Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

In Brief: On this site you will find pictures and information about some of the electronic, electrical and electrotechnical Obsolete technology relics that the Frank Sharp Private museum has accumulated over the years .
Premise: There are lots of vintage electrical and electronic items that have not survived well or even completely disappeared and forgotten.

Or are not being collected nowadays in proportion to their significance or prevalence in their heyday, this is bad and the main part of the death land. The heavy, ugly sarcophagus; models with few endearing qualities, devices that have some over-riding disadvantage to ownership such as heavy weight,toxicity or inflated value when dismantled, tend to be under-represented by all but the most comprehensive collections and museums. They get relegated to the bottom of the wants list, derided as 'more trouble than they are worth', or just forgotten entirely. As a result, I started to notice gaps in the current representation of the history of electronic and electrical technology to the interested member of the public.

Following this idea around a bit, convinced me that a collection of the peculiar alone could not hope to survive on its own merits, but a museum that gave equal display space to the popular and the unpopular, would bring things to the attention of the average person that he has previously passed by or been shielded from. It's a matter of culture. From this, the Obsolete Technology Tellye Web Museum concept developed and all my other things too. It's an open platform for all electrical Electronic TV technology to have its few, but NOT last, moments of fame in a working, hand-on environment. We'll never own Colossus or Faraday's first transformer, but I can show things that you can't see at the Science Museum, and let you play with things that the Smithsonian can't allow people to touch, because my remit is different.

There was a society once that was the polar opposite of our disposable, junk society. A whole nation was built on the idea of placing quality before quantity in all things. The goal was not “more and newer,” but “better and higher" .This attitude was reflected not only in the manufacturing of material goods, but also in the realms of art and architecture, as well as in the social fabric of everyday life. The goal was for each new cohort of children to stand on a higher level than the preceding cohort: they were to be healthier, stronger, more intelligent, and more vibrant in every way.

The society that prioritized human, social and material quality is a Winner. Truly, it is the high point of all Western civilization. Consequently, its defeat meant the defeat of civilization itself.

Today, the West is headed for the abyss. For the ultimate fate of our disposable society is for that society itself to be disposed of. And this will happen sooner, rather than later.

OLD, but ORIGINAL, Well made, Funny, Not remotely controlled............. and not Made in CHINA.

How to use the site:
- If you landed here via any Search Engine, you will get what you searched for and you can search more using the search this blog feature provided by Google. You can visit more posts scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year,
or you can click on the main photo-page to start from the main page. Doing so it starts from the most recent post to the older post simple clicking on the Older Post button on the bottom of each page after reading , post after post.

You can even visit all posts, time to time, when reaching the bottom end of each page and click on the Older Post button.

- If you arrived here at the main page via bookmark you can visit all the site scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year pointing were you want , or more simple You can even visit all blog posts, from newer to older, clicking at the end of each bottom page on the Older Post button.
So you can see all the blog/site content surfing all pages in it.

- The search this blog feature provided by Google is a real search engine. If you're pointing particular things it will search IT for you; or you can place a brand name in the search query at your choice and visit all results page by page. It's useful since the content of the site is very large.

Note that if you don't find what you searched for, try it after a period of time; the site is a never ending job !

Every CRT Television saved let revive knowledge, thoughts, moments of the past life which will never return again.........

Many contemporary "televisions" (more correctly named as displays) would not have this level of staying power, many would ware out or require major services within just five years or less and of course, there is that perennial bug bear of planned obsolescence where components are deliberately designed to fail and, or manufactured with limited edition specificities..... and without considering........picture......sound........quality........
..............The bitterness of poor quality is remembered long after the sweetness of todays funny gadgets low price has faded from memory........ . . . . . .....
Don't forget the past, the end of the world is upon us! Pretty soon it will all turn to dust!

Have big FUN ! !
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©2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 Frank Sharp - You do not have permission to copy photos and words from this blog, and any content may be never used it for auctions or commercial purposes, however feel free to post anything you see here with a courtesy link back, btw a link to the original post here , is mandatory.
All sets and apparates appearing here are property of Engineer Frank Sharp. NOTHING HERE IS FOR SALE !
All posts are presented here for informative, historical and educative purposes as applicable within Fair Use.


Friday, April 8, 2011

LOEWE ART 28 CHASSIS C9000 (110C9) INTERNAL VIEW.








 
 

The LOEWE CHASSIS C9000 was first LOEWE DIGTAL TELEVISION CHASSIS Developed around DIGIVISION ITT TECHNOLOGY.

  THE LOEWE TV CHASSIS C9000 IS FIRST LOEWE's DIGITAL TV CHASSIS AND FIRST WORLDWIDE MOST INTEGRATED IN ONE  MONOCARRIER DIGITAL TV CHASSIS TYPE. ONLY SURPASSED BY THE SCHNEIDER DTV CHASSIS DIGITAL  TV SERIES FOR FEWER COMPONENTS.
VCU 2133 A (ITT VCU2133 A) (Video Codec Decodec Unit)
DPU 2543 (ITT DPU2543) (Digital Deflection Processor Unit)
PVPU 2203 (ITT PVPU2203) (PAL and Video Processor Unit)
DTI 2222 (ITT DTI2222) (Digital Transient Improvement [Chroma])
TPU 2732 (ITT TPU2732) (Teletext Processor Unit)
MCU 2600 (ITT MCU2600) (Main Clock Unit)

The power Supply is based on TDA4601 (SIEMENS)


Switch Mode Power supply is based on TDA4601d (SIEMENS)

TDA4601 Operation. * The TDA4601 device is a single in line, 9 pin chip. Its predecessor was the TDA4600 device, the TDA4601 however has improved switching, better protection and cooler running. The (SIEMENS) TDA4601 power supply is a fairly standard parallel chopper switch mode type, which operates on the same basic principle as a line output stage. It is turned on and off by a square wave drive pulse, when switched on energy is stored in the chopper transformer primary winding in the form of a magnetic flux; when the chopper is turned off the magnetic flux collapses, causing a large back emf to be produced. At the secondary side of the chopper transformer this is rectified and smoothed for H.T. supply purposes. The advantage of this type of supply is that the high chopping frequency (20 to 70 KHz according to load) allows the use of relatively small H.T. smoothing capacitors making smoothing easier. Also should the chopper device go short circuit there is no H.T. output. In order to start up the TDA4601 I.C. an initial supply of 9v is required at pin 9, this voltage is sourced via R818 and D805 from the AC side of the bridge rectifier D801, also pin 5 requires a +Ve bias for the internal logic block. (On some sets pin 5 is used for standby switching). Once the power supply is up and running, the voltage on pin 9 is increased to 16v and maintained at this level by D807 and C820 acting as a half wave rectifier and smoothing circuit. PIN DESCRIPTIONS Pin 1 This is a 4v reference produced within the I.C. Pin 2 This pin detects the exact point at which energy stored in the chopper transformer collapses to zero via R824 and R825, and allows Q1 to deliver drive volts to the chopper transistor. It also opens the switch at pin 4 allowing the external capacitor C813 to charge from its external feed resistor R810. Pin 3 H.T. control/feedback via photo coupler D830. The voltage at this pin controls the on time of the chopper transistor and hence the output voltage. Normally it runs at Approximately 2v and regulates H.T. by sensing a proportion of the +4v reference at pin 1, offset by conduction of the photo coupler D830 which acts like a variable resistor. An increase in the conduction of transistor D830 and therefor a reduction of its resistance will cause a corresponding reduction of the positive voltage at Pin 3. A decrease in this voltage will result in a shorter on time for the chopper transistor and therefor a lowering of the output voltage and vice versa, oscillation frequency also varies according to load, the higher the load the lower the frequency etc. should the voltage at pin 3 exceed 2.3v an internal flip flop is triggered causing the chopper drive mark space ratio to extend to 244 (off time) to 1 (on time), the chip is now in over volts trip condition. Pin 4 At this pin a sawtooth waveform is generated which simulates chopper current, it is produced by a time constant network R810 and C813. C813 charges when the chopper is on and is discharged when the chopper is off, by an internal switch strapping pin 4 to the internal +2v reference, see Fig 2. The amplitude of the ramp is proportional to chopper drive. In an overload condition it reaches 4v amplitude at which point chopper drive is reduced to a mark-space ratio of 13 to 1, the chip is then in over current trip. The I.C. can easily withstand a short circuit on the H.T. rail and in such a case the power supply simply squegs quietly. Pin 4 is protected by internal protection components which limit the maximum voltage at this pin to 6.5v. Should a fault occur in either of the time constant components, then the chopper transistor will probably be destroyed. Pin 5 This pin can be used for remote control on/off switching of the power supply, it is normally held at about +7v and will cause the chip to enter standby mode if it falls below 2v. Pin 6 Ground. Pin 7 Chopper switch off pin. This pin clamps the chopper drive voltage to 1.6v in order to switch off the chopper. Pin 8 Chopper base current output drive pin. Pin 9 L.T. pin, approximately 9v under start-up conditions and 16v during normal running, Current consumption of the I.C. is typically 135mA. The voltage at this pin must reach 6.7v in order for the chip to start-up.

Semiconductor circuit for supplying power to electrical equipment, comprising a transformer having a primary winding connected, via a parallel connection of a collector-emitter path of a transistor with a first capacitor, to both outputs of a rectifier circuit supplied, in turn, by a line a-c voltage; said transistor having a base controlled via a second capacitor by an output of a control circuit acted upon, in turn by the rectified a-c line voltage as actual value and by a reference voltage; said transformer having a first secondary winding to which the electrical equipment to be supplied is connected; said transformer having a second secondary winding with one terminal thereof connected to the emitter of said transistor and the other terminal thereof connected to an anode of a first diode leading to said control circuit; said transformer having a third secondary winding with one terminal thereof connected, on the one hand, via a series connection of a third capacitor with a first resistance, to the other terminal of said third secondary winding and connected, on the other hand, to the emitter of said transistor, the collector of which is connected to said primary winding; a point between said third capacitor and said first resistance being connected to the cathode of a second diode; said control circuit having nine terminals including a first terminal delivering a reference voltage and connected, via a voltage divider formed of a third and fourth series-connected resistances, to the anode of said second diode; a second terminal of said control circuit serving for zero-crossing identification being connected via a fifth resistance to said cathode of said second diode; a third terminal of said control-circuit serving as actual value input being directly connected to a divider point of said voltage divider forming said connection of said first terminal of said control circuit to said anode of said second diode; a fourth terminal of said control circuit delivering a sawtooth voltage being connected via a sixth resistance to a terminal of said primary winding of said transformer facing away from said transistor; a fifth terminal of said control circuit serving as a protective input being connected, via a seventh resistance to the cathode of said first diode and, through the intermediary of said seventh resistance and an eighth resistance, to the cathode of a third diode having an anode connected to an input of said rectifier circuit; a sixth terminal of said control circuit carrying said reference potential and being connected via a fourth capacitor to said fourth terminal of said control circuit and via a fifth capacitor to the anode of said second diode; a seventh terminal of said control circuit establishing a potential for pulses controlling said transistor being connected directly and an eighth terminal of said control circuit effecting pulse control of the base of said transistor being connected through the intermediary of a ninth resistance to said first capacitor leading to the base of said transistor; and a ninth terminal of said control circuit serving as a power supply input of said control circuit being connected both to the cathode of said first diode as well as via the intermediary of a sixth capacitor to a terminal of said second secondary winding as well as to a terminal of said third secondary winding.


Description:
The invention relates to a blocking oscillator type switching power supply for supplying power to electrical equipment, wherein the primary winding of a transformer, in series with the emitter-collector path of a first bipolar transistor, is connected to a d-c voltage obtained by rectification of a line a-c voltage fed-in via two external supply terminals, and a secondary winding of the transformer is provided for supplying power to the electrical equipment, wherein, furthermore, the first bipolar transistor has a base controlled by the output of a control circuit which is acted upon in turn by the rectified a-c line voltage as actual value and by a set-point transmitter, and wherein a starting circuit for further control of the base of the first bipolar transistor is provided.
Such a blocking oscillator switching power supply is described in the German periodical, "Funkschau" (1975) No. 5, pages 40 to 44. It is well known that the purpose of such a circuit is to supply electronic equipment, for example, a television set, with stabilized and controlled supply voltages. Essential for such switching power supply is a power switching transistor i.e. a bipolar transistor with high switching speed and high reverse voltage. This transistor therefore constitutes an important component of the control element of the control circuit. Furthermore, a high operating frequency and a transformer intended for a high operating frequency are provided, because generally, a thorough separation of the equipment to be supplied from the supply naturally is desired. Such switching power supplies may be constructed either for synchronized or externally controlled operation or for non-synchronized or free-running operation. A blocking converter is understood to be a switching power supply in which power is delivered to the equipment to be supplied only if the switching transistor establishing the connection between the primary coil of the transformer and the rectified a-c voltage is cut off. The power delivered by the line rectifier to the primary coil of the transformer while the switching transistor is open, is interim-stored in the transformer and then delivered to the consumer on the secondary side of the transformer with the switching transistor cut off.
In the blocking converter described in the aforementioned reference in the literature, "Funkschau" (1975), No. 5, Pages 40 to 44, the power switching transistor is connected in the manner defined in the introduction to this application. In addition, a so-called starting circuit is provided. Because several diodes are generally provided in the overall circuit of a blocking oscillator according to the definition provided in the introduction hereto, it is necessary, in order not to damage these diodes, that due to the collector peak current in the case of a short circuit, no excessive stress of these diodes and possibly existing further sensitive circuit parts can occur.
Considering the operation of a blocking oscillator, this means that, in the event of a short circuit, the number of collector current pulses per unit time must be reduced. For this purpose, a control and regulating circuit is provided. Simultaneously, a starting circuit must bring the blocking converter back to normal operation when the equipment is switched on, and after disturbances, for example, in the event of a short circuit. The starting circuit shown in the literature reference "Funkschau" on Page 42 thereof, differs to some extent already from the conventional d-c starting circuits. It is commonly known for all heretofore known blocking oscillator circuits, however, that a thyristor or an equivalent circuit replacing the thyristor is essential for the operation of the control circuit.
It is accordingly an object of the invention to provide another starting circuit. It is a further object of the invention to provide a possible circuit for the control circuit which is particularly well suited for this purpose. It is yet another object of the invention to provide such a power supply which is assured of operation over the entire range of line voltages from 90 to 270 V a-c, while the secondary voltages and secondary load variations between no-load and short circuit are largely constant.
With the foregoing and other objects in view, there is provided, in accordance with the invention, a blocking oscillator-type switching power supply for supplying power to electrical equipment wherein a primary winding of a transformer, in series with an emitter-collector path of a first bipolar transistor, is connected to a d-c voltage obtained by rectification of a line a-c voltage fed-in via two external supply terminals, a secondary winding of the transformer being connectible to the electrical equipment for supplying power thereto, the first bipolar transistor having a base controlled by the output of a control circuit acted upon, in turn, by the rectified a-c line voltage as actual value and by a set-point transmitter, and including a starting circuit for further control of the base of the first bipolar transistor, including a first diode in the starting circuit having an anode directly connected to one of the supply terminals supplied by the a-c line voltage and a cathode connected via a resistor to an input serving to supply power to the control circuit, the input being directly connected to a cathode of a second diode, the second diode having an anode connected to one terminal of another secondary winding of the transformer, the other secondary winding having another terminal connected to the emitter of the first bipolar transmitter.
In accordance with another feature of the invention, there is provided a second bipolar transistor having the same conduction type as that of the first bipolar transistor and connected in the starting circuit with the base thereof connected to a cathode of a semiconductor diode, the semiconductor diode having an anode connected to the emitter of the first bipolar transistor, the second bipolar transistor having a collector connected via a resistor to a cathode of the first diode in the starting circuit, and having an emitter connected to the input serving to supply power to the control circuit and also connected to the cathode of the second diode which is connected to the other secondary winding of the transformer.
In accordance with a further feature of the invention, the base of the second bipolar transistor is connected to a resistor and via the latter to one pole of a first capacitor, the anode of the first diode being connected to the other pole of the first capacitor.
In accordance with an added feature of the invention, the input serving to supply power to the control circuit is connected via a second capacitor to an output of a line rectifier, the output of the line rectifier being directly connected to the emitter of the first bipolar transistor.
In accordance with an additional feature of the invention, the other secondary winding is connected at one end to the emitter of the first bipolar transistor and to a pole of a third capacitor, the third capacitor having another pole connected, on the one hand, via a resistor, to the other end of the other secondary winding and, on the other hand, to a cathode of a third diode, the third diode having an anode connected via a potentiometer to an actual value input of the control circuit and, via a fourth capacitor, to the emitter of the first bipolar transistor.
In accordance with yet another feature of the invention, the control circuit has a control output connected via a fifth capacitor to the base of the first bipolar transistor for conducting to the latter control pulses generated in the control circuit.
In accordance with a concomitant feature of the invention, there is provided a sixth capacitor shunting the emitter-collector path of the first transistor.
Other features which are considered as characteristic for the invention are set forth in the appended claim.
Although the invention is illustrated and described herein as embodied in a blocking oscillator type switching power supply, it is nevertheless not intended to be limited to the details shown, since various modifications and structural changes may be made therein without departing from the spirit of the invention and within the scope and range of equivalents of the claims.

The construction and method of operation of the invention, however, together with additional objects and advantages thereof will be best understood from the following description of specific embodiments when read in connection with the accompanying drawings, in which:

FIGS. 1 and 2 are circuit diagrams of the blocking oscillator type switching power supply according to the invention; and

FIG. 3 is a circuit diagram of the control unit RS of FIGS. 1 and 2.

Referring now to the drawing and, first, particularly to FIG. 1 thereof, there is shown a rectifier circuit G in the form of a bridge current, which is acted upon by a line input represented by two supply terminals 1' and 2'. Rectifier outputs 3' and 4' are shunted by an emitter-collector path of an NPN power transistor T1 i.e. the series connection of the so-called first bipolar transistor referred to hereinbefore with a primary winding I of a transformer Tr. Together with the inductance of the transformer Tr, the capacitance C1 determines the frequency and limits the opening voltages of the switch embodied by the first transistor T1. A capacitance C2, provided between the base of the first transistor T1 and the control output 7,8 of a control circuit RS, separates the d-c potentials of the control or regulating circuit RS and the switching transistor T1 and serves for addressing this switching transistor T1 with pulses. A resistor R1 provided at the control output 7,8 of the control circuit RS is the negative-feedback resistor of both output stages of the control circuit RS. It determines the maximally possible output pulse current of the control circuit RS. A secondary winding II of the transformer Tr takes over the power supply of the control circuit, in steady state operation, via the diode D1. To this end, the cathode of this diode D1 is directly connected to a power supply input 9 of the control circuit RS, while the anode thereof is connected to one terminal of the secondary winding II. The other terminal of the secondary winding II is connected to the emitter of the power switching transistor T1.

