are indicated with the same reference numerals.
The UP keys 2, 4 and 6 of the control panel 1 are connected to respective inputs of an OR gate 42, the output of which is connected to a first input of another OR gate 43 and to the counting direction control input (U/D) of a counter 37; the DOWN keys 3, 5 and 7 are connected to respective inputs of an OR gate 41, the output of which is fed to a second input of the OR gate 43 the output of which is connected to an input of the gate 12 and to the capacitor 13 of the differentiator circuit including the earthed resistor 14.
The output of the OR gates 8, 9, 10 are connected to the enabling inputs (C.E.) of respective switching circuits 19, 20, 21, and via respective delay circuits 44, 45, 46, to the read-write inputs (R/W) of respective random access memories 22, 23, 24 and to respective inputs of an OR gate 47 the output of which is fed to the enable input (CE) of a switching circuit 38.
The clock input of the counter 37 is connected to the output of the gate 12, the reset input is connected to the capacitor 13, the preset input is connected to the three switching circuits 19, 21, 21, and the output is connected to the input of the switching circuit 38 the output of which is fed back to the preset input of the counter 37 and is connected to the three switching circuits 19, 20, 21.
The circuit described with reference to FIG. 2 operates as follows:
By depressing one of the keys 2, 4 or 6 the counter 37 is preset, via the gate 42, to count upwards, and via the gate 43 the passage of clock signals through the gate 12 is enabled. At the same time the associated one of the gates 8, 9 or 10 produces an output signal which enables the associated one of the switching circuits 19, 20 or 21 to pass signals fed to it. The output signal from the said one of the gates 8, 9 or 10, after a delay T introduced by the associated delay circuit 44, 45 or 46 is fed to the read/write input of the associated one of the random access memories which is thereby set to write; at the same, delayed, time the switching circuit 38 is enabled.
Meanwhile the signal from the gate 43 has supplied a reset impulse to the counter 37 which then starts to count, from the preset content of the memory 22, 23 or 24, when this arrives.
As in the embodiment of FIG. 1, the content of the memory 22, 23 or 24, at the address determined by the signal at the input N is altered, and hence the corresponding output voltage increases, and continues to increase until the key is released.
By pressing the keys 3, 5 or 7 the same operation is produced, but without energisation of the U/D input of the counter which thus counts down from the number preset by the content of the associated RAM at the selected address, whereby to reduce the controlled parameter.
The counters 16, 17, 18 of FIG. 1, and the counter 37 of FIG. 2 are all identical with each other and are of the six bit output type. Likewise the memories 22, 23 and 24 and the converters 25, 26, 27 are also of the six bit type. Moreover the above mentioned counters are so constructed and arranged that counting ceases as soon as a maximum value of 63 or a minimum value of 0 is reached.
From the above description the advantages of the device of the present invention will be clearly appreciated. By operation of this circuit it is possible to associated, with every transmitter station which can be received by a receiver, the selected best setting of the receiver controls, so that it is not necessary to readjust the controls upon each change of station in order to obtain optimum reception. Moreover it is very simple, if necessary, to alter the previous adjustments for any given station should reception conditions change, and the new values will automatically be memorised and used each time the receiver is tuned to that station unless and until the adjusted values are again changed.
Naturally, in order to retain the information when the receiver is switched off the memories 22, 23, 24 have to be of the non-volatile type, or else of the low consumption type (MOS) in order thay they may be supplied by a separate voltage source, such as a dry cell, when the main voltage source is disconnected.
Many variations are possible without nevertheless going beyond the scope of the present invention. For example, the control board need not be directly connected to the rest of the circuit as shown in the above examples, but may be connected by a remote control system, for example using infra red rays; moreover the circuit may be modified so that the counters are caused to move gradually at each pressure from a control key or button so that greater precision of adjustment is obtained. Likewise, although the RAM memories 22, 23, 24 and the tuning memory 47 are shown as independent memories, they may be formed as parts of a single common memory device.


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