The cathode of the diode D1 and, therewith, the power supply terminal 9 of the control circuits RS are furthermore connected to one pole of a capacitor C3, the other pole of which is connected to the output 3' of the rectifier G. The capacitance of this capacitor C3 thereby smoothes the positive half-wave pulses and serves simultaneously as an energy storage device during the starting period. Another secondary winding III of the transformer Tr is connected by one of the leads thereof likewise to the emitter of the first transistor T1, and by the other lead thereof via a resistor R2, to one of the poles of a further capacitor C4, the other pole of which is connected to the first-mentioned lead of the other secondary winding III. This second pole of the capacitor C4 is simultaneously connected to the output 3' of the rectifier circuit G and, thereby, via the capacitor C3, to the cathode of the diode D1 driven by the secondary winding II of the transformer Tr as well as to the power supply input 9 of the control circuit RS and, via a resistor R9, to the cathode of a second diode D4. The second pole of the capacitor C4 is simultaneously connected directly to the terminal 6 of the control circuit RS and, via a further capacitor C 6, to the terminal 4 of the control circuit RS as well as, additionally, via the resistor R6, to the other output 4' of the rectifier circuit G. The other of the poles of the capacitor C4 acted upon by the secondary winding II is connected via a further capacitor C5 to a node, which is connected on one side thereof, via a variable resistor R4, to the terminals 1 and 3 of the control circuit RS, with the intermediary of a fixed resistor R5 in the case of the terminal 1. On the other side of the node, the latter and, therefore, the capacitor C5 are connected to the anode of a third diode D2, the cathode of which is connected on the one hand, to the resistor R2 mentioned hereinbefore and leads to the secondary winding III of the transformer Tr and, on the other hand, via a resistor R3 to the terminal 2 of the control circuit RS.

The nine terminals of the control circuit RS have the following purposes or functions:

Terminal 1 supplies the internally generated reference voltage to ground i.e. the nominal or reference value required for the control or regulating process;

Terminal 2 serves as input for the oscillations provided by the secondary winding III, at the zero point of which, the pulse start of the driving pulse takes place;

Terminal 3 is the control input, at which the existing actual value is communicated to the control circuit RS, that actual value being generated by the rectified oscillations at the secondary winding III;

Terminal 4 is responsive to the occurrence of a maximum excursion i.e. when the largest current flows through the first transistor T1 ;

Terminal 5 is a protective input which responds if the rectified line voltage drops too sharply; Terminal 6 serves for the power supply of the control process and, indeed, as ground terminal;

Terminal 7 supplies the d-c component required for charging the coupling capacitor C2 leading to the base of the first transistor T1 ;

Terminal 8 supplies the control pulse required for the base of the first transistor T1 ; and

Terminal 9 serves as the first terminal of the power supply of the control circuit RS.

Further details of the control circuit RS are described hereinbelow.

The capacity C3 smoothes the positive half-wave pulses which are provided by the secondary winding II, and simultaneously serves as an energy storage device during the starting time. The secondary winding III generates the control voltage and is simultaneously used as feedback. The time delay stage R2 /C4 keeps harmonics and fast interference spikes away from the control circuit RS. The resistor R3 is provided as a voltage divider for the second terminal of the control circuit RS. The diode D2 rectifies the control pulses delivered by the secondary winding III. The capacity C5 smoothes the control voltage. A reference voltage Uref, which is referred to ground i.e. the potential of terminal 6 is present at the terminal 1 of the control circuit RS. The resistors R4 and R5 form a voltage divider of the input-difference control amplifier at the terminal 3. The desired secondary voltage can be set manually via the variable resistor R4. A time-delay stage R6 /C6 forms a sawtooth rise which corresponds to the collector current rise of the first bipolar transistor T1 via the primary winding I of the transformer Tr. The sawtooth present at the terminal 4 of the control circuit RS is limited there between the reference voltage 2 V and 4 V. The voltage divider R7 /R8 (FIG. 2), brings to the terminal 5 of the control circuit RS the enabling voltage for the drive pulse at the output 8 of the control circuit RS.

The diode D4, together with the resistor R9 in cooperation with the diode D1 and the secondary winding II, forms the starting circuit provided, in accordance with the invention. The operation thereof is as follows:

After the switching power supply is switched on, d-c voltages build up at the collector of the switching transistor T1 and at the input 4 of the control circuit RS, as a function in time of the predetermined time constants. The positive sinusoidal half-waves charge the capacitor C3 via the starting diode D4 and the starting resistor R9 in dependence upon the time constant R9.C3. Via the protective input terminal 5 and the resistor R11 not previously mentioned and forming the connection between the resistor R9 and the diode D1, on the one hand, and the terminal 5 of the control circuit RS, on the other hand, the control circuit RS is biased ready for switching-on, and the capacitor C2 is charged via the output 7. When a predetermined voltage value at the capacitor C3 or the power supply input 9 of the control circuit RS, respectively, is reached, the reference voltage i.e. the nominal value for the operation of the control voltage RS, is abruptly formed, which supplies all stages of the control circuit and appears at the output 1 thereof. Simultaneously, the switching transistor T1 is switched into conduction via the output 8. The switching of the transistor T1 at the primary winding T of the transformer Tr is transformed to the second secondary winding II, the capacity C3 being thereby charged up again via the diode D1. If sufficient energy is stored in the capacitor C3 and if the re-charge via the diode D1 is sufficient so that the voltage at a supply input 9 does not fall below the given minimum operating voltage, the switching power supply then remains connected, so that the starting process is completed. Otherwise, the starting process described is repeated several times.

In FIG. 2, there is shown a further embodiment of the circuit for a blocking oscillator type switching power supply, according to the invention, as shown in FIG. 1. Essential for this circuit of FIG. 2 is the presence of a second bipolar transistor T2 of the type of the first bipolar transistor T1 (i.e. in the embodiments of the invention, an npn-transistor), which forms a further component of the starting circuit and is connected with the collector-emitter path thereof between the resistor R9 of the starting circuit and the current supply input 9 of the control circuit RS. The base of this second transistor T2 is connected to a node which leads, on the one hand, via a resistor R10 to one electrode of a capacitor C7, the other electrode of which is connected to the anode of the diode D4 of the starting circuit and, accordingly, to the terminal 1' of the supply input of the switching power supply G. On the other hand, the last-mentioned node and, therefore, the base of the second transistor T2 are connected to the cathode of a Zener diode D3, the anode of which is connected to the output 3' of the rectifier G and, whereby, to one pole of the capacitor C3, the second pole of which is connected to the power supply input 9 of the control circuit RS as well as to the cathode of the diode D1 and to the emitter of the second transistor T2. In other respects, the circuit according to FIG. 2 corresponds to the circuit according to FIG. 1 except for the resistor R11 which is not necessary in the embodiment of FIG. 2, and the missing connection between the resistor R9 and the cathode of the diode D1, respectively, and the protective input 5 of the control circuit RS.

Regarding the operation of the starting circuit according to FIG. 2, it can be stated that the positive sinusoidal half-wave of the line voltage, delayed by the time delay stage C7, R10 drives the base of the transistor T2 in the starting circuit. The amplitude is limited by the diode D3 which is provided for overvoltage protection of the control circuit RS and which is preferably incorporated as a Zener diode. The second transistor T2 is switched into conduction. The capacity C3 is charged, via the serially connected diode D4 and the resistor R9 and the collector-emitter path of the transistor T2, as soon as the voltage between the terminal 9 and the terminal 6 of the control circuit RS i.e. the voltage U9, meets the condition U9 <[UDs -UBE (T2)].

Because of the time constant R9.C3, several positive half-waves are necessary in order to increase the voltage U9 at the supply terminal 9 of the control circuit RS to such an extent that the control circuit RS is energized. During the negative sine half-wave, a partial energy chargeback takes place from the capacitor C3 via the emitter-base path of the transistor T2 of the starting circuit and via the resistor R10 and the capacitor C7, respectively, into the supply network. At approximately 2/3 of the voltage U9, which is limited by the diode D3, the control circuit RS is switched on. At the terminal 1 thereof, the reference voltage Uref then appears. In addition, the voltage divider R5 /R4 becomes effective. At the terminal 3, the control amplifier receives the voltage forming the actual value, while the first bipolar transistor T1 of the blocking-oscillator type switching power supply is addressed pulsewise via the terminal 8.

Because the capacitor C6 is charged via the resistor R6, a higher voltage than Uref is present at the terminal 4 if the control circuit RS is activated. The control voltage then discharges the capacitor C6 via the terminal 4 to half the value of the reference voltage Uref, and immediately cuts off the addressing input 8 of the control circuit RS. The first driving pulse of the switching transistor T1 is thereby limited to a minimum of time. The power for switching-on the control circuit RS and for driving the transistor T1 is supplied by the capacitor C3. The voltage U9 at the capacitor C3 then drops. If the voltage U9 drops below the switching-off voltage value of the control circuit RS, the latter is then inactivated. The next positive sine half-wave would initiate the starting process again.

By switching the transistor T1, a voltage is transformed in the secondary winding II of the transformer Tr. The positive component is rectified by the diode D1, recharing of the capacitor C3 being thereby provided. The voltage U9 at the output 9 does not, therefore, drop below the minimum value required for the operation of the control circuit RS, so that the control circuit RS remains activated. The power supply continues to operate in the rhythm of the existing conditions. In operation, the voltage U9 at the supply terminal 9 of the control circuit RS has a value which meets the condition U9 >[UDs -UBE (T2)], so that the transistor T2 of the starting circuit remains cut off.

For the internal layout of the control circuit RS, the construction shown, in particular, from FIG. 3 is advisable. This construction is realized, for example, in the commercially available type TDA 4600 (Siemens AG).

The block diagram of the control circuit according to FIG. 3 shows the power supply thereof via the terminal 9, the output stage being supplied directly whereas all other stages are supplied via Uref. In the starting circuit, the individual subassemblies are supplied with power sequentially. The d-c output voltage potential of the base current gain i.e. the voltage for the terminal 8 of the control circuit RS, and the charging of the capacitor C2 via the terminal 7 are formed even before the reference voltage Uref appears. Variations of the supply voltage U9 at terminal 9 and the power fluctuations at the terminal 8/terminal 7 and at the terminal 1 of the control circuit RS are leveled or smoothed out by the voltage control. The temperature sensitivity of the control circuit RS and, in particular, the uneven heating of the output and input stages and input stages on the semiconductor chip containing the control circuit in monolithically integrated form are intercepted by the temperature compensation provided. The output values are constant in a specific temperature range. The message for blocking the output stage, if the supply voltage at the terminal 9 is too low, is given also by this subassembly to a provided control logic.

The outer voltage divider of the terminal 1 via the resistors R5 and R4 to the control tap U forms, via terminal 3, the variable side of the bridge for the control amplifier formed as a differential amplifier. The fixed bridge side is formed by the reference voltage Uref via an internal voltage divider. Similarly formed are circuit portions serving for the detection of an overload short circuit and circuit portions serving for the "standby" no-load detection, which can be operated likewise via terminal 3.

Within a provided trigger circuit, the driving pulse length is determined as a function of the sawtooth rise at the terminal 4, and is transmitted to the control logic. In the control logic, the commands of the trigger circuit are processed. Through the zero-crossing identification at input 2 in the control circuit RS, the control logic is enabled to start the control input only at the zero point of the frequency oscillation. If the voltages at the terminal 5 and at the terminal 9 are too low, the control logic blocks the output amplifier at the terminal 8. The output amplifier at the terminal 7 which is responsible for the base charge in the capacitor C2, is not touched thereby.

The base current gain for the transistor T1 i.e. for the first transistor in accordance with the definition of the invention, is formed by two amplifiers which mutually operate on the capacitor C2. The roof inclination of the base driving current for the transistor T1 is impressed by the collector current simulation at the terminal 4 to the amplifier at the terminal 8. The control pulse for the transistor T1 at the terminal 8 is always built up to the potential present at the terminal 7. The amplifier working into the terminal 7 ensures that each new switching pulse at the terminal 8 finds the required base level at terminal 7.

Supplementing the comments regarding FIG. 1, it should also be mentioned that the cathode of the diode D1 connected by the anode thereof to the one end of the secondary winding II of the transformer Tr is connected via a resistor R11 to the protective input 5 of the control circuit RS whereas, in the circuit according to FIG. 2, the protective input 5 of the control circuit RS is supplied via a voltage divider R8, R7 directly from the output 3', 4' of the rectifier G delivering the rectified line a-c voltage, and which obtains the voltage required for executing its function. It is evident that the first possible manner of driving the protective input 5 can be used also in the circuit according to FIG. 2, and the second possibility also in a circuit in accordance with FIG. 1.

The control circuit RS which is shown in FIG. 3 and is realized in detail by the building block TDA 4600 and which is particularly well suited in conjunction with the blocking oscillator type switching power supply according to the invention has 9 terminals 1-9, which have the following characteristics, as has been explained in essence hereinabove:

Terminal 1 delivers a reference voltage Uref which serves as the constant-current source of a voltage divider R5.R4 which supplies the required d-c voltages for the differential amplifiers provided for the functions control, overload detection, short-circuit detection and "standby"-no load detection. The dividing point of the voltage divider R5 -R4 is connected to the terminal 3 of the control circuit RS. The terminal 3 provided as the control input of RS is controlled in the manner described hereinabove as input for the actual value of the voltage to be controlled or regulated by the secondary winding III of the transformer Tr. With this input, the lengths of the control pulses for the switching transistor T1 are determined.

Via the input provided by the terminal 2 of the control circuit RS, the zero-point identification in the control circuit is addressed for detecting the zero-point of the oscillations respectively applied to the terminal 2. If this oscillation changes over to the positive part, then the addressing pulse controlling the switching transistor T1 via the terminal 8 is released in the control logic provided in the control circuit.

A sawtooth-shaped voltage, the rise of which corresponds to the collector current of the switching transistor T1, is present at the terminal 4 and is minimally and maximally limited by two reference voltages. The sawtooth voltage serves, on the one hand as a comparator for the pulse length while, on the other hand, the slope or rise thereof is used to obtain in the base current amplification for the switching transistor T1, via the terminal 8, a base drive of this switching transistor T1 which is proportional to the collector current.

The terminal 7 of the control circuit RS as explained hereinbefore, determines the voltage potential for the addressing pulses of the transistor T2. The base of the switching transistor T1 is pulse-controlled via the terminal 8, as described hereinbefore. Terminal 9 is connected as the power supply input of the control circuit RS. If a voltage level falls below a given value, the terminal 8 is blocked. If a given positive value of the voltage level is exceeded, the control circuit is activated. The terminal 5 releases the terminal 8 only if a given voltage potential is present.

Foreign References:
DE2417628A1 1975-10-23 363/37
DE2638225A1 1978-03-02 363/49
Other References:
Grundig Tech. Info. (Germany), vol. 28, No. 4, (1981).
IBM Technical Disclosure Bulletin, vol. 19, No. 3, pp. 978, 979, Aug. 1976.
German Periodical, "Funkschau", (1975), No. 5, pp. 40 to 44.
Inventors:

Peruth, Gunther (Munich, DE) Siemens Aktiengesellschaft (Berlin and Munich, DE)




DIGITIZATION OF "TV FUNCTIONS"
The idea of digitization of TV functions is not new. The time some companies have started to work on it, silicon technology was not really adequate for the needed computing power so that the most effective solutions were full custom designs. This forced the block-oriented architecture where the digital functions introduced were the one to one replacement of an existing analog function. In Figure 2 there is a simplified representation of the general concept.
Fig.2: Block Diagram of first generation digital TV set
The natural separation of video and audio resulted in some incompatibilities and duplication of primary functions. The emitting principle is not changed, redundancy is a big handicap, for example the time a SECAM channel is running, the PAL functions are not in operation. New generations of digital TV systems should re-think the whole concept top down before VLSI system partitioning.
In today’s state-of-the-art solution one can recognize all the basic functions of the analog TV set with, however, a modularity in the concept, permitting additional features becomes possible, some special digital possibilities are exploited, e.g. storage and filtering techniques to improve signal reproduction (adaptive filtering, 100 Hz technology), to integrate special functions (picture-in-picture, zoom, still picture) or to receive digital broadcasting standards (MAC, NICAM). The Figure 3 shows the ITT Semiconductors solution which was the first on the market in 1983 !! !!
Fig.3: The DIGIT2000 TV receiver block diagram
Description:This invention relates generally to digital television receivers and, particularly, to digital television receivers arranged for economical interfacing with a plurality of auxiliary devices.
With the proliferation of low cost microprocessors and microprocessor controlled devices, television (TV) receivers are being designed to utilize digitized signals and controls. There are many advantages associated with digital TV receivers, including uniformity of product, precise control of signal parameters and operating conditions, elimination of mechanical switches and a potential for reliability that has been heretofore unknown. Digital television receivers include a high speed communication bus for interconnecting a central control unit microprocessor (CCU) with various TV function modules for processing a TV signal. These m
odules include a deflection processing unit (DPU), a video processing unit (VPU), an automatic phase control (APC), a video codec unit (VCU), an audio analog to digital converter (ADC) and an audio processing unit (APU). The CCU has associated with it a non-volatile memory, a hardware-generated clock signal source and a suitable interface circuit for enabling the CCU to control processing of the TV signal throughout the various TV function modules. The received TV signal is in analog form and suitable analog to digital (A/D) converters and digital to analog (D/A) converters are provided for converting the digital and analog signals for signal processing and for reconverting them after processing for driving a cathode ray tube (CRT) and suitable speakers. The CCU microprocessor is heavily burdened because of the high speed timing required to control the various TV function modules.
To further complicate matters, modern TV receivers are increasingly being used with auxiliary devices for other than simple processing of TV signals. For example, the video cassette recorder (VCR) has enabled so-called "time-shifting" of program material by recording TV signals for later, more convenient viewing. The VCR is also extensively used with prerecorded material and with programs produced by users having access to a video camera. Other auxiliary devices providing features such as "Space Phone" whereby the user is enabled to make and receive telephone calls through his TV receiver, are desirable options. Additionally, a source selector auxiliary device enables a host of different signal sources, such as cable, over-the-air antenna, video disk, video games, etc. to be connected for use with the signal processing circuitry of the TV. In addition, all of these many auxiliary devices are preferably controllable from a remote position. A great deal of flexibility is available since each of the above auxiliary devices includes a microprocessor for internally controlling functioning of the device.
In the digital TV system described, the CCU microprocessor and the microprocessors in the auxiliary devices may be conventionally arranged to communicate over the main communication bus. Such a system would entail a specialized microprocessor with a hardware-generated clock signal in each auxiliary device in order to communicate at the high speeds used on the main communication bus. A specialized microprocessor, that is, one that is hardware configured, is significantly more expensive than an off-the-shelf microprocessor. Also, the auxiliary devices may not be required, or even desired, by all users and their low volume production cost becomes very important. It would therefore be desirable to provide a digital TV in which such auxiliary devices utilized off-the-shelf microprocessors for their control.


LOEWE  ART  28   CHASSIS C9000  (110C9) Digital Signal Processing Overview / Description:

The entire video signal processing function for PAL and
SECAM, the videotext decoder and the deflection signal
generator, are located together on one board the CHASSIS C9000

This contains the VCU 2133 as an analog-digital converter for
the video signals, the PVPU 2203 and SPU 2220 for PAL and
SECAM signal processing respectively, the DTI 2222 for
improved reproduction of colour transitions, the TPU 2732 with
page buffer IC 645 for videotext decoding, the deflection
processor DPU 2543 and clock pulse generator MCU 2600 for
generating the working clock pulse for all processors.


After conversion of the FBAS (composite colour) signal selected
into digital form (7-bit gray code), this is passed from output
Pins 2-8 ofthe VCU to SPU 2220, IC 630, to TPU 2732, IC 640
and to DPU 2540.
The further path of the video signal leads first to the SECAM
processor SPU 2220. Here the signal standard is identified and
appropriately switched. In the case of a PAL signal, the input
information is passed unaltered to the video output (Pins 14-20),
and thus on to the input of PVPU 2203, Pins 5-11.
For further processing of the PAL signal, it is first split inside the
IC into luminance and chroma components. The conditioned
luminance signal, extended by 1 bit, appears on the output side
at Pins 32-39, and passes from here to DTI 2222, Pins 6-13.
The chroma signal component is demodulated, decoded and
converted into the colour difference signals in PVPU 2203;
these signals are then also passed (in multiplex mode, together
with picture tube beam current measured data), via output Pins
27-30 to DTI 2222, Pins 17-20.
At this point, the SECAM chroma signal path from SPU 2220,
output Pins 23-26, rejoins the main path. If the input signal is
identified as a SECAM signal in the SPU, the SECAM decoder
is activated, and the decoded signal appears at the output in the
same form as with the PAL processor.
In this case, the luminance signal component is passed through
an integrated delay circuit of 3.7 us, in order to compensate for
the corresponding travel time in the SECAM colour decoder,
and is then fed on the same path as the PAL signal (Pins 14-20,
SPU 2220, PVPU 2203) to DTI 2222, Pins 6-13. All adjustment
functions required for the signals, such as contrast, brightness,
colour intensity, etc. are of course controlled inside the IC via
the IM Bus.
Integrated circuit DTI 2222 serves solely to improve
reproduction of colour transitions on the screen. Since (owing to
the smaller transmission bandwidth with chroma) the signal
leading edges are very flat compared with Y-signals, a clear
improvement in the quality of colour reproduction can be
achieved by electronically increasing the steepness of the
edges. Since the signal manipulation involved increases travel
times in the chroma channel, this must be compensated by a
corresponding delay in the luminance channel. This function is
contained in DTI 2222, so that there are no differences in travel
time at the outputs of this circuit (Pins 27-34 for Y and Pins 22-25 for chroma).


VCU 2133 A (ITT VCU2133 A) (Video Codec Decodec Unit)
DPU 2543 (ITT DPU2543) (Digital Deflection Processor Unit)
PVPU 2203 (ITT PVPU2203) (PAL and Video Processor Unit)
DTI 2222 (ITT DTI2222) (Digital Transient Improvement [Chroma])
TPU 2732 (ITT TPU2732) (Teletext Processor Unit)
MCU 2600 (ITT MCU2600) (Main Clock Unit)















































































































VCU 2133 Video Codec UNIT


High-speed coder/decoder IC for analog-to-digital and di-
gital-to-analog conversion of the video signal in digital TV
receivers based on the DIGIT 2000 concept. The VCU 2133
is a VLSI circuit in Cl technology, housed in a 40-pin Dil
plastic package. One single silicon chip combines the fol-
lowing functions and circuit details (Fig. 1):
- two input video amplifiers
- one A/D converter for the composite video signal
- the noise inverter
- one D/A converter for the luminance signal
- two D/A converters for the color difference signals
- one RGB matrix for converting the color difference sig-
nals and the luminance signal into RGB signals
- three RGB output amplifiers
- programmable auxiliary circuits for blanking, brightness
adjustment and picture tube alignment
- additional clamped RGB inputs for text and other analog
RGB signals
- programmable beam current limiting
1. Functional Description
The VCU 2133 Video Codec is intended for converting the
analog composite video signal from the video demodulator
into a digital signal. The latter is further processed

digitally
in the VPU 2203 Video Processor and in the DPU 2553 De-
flection Processor. After processing in the VPU 2203 (color
demodulation, PAL compensation, etc.), the VPU‘s digital
output signals (luminance and color difference) are recon-
verted into analog signals in the VCU 2133. From these an-
alog signals are derived the RGB signals by means of the
RGB matrix, and, after amplification in the integrated RGB
amplifiers, the RGB signals drive the RGB output amplifiers
of the color T\/ set.
For TV receivers using the NTSC standard the VPU 2203
may be replaced by the CVPU 2233 Comb Filter Video Pro-
cessor which is pin-compatible with the VPU 2203, but of-
fers better video performance. In the case of SECAM, the
SPU 2220 SECAM Chroma Processor must be connected
in parallel to the VPU 2203 for chroma processing, while
the luma processing remains inthe VPU 2203.
In a more sophisticated CTV receiver according to the Dl-
GIT 2000 concept, after the VPU Video Processor may be
placed the DTI 2223 Digital Transient Improvement Proces-
sor which serves for sharpening color transients on the
screen. The output signals of the DTI are fed to the VCU’s
luma and chroma inputs. To achieve the desired transient
improvement, the R-Y and B-Y D/A converters of the VCU
must be stopped for a certain time which is done by the
hold pulse supplied by the DTI and fed to
the Reset pin 23
of the VCU. The pulse detector following this pin seperates
the (capacitively-coupled) hold pulse from the reset signal.
In addition, the VCU 2133 carries out the functions:
- brightness adjustment
- automatic CRT spot-cutoff control (black level)
- white balance control and beam current limiting
Further, the VCU 2133 offers direct inputs for text or other
analog RGB signals including adjustment of brightness and
contrast for these signals.
The RGB matrix and RGB amplifier circuits integrated in
the VCU 2133 are analog. The CRT spot-cutoff control is
carried out via the RGB amplifiers’ bias, and the white bal-
ance control is accomplished by varying the gain of these
amplifiers. The VCU 2133 is clocked by a 17.7 or 14.3 MHz
clock signal supplied by the MCU 2632 Clock Generator IC.
1.1. The A/D Converter with Input Amplifiers and Bit
Enlargement
The video signal is input to the VCU 2133 via pins 35 and 37
which are intended for normal TV video signal (pin 35) and
for VCR or SCART video signal (pin 37) respectively. The
video amplifier whose action is required, is activated by the
CCU 2030, CCU 2050 or CCU 2070 via the IM bus by soft-
ware. The amplification of both video amplifiers is doubled
during the undelayed horizontal blanking pulse (at pin 36)
in order to obtain a higher digital resolution of the color
synchronization signal (burst). At D 2-MAC reception, the
doubled gain is switched off by means of bit p = 1 (Fig. 8).

The A/D converter is of the flash type, a circuit of 2" com-
parators connected in parallel. This means that the number
of comparators must be doubled if one additional bit is
needed. Thus it is important to have as few bits as possi-
ble. For a slowly varying video signal, 8 bits are required.

ln
order to achieve an 8-bit picture resolution using a 7-bit
converter, a trick is used: during every other line the refer-
ence voltage of the A/D converter is changed by an
amount corresponding to one half of the least significant
bit. ln this procedure, a grey value located between two 7-
bit steps is converted to the next lower value during one
line and to the next higher value during the next line. The
two grey values on the screen are averaged by the viewer’s
eye, thus producing the impression of grey values with
8-bit resolution. Synchronously to the changing reference
voltage of the A/D converter, to the output signal of the Y
D/A converter is added a half-bit step every second line.
The bit enlargement just described must be switched off in
the case of using the D2-MAC standard (q = 1 and r = 1
in Fig. 8). ln the case of using the comb filter CVPU instead
of the VPU, the half-bit adding in the Y D/A converter must
be switched off (r = 1 in Fig. 8).
The A/D converter’s sampling frequency is 17.7 MHZ for
PAL and 14.3 MHz for NTSC, the clock being supplied by
the MCU 2632 Clock Generator IC which is common to all
circuits for the digital T\/ system. The converter’s resolu-
tion is 1/2 LSB of 8 bits. Its output signal is Gray-coded to
eliminate spikes and glitches resulting from different com-
parator speeds or from the coder itself. The output is fed to
the VPU 2203 and to the DPU 2553 in parallel form.
1.2. The Noise Inverter
The digitized composite video signal passes the noise in-
verter circuit before it is put out to the VPU 2203 and to the
DPU 2553. The noise inverter serves for suppressing bright
spots on the screen which can be generated by noise
VCU 2133
pulses, p. ex. produced by ignition sparks of cars etc. The
function of the noise inverter can be seen in Fig. 2. The
maximum white level corresponds with step 126 of the A/D
converter’s output signal (that means a voltage of 7 V at
pin 35). lf, due to an unwanted pulse on the composite
video signal, the voltage reaches 7.5 V (what means step
127 in digital) or more, the signal level is reduced by such
an amount, that a medium grey is obtained on the screen
(about 40 lFiE). The noise inverter circuit can be switched
off by software (address 16 in the VPU 2203, see there).
1.3. The Luminance D/A Converter (Y)
After having been processed in the VPU 2203 (color de-
modulation, PAL compensation, etc.), the different parts of
the digitized video signal are fed back to the VCU 2133 for
further processing to drive the RGB output amplifiers. The
luminance signal (Y) is routed from the VPU’s contrast mul-
tiplier to the Y D/A converter in the VCU 2133 in the form of
a parallel 8-bit signal with a resolution of 1/2 LSB of 9

bits.
This bit range provides a sufficient signal range for contrast
as well as positive and negative overshoot caused by the
peaking filter (see Fig. 3 and Data Sheet VPU 2203).


The luminance D/A converter is designed as an R-2R lad-
der network. lt is clocked with the 17.7 or the 14.3 MHz
clock signal applied to pin 22. The cutoff frequency of the
luminance signal is determined by the clock frequency.
1.4. The D/A Converters for the Color Difference Signals
R-Y and B-Y
ln order to save output pins at the VPU 2203 and input pins
at the VCU 2133 as well as connection lines, the two digital
color difference signals R-Y and B-Y are transferred in time
multiplex operation. This is possible becau
se these signals’
bandwidth is only 1 MHZ and the clock is a 17.7 or 14.3
MHz signal.
The two 8-bit D/A converters R-Y and B-Y are also built as
R-2R ladder networks. They are clocked with ‘A clock fre-
quency, but the clock for the multiplex data transfer is 17.7
or 14.3 MHz. Four times 4 bits are transferred sequentially,
giving a total of 16 bits. A sync signal coordinates the

multi-
plex operations in both the VCU 2133 and the VPU 2203.
Thus, only four lines are needed for 16 bits. Fig. 4 shows
the timing diagram of the data transfer described.
ln a CTV receiver with digital transient improvement (DTI
2223), the R-Y and B-Y D/A converters are stopped by the
hold pulse supplied by the DTI, and their output signal is
kept constant for the duration of the hold pulse. Thereafter,
the output signal jumps to the new value, as described in
the DTl’s data sheet.
Fig. 4:
Timing diagram of the multiplex data transfer of the chroma
channel between VPU 2203, VCU 2133 and SPU 2220
a) main clock signal QSM
b) valid data out of the VCU 2133’s video A/D converter.
AIAD is the delay time of this converter, about 40 ns.
c) valid data out of the VPU 2203.
d) MUX data transfer of the chroma signals from VPU 2203
to VCU 2133, upper line: sync pulse from pin 27 VPU to
pin 21 VCU during sync time in vertical blanking time,
see Fig. 8; lower line: valid data from pins 27 to 30
(VPU) to pins 18 to 21 (VCU)
1.5. The RGB Matrix and the RGB Output Amplifiers
ln the RGB matrix, the signals Y, R-Y and B-Y are dema-
trixed, the reduction coefficients of 0.88 and 0.49 being tak-
en into account. In addition, the matrix is supplied with a
signal produced by an 8-bit D/A converter for setting the
brightness of the picture. The brightness adjustment range
corresponds to 1/2 of the luminance signal range (see Fig.
3). It can be covered in 255 steps. The brightness is set by
commands fed from the CCU 2030, CCU 2050 or CCU 2070
Central Control Unit to the VPU 2203 via the IM bus.
There are available four different matrices: standard PAL,
matrix 2, 3 and 4, the latter for foreign markets. 'The re-
quired matrix must be mask-programmed during produc-
tion. The matrices are shown in Table 1, based on the for-
mulas:
R = r1~(R-Y)+ l'2~(B-Y) +Y
G = Q1-(Ft-Y)+ Q2 - (B-Y) +Y
B = b1-(Ft-Y)+ bg - (B-Y) +Y
The three RGB output amplifiers are impedance converters
having a low output impedance, an output voltage swing of
6 V (p-p), thereof 3 V for the video part and 3 V for bright-
ness and dark signal. The output current is 4 mA. Fig. 5
shows the recommended video output stage configuration.

For the purpose of white-balance control, the amplification
factor of each output amplifier can be varied stepwise in
127 steps (7 bits) by a factor of 1 to 2. Further, the CRT
spot-cutoff control is accomplished via these amplifiers’ bi-
as by adding the output signal of an 8-bit D/A converter to
the intelligence signal. The amplitude of the output signal
corresponds to one half of the luminance range. The eight
bits make it possible to adjust the dark voltage in 0.5 %
steps. By means of this circuit, the factory-set values for
the dark currents can be maintained and aging of the pic-
ture tube compensated.
1.6. The Beam Current and Peak Beam Current Limiter
The principle of this circuitry may be explained by means of
Fig. 6. Both facilities are carried out via pin 34 of the VCU
2133. For beam current limiting and peak beam current li-
miting, contrast and brightness are reduced by reducing
the reference voltages for the D/A converters Y, Ft-Y and
B-Y. At a voltage of more than +4 V at pin 34, contrast and
brightness are not affected. In the range of +4 V to +3 V,
the contrast is continuously reduced. At +3 V, the original
contrast is reduced to a programmable level, which is set
by the bits of address 16 of the VPU as shown in Table 2. A
further decrease of the voltage merely reduces brightness,
the contrast remains unchanged. At 2 V, the brightness is
reduced to zero. At voltages lower than 2 V, the output
goes to ultra black. This is provided for security purposes.
The beam current limiting is sensed at the ground end of
the EHT circuit, where the average value of the beam cur-
rent produces a certain voltage drop across a resistor in-
serted between EHT circuit and ground. The peak beam
current limiting can be provided additionally to avoid
“blooming” of white spots or letters on the screen. For
this, a fast peak current limitation is needed which is
sensed by three sensing transistors inserted between the
RGB amplifiers and the cathodes of the picture tube. One
of these three transistors is shown in Fig. 6. The sum of the
picture tube’s three cathode currents produces a voltage
drop across resistor R1. If this voltage exceeds that gen-
erated by the divider R2, B3 plus the base emitter voltage
of T2, this transistor will be turned on and the voltage at

pin
34 of the VCU 2133 sharply reduced. Time constants for
both beam current limiting and peak beam current limiting
can be set by the capacitors C1 and C2.
1.7. The Blanking Circuit
The blanking circuit coordinates blanking during vertical
and horizontal flyback. During the latter, the VCU 2133's
output amplifiers are switched to “ultra black”. Such
switching is different during vertical flyback, however, be-
cause at this time the measurements for picture tube align-
ment are Carried out. During vertical flyback, only the ca-
thode to be measured is switched to “black” during mea-
suring time, the other two are at ultra black so that only the
dark current of one cathode is measured at the same time.
For measuring the leakage current, all three cathodes are
switched to ultra black.
The sequence described is controlled by three code bits
contained in a train of 72 bits which is transferred from the
VPU 2203 to the VCU 2133 during each vertical blanking in-
terval. This transfer starts with the vertical blanking pulse.
During the transfer all three cathodes of the picture tube
are biased to ultra black. In the same manner, the white-
balance control is done.

The blanking circuit is controlled by two pulse combina-
tions supplied by the DPU 2553 Deflection Processor
(“sandcastle pulses"). Pin 39 of the VCU 2133 receives the
combined vertical blanking and delayed horizontal blanking


pulse from pin 22 of the DPU (Fig. 7 b), and pin 36 of the
VCU gets the combined undelayed horizontal blanking and
color key pulse from pin 19 of the DPU (Fig. 7 a). The two
outputs of the DPU are tristate-controlled, supplying the
output levels max. 0.4 V (low), min. 4.0 V (high), or high-im-
pedance, whereby the signal level in the high-impedance
mode is determined by the VCU’s input configuration, a
voltage divider of 3.6 KS! and 5 KQ between the +5 V sup-
ply and ground, to 2_8 V. The VCU’s input amplifier has two
thresholds of 2.0 V and 3.4 V for detecting the three levels
of the combined pulses. ln this way, two times two pulses
are transferred via only two lines.
1.8. The Circuitry for Picture Tube Alignment
During vertical flyback, a number of measurements are tak-
en and data is exchanged between the VCU 2133, the VPU
2203 and the CCU 2030 or CCU 2050. These measure-
ments deal with picture tube alignment, as white level and
dark current adjustment, and with the photo current sup-
plied by a photo resistor (Fig. 5) which serves for adapting
Fig. 8:
Data sequence during the transfer of test results from the
VPU 2203 to the VCU 2133. Nine Bytes are transferred, in
each case the LSB first. These 9 Bytes, 8 bits each, coin-
cide with the 72 pulses of 4.4 MHz that are transferred dur-
ing vertical flyback from pin 27 of the VPU 2203 to pin 21 of
the VCU 2133 (see Fig. 9).
l and mi beam current limiter range
l<: noise inverter on/off
n: video input switching bit
S: SECAM chroma sync bit; S = 1 means that the chroma
demultiplexer is synchronized every line. The switch-over
time from C0 to demux counter begins with the end of the
undelayed horizontal blanking pulse and remains valid for a
time of 12 Q M clock periods.
6
the contrast of the picture to the light in the room where
the TV set is operated. The circuitry for transferring the

pic-
ture tube alignment data, the sensed beam currents and
the photo current is clocked in compliance with the VPU
2203 by the vertical blanking pulse and the color key pulse.
To carry out the measurements, a quadruple cycle is pro-
vided (see Table 3). The timing of the data transfer during
the vertical flyback is shown in Fig. 9, and Fig. 8 shows the
data sequence during that data transfer.
Ft, G, B: code bits
p=1; no doubled gain in the input amplifier during horizon-
tal blanking (see section 1.1.)
q=1: no changing of the A/D converter’s reference vol-
tage during every other line (see section 1.1.)
r=1: when operating with the DMA D2-MAC decoder or
the CVPU comb filter video processor, the adding of
a step of ‘/2 LSB to the output signal of the Y D/A
converter is switched off (see section 1.1.).
s=1; the blankirig pulse in the analog video output signal
at pins 26 to 28 is switched off, as is required in
stand-alone applications.


1.9. The Additional RGB Inputs
The three additional analog RGB inputs are provided for
inputting tex
t or other analog RGB signals. They are con-
nected to fast voltage-to-current converters whose output
current can be altered in 64 steps (6 bits) for contrast set-
ting between 100 % and 30 %. The three inputs are
clamped to a DC black level which corresponds to the level
of 31 steps in the luminance channel, by means of the color
key pulse. So, the same brightness level is achieved for
normal and for external RGB signals. The output currents
ofthe converters are then fed to the three RGB output am-
plifiers. Switchover to the external video signal is also

fast.
1.10. The Reset Circuit and Pulse Detector
The reset pulse produced by the external reset RC network
in common for the whole DIGIT 2000 system, switches the
RGB outputs to ultra black during the power-on routine of
the TV set. At other times, high level must be applied to the
reset input pin 23.
There is an additional facility with pin 23 which is used only
in conjunction with the DTl 2223 Digital Transient Improve-
ment Processor. The hold pulse produced by the latter
which serves for stopping the R-Y and B-Y D/A converters,
is also fed to pin 23, capacitively-coupled. The pulse detec-
tor responds on positive pulses which exceed the 5 V sup-
ply by about 1 V. The two DACs are stopped as long as the
hold pulse lasts, and supply a constant output signal of the
amplitude at the begin of the hold pulse.


5. Description of the Connections and the Signals
Pins 1, 9, and 25 - Supply Voltage, +5 V
The supply voltage is +5 V. Pins 1 and 25 supply the ana-
log part and must be filtered separately.
Pins 2 to 8 - Outputs V0 to V6
Via these pins the VCU 2133 supplies the digitized video
signal in a parallel 7-bit Gray code to the VPU 2203 and the
DPU 2553. The output configuration is shown in Fig. 16.
Pins 10 to 17 - Inputs L7 to L0
Fig. 17 shows these inputs’ configuration. Via these pins,
the VCU 2133 receives the digital luminance signal from the
VPU 2203 in a paraliel 8-bit code.
Pins 18 to 21 - Inputs C0 to C3
Via these inputs, whose circuitry and data correspond to
those of pins 10 to 17, the VCU 2133 is fed with the digi-
tized color difference signals R-Y and B-Y and with the
control and alignment signals described in section 1.8., in
multiplex operation. Pin 21 is additionally used for the

multi-
plex sync signal.
Pin 22 - QSM Main Clock Input
Via this pin, whose circuitry is shown in Fig. 18, the VCU
2133 is supplied with the clock signal QSM produced by the
MCU 2600 or MCU 2632 Clock Generator IC. The clock fre-
quency is 17.7 MHz for PAL and SECAM and 14.3 MHz for
NTSC. The clock signal must be DC-coupled.
Pin 23 - Reset and Hold Pulse Input (Fig. 19)
Via this pin, the VCU 2133 is supplied with the reset and
hold signals which are supplied by pin 21 of the DTI 2223
Digital Transient Improvement Processor for stopping the
R-Y and B-Y D/A converters, and for Reset.
Pins 24 and 29 - Analog Ground, 0
These pins serve as ground connections for the supply and
for the analog signals (GND pin 24 for RGB).
Pins 26 to 28 - RGB Outputs
These three analog outputs deliver an analog signal suit-
able for driving the RGB output transistors. Their diagram
is shown in Fig. 20. The output voltage swing is 6 V total,
3 V for the black-to-white signal and 3 V for adjusting
the brightness and the black level.
Pins 30 to 32 - Additional Analog Inputs R, G and B
Fig. 21 shows the configuration of these inputs. They serve
to feed analog RGB signals, for example for Teletext or si-
milar applications, and they are clamped during the color
key pulse. At a 1 V input, full brightness is reached. The
bandwidth extends from 0 to 8 MHz.
Pin 33 - Fast Switching Input
This input is connected as shown in Fig. 22. It ser\/es for
fast switchover of the video channel between an internally-
produced video signal and an externally-applied video sig-
nal via pins 30 to 32. With 0 V at pin 33, the RGB outputs
will supply the internal video signal, and at a 1 V input

level,
the RGB outputs are switched to the external video signal.
Bandwidth is 0 to 4 MHz, and input impedance 1 KQ mini-
mum.
Pin 34 - Beam Current Limiter Input
The diagram of pin 34 is shown in Fig. 25. The input voltage
may be between +5 V and 0 V. The input impedance is 100
kQ. The function of pin 34 is described in section 1.6.
Pin 35 - Composite Video Signal Input 1
To fully drive the video A/D converter the following ampli-
tudes are required at pin 35: +5 V = sync pulse top level,
all bits low; +7 V = peak white, all bits high. Fig. 24 shows
the configuration of pin 35.
Pin 36 - Undelayed Horizontal Blanking and Color Key
Pulse Input
The circuitry of this pin is shown in Fig. 23. Pin 36 receives
the combined undelayed horizontal blanking and color key
pulse which are “sandcastled” and are supplied by pin 19
of the DPU 2553 Deflection Processor. During the undelay-
ed horizontal blanking pulse, the input amplifiers’ gain is
doubled, and the bit enlargement circuit is also switched
by this pulse, and the counter for the data transmission
gap started. The color key pulse is used for clamping the
RGB inputs pins 30 to 32.
Pin 37 - Composite Video Signal Input 2
This pin has the same function and properties as pin 35,
except the gain of the input amplifier which is twice the
gain as that of the amplifier at pin 35. This means an input
voltage range of +5 V to +6 V.
Pin 38 - Supply Voltage, +12 V »
The 12 V supply is needed for certain circuit parts to obtain
the required input or output voltage range, as the video in-
put and the RGB outputs (see Figs. 20 and 24).
Pin 39 - Vertical Blanking and Delayed H
orizontal Blanking
Input
This pin receives the combined vertical blanking and delay-
ed horizontal blanking. pulse from pin 22 of the DPU 2553
Deflection Processor. Both pulses are “sandcastled” so
that only one connection is needed for the transfer of two
pulses. These two pulses are separated in the input circui-
try of the VCU 2133, and are used for blanking the picture
during vertical and horizontal flyback. Fig. 23 shows the cir-
cuitry of pin 39.
Pin 40 - Digital Ground, O
This pin is used as GND connection in conjunction with the
pins 2 to 8 and 10 to 21 which carry digital signals.




DPU 2553, DPU
2554 Deflection Processors UNIT

Note: lf not otherwise designated, the pin numbers
mentioned refer to the 40-pin Dil package.

1. Introduction
These programmable VLSI circuits in n-channel mOS
technology carry out the deflection functions in digital
colorTV receivers based onthe DiGiT 2000 system and
are also suitable for text and D2~mAC application. The
three types are basically identical, but are modified ac-
cording to the intended application:

DPU 2553
normal-scan horizontal deflection, standard CTV re-
ceivers, also equipped with Teletext and D2-mAC fa-
cility
DPU 2554
double-scan horizontal deflection, for CTV receivers
equipped with double-frequency horizontal deflection
and double-~frequency vertical deflection for improved
picture quality. At power-up, this version starts with
double horizontal frequency.

1.1. General Description
The DPU 2553/54 Deflection Processors contain the fol-
lowing circuit functions on one single silicon chip:
- video clamping
- horizontal and vertical sync separation
~ horizontal synchronization
- normal horizontal deflection
-east-west correction, also for flat-screen picture
tubes
- vertical synchronization
- normal vertical deflection
~ sawtooth generation
-text display mode with increased deflection frequen-
cies (18.7 kHz horizontal and 60 Hz vertical)
- D2-mAC operation mode

and for DPU 2554 only:
- double-scan horizontal deflection
- normal and double-scan vertical deflection
ln this data sheet, all information given for double~scan
mode is available with the DPU 2554 only. Type DPU
2553 starts the horizontal deflection with 15.5 kHz ac-
cording to the normal TV standard, whereas type DPU
2554 starts with 31 kHz according to the double-scan
system.
The following characteristics are programmable:
~ selection ofthe TV standard (PAL, D2-mAC or NTSC)
- selection ofthe deflection standard (Teletext, horizon-
tal and vertical double-scan, and normal scan)
- filter time»constant for horizontal synchronization
- vertical amplitude, S correction, and vertical position
for in-line, flat-screen and Trinitron picture tubes
- east-west parabola, horizontal width, and trapezoidal
correction for in-line, flat-screen and Trinitron picture
tubes
- switchover characteristics between the different syn-
chronization modes
~characteristic of the synchronism detector for PLL
switching and muting

1.2. Environment
Fig. 1-1 showsthe simplified block diagram ofthe video
and deflection section of a digital TV receiver based on
the DIGIT 2000 system. The analog video signal derived
from the video detector is digitized in the VCU 2133,
VCU 2134 or VCU 2136 Video Codec and supplied in a
parallel 7 bit Gray code. This digital video signal is fed to
the video section (PVPU, CVPU, SPU and DmA) and to
the DPU 2553/54 Deflection Processorwhich carries out
all functions required in conjunction with deflection, from
sync separation to the control of the deflection power
stages, as described in this data sheet.




3. Functional Description
3.1. Block Diagram
The DPU 2553 and DPU 2554 Deflection Processors
perform all tasks associated with deflection in TV sets;
- sync separation
- generation and synchronization of the horizontal and
the vertical deflection frequencies
-the various eastevvest corrections
- vertical savvtooth generation including S correction
as described hereafter. The DPU communicates, viathe
bidirectional serial lm bus, with the CCU 2050 or CCU
2070 Central Control Unit and, via this bus, is supplied
with the picture-correction alignment information stored
in the mDA 2062 EEPROM during set production, vvhen
the set is turned on. The DPU is normally clocked with
a trapezoidal 17.734 mHz (PAL or SECAm), or 14.3 mhz
(NTSC) or 20.25 mHz (D2-mAC) clock signal supplied
by the mCU 2600 or mCU 2632 Clock Generator IC.

The functional diagram of the DPU is shovvn in Fig. 3-1.
3.2. The Video Clamping Circuit and the Sync Pulse
Separation Circuit

The digitized composite video signal delivered as a 7»bit
parallel signal by the VCU 2133, VCU 2134 or VCU 2136
Video Codec is first noise-filtered by a 1 mHz digital lovv-
pass filter and, to improve the noise immunity ofthe
clamping circuit, is additionally filtered by a 0.2 mHz low-
pass filter before being routed to the minimum and back
porch level detectors (Fig. 3-3).
The DPU has tvvo different clamping outputs, no. 1 and
No. 2, one of vvhich supplies the required clamping
puls
es to the video input of the VCU as shovvn in Fig.
3-1. The following values forthe clamping circuit apply
for Video Amp. l. since the gain of Video Amp. ll istwice
th at of Video Amp l, all clamping and signal levels of Vid-
eo Amp ll are halt those of Video Amp l referred to +5 V.
Afterthe TV set is switched on,thevideo clamping circuit
first of all ensures by means of horizontal-frequency
current pulses from the clamping output of the DPU to
the coupling capacitor of the analog composite video
signal, that the video signal atthe VCU’s input is optimal-
ly biased for the operation range of the A/D converter of
5 to 7 V. For this, the sync top level is digitally measured
and set to a constant level of 5.125 V by these current
pulses. The horizontal and vertical sync pulses are novv
separated by a fixed separation level of 5.250 V so that
the horizontal synchronization can lock to the correct
phase (see section 3.3. and Figs. 3-2 and 3-3).
vvith the color key pulse which is now present in syn-
chronism with the composite video signal, the video
clamping circuit measures the DC voltage level of the
porch and by means of the pulses from pin 21 (or pin4),
sets the DC level ofthe porch at a constant 5.5 V (5.25 V
for Video Amp ll). This level is also the reference black
to Video Processorffeletext Processor, D2-MAC Processor tc.


level for the PVPU 2204 or CvPU 2270 Video Proces-
sors.
When horizontal synchronization is achieved, the slice
level for the sync pulses is set to 50 % of the sync pulse
amplitude by averaging sync top and black level. This
ensures optimum pulse separation, even with small
sync pulse amplitudes (see application notes, section
4).


3.3. Horizontal Synchronization
Two operating modes are provided for in horizontal syn-
chronization. The choice of mode depends on whether
or not the Tv station is transmitting a standard PAL or
NTSC signal, in which there is a fixed ratio between color
subcarrier frequency and horizontal frequency. ln the
first case we speak of “color-locked” operation and in
the second case of “non-color-locked” operation (e.g.
black-and-white programs). Switching between thetwo
modes is performed automatically by the standard sig-
nal detector.


3.3.1. Non-Color-Locked Operation
ln the non»locked mode,which is needed in the situation
where there is no standard fixed ratio between the color
subcarrier frequency and the horizontal frequency ofthe
transmitter, the horizontal frequency is produced by subdemding the clock frequency (1 7.7 mHz for PAL and SECAM, 14.3
mHz for NTSC) in the programmable fre-
quency dmder (Fig. 3-4) until the correct horizontal
frequency is obtained. The correct adjustment of fre-
quency and phase is ensured by phase comparator l.
This determines the frequency and phase deviation by
means of a digital phase comparison between the sepa-
rated horizontal sync pulses and the output signal of the
programmable dmder and corrects the dmder accordingly. For
optimum adjustment of phase iitter, capture
behavior and transient response of the horizontal PLL
circuit, the measured phase deviation is filtered in a digi-
lowpass filter (PLL phase filter). ln the case of non-
OZMH synchronized horizontal PLL, this filter is set to
wideband PLL response with a pull-in range of 1800 Hz. if the
- sync sync PLL circuit is locked, the PLL filter is
automatically switched to narrow-band response by an internal
synchronism detector in order to limit the phase jitter to a
minimum, even in the case of weak and noisy signals.

A calculator circuit in phase comparator , which analyzes the
edges of the horizontal sync pulses, increases
the resolution of the phase measurement from 56 ns at
Fig. 3-3: Principle ofvideo clamping and pulse separa- 17.7

mHz clock frequency to approx. 6 ns, or from 70 ns
NON at 14.3 MHz clock frequency to approx. 2.2 ns.



The various key and gating pulses such as the color key
pulse (tKe(,), the normal-scan (1 H) and double-scan
(2H) horizontal blanking pulse (tAZ(/) and the 1 H hori-
zontal undelayed gating pulse (t/(Z) are derived from the
output signals ofthe programmable dmder and an addi-
tional counter forthe2H signals and the 1 H and 2H skew
data output. These pulses retain a fixed phase position
with respect to the 1 H inputvideo signal andthe double-
scan output video signal from the CvPU 2270 Video Pro-
cessor
Forthe purpose of equalizing phase changes in the hori-
zontal output stage due to switching response toler-
ances or video influence, a second phase control loop
is used which generates the horizontal output pulse at
pin 31 to drivethe horizontal output stage. ln phase com-
parator li (Fig. 3~4), the phase difference between the
output signal of the programmable dmder and the lead-
ing edge (or the center) of the horizontal flyback pulse
(pin 23) is measured by means of a balanced gate delay
line. The deviation from the desired phase difference is
used as an input to an adder. ln this, the information on
the horizontal frequency derived from phase com-
parator l is added to the phase deviation originating form
phase comparator ll. The result of this addition controls
a digital on-chip sinewave generator (about 1 mHz)
which acts as a phase shifter with a phase resolution of
1/128 of one main clock period m_
By means of control loop ll the horizontal output pulse
(pin 31) is shifted such that the horizontal flyback pulse
(pin 23) acquiresthe desired phase position with respect
to the output signal of the programmable dmder which,
in turn, due to phase comparator l, retains a fixed phase
position with respect to the video signal. The horizontal
output pulse itself is generated by dmding the frequency
ofthe 1 mHz sinewave oscillator by a fixed ratio of 64 in
the case of norm al scan and of 32 in the case of double-
scan operation.


3.3.2. Color-Locked Operation
When in the color~locked operating mode, after the
phase position has been set in the non-color-locked
mode, the programmable dmder is set to the standard
dmsion ratio (1135:1 for PAL, 91O:1 for NTSC) and
phase comparator is disconnected so that interfering
pulses and noise cannot influence the horizontal deflec-
tion. Because phase comparator ll is still connected,
phase errors ofthe horizontal output stage are also cor-
rected in the color»locKed operating mode. The stan-
dard signal detector is so designed that it only switches
to color-locked operation when the ratio between color
subcarrier frequency and horizontal frequency deviates
no more than 1O'7 from the standard dmsion ratio. To
ascertain this requires about 8 s (NTSC). Switching off
color-locked operation takes place automatically, in the
_ case of a change of program for example, within approx-
imately 67 ms (e.g. two NTSC fields, 60 Hz).


3.3.3. Skew Data Output and Field Number Informa-
tion
with non-standard input signals, the TPU 2735 or TPU
2740 Teletext Processor produce a phase error vvith re-
spect to the deflection phase.
The DPU generates a digital data stream (skevv data,
pin 7 ofthe DPU), which informs the PSP and TPU on
the amount of phase delay (given in 2.2 ns increments)
used in the DPU for the 1H and 2h output pulse com-
pared With the Fm main clock signal of 17.7 mHz (PAL
or SECAm) or 14.3 mhz (NTSC), see also Figs. 3-6 to
3-8. The skew data is used by the PSP and by the TPU
to adjust the double-scan video signal to the 1 H and 2H
phase of the horizontal deflection to correct these phase
errors.
For the vmC processor the skew data contains three additional

bits for information about frame number, 1 V
sync and 2 V sync start.


3.3.4. Synchronism Detector for PLL and Muting
Signal
To evaluate locking ofthe horizontal PLL and condition
of the signal, the DPU’s HSP high-speed processor
(Fig. 3~1) receives two items of information from the hor-
izontal PLL circuit (see Fig. 3-11).
a) the overall pulsevvidth of the separated sync pulses
during a 6.7 us phase window centered to the horizontal
sync pulse (value A in Fig. 3-11).
b) the overall pulsevvidth of the separated sync pulse
during one horizontal line but outside the phase window
(value B in Fig. 3-11).
Based on a) and b) and using the selectable coefficients
KS1 and KS2 and a digital lovi/pass filter, the HSP pro-
cessor evaluates an 8-bit item of information “SD” (see
Fig. 3-12). By means of a comparator and a selectable
level SLP, the switching threshold for the PLL signal
“UN” is generated. UN indicates Whether the PLL is in
the synchronous or in the asynchronous state.
To produce a muting signal in the CCU, the data SD can
be read by the CCU. The range ot SD extends from O
(asynchronous) to +127 (synchronous). Typical values
torthe comparator levels and their hysteresis B1 = 30/20
and for muting 40/30 (see also HSP Bam address Table
5-6).



DPU 2553, DPU 2554

3.4. Start Oscillator and Protection Circuit
To protect the horizontal output stage of the TV set dur-
ing changing the standard and for using the DPU as a
low power start oscillator, an additional oscillator is pro-
vided on-chip (Fig. 3-4), with the output connected to
pin 31. This oscillator is controlled by a 4 mHz signalin-
dependent trom the Fm main clock produced by the
MCU 2600 or mCU 2632 Clock Generator IC and is pow-
ered by a separate supply connected to pin 35. Thefunc-
tion ofthis circuitry depends on the external standard se-
lection input pin 33 and on the start oscillator select input
pin 36, as described in Table 3-3. Using the protection
circuit as a start oscillator, the following operation modes
are available (see Table 3-3).
With pin 33 open-circuit, pin 36 at high potential (con-
nected to pin 35) and a 4 mHz clock applied to pin 34,
the protection circuit acts as a start oscillator. This pro-
duces a constant-frequency horizontal output pulse of
15.5 kHz in the case of DPU 2553, and of 31 khz in the
case of DPU 2554 while the Beset input pin 5 is at low
potential. The pulsewidth is 30 us with DPU 2553, and
16 us with DPU 2554. main clock at pin 2 or main power
supplies at pins 8, 32 and 40 are not required for this start
oscillator After the main power supply is stabilized and
the main clock generator has started, the reset input pin
5 must be switched to the high state. As long as the start
values from the CCU are invalid, the start oscillator will
continuously supply the output pulses of constant fre-
quency to pin 31 _ By means of the start values given by
the CCU via the lm bus, the register FL must be set to
zero to enable the stan oscillator to be triggered by the
horizontal PLL circuit. After that, the output frequency
and phase are controlled by the horizontal PLL only.
It the external standard selection input pin 33 is con-
nected to ground or to +5 V, the start oscillator is
switched off as soon as it ls in phase with PLL circuit. Pin
33to ground selects PAL or SECAm standard (17.7 mHz
main clock), and pin 33 to +5 V selects NTSC standard
(14.3 MHz main clock). After the main power supplies to
pins 8, 32 and 40 are stabilized, the start oscillator can
be used as a separate horizontal oscillator with a con-
stant frequency of 15.525 khz. For this option, pin 33
must be unconnected. By means ofthe lm bus register
SC the start oscillator can be switched on (SC = 0) or oft
(SC = 1). Setting SC =1 is recommended.
By means of pin 29 (horizontal output polarity selectin-
put and start oscillator pulsewidth select input), the out-
put pulsewidth and polarity ofthe start oscillator and pro-
tection circuit can be hardware-selected. Pin 29 at low
potential gives 30 us for DPU 2553 and 16 us for DPU
2554,with positive output pulses. Pin 29 at high potential
gives 36 us for DPU 2553 and 18 its for DPU 2554, with
negative output pulses. Both apply forthetime period in
which no start values are valid from the CCU. If pin 29
is intended to be in the high state, it must be connected
to pin 35 (standby power). Pin 29 must be connected to
ground or to +5 V in both cases.
Table 3-3: Operation modes ofthe start oscillator and
protection circuit


Operation Mode Pins
33 34 35 36
Horizontal output stage protected not connected 4 mHz Clock at

+5 V at ground
during main clock frequency changing
(for PAL and NTSC)
Horizontal output stage protected not connected 4 MHz Clock +5

V with connected to
and start oscillator function start oscilla- pin 35
(for PAL and NTSC) tor supply
Only start oscillator function with at +5 V 4 mHz Clock +5 V

with connected to
NTSC standard after Beset start oscilla- pin 35
tor supply
Only start oscillator function with at ground 4 mHz Clock +5 V

with connected to
PAL or SECAM standard after Beset start oscilla~ pin 35
5 tor supply
_ with 17.7 mHz clock at ground at ground at +5 V at ground
without protection.



3.5. Blanking and Color Key Pulses

Pin 19 supplies a combination ofthe color key pulse and
the undelayed horizontal blanking pulse in the form of a
three-level pulse as shown in Fig. 3-13. The high level
(4 V min.) and the low level (0.4 V max.) are controlled
by the DPU. During the low time of the undelayed hori-
zontal blanking pulse, pin 19 of the DPU i sin the high--
impedance mode and the output level at pin 19 is set to
2.8 V by the VCU.
At pin 22, the delayed horizontal blanking pulse in com-
bination with the vertical blanking pulse is available as
athree-level pulse as shown in Fig. 3-13. Output pin 22
is in high-impedance mode during the delayed horizon-
tal blanking pulse.
ln double-scan operation mode (DPU 2554), pin 22 sup-
plies the double-scan (2H) horizontal blanking pulse in-
stead ofthe 1H blanking pulse (DPU 2553). ln text dis-
play mode with increased deflection frequencies (see
section 1.), pin 22 ofthe respective DPU (DPU 2553, as
defined by register ZN) delivers the horizontal blanking
pulse with 18.7 kHz and the vertical blanking pulse with
60 Hz according to the display. At pin 24 the undelayed
horizontal blanking pulse is output.
normally,pin3suppliesthe samevertical blanking pulse
as pin 22. However, with“DVS” = 1, pin 3 will be in the
single-scan mode also with double-scan operation of
the system. The pulsewidth of the single-scan vertical
blanking pulse at pin 3 will be the same as.that of the
double-scan vertical blanking pulse at pin 22. The out-
put pulse of pin 3 is only valid if the COU register “VBE”
is set to 1 . The default value is set to 0 (high-impedance
state of pin 3).

Fig. 3-13: Shape of the output pulses at pins 19 and 22
*) The output level is externally defined
3.6. Output for Switching the Horizontal Power
Stage Between 15.6 kHz (PAL/NTSC) and 18 kHz
(Text Display)
This output (pin 37) is designed as a tristate output. High
levels (4 V mln.) and low levels (0.4 V max.) are con-
trolled bythe DPU. During high-impedance state an ex-
ternal resistor network defines the output level,
For changing the horizontal frequency from 15 kHz to
18 kHz, the following sequence of output levels is
derived at pin 37 (see Fig. 3-14).
After register ZN is set from ZN = 2 (15 kHz) to ZN = 0
(18 kHz) by the CCU, pin 37 is switched from High level
to high-impedance state synchronously with the fre-
quency change at pin 31. Following a delay of 20ms, pin
37 is set to Low level and remains in this state forthetime
the horizontal frequency remains 18 kHz (with ZN == 0).
This 20 ms delay is required for switching-over the hori-
zontal power stage.
To change the horizontal frequency in the opposite di-
rection, from 18 kHz to 15.6 kHz, the sequence de-
scribed is reversed.


3.7. Text Display Mode with Increased Deflection
Frequencies
As already mentioned, the DPU 2553 provides the fea-
ture of increased deflection frequencies for text display
for improved picture quality in this mode of operation. To
achieve this, the processor acting as deflection proces-
sor has its register Zn set to 0. The horizontal output fre-
quency at pin 31 is then switched to a frequency of
18746.802 Hz which is generated by dmding the Fm
main clock frequency by 946 i 46. The horizontal PLL is
then able to synchronize to an external composite sync
signal offH = 18.746 kHzi 46. The horizontal PLL isthen
able to synchronizeto an external composite sync signal
of fH = 18.746 kHzi 5 % and f\, = 60 Hz i 10 % and can
be set to an independent horizontal and vertical sync
generator by setting register VE = 1 and register VB = 0.
That means a constant dmder of 946 for horizontal fre-
quency and constant 312 lines per frame.

The DPU working in this mode supplies the TPU 2740
Teletext Processor or the respective Viewdata Proces-
sor with the 18.7 kHz horizontal blanking pulses form pin
24 and the 60 Hz vertical blanking pulses form pin 22
(see Fig. 3-8).
To be able to receive and store data from an IF video sig-
nal at the same time, the Teletext or Viewdata Processor
requires horizontal and vertical sync pulses from this IF
signal. Therefore, the second DPU provides video
clamping and sync separation forthe external signal and
supplies the horizontal sync pulses (pin 24) and the ver-
tical sync pulses (pin 22) to the Teletext or viewdata Pro-
cessor. For this, the second DPU is set to the PAL stan-
dard by register ZN = 2, and the clamping pulses of the
other DPU are disabled by CLD = 1.
To change the output frequency ofthe DPU acting as de-
flection processor from 18.7 kHz to 15.6 kHz, the control
switch output pin 37 prepares the horizontal output
stage for 15.6 khz operation (pin 37 is in the high-impe-
dance state) beforethe DPU changesthe horizontal out-
put frequencyto 15.6 kHz, after a minimum delay of one
vertical period. Switching the horizontal deflection fre-
quency from 15.6 kHzto 18.7 kHz is done in the reverse
sequence. Firstly, the horizontaloutput frequency of pin
31 is switched to 1 8.7 khz, and after a delay of one verti-
cal period, pin 37 is set low.
3.8. D2-MAC Operation Mode
When receiving Tv signals having the D2-mAC stan-
dard (direct satellite reception), register ZN is set to 3.
The programmable dmder is set to a dmsion ratio of
1296 i48 to generate a horizontal frequency of 15.625
khz with the clock rate of 20.25 mHz used in the
D2-mAC standard. ln this operation mode, pin 6 acts as
input forthe composite sync signal supplied by the DmA
2271 D2-mAC Decoder. The DPU is synchronized to
this sync signal, and after locking-in (status register
UN = 0), the CCU switches the DPU to a clock-locked
mode between clock signal and horizontal frequency
(fm main
clock by 1024, during the vertical sync signal separated
from the received video signal. To use an 8-bit register,
the result of the count is dmded by 2 and given to the
DPU status register. ln the CCU, the vertical frequency
can be evaluated using the following equation:

fv I __lL1’_l\
1024- vP- 2
with
fm), = 17.734475 mHz with PAL and SECAm
fq,M =14.31818 mHz with NTSC
rw = 2o_25 MHZ with D2-mAc
VP = status value, read from DPU.

The interlace control output pin 39 supplies a 25 Hz (for
PAL and SECAm) or 80 Hz (for NTSC) signal for control-
ling an external interlace-off switch, which is required
with A.C.-coupled vertical output stages, becausethese
are not able to handle the internal interlace-off proce-
dure using register “ZS”.
For operation with the vmC Processor the DPU 2554
hasthree interlace control modes in double vertical scan
mode (DVS = 1). These options can be selected with the
register “IOP” and can be used together with the control
output pin 39 only. This output has to be connected to the
vertical output stage, so that the vertical phase can be
shifted by 16 us (or 32 us with DPU 2553).

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
LOEWE  ART  28   CHASSIS C9000  (110C9) Sound Processing Overview Description
:


The stereo pilot carrier is selectively decoupled from sound

channel TV ll and fed separately to Pin 8 for recognition of the
station operating mode.
The digitized output signals are then available as pulse-rate-
modulated signals PDM I and PDM ll at Pins 10 and 11. Digital
signal processing is then performed completely in APU 2470,
the audio processor IC 3201, to which of course all control
functions controlled via the IM Bus belong. At IC outputs 22 and
23, the processed signals are outputted as pulse-width-
modulated information, so that they can be reconverted into
their original analog form by simple integration (RC element).
The downstream lC’s TDA 2040 H (3401/3501) supply power
amplification for feed to the loudspeakers. A second pair of
analog outputs, Pins 19, 20 ofthe APU, followed by an
integrated amplifier stage, IC 3301 , TDA 2822 M, serves for
connection of earphones or a stereo system via cinch sockets.
This output is likewise controllable, and also suitable for the
listening to the alternative sound channel in dual-channel sound
mode. Pins 21 and 24 at ADC 2310 E are available for coupling
a second dual-channel analog sound source. The signals
concerned come from the SCART socket (PPT), and in sets with
picture-in-picture function are passed via the PIP decoder. In
the opposite direction, the ADC 2310 E supplies at Pins 22 and
23 analog output signals to the SCART socket, e.g. as required
for recording audio signals. All switch-over functions necessary
in this area are executed inside the IC and controlled via the IM
Bus. Detection of the station transmission mode (mono, stereo,
dual-sound) is performed in the lC’s in exactly the same way as
the corresponding switch-over to the operating mode being
transmitted. A muting stage in each of the two audio channels
(T 3401 and T 3501) provides an audio muting function by short-
circuiting the signal input Pin 1 at the power output stage lC’s.
This function can be controlled in two different ways:
1. Via ST 33 at the moment when the set is switched on, in
order to suppress the switch-on click.
2. From Pin 16 of ADC 2310 E, e.g. for noise suppression,
when no TV signal is being received.
ln the first case, the L signal, which is passed as a switch-on
signal from Pin 5 of the CCU via R 1505 to ST 33 of Stereo
Module B, and thus via R 3511 to the base of T 3510, will switch
the transistor to on-state and thus connect the muting line to
12 V. Since in this case the two switching transistors T 4301 and
T 3501 also become conducting, the signal inputs to the audio
output stages are then short-circuited. The second muting
branch from Pin 16 of ADC 2310 E is software-controlled, and
receives the switch-off information from the CCU via the IM
Bus. 

 
LOEWE  ART  28   CHASSIS C9000  (110C9)  SCHEMATIC / CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:























SOME Other References:
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Barlow, “The Computer Control of Multiple-Bus Switchers”, SMPTE Journal, Sep. 1976, Vol. 85, p. 720-723.
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“7609 Sat-A-Dat Decoder/Controller,” Group W Satellite Communications (advertisement) 2 pages.
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“Asynchronous Data Transmission System Series 2100 Vidata,”Wagener Communications, Inc. (advertisement), 2 pages.
“Zenith VIRTEXTTM . . . Vertical Interval Region Text and Graphics,” Zenith Radio Corporation (flyer), 7 paged.
Anon, “Television Network Automated by Microcomputer-Controlled Channels,” Computer Design, vol. 15, No. 11, (Nov. 1976), pp. 50, 59, 62, 66 and 70.
Kinik, et al., “A Network Control System for Television Distribution by Satellite,” Journal of the SMPTE, Feb. 1975, vo. 84 No. 2, pp. 63-67.
Chiddix, “Videocassette Banks Automate Delayed Satellite Programming,” Aug. 1978, TV Comunications, pp. 38-39.
Curnal, et al., “Automating Television Operating Centers,” Bell Laboratories Record, Mar. 1978, pp. 65-70.
Baran, Paul (Packetcable Inc.), “Packetcable: A New Interactive Cable System Technology,” Cable '82—Technical Papers, National Cable Television Association 31st Annual Convention, Las Vegas, NV, May 3-5, 1982 (“CABLE '82”), pp. 1-6.
Tunmann, Ernest O. (Tele-Engineering Corporation), “Two-Way Cable TV Technologies,” Cable '82, pp. 7-15.
Dickinson, Robert V.C. (E-COM Corporation), “Carriage of Multiple One-Way and Interactive Service on CATV Networks,” Cable '82, pp. 16-21.
McNamara, R.P. et al. (Sytek, Incorporated), “MetroNet: an Overview of a CATV Regional Data Network,” Cable '82, pp. 22-31.
Eissler, Charles (Oak Communications Systems), “Addressable Control for the Small System,” Cable '82, pp. 32-36.
Mesiya, M.F. et al. (Times Fiber Communications, Inc.), “Mini-Hub Addressable Distribution System for Hi-Rise Application,” Cable '82, pp. 37-42.
Thomas, William L. (Zenith Radio Corporation), “Full Field Tiered Addressable Teletext,” Cable '82, pp. 44 46.
Langley, Don et al. (University of Cincinnati and Rice-Richter Associates), “Interactive Split Screen Teleconferencing,” Cable '82, pp. 47-50.
Klare, Stephen W. (Scientific—Atlanta), “Bandwidth-Efficient, High-Speed Modems for Cable Systems,” Cable '82, pp. 72-78.
Jubert, Jay (Wang Laboratories, Inc.), “Wangnet, a Cable-Based Localnet,” Cable '82, pp. 79-81.
Switzer, I. (Cable America, Inc.), “Cable TV Advances and TV Receiver Compatibility Problems,” Cable '82, pp. 114-118.
Skrobko, John (Scientific-Atlanta Incorporated), “Improving CATV System Reliability with Automatic Status Monitoring and Bridger Switching,” Cable '82, pp. 133-137.
Dahlquist, John (Jerrold Division, General Instrument Corporation), “Techniques for Improving Continuity of Service in a CATV Distribution System,” Abstract, Cable '82, p. 138.
Polishuk, Paul Dr. (Information Gatekeepers, Inc.) “Present Status of Fiber Optics Technology and its Impact on the CATV Industry,” Cable '82, pp. 142-147.
Dufresne, Michel (Videotron Communications LTEE), “New Services: an Integrated Cable Networks's Approach,” Cable '82, pp. 156-160.
Stanton, Gary W. (Southern Satellite Systems), “Downloading and Addressing via Teletext,” Cable '82, pp. 161-165.
Goldberg, Efrem I. (GTE Laboratories Incorporated), “Videotex on Two-Way Cable Television Systems—Some Technical Considerations,” Cable '82, pp. 166-174.
Noirel, Yves (CCETT/Rennes, France), “Abstract of paper entitled Data Broadcasting: “Didon” and “Diode” Protocols,” Cable '82, pp. 175-179.
von Meister, William F. (Digital Music Company), “The Home Music Store,” Cable '82, pp. 180-182.
Brown, Jr., Robert R. (Cima Telephone and Television), “Inter Bridger Trunking for Information Services,” Cable '82, pp. 183-189.
Alvord, Charles, Dr. (Communications Technology Management, Inc.), “Creating Standards for Interconnect Systems,” Cable '82, pp. 190-196.
Schrock, Clifford B. (Cable Bus Systems Corporation), “Can Noise and Ingress Coexist with Two-Way Services?,” Cable '82, pp. 205-209.
The Weather Channel, “The Weather Star Satellite Transponder Addressable Receiver,” Operation/Installation Manual, Rev. 01.5/82.
Lafayette, Jon, “TV ad monitor system starts tests here Mon.,” New York Post, Oct. 18, 1985, p. 63.
Jones, Stacy V., “Patents/Monitoring Display of TV Ads,” The New York Times, Oct. 19, p. 34.
Remley, F.M., “Television Technology,” SMPTE Journal, May 1982, pp. 458-462.
Proposed American National Standard, “Electrical and Mechanical Characteristics for Digital Control Interface,” SMPTE Journal, Sep. 1982, pp. 888-897.
Zaludek, Jerry P., “Videotape—Past, Present, and Future,” SMPTE Journal, Apr. 1982, pp. 356-360.
Kary, Michael Loran, “Video-Assisted Film Editing System,” SMPTE Journal, Jun. 1982, pp. 547-551.
Glover, S. “Automatic Switching at the Edmonton Television Studios,” SMPTE Journal, Nov. 1966, vol. 75, pp. 1089-1092.
Barlow, M.W.S., “The Remote Control of Multiplexed Telecine Chains,” SMPTE Journal, Apr. 1971, vol. 80, pp. 270-275.
Campbell, Keith D., “An Automated Video-Tape Editing System,” Journal of the SMPTE, Mar. 1970, vol. 79, pp. 191-194.
Bonney, R.B. et al., “A Proposed Standard Time and Control Code for Video-Tape Editing,” Journal of the SMPTE, Mar. 1970, vol. 79, pp. 186-190.
Barlow, M., Letter to the Editor, “Re: Coding and Packaging Film for Broadcasting,” Journal of the SMPTE, Oct. 1969, vol. 78, p. 889.
Barlow, M., Letter to the Editor, “Re: Automation of Telecine Equipment,” Journal of the SMPTE, Apr. 1970, vol. 79, pp. 345-346.
Matley, J. Brian, “A Digital Framestore Synchronizer,” SMPTE Journal, Jun. 1976, vol. 85, pp. 385-388.
Connolly, W.G. et al., “The Electronic Still Store: A Digital System for the Storage and Display of Still Pictures,” SMPTE Journal, Aug. 1976, vol. 85, pp. 609-613.
Sadashige, K., “Overview of Time-Base Correction Techniques and Their Applications,” SMPTE Journal, Oct. 1976, vol. 85, pp. 787-791.
Siocos, C.A., “Satellite Technical and Operational Committee—Television (STOC-TV) Guidelines for Waveform Graticules,” SMPTE Journal, Nov. 1976, vol. 85, pp. 878-879.
“Index to Subjects—Jan.-Dec. 1976 • vol. 85,” 1976 Index to SMPTE Journal, SMPTE Journal, vol. 85, pp. I-5 to I-13, I-15.
Rodgers, Richard W., “Design Considerations for a Transmission and Distribution System for SMPTE Time-Code Signals,” SMPTE Journal, Feb. 1977, vol. 86, pp. 69-70.
Allan, J.J., III, et al., “A Computer-Controlled Super-8 Projector,” SMPTE Journal, Jul. 1977, vol. 86, pp. 488-489.
“Index to Subjects—Jan.-Dec. 1977 • vol. 86,” 1977 Index to SMPTE Journal, SMPTE Journal, vol. 86, pp. I-5 to I-14.
Hamalainen, KJ., “Videotape Editing Systems Using Microprocessors,” SMPTE Journal, Jun. 1978, Vol. 87, pp. 379-382.
McCoy, Reginald F.H., “A New Digital Video Special-Effects Equipment,” SMPTE Journal, Jan. 1978, vol. 87, pp. 20-23.
Leonard, Eugene, “Considerations Regarding the Use of Digital Data to Generate Video Backgrounds,” SMPTE Journal, Aug. 1978, vol. 87, pp. 499-504.
Swetland, George R., “Applying the SMPTE Time and Control Code to Television Audio Post Production,” SMPTE Journal, Aug. 1978, vol. 87, pp. 508-512.
Moore, J.K., et al., “A Recent Innovation in Digital Special Effects, The CBS ‘Action Track’ System,” SMPTE Journal, Oct. 1978, vol. 87, pp. 673-676.
Connolly, William G., “Videotape Program Production at CBS Studio Center,” SMPTE Journal, Nov. 1978, vol. 87, pp. 761-763.
Nicholls, William C., “A New Edit Room Using One-Inch Continuous-Field Helical VTRs,” SMPTE Journal, Nov. 1978, vol. 87, pp. 764-766.
“Index to vol. 87 Jan.-Dec. 1978,” SMPTE Journal, Part II to Jan. 1979 SMPTE Journal, pp. I-1, I-4 to I-14.
Wetmore, R. Evans, “System Performance Objectives and Acceptance Testing of the Public Television Satellite Interconnection System,” SMPTE Journal, Feb. 1979, vol. 88, pp. 101-111.
Bates, George W., “Cut/Lap: A New Method for Programmable Fades and Soft Edit Transitions Using a Single Source VTR,” SMPTE Journal, Mar. 1979, vol. 88, pp. 160-161.
Douglas, W. Gordon, “PBS Satellite Interconnection Technical Operations and Maintenance,” SMPTE Journal, Mar. 1979, vol. 88, pp. 162-163.
Oliphant, Andrew et al., “A Digital Telecine Processing Channel,” SMPTE Journal, Jul. 1979, vol. 88, pp. 474-483.
Bates, George W. et al., “Time Code Error Correction Utilizing a Microprocessor,” SMPTE Journal, Oct. 1979, vol. 88, pp. 712-715.
Geise, Heinz-Dieter, “The Use of Microcomputers and Microprocessors in Modern VTR Control,” SMPTE Journal, Dec. 1979, vol. 88, pp. 831-834.
“Index to Subjects—Jan.-Dec. 1979 • vol. 88,” 1979 Index to SMPTE Journal, SMPTE Journal, vol. 88, pp. I-4 to I-10.
“Advanced Transmission Techniques,” SMPTE Journal, Report on the 121st Technical Conference, Jan. 1980, vol. 89, pp. 31-32.
“Anderson: Progress Committee Report for 1979—Television,” SMPTE Journal, May 1980, vol. 89, pp. 324-328.
SMPTE Journal, May 1980, vol. 89, p. 391, no title.
“The TCR-119 Reader,” Gray Engineering Laboratories, SMPTE Journal, May 1980, vol. 89, p. 438. (advertisement).
Hopkins, Robert S., Jr., “Report of the Committee on New Technology,” SMPTE Journal, Jun. 1980, vol. 89, pp. 449-450.
Limb, J.O. et al., “An Interframe Coding Technique for Broadcast Television,” SMPTE Journal, Jun. 1980, vol. 89, p. 451.
“Preliminary List of Papers,” SMPTE Journal, Sep. 1980, vol. 89, p. 677.
Davis, John T., “Automation of a Production Switching System,” SMPTE Journal, Oct. 1980, vol. 89, pp. 725-727.
“Video Tape Recording Glossary,” SMPTE Journal, Oct. 1980, vol. 89, p. 733.
Advertisement, “CTVM 3 series of Barco master control color monitors”, “Barco TV Modulator, Model VSBM 1/S”, “VICMACS Type 1724 Vertical Interval Machine Control System”, “Videotape Editing Controllers by US JVC Corp., RM-70U, RM-82U, RM-88U”, SMPTE Journal, Oct. 1980, Vol. 89, p. 820 et seq.
Ciciora, Walter, “Teletext Systems: Considering the Prospective User,” SMPTE Journal, Nov. 1980, vol. 89, pp. 846-849.
Hathaway, R.A. et al., “Development and Design of the Ampex Auto Scan Tracking (AST) System,” SMPTE Journal, Dec. 1980, vol. 89, p. 931.
Connor, Denis J., “Network Distribution of Digital Television Signals,” SMPTE Journal, Dec. 1980, vol. 89, pp. 935-938.
“Index to Subjects—Jan.-Dec. 1980 • vol. 89,” 1980 Index to SMPTE Journal, SMPTE Journal, pp. I-5 to I-11.
“Index to SMPTE-Sponsored American National Standards, Society Recommended Practices, and Engineering Committee Recommendations,” 1980 Index to SMPTE Journal, SMPTE Journal, pp. I-15 to I-20.
Table of Contents, SMPTE Journal, Feb. 1981, vol. 90, No. 2, 1 page.
Table of Contents, SMPTE Journal, Mar. 1981, vol. 90, No. 3, 1 page.
Table of Contents, SMPTE Journal, Apr. 1981, vol. 90, No. 4,1 page.
Table of Contents, SMPTE Journal, May 1981, vol. 90, No. 5, 1 page.
“Television,” SMPTE Journal, May 1981, pp. 375-379.
Table of Contents, SMPTE Journal, Jan. 1981, vol. 90, No. 1,1 page.
Table of Contents, SMPTE Journal, Jun. 1981, vol. 90, No. 6, 1 page.
Table of Contents, SMPTE Journal, Jul. 1981, vol. 90, No. 7,1 page.
Table of Contents, SMPTE Journal, Aug. 1981, vol. 90, No. 8, 1 page.
“American National Standard” “time and control code for video and audio tape for 525-line/ 60-field television systems,” SMPTE Journal, Aug. 1981, pp. 716-717.
Table of Contents, SMPTE Journal, Sep. 1981, vol. 90, No. 9, 1 page.
“Proposed SMPTE Recommended Practice” “Vertical Interval Time and Control Code Video Tape for 525-Line/ 60-Field Television Systems,” SMPTE Journal, Sep. 1981, pp. 800-801.
Table of Contents, SMPTE Journal, Oct. 1981, vol. 90, No. 10, 1 page.
Kaufman, Paul A. et al., “The Du Art Frame Count Cueing System,” SMPTE Journal, Oct. 1981, pp. 979-981.
“American National Standard” “dimensions of video, audio and tracking control records on 2-in video magnetic tape quadruplex recorded at 15 and 7.5 in/ s,” SMPTE Journal, Oct. 1981, pp. 988-989.
Table of Contents, SMPTE Journal, Nov. 1981, vol. 90, No. 11, 1 page.
Table of Contents, SMPTE Journal, Dec. 1981, vol. 90, No. 12, 1 page.
Powers, Kerns H., “A Hierarchy of Digital Standards for Teleproduction in the Year 2001,” SMPTE Journal, Dec. 1981, pp. 1150-1151.
“Application of Direct Broadcast Satellite Corporation for a Direct Broadcast Satellite System,” Before the Federal Communications Commission, Washington, D.C., Jul. 16, 1981.
Rice, Michael, “Toward Enhancing the Social Benefits of Electronic Publishing,” Report of an Aspen Institute Planning Meeting, Communications and Society Forum Report, Feb. 25-26, 1987.
Rice, Michael, “Toward Improved Computer Software for Education and Entertainment in the Home,” Report of an Aspen Institute Planning Meeting, Communications and Society Forum Report, Jun. 3-4, 1987.
Gano, Steve, “Teaching ‘real world’ systems,” 1 page, 1987.
Pollack, Andrew, “Putting 25,000 Pages on a CD,” New York Times, 1 page, Mar. 4, 1987.
Gano, Steve, “A Draft of a Request for Proposals Concerning the Adoption of Computer Technology in the Home,” Jan. 1988, Draft © 1987 Steve Gano.
COMSAT, “Communications Satellite Corporation Magazine,” No. 7, 1982.
COMSAT, “Satellite to Home Pay Television,” no date.
COMSAT, “Annual Report 1981.”
“Comsat's STC: Poised for blastoff into TV's space frontier,” Broadcasting, Feb. 22, 1982, pp. 38-45.
Taylor, John P., “Comsat bid to FCC for DBS authorization: Questions of finances, ‘localism,’ monopoly,” Television/Radio Age, May 4, 1981, pp. 42-44 and 80-81.
Taylor, John P., “Fourteen DBS authorization applications to FCC differ greatly in both structure and operations,” Television/Radio Age, Oct. 5, 1981, pp. 40-42 and 116-119.
Taylor, John P., “Comsat bid to FCC for DBS authorization: Is direct broadcasting the wave of the future?”, Television/Radio Age, Mar. 23, 1981, pp. A-22-24 and A-26 and A-28-31.
“At Sequent Computer, One Size Fits All,” Business Week, Sep. 17, 1984, 1 page.
Hayashi, Alden, M., “Can Logic Automation model its way to success?”, Electronic Business, Aug. 1, 1986, 1 page.
“Imager monitors the bloodstream,” High Technology, Mar. 1987, 1 page.
Merritt, Christopher R.B., M.D., “Doppler blood flow imaging: integrating flow with tissue data,” Diagnostic Imaging, Nov. 1986, pp. 146-155.
Eisenhammer, John, “Will Europe's Satellite TV Achieve Lift-Off?”, Business, Aug. 1986, pp. 56-60.
Hayes, Thomas C., “New M.C.C. Chief's Strategy: To Speed Payoff on Research,” The New York Times, Jun. 24, 1987, 2 pages.
Collins, Glenn, “For Many, a Vast Wasteland Has Become a Brave New World,” New York Times, no date, 2 pages.
Gleick, James, “U.S. Is Lagging on Forecasting World Weather,” The New York TimesFeb. 15, 1987, 2 pages.
Browning, E.S., “Sony's Perseverance Helped It Win Market for Mini-CD Players,” Wall Street Journal, Feb. 27, 1986, 2 pages.
Dragutsky, Paula, “Data in the bank is booming biz,” New York Post, Apr. 29, 1985, 1 page.
Wayne, Leslie, “Dismantling the Innovative D.R.I.,” The New York Times, Dec. 16, 1984, 2 pages.
Sanger, David E., “A Computer Full of Surprises,” The New York Times, May 8, 1987, 2 pages.
Hoffman, Paul, “The Next Leap in Computers,” The New York Times Magazine, Dec. 7, 1986, 6 pages.
Taylor, Thayer C., “Laptops and the Sales Force: New Stars in the Sky,” pp. 81-84.
Parker, Edwin B., “Satellite micro earth stations—a small investment with big returns,” Data Communications, Jan. 1983, 5 pages.
“Micro Key System,” Video Associates Labs, product description.
“SMPTE Journal Five-Year Index 1971-1975,” SMPTE Journal.
“SMPTE Journal Five-Year Index 1976-1980,” SMPTE Journal.
“SMPTE Journal Five-Year Index 1981-1985,” SMPTE Journal, vol. 95, No. 1, Jan. 1986.
“SMPTE Journal Five-Year Index 1986-1990,” SMPTE Journal, vol. 100, No. 1, Jan. 1991.
“Annual Index 1982,” SMPTE Journal, vol. 91, Jan.-Dec. 1982, pp. 1253-1263.
“Highlights, SMPTE, The 124th SMPTE Conference,” SMPTE Journal, Jan. 1983, p. 3.
SMPTE Journal, Jan. 1983, pp. 64, 69-70, 87-90, 92-98.
“Highlights, SMPTE,” SMPTE Journal, Feb. 1983, p. 163.
“Highlights, SMPTE,” SMPTE Journal, Mar. 1983, p. 267.
“Highlights, SMPTE,” SMPTE Journal, Apr. 1983, p. 355.
Thomas, L. Merle, “Television,” SMPTE Journal, Apr. 1983, pp. 407-410.
“Highlights, SMPTE,” SMPTE Journal, May 1983, p. 547.
“Highlights, SMPTE,” SMPTE Journal, Jun. 1983, p. 627.
“Highlights, SMPTE,” SMPTE Journal, Jul. 1983, p. 715.
“Highlights, SMPTE,” SMPTE Journal, Aug. 1983, p. 803.
Tooms, Michael S. et al., “The Evolution of a Comprehensive Computer Support System for the Television Operation,” SMPTE Journal, Aug. 1983, pp. 824-833.
“Highlights, SMPTE,” SMPTE Journal, Sep. 1983, p. 907.
“Highlights, SMPTE,” SMPTE Journal, Oct. 1983, p. 1027.
“Highlights, SMPTE,” SMPTE Journal, Nov. 1983, p. 1173.
“Highlights, SMPTE,” SMPTE Journal, Dec. 1983, p. 1269.
“Index to Subjects—Jan.-Dec. 1983 • vol. 92,” Annual Index 1983, SMPTE Journal, pp. 1385-1391.
“Highlights, SMPTE,” SMPTE Journal, Jan. 1984, p. 3.
“Index to Subjects—Jan.-Dec. 1984 • vol. 93,” Annual Index 1984, SMPTE Journal, pp. 1211-1217.
“Highlights, SMPTE,” SMPTE Journal, Jan. 1985, p. 3.
Barlow, Michael W.S., “Application of Personal Computers in Engineering,” SMPTE Journal, Jan. 1985, pp. 27-30.
“Television Systems and Broadcast Technology,” SMPTE Journal, Jan. 1985, pp. 172-175.
“Highlights, SMPTE,” SMPTE Journal, Feb. 1985, p. 181.
Day, Alexander G., “From Studio to Home—How Good is the Electronic Highway?”, SMPTE Journal, Feb. 1985, pp. 216-217.
“Highlights, SMPTE,” SMPTE Journal, Mar. 1985, p. 265.
“Proposed SMPTE Recommended Practice, Storage of Edit Decision Lists on 8-in. Flexible Diskette Media,” SMPTE Journal, Mar. 1985, pp. 353-354.
McCroskey, Donald C., “Television,” SMPTE Journal, Apr. 1985, pp. 382-395.
“Highlights, SMPTE,” SMPTE Journal, Apr. 1985, p. 361.
SMPTE Journal, Apr. 1985, pp. 366-368, 473-478.
“Highlightsd SMPTE,” SMPTE Journal, May 1985, p. 545.
Morii, Yutaka, et al., “A New Master Control System for NHK's Local Stations,” SMPTE Journal, May 1985, pp. 559-564.
Kuca, Jay, et al., “A Fifth-Generation Routing Switcher Control System,” SMPTE Journal, May 1985, pp. 566-571.
“Highlights, SMPTE,” SMPTE Journal, Jun. 1985, p. 641.
“Highlights, SMPTE,” SMPTE Journal, Jul. 1985, p. 721.
Busby, E.S., “Digital Component Television Made Simple,” SMPTE Journal, Jul. 1985, pp. 759-762.
“Highlights, SMPTE,” SMPTE Journal, Aug. 1985, p. 801.
Rayner, Bruce, “High-Level Switcher Interface Improves Editing Techniques,” , SMPTE Journal, Aug. 1985, pp. 810-813.
Hayes, Donald R., “Vertical-Interval Encoding for the Recordable Laser Videodisc,” SMPTE Journal, Aug. 1985, pp. 814-820.
“SMPTE Recommended Practice, Video Record Parameters for 1-in Type C Helical-Scan Video Tape Recording,” SMPTE Journal, Aug. 1985, pp. 872-873.
“Proposed SMPTE Recommended Practice, Time and Control Codes for 24, 25, or 30 Frame-Per-Second Motion-Picture Systems,” SMPTE Journal, Aug. 1985, pp. 874-876.
“Proposed SMPTE Recommended Practice, Data Tracks on Low-Dispersion Magnetic Coatings on 35-mm Motion-Picture Film,” SMPTE Journal, Aug. 1985, pp. 877-878.
“Highlights,” SMPTE Journal, Sep. 1985, p. 881.
“Proposed SMPTE Recommended Practice, Control Message Archtecture,” SMPTE Journal, Sep. 1985, pp. 990-991.
“Proposed SMPTE Recommended Practice, Tributary Interconnection,” SMPTE Journal, Sep. 1985, pp. 992-995.
“Highlights,” SMPTE Journal, Oct. 1985, p. 1001.
Zimmerman, Frank, “Hybrid Circuit Construction for Routing Switchers,” SMPTE Journal, Oct. 1985, pp. 1015-1019.
“Highlights,” SMPTE Journal, Nov. 1985, p. 1155.
Sabatier, J., et al., “The D2-MAC-Packet System for All Transmission Channels,”SMPTE Journal, Nov. 1985, pp. 1173-1179.
“Highlights,” SMPTE Journal, Dec. 1985, p. 1243.
Shiraishi, Yuma, “History of Home Videotape Recorder Development,” SMPTE Journal, Dec. 1985, pp. 1257-1263.
“Index to Subjects—Jan.-Dec. 1985 • vol. 94,” Annual Index 1985, SMPTE Journal, pp. 1351-1357.
“Highlights,” SMPTE Journal, Jan. 1986, p. 3.
“Proposed American National Standard for component digital video recording—19-mm type D-1 cassette— tape cassette,” SMPTE Journal, Mar. 1986, pp. 362-363.
“Index to SMPTE-Sponsored American National Standards and Society Recommended Practices and Engineering Guidelines,” Smpte Journal, Annual Index 1987, pp. 1258, 1260-1262.
Rice, Philip, et al., “Development of the First Optical Videodisc,” SMPTE Journal, Mar. 1982, pp. 277-284.
Kubota, Yasuo, “The Videomelter,” SMPTE Journal, vol. 87, Nov. 1978, pp. 753-754.
“USTV Direct Satellite to Home Television Service,” General Instrument News Release, Aug. 1982.
“Second Senior Executive Conference on Productivity Improvement,” SALT, Society for Applied Learning Technology, Dec. 4-6, 1986.
“New Publications for 1987 from The Videodisc Monitor,” advertisement, 2 pages.
“The Videodisc Monitor,” vol. IV: No. 10, Oct. 1986.
“The Videodisc Monitor,” vol. IV: No. 12, Dec. 1986.
Smith, Charles C., “Computer Update” “Program Notes,” TWA Ambassador, Sep. 1982, pp. 74-90.
Harrar, George, “Opening Information Floodgates,” American Way, Oct. 1982, pp. 53-56.
“Publishers Go Electronic,” Business Week, Jun. 11, 1984, pp. 84-97.
“Serious Software Helps the Home Computer Grow Up,” Business Week, Jun. 11, 1984, pp. 114-118.
“Videoconferencing: No Longer Just a Sideshow,” Business Week, Nov. 12, 1984, pp. 116-120.
“Ratings War,” Forbes, Aug. 1, 1983, 1 page.
Kindel, Stephen, “Pictures at an exhibition,” Forbes, Aug. 1, 1983, pp. 137-139.
“Merrill Lynch and IBM Form Joint Venture to Market Financial Data Systems and Services,” News Release, Mar. 1984, 2 pages.
Branch, Charles, “Text Over Video,” PC World, Dec. 1983, pp. 202-210.
“Window on the World” “The Home Information Revolution,” 1981, Business Week, Jun. 29, 1981, pp. 74-83.
“Correspondence School Via Computer Is Planned,” The New York Times, Sep. 13, 1983, 1 page.
“‘Smart’ Digital TV Sets May Replace The Boob Tube,” Business Week, Sep. 26, 1983, p. 160, 2 pages.
“Round Two for Home Computer Makers,” Business Week, Sep. 19, 1983, pp. 93-95.
“High Technology,” Business Week, Jan. 11, 1982, pp. 74-79.
Kneale, Dennis, “Stations That Show Only Ads Attract a Lot of TV Watchers,” The Wall Street Journal, Sep. 23, 1982, 1 page.
“Video Kitchen” “Commercial Prospects for Food Data-Base Management,” Prospectus for a Multiclient Study from American Information Exchange, 1982.
I/Net Corporation, Company Brochure.
Diamond, David, “Why Television's Business Programs Haven't Turned a Profit,”The New York Times, Jun. 16, 1985, pp. F10-F11.
Tagliabue, John, “ITT's Key. West German Unit,” The New York Times, Apr. 29, 1985, p. D8.
Tagliaferro, John, “Tag Lines,” 1982, 1 page.
“PBS Project With Merrill,” newsarticle, Apr. 4, 1983.
“Merrill Lynch sinks $4M into FNN's Data Cast service,” Cable Vision, Mar. 11, 1985, p. 23.
“Merrill Lynch bullish on new data service,” Electronic Media, Feb. 28, 1985, p. 4.
“Merrill Lynch Plans Stock-Quote Service Linked to IBM's PC,” The Wall Street Journal, Mar. 21, 1984, p. 60.
Sanger, David E., “Public TV Joins Venture to Send Finance Data to Computer Users,” The New York Times, Feb. 21, 1985, pp. 1 and D8.
Dolnick, Edward, “Inventing The Future,” The New York Times Magazine, Aug. 23, 1987.
“Everything you've always wanted to know about TV Ratings,” A.C. Nielsen Company, brochure, 1978.
“Management With The Nielsen Retail Index System,” A.C. Nielsen Company, 1980.
Pollack, Andrew, “Computer Programs as University Teachers,” The New York Times, 4 pages.
“Business Television” “Changing the Way America Does Business,” PSN, 1986.
Merrell, Richard G., “TAC-Timer,” 1986 NCTA Technical Papers, 1986, pp. 203-206.
“Universal Remote Control,” Radio Shack, Owner's Manual, 4 pages.
Long, Michael, E., “The VCR Interface,” 1986 NCTA Technical Papers, 1986, pp. 197-202.
“Flexible programmieren mit. VPS,” Funkschau, (German publication), 1985. (translation provided).
Chase, Scott, “Corporate Satellite Networks No Longer A Luxury But Rather A Necessity,” Via Statellite, Jul. 1987, pp. 18-21.
Diamond, Sam, “Turning Television Into A Business Tool,” High Technology, Apr. 1987, 2 pages.
“The Portable Plus Personal Computer,” Hewlett-Packard, advertisement, Mar. 1986.
“The Portable Plus for Professionals in Motion,” Hewlett-Packard, advertisement, Jul. 1985.
“KBTV Kodak Business TeleVision,” Kodak, brochure, Sep. 1987.
“Broadway Video,” Brochure, Feb. 1987.
“Digital TV set to burst on U.S. mart,” New York Post, 2 pages.
Prospectus, VIKONICS, Inc., Jul. 14, 1987.
Prospectus, DIGITEXT, Inc., Feb. 27, 1986.
Prospectus, Color Systems Technology, Inc., Aug. 13, 1986.
Prospectus, Cheyenne Software, Inc., Oct. 3, 1985.
1986 Annual Report, the Allen Group Inc.
Wilson, Donald H., “A Process for Creating a National Legal Computer Research Service in The United States,” remarks at the conference on World Peace Through World Law and World Assembly of Judges, Belgrade Yugoslavia, Jul. 23, 1971.
Pollack, Andrew, “Teletext is Ready for Debut,” The New York Times, Feb. 18, 1983, 2 pages.
“Sunny Outlook for Landmark's John Wynne; Landmark Communications Inc.,” Broadcasting, Lexis-Nexis, Jul. 27, 1987.
“Applications Information VCR-3001A Universal Videocassette Control Module,” Channelmatic, Inc., product description, 5 pages, Mar. 1984.
Killion, Bill, “Advertising,” SAT Guide, Jul. 1982.
“PL-5A Price List Typical Systems,” Channelmatic, Inc., Nov. 1984.
“Channelmatic SPOTMATIC Random Access Commercial Insert System,” Channelmatic, Inc., product description, Jul. 1983.
Killion, Bill, “Automatic Commercial Insertion Equipment for the Unattended Insertion of Local Advertising,” paper presented at 33rd Annual National Cable Television Association Convention, Jun. 1984.
“Channelmatic SDA-1A Sync Stripping Pulse Distribution Amplifier,” Channelmatic, Inc., product description, 1 page.
“Broadcast Quality Random Access Commercial Insert System Featuring the Channelmatic SPOTMATIC Z,” Channelmatic, Inc., product description, 1 page.
“Audio Level Detector ALD-3000A,” Channelmatic, Inc., product description, Mar. 1984, 1 page.
“CVS-3000A Commercial Verification System,” Channelmatic, Inc., product description, Mar. 1984, 1 page.
“Four-Channel Commercial Insert System Featuring the Channelmatic CIS-1A SPOTMATIC JR,” Channelmatic, Inc., product description, 1 page.
“Local Program Playback System Featuring the Channelmatic VCR-3005A-5 Videocassette Sequencer,” Channelmatic, Inc., product description, 1 page.
“Channelmatic BBX-1A Billibox Bypass and Test Switcher,” Channelmatic, Inc., product description, 2 pages.
“Channelmatic's Handimod I,” Channelmatic, Inc., product description, 2 pages.
“SPOTMATIC JR. Single VCR Commercial Insert System,” Channelmatic, Inc., product description, 4 pages.
“PL-1A Price List, 3000 Series Equipment,” Channelmatic, Inc., Feb. 1985, 2 pages.
“PL-2B 1000 Series Price List, 1.75× 19 Inch Rack Mounting,” Channelmatic, Inc., Jul. 1985.
“VPD-3001A Signal Presence Detector,” Channelmatic, Inc., product description, Mar. 1984, 1 page.
“Channelmatic CMG-3008A 8-page Color Message Generator Module,” Channelmatic, Inc., product description, 1 page.
“Tone Switching System Model TSS-3000A-1,” Channelmatic, Inc., product description, 1 page.
“Series 3000 Satellite Receiver Controllers,” Channelmatic, Inc., product description, 2 pages.
“Channelmatic UAA-6A Universal Audio Amplifier,” Channelmatic, Inc., product description, 1 page.
“Channelmatic ADA-3006A Audio Distribution Amplifier,” Channelmatic, Inc., product description, 1 page.
“Channelmatic ADA-1A, ADA-2A, ADA-3A Audio Distribution Amplifier,” Channelmatic, Inc., product description, 1 page.
“Channelmatic VDA-3006A Video Distribution Amplifier,” Channelmatic, Inc., product description, 1 page.
“Channelmatic VDA-1A, VDA-2A, VDA-3A Video Distribution Amplifier,” Channelmatic, Inc., product description, 1 page.
“Channelmatic AVS-10A Patchmaster,” Channelmatic, Inc., product description, 2 pages.
“Broadcast Break Sequencer Model BBS-3006A,” Channelmatic, Inc., product description, Mar. 1984, 1 page.
“Audio-Video Emergency Alert System,” Channelmatic, Inc., product description, Mar. 1984, 2 page.
“VCR Automation System LPS-3000A,” Channelmatic, Inc., product description, Mar. 1984, 2 pages.
“Clock Switching System Model CCS-3000A-1,” Channelmatic, Inc., product description, Mar. 1984, 1 page.
“Channelmatic PCM-3000A Superclock Programmable Controller Module,” Channelmatic, Inc., product description, 2 pages.
“PL-3A Price List Videocassette Changers,” Channelmatic, Inc., Nov. 1984, 1 page.
Channelmatic, Inc., advertisement, “Looking at Local Ad Sales?”, 1 page.
“Channelmatic Television Switching and Control Equipment 3000 Series,” Channelmatic, Inc., product descriptions, 1984.
“CIS-1A SPOTMATIC JR. & CIS-2A Li' l Moneymaker,” Channelmatic, Inc., Installation and Operations Guide, 950-0066-00, V1.0.
“1986 Annual Report to Shareowners, Customers and Employees,” The Dun & Bradstreet Corporation.
Landro, Laura, “CBS, AT&T May Start Videotex Business in '83 if 7-Month Home Test Is Successful,” The Wall Street Journal, Sep. 28, 1982, p. 8.
“Video Visionaries,” Review, Sep. 1982, pp. 95-103.
“Video-Game Boom Continues Despite Computer Price War,” Technology, The Wall Street Journal, Oct. 1, 1982, p. 33.
Dunn, Donald H., editor, “How to Pick Your Stocks by Computer,” Personal Business, Business Week, Sep. 12, 1983, pp. 121-122.
Sandberg-Diment, Erik, “Instruction Without Inspiration,” Personal Computers, The New York Times, Sep. 6, 1983, p. C4.
Pace, Eric, “Videotex: Luring Advertisers,” The New York Times, Oct. 14, 1982.
“Will Knight-Ridder Make News With Videotex?”, Media, Business Week, Aug. 8, 1983, pp. 59-60.
Kneale, Dennis, et al., “Merrill Lynch and IBM Unveil Venture To Deliver Stock-Quote Data to IBM PCs,” The Wall Street Journal, Mar. 22, 1984, p. 8.
“Merrill Lynch Joins I.B.M. in Venture, ” The New York Times, Mar. 22, 1984, 1 page.
Kneale, Dennis, “Merrill Lynch Plans Stock-Quote Service Linked to I.B.M.'s PC,” The Wall Street Journal, Mar. 21, 1984, 1 page.
“A Videotex Pioneer Pushes Into the U.S. Market,” Business Week, Apr. 16, 1984, p. 63.
Gregg, Gail, “The Boom In On-Line Information,” New Businesses, Venture, Mar. 1984, pp. 98-102.
Sanger, David E., “Trading Stock by Computer,” Technology, The New York Times, Mar. 29, 1984, 1 page.
Saddler, Jeanne et al., “COMSAT, Citing Risks, Ends Negotiations With Prudential on Satellite—TV Venture,” The Wall Street Journal, Dec. 3, 1984, p. 51.
Pollack, Andrew, “Electronic Almanacs Are There for the Asking,” The New York Times, Mar. 18, 1984, 1 page.
Connelly, Mike, “Knight-Ridder's Cutbacks at Viewtron Show Videotex Revolution Is Faltering,” The Wall Street Journal, Nov. 2, 1984, p. 42.
“Time Inc. May Drop Teletext,” newspaper article, 1 page.
Pollack, Andrew, “Time Inc. Drops Teletext Experiment,” newspaper article, 1 page.
Arenson, Karen W., “CBS, I.B.M., Sears Join in Videotex Venture,” newspaper article, 1 page.
“E.F. Hutton to Start A Videotex Service,” newspaper article, 1 page.
Dunn, Donald H., editor, “Devices That Let You Track Stocks Like A Floor Trader,” Personal Business, Business Week, Jul. 25, 1983, pp. 83-84.
“United Satellite Racing Competitors,” newspaper article, 1 page.
Fantel, Hans, “Videotex to Expand What a TV Can Do,” article, 1 page.
“Zenith and Taft Co. In Teletext Venture,” The New York Times, p. D3.
Pollack, Andrew, “Videodisk's Data Future,” The New York Times, Oct. 7, 1982, p. D2.
Pace, Eric, “Videotex in Years To Come,” The New York Times, Sep. 1, 1982, p. D15.
“Advanced Minicomputer-based Systems for Banking and Financial Institutions,” Money Management Systems, Incorporated, brochure, 1980, 9 pages.
Middleton, Teresa, “The Education Utility,” American Educator, Winter 1986, pp. 18-25.
Perlez, Jane, “Teachers Act to Increase Decision-Making Power,” The New York Times, Jul. 8, 1986, 1 page.
Couzens, Michael, “Invasion of the People Meters,” Channels, Jun. 1986, pp. 40-45.
Behrens, Steve, “People Meters vs. The Gold Standard,” Channels, p. 72, Sep. 1987.
Diamond, Edwin, “Attack of the People Meters,” New York, pp. 38-41, Aug. 24, 1987.
“Ratings Brawl (Is Nielsen losing its grip?)” Time, p. 57, Jul. 20, 1987.
Sheets, Kenneth R., “No go. TV networks nix new high-tech rating system,” U.S. News & World Report, p. 39, Jul. 20, 1987.
Lieberman, David, “The Networks' Big Headache,” Business Week, pp. 26-28, Jul. 6, 1987.
Barbieri, Rich, “Perfecting the Body Count,” Channels, p. 15, Jun. 1987.
Dumaine, Brian, “Who's Gypping Whom in TV Ads?”, Fortune, pp. 78-79, Jul. 6, 1987.
Behrens, Steve, “People Meters' Upside,” Channels, p. 19, May 1987.
“People Meters,” The New Yorker, pp. 24-25, Mar. 2, 1987.
Zoglin, Richard, “Peering Back at the Viewer,” Time, p. 84, Jun. 30, 1986.
Kanner, Bernice, “Now, People Meters,” New York, 3 pages, May 19, 1986.
Trachtenberg, Jeffrey A., “Anybody home out there?”, Forbes, pp. 169-170, May 19, 1986.
Waters, Harry F. et al., “Tuning In on the Viewer,” Newsweek, p. 68, Mar. 4, 1985.
Berss, Marcia, “Tune in,” Forbes, p. 227, Sep. 24, 1984.
“Financial News Network Eyeing Teletext Service Tied To Home Computers,” International Videotex Teletext News, Dec. 1983, 1 page.
Prospectus, Financial News Network, Inc., Jul. 13, 1982.
“ELRA Group Cablemark Reports vol. I,” SAT Guide, Feb. 1982, 1 page.
“DOWALERT,” Brochure, 1983, 6 pages.
New York Stock Exchange, Inc., Computer Input Services, Schedule of Monthly Charges, Aug. 1, 1981, 1 page.
New York Stock Exchange, Inc., Market Data Services, Schedule of Monthly Charges, Jan. 1, 1982, 1 page.
“Introducing DowAlert,” brochure, 1982, 8 pages.
“Dow Jones Cable Information Services,” Company Brochure, 1982.
“Personal Portfolio Button,” brochure, JS&A, 1982.
“Business news breakthrough from Dow Jones,” advertisement, The Wall Street Journal, Jun. 10, 1982, p. 47.
“Charting A More Profitable Course for Your Portfolio?”, advertisement, Dow Jones News/Retrieval, The Wall Street Journal, Jun. 24, 1982, p. 40.
“Now you can get the precise business and financial news you want . . . throughout the business day.” “Dow Alert,” brochure, 1982.
Promotional letter, “Dow Jones Cable News,” Dow Jones & Company, Inc., Jan. 1, 1982, 2 pages.
“1981 Annual Report,” Quotron Systems, Inc.
Prospectus, Quotron Systems, Inc., Nov. 1982.
“Threat to Quotron Discounted,” The New York Times, 1984, 2 pages.
“Quotron's Central Position in Statistics Service Is Facing Competition From Several Challengers,” The Wall Street Journal, Feb. 2, 1984, p. 59.
“European Security Prices Are Now Available As New Service From Quotron Systems,” News Release, Sep. 21, 1984, 1 page.
“1983 Annual Report,” Quotron Systems, Inc.
“How to increase training productivity through Videodisc and Microcomputer systems,” seminar brochure, 1981.
“The Revolution Continues . . . ”, Regency Systems, Inc., company brochure, 1984, 6 pages.
“How personal computers can backfire,” Business Week, Jul. 12, 1982, pp. 56-59.
“Taking control of computer spending,” Business Week, Jul. 12, 1982, pp. 59-60.
Meserve, Everett T., “A History of Rabbits,” Datamation, pp. 188-192.
Meserve, Everett T. (BILL), “The Future of Rabbits,” Datamation, Jan. 1982, pp. 130-136.
PC Ideas International Corp., product catalog, 7 pages, 1985.
UltiTech, Inc., “The Portable Interactive Videodisc System 3,” brochure, 1985.
Sony Video Communications, “LDP-1000A Laser Videodisc Player,” product description, 1983, 2 pages.
TMS Inc., Digital Laser Technology, product information, 1984, 16 pages.
Sony Video Communications, “Videodisc, Premastering and Formatting,” brochure, 1982.
Pioneer Video, Inc., “LD-V4000 Industrial Laserdisc Player,” product description, Feb. 1984, 2 pages.
Pioneer Video, Inc., “LD-V6000 Industrial Laserdisc Player,” product description, May 1985, 2 pages.
Pioneer Video, Inc., “LD-V6000 Industrial Laserdisc Player,” products price list, Apr. 1984, 1 page.
Pioneer Video, Inc., “Customer Support Publications,” 2 pages.
Pioneer Video, Inc., “Pioneer LD-V1000 Laserdisc Player,” price list, Feb. 1984, 1 page.
Pioneer Video, Inc., “LD-V1000 Laserdisc Player,” product description, Feb. 1985, 2 pages.
Pioneer Video, Inc., “LD-V4000 Laserdisc Player,” products price list, Dec. 1983, 1 page.
“Space-Age Navigation For The Family Car,” reprinted from Business Week, Jun. 18, 1984, 2 pages.
Held, Thomas et al., “Videodisc to Lure and to Learn,” reprinted from The Journal of the International Television Association, International Television, May 1984, 4 pages.
Sony, “SONY View System, The Intelligent Video System,” product description, 1985, 2 pages.
Sony, “LDP-2000 Series, VideoDisc Players,” brochure, 1985, 12 pages.
Digital, “Vax Producer, A System for Creating Interactive Applications,” product bulletin, May 1984, 8 pages.
“Laserdata Announces Trio Encoder at the SALT Show,” News release, Aug. 21, 1985, 3 pages.
“Laserdata Still Frame Audio Premastering Guide,” advertisement, 3 pages.
“Laserdata Trio Encoder Product Description,” product description, 4 pages.
“PC Trio,” Laserdata, product description, 2 pages.
Laserdata, price list, Aug. 1, 1985, 4 pages.
News Release, Industrial Training Corporation, Merger of IIAT with and into ITC, Jun. 11, 1985, 1 page.
“A Touch-Screen Disc (Devlin Interviews the Producer),” reprinted magazine, E&ITV magazine, vol. 16, No. 5, May 1984, 4 pages.
“Interactive Videodisc in Education and Training,” Seventh Annual Conference, Society for Applied Learning Technology, conference agenda, Aug. 1985.
“Inter Active Video from . . . . ” BCD Associates, brochure, 1985.
The Videodisc Monitor, vol. II: No. 8, Aug. 1984, 16 pages.
“Products From The VideoDisc Monitor,” order form, 2 pages.
“Interactive Video Served on a disc,” Scotch Laser Videodisc, 3M, brochure, 8 pages.
Scotch Laser Videodisc, Price List, May 1, 1984, 2 pages.
“How to find the pot of gold at the end of this rainbow,” Scotch Videodisc, 3M, brochure.
Scotch Laser Videodisc, Prices for Special Services, Feb. 15, 1984, 2 pages.
Scotch Laser Videodisc, Master Tape Specifications, May 1984, 2 pages.
“IEV Graphics and Interactive Video Products,” IEV Corporation, product information, 1 page.
“IEV-20 High-Resolution Color Graphics for The IBM-PC,” IEV Corporation, product description, 1 page.
“IEV-40 Graphics Overlay and Video Disc and Tape Control for the IBM-PC,” IEV Corporation, product description, 1 page.
“IEV-10 A Direct Replacement for the IBM Color/Graphics Adapter Card with Video Overlay Capability,” IEV Corporation, product description, 1 page.
“Model 60 Graphics Overlay and Disc or Tape Controller,” IEV Corporation, product description, 1 page.
“The IRIS System,” Silicon Graphics, Inc., product brochure, 1983.
“IRIS 1400, High Performance Geometry Computer,” Silicon Graphics, Inc., product specification, 2 pages.
“IRIS 1000/1200, High Performance Geometry Terminals,” Silicon Graphics, Inc., product specification, 2 pages.
“IRIS 1500, High Performance Geometry Computer,” Silicon Graphics, Inc., product specification, 2 pages.
“The IRIS Graphics System,” Silicon Graphics, Inc., system description, 1983, 6 pages.
“UNIX, Operating System for the IRIS Geometry Computer,” Silicon Graphics, Inc., product specification, 1 page.
“IRIS Graphics Library, Programming Support for IRIS Systems,” Silicon Graphics, Inc., product specification, 1 page.
“Ethernet, 10mbit per second Local Area Network,” Silicon Graphics, Inc., product specification, 2 pages.
Sony, Sony Video Communications, “PVM-1910/PVM-1911 19” Trinitron Color Video Monitors, product brochure, 1984, 8 pages.
“Computer Controls for Video Production,” EECO EECODER Still-Frame Decoder VAC-300, product brochure, 1984, 4 pages.
O'Donnell, John et al., “Videodisc Program Production Manual,” Sony, 1981.
“Still Frame Audio Encoder,” Laserdata, product description, 2 pages.
“TRIO 110,” Laserdata, product description, 2 pages.
“LD-V6000, Industrial Laserdisc Player,” A Technical Perspective, Pioneer Video, Inc., May 1984.
“SWSD System,” Stills With Sound and Data, Pioneer Video, Inc., product description, Aug. 1984, 2 pages.
Pioneer Video, Inc., Price List, Industrial Disc Replication and Program Development Services, May 1984, 4 pages.
“V: Link 1000,” Visage, Inc., product description, 1984, 2 pages.
“The University of Delaware Videodisc Music Series presents Interactive Videodisc Instruction in Music,” advertisement, 8 pages.
“Interactive Videodisc In Education and Training,” Sixth Annual Conference, Society for Applied Learning Technology, conference agenda, Aug. 1984, 2 pages.
“Sony engineering introduces to industry the new Sony Laser VideoDisc,” Sony Video Communications, product brochure, 12 pages.
“GraphOver 9500,” Hi-Res Graphics Overlays for NTSC Video, New Media Graphics, product description, 1983, 4 pages.
“New Horizons in Interactive Video,” Puffin product advertisement, IEV Corporation, 2 pages.
IEV Feb. 1985 Price List, 1 page.
“Fast Forth” “No Other Forth Comes Close,” IEV Corporation, product brochure.
“Pro 68 Advanced Technology 16/32 Bit Co-Processor for IBM PC, PC/XT, PC/AT and Capatibles,” Hallock Systems Company, Inc., product description, 7 pages.
“Pro 68 Software Facts,” Hallock Systems Company, Inc., product description, 6 pages.
“Pro CAD A Pro 68 Software Product,” Hallock Systems Company, Inc., product description, 4 pages.
“V: Station 2000 System,” Visage, Inc., product description, 2 pages.
“Upgrade Packages,” Visage, Inc., product description, 1 page.
“Development Software,” Visage, Inc., product description, 4 pages.
“V: Link Modules,” Visage, Inc., product description, 4 pages.
Visage, Price List, Visage, Inc., Apr. 1985, 4 pages.
Kalowski, Nathan, “Player, Monitor, Interface,” reprinted from Jan. 1985 issue of Data Training, 4 pages.
“Five Authoring Languages Now Available for Use With Visage Interactive Video Systems,” Visage News Release, Visage, Inc., Mar. 18, 1985, 5 pages.
“GraphOver 9500,” Hi-Res Hi-Speed Graphics Overlays for Videodisc, New Media Graphics, product description, 1985, 4 pages.
“PC-VideoGraph,” Hi-Res PC Graphics For Videotaping or Display, New Media Graphics, product description, 1985, 4 pages.
“PC-GraphOver,” Interactive Video With Graphics Overlays, New Media Graphics, product description, 1985, 4 pages.
“Off-the-shelf raster scan display generator creates composite video image,” reprinted by Defense Systems Review and Military Communications, Jan. 1985, p. 55.
“The NTN Entertainment Network,” NTN Entertainment Network, programming information sheet, 2 pages.
Dickey, Glenn, “A Game That's Better Than the Real Thing,” San Francisco Chronicle, Dec. 17, 1985, p. 63.
Connell, Steve, “Arm-Chair Quarterbacking (Computer football game makes fans the play-callers),” The Sacramento Union, Jan. 23, 1986, 3 pages.
Gunn, William, “Get Ready For Monday Night Football,” Night Club and Bar, Jul. 1986, pp. 20-22.
Brack, Fred, “QB1 Anyone?”, Alaska Airlines, Aug. 1986, 2 pages.
Dickey, Glenn, “QB1: Bringing The Game Into the Bar,” Sport Magazine, Oct. 1986, 1 page.
“The Most Exciting Customer and Revenue Building Program Since Sports were First Shown on T.V.”, NTN Communications, Inc., QB1 product brochure, 1986, 4 pages.
“NTN—The Company,” NTN Communications, Inc., company description, 1 page.
NTN Communications, Inc., “Trivia Countdown,” and “Trivia Showdown,” product descriptions, 1 page.
Pottle, Jack T. et al., “The Impact of Competitive Distribution Technologies on Cable Television,” Report, prepared for The National Cable Television Association, Mar. 1982.
“Consumer Electronics: A $40-Billion American Industry,” a report prepared by Arthur D. Little, Inc. for the Electronic Industries Association/Consumer Electronics Group, Apr. 1985.
“Camp,” Arbitron Cable, The Arbitron Company, product brochure, May 1980, 8 pages.
“Times Mirror Videotex/Infomart Joint Venture,” Times Mirror, Background, Jan. 8, 1982, 3 pages.
Cable Advertising Conference Feb. 9, 1982, conference agenda, Cabletelevision Advertising Bureau, Inc., 6 pages.
True Stereo Television, Series 1600 Warner-Amex Stereo Processers, Wegener Communications, Inc., product description, 1982, 3 pages.
“EUROM—a single-chip c.r.t. controller for videotex,” Mullard, Technical publication, 1984, 12 pages.
“EUROM” “A display IC for CEPT Videotex,” Mullard, product information, Feb. 1984, 6 pages.
“Satellite-Delivered Text Service Signs 4 Carriers,” Multichannel News, Jun. 18, 1984, p. 18.
Aarsteinsen, Barbara, “How the Chip Spurs TV Growth,” “The promise of digital televison has stirred the U.S. Industry,”The New York Times, May 20, 1984, 1 page.
Pollack, Andrew, “As Usual, Here Comes The Japanese,” The New York Times, May 20, 1984, 1 page.
“Unleashing IBM Could Help a Satellite Venture Blast Off,” Business Week, May 28, 1984, 2 pages.
Mayer, Martin, “Here comes Ku-band,” Forbes, May 21, 1984, pp. 65-72.
“The UCSD p-System Version IV,” SOFTECH Microsystems, product description, 2 pages.
“UCSD p-System Languages, Version IV UCSD Pascal, Fortran-77, Basic and Assembler,” SOFTECH Microsystems, product description, 2 pages.
“Add-On Features, UCSD p-System Version IV,” SOFTECH Microsystems, product description, 2 pages.
“USCD p-System, Version IV.1,” SOFTECH Microsystems, product description, 4 pages.
SOFTECH Microsystems, Product Order Form, Oct. 1982, 2 pages.
“Homecast, A Consumer Market Service from ICM Services,” Chase Econometrics, product brochure, 2 pages.
“Consumer Systems Industry Service,” research notes, Gartner Group, Inc., Jun. 22, 1983, 13 pages.
Download, Monthly Newsletter, vol. 1, No. 1, May 1984.
Nocera, Joseph, “Death of a Computer,” Texas Monthly, Apr. 1984.
Special Report, Business Week, Jul. 16, 1984, pp. 84-111.
Zenith, Video Hi-Tech Component TV, product brochure, Aug. 1982, 8 pages.
Ferretti, Fred, “For Major-League Times, Addicts, A Way to Win a Pennant,” The New York Times, Jul. 8, 1980, 1 page.
Friedman, Jack, “The Most Peppery Game Since The Hot Stove League? It's Rotisserie Baseball,” People weekly, Apr. 23, 1984, 2 pages.
“Information Package for MDS Applicants,” Department of Communications Radio Frequency Management Division, Oct. 1986.
Department of Transport and Communications Radio Frequency Management Division, Licensing Procedures for Ancillary Communications Services (ACS).
Minister for Communications Guidelines for Provision of Video and Audio Entertainment and Information Services, Oct. 13, 1986.
Christopher, Maurine, “BAR cable service set,” Advertising Age, Sep. 21, 1981, pp. 68 & 72.
“In this corner, Digisonics!”, Media Decisions, Jun. 1968, 5 pages.
“Did the ad run?”, Media Decisions, Jul. 1969, pp. 44 et seq.
“Digisonics TV Monitor System Finds Defenders,” Advertising Age, Dec. 8, 1969, 1 page.
“Merrill Lynch Advanced Applications Systems,” Advanced Automation Systems Department, system description, publication date unknown.
Dougherty, Philip, “Gathering Intelligence for Profit,” newspaper article, 1981, p. D7.
“Vidbits,” Advertising Age, Sep. 21, 1981, p. 70.
“Measuring The Cable Audience,” Ogilvy & Mather, Advertising, 1980, pp. H1-H8.
Cooney, John E., “Counting Cable's Gold Coins,” View, Sep. 1981, 4 pages.
“Cable TV Advertising,” Paul Kogan Associates, Inc., No. 22, Feb. 18, 1981, 6 pages,
“IDC begins monitoring,” At Deadline, Broadcasting, Sep. 14, 1970, p. 9.
“Contraband code,” Closed Circuit, Broadcasting, Sep. 28, 1970, 1 page.
“Listeners,” Closed Circuit, Broadcasting, 1 page.
“Digisonics violated standards, says BAR,” Broadcasting, Oct. 5, 1970, pp. 21-23.
“Talent pay code put off,” At Deadline, Broadcasting, Nov. 9, 1970, p. 9.
“Digisonics' Aim Is Info Bank, Not Just Proof of Performance,” Advertising Age, Nov. 9, 1970, 4 pages.
“Digisonics pushes its coding method,” Broadcasting, Dec. 7, 1970, p. 37.
“No. Digisonics friends show in comments,” Broadcasting, May 24, 1971, p. 62.
“Digisonics' dilemma,” Media Decisions, Jun. 1971, 6 pages.
“IDC encoding system still alive at FCC,” Broadcasting, Sep. 27, 1971, p. 31.
Howard, Niles A., “IDC drops tv monitoring; mulls revival,” reprint from Advertising Age, Feb. 3, 1975, 1 page.
“Teleproof I” “An Exciting New Development of International Digisonics Corporation,” product brochure, 13 pages.
“Teleproof 2,” IDC Services, Inc., product description, 6 pages.
“The Best Reason to Buy Odetics On-Air Automation Systems Today?” Advertisement, Odetics Broadcast, 1 page.
“Advertising on Cable” “Automatic Commercial Insertion-Plus-Automatic Print-Out Verification With the New Ad Machine and Ad Log,” Advertisement, Tele-Engineering Corporation, 4 pages.
“NTN Communications, Inc. Entertainment Network Program Schedule,” Advertisement, NTN Communications, Inc., 2 pages.
“Interactive Football for The Home,” Advertisement, U.S. Videotel, 2 pages.
“NTN Programming,” Advertisement, NTN Communications, Inc., 2 pages.
“Electronic Surveys, Inc. Signs NTN Contract,” News Release, NTN Communications, Inc. Carlsbad, CA, 2 pages.
Andrews, Edmund L., “AT&T Sees The Future in Games,” The New York Times, Business Day, 2 pages.
“Total Teleconferencing Solutions for Your Communication and Training Needs,” brochure, Parker Communications Corporation, Parker Associates.
“PSN Signs Fourth High Technology Customer As Amdahl Corporation Implements Business Television,” PSN News, News Release, Private Satellite Network, Inc., 2 pages.
PSN, Private Satellite Network, Inc., product information for MISTS, Mass Interactive Simultaneous Telecommunications System, 6 pages.
“Broadcasting Services,” brochure, PSN, Private Satellite Network, Inc., 6 pages.
Martin, Vivian B., “Companies use TV talk shows to inform workers,” The Hartford Journal, Business Weekly, 1 page.
Fisher, Lawrence M., “TV: Growing Corporate Tool,” The New York Times, 2 pages.
Vaughan, Kimithy, “Evolution of Corporate Television Networks,” Teleconference, The Business Communication Magazine, pp. 38-40.
“New in Teleconferencing Resources,” advertisement, Parker Associates, 4 pages.
“Business Television Services,” Irwin Communications, Inc., brochure, 1 page.
“Corporate Capabilities,” Irwin Communications, Inc., brochure, 1 page.
“Introducing RSVP: The latest breakthrough for cable!”, advertisement, Arbitron, 1 page.
“Viacom Unit Will Tap Into Pay Networks,” newspaper article, 1 page.
“Show or Tell?”, Advertising material, The Weather Star 4000, The Weather Channel, 8 pages.
“Video Hi-Tech Component TV,” CV 1950, CV 510, CV 540, CV 520, CV 150, advertisement, Zenith Radio Corporation, 4 pages.
“Point-To-Multipoint Data Communication Network Services,” product description, Equatorial Communications Company, 5 pages.
“C-100 Series Micro Earth Stations for Satellite Data Distribution,” product description, Equatorial Communications Company, 4 pages.
“C-200 Micro Earth Station for Satellite Data Communications,” product description, Equatorial Communications Company, 3 pages.
“Interactive Data Communication Network Services,” product description, Equatorial Communications Company, 3 pages.
“Data Communications Network Description,” product description, Equatorial Communications Company, 5 pages.
Landro, Laura, “Satellite Company Signs Merill Lynch For Its Video Service,” The Wall Street Journal, 1 page.
“Elite 2000 Creation System,” IBM Compatible Information Display System, advertisement, Display Systems International, Inc., 1 page.
“Video Database Management . . . When Words Are Not Enough,” advertisement, U.S. Video, 2 pages.
“U.S. Video presents . . . True Computer-Video Overlays,” The Raster Master RM-110, product description, U.S. Video, 2 pages.
“Now You Can Find Just the Right Image Every Time Quickly and Easily with Image Search and the IBM PC/XT,” advertisement, Online Computer Systems, Inc., 1 page.
“Touch the Future Today,” advertisement, MetaMedia Systems, Inc., 1 page.
“Training solutions for the 80's and beyond,” advertisement, Online Computer Systems, Inc., 2 pages.
“Experienced Educator/Trainers,” “Use the new Pilot plus Training System to develop highly interactive courseware on your IBM PC that will run on most microcomputers,” advertisement, Online Computer Systems, Inc., 2 pages.
“Technical Specifications for Hardware and Software Products,” Online Products Corporation, 9 pages.
“Museum Image Series,” product information, Online Products Corporation, 2 pages.
“Omega Vision,” product description, Omega Management Group Corp., 2 pages.
“Visage Visual Information Systems,” Interactive Video Products, brochure, Visage, Inc.
“Now the Future Is Clear,” Visage Visual Information Systems, brochure, Visage, Inc., 4 pages.
“Speak Through The Power of Today's Technology,” QUEST, product description, Allen Communication, 4 pages.
“Universal Video Controller,” product description, Allen Communication, 2 pages.
“Video-Microcomputer Interface,” product description, Allen Communication, 2 pages.
“The Leader in Interactive Video,” advertisement, Allen Communication, 2 pages.
“Allen Communication Price List,” Allen Communication, 1 page.
“Touché Interactive videodisc training by IIAT,” advertisement, IIAT, International Institute of Applied Technology, Inc., 1 page.
“Touché Interactive Videodisc System,” product description, IIAT, International Institute of Applied Technology, Inc., 2 pages.
“IIAT ST-1000A IIAT Training Station,” product description, IIAT, International Institute of Applied Technology, Inc., 2 pages.
“IIAT ST-1000B IIAT Training Station,” product description, IIAT, International Institute of Applied Technology, Inc., 2 pages.
“IIAT International Institute of Applied Technology, Inc.,” company description, 4 pages.
“Pilot plus Course Authoring Interpreter,” IIAT Products, product description, 1 page.
“Touch Monitor/ Videodisc Player Interface Card and Video Switch Box,” IIAT Products, product description, 1 page.
“Touch Sensitive Monitor Interface Card for Apple II,” IIAT Products, product description, 1 page.
“Touchpoint, A Total Eclipse of Existing Technology,” product description, Allen Communication, 2 pages.
“Totally Integrated Interactive System—TII-PC,” product description, Allen Communication, 2 pages.
“Most Valuable Peripheral,” product description, Allen Communication, 2 pages.
“Allen Communication Introduces Integrated Interactive Video Systems,” brochure, 2 pages.
“Automation, Control and Monitoring Systems,” brochure, Jasmin Electronics Limited.
“jasmin,” company brochure, Jasmin Electronics Limited, 4 pages.
“jasmin Teletext Systems,” advertisement, Jasmin Electronics Limited, 4 pages.
“jasmin Process Control Systems,” advertisement, Jasmin Electronics Limited, 4 pages.
“Teleprompter of Denver Channel Line Up,” 2 pages.
“City of Seal Beach Channel Utilization Guide,” 3 pages.
“V: Link 1910: The Single-Slot VGA Interactive Video Solution,” product description, Visage, Inc., 4 pages.
“The OASYS Authoring System,” advertisement, Online Computer Systems, Inc., 1 page.
“Advertisers Guide to Cable TV Terms,” brochure, Cable Ad Associates, Inc.
“Cable Audience Measurement Study,” A Prospectus based upon recommendations of the Ad Hoc Cable Measurement Committee, pamphlet.
Kane, Sharyn et al., “Technology in the First Person,” reprint from Delta Air Lines' SKY magazine, 4 pages.
“Training Systems,” brochure, WICAT systems, Training Systems Division, 4 pages.
“The Consultant,” advertisement, Co-Opportunities, Sales Development Information Systems, a division of Jefferson-Pilot Communications Company.
“Introducing Spot Data,” “Cable Ad Sales Just Got Better,” advertisement, TV Data Technologies, 4 pages.
“Do You Want to be Making $5-$10 a Subscriber—Right Now?” “Join Us in Our Success!”, advertisement, Multi-Image Systems, 1page.
“Mediastar,” “The message is clear,” brochure, Multi-Image Systems, 6 pages.
“Art to Go” “The Business Builder in a Box,” advertisement, Multi-Image Systems, 1 page.
“Few Things in Life Work As Well As TAPSCAN,” advertisement, Tapscan Incorporated, 6 pages.
“Dow Jones Cable News Service Daily Features Financial Markets,” product summary, 1 page.
“Financial News Network The Business Connection,” brochure, Financial News Network, 8 pages.
“The Financial News Network Means Business,” advertisement, The Financial News Network, 1 page.
“The Dawn of a New Era in Financial News Broadcasting,” advertisement, Financial News Network, 1 page.
“FNN Financial News Network,” advertisement, brief review of research from the Stanford Research Institute's VALS study, and research from ELRA Group Cablemark Reports vol. I, 4 pages.
“Industrial Skills Training With the Touch of a Finger . . . Introducing . . . Activ,” Advanced Concepts in Touch-Interactive Video, advertisement, Industrial Training Corporation, 4 pages.
“eca,” brochure, Effective Communication Arts, Inc., 4 pages.
“ODC 612 Encoder/Generator,” product description, Optical Disc Corporation, 2 pages.
“. . . the Recordable Laser Videodisc—RLV,” product description, Optical Disc Corporation, 2 pages.
“ODC 610 Videodisc Recording System,” product description, Optical Disc Corporation, 2 pages.
“Hitachi New CD-ROM Drive CDR-2500,” product description, Hitachi, Ltd., 2 pages.
“Hitachi CD-ROM Drive CDR-1502S,” product description, Hitachi, Ltd., 6 pages.
James, A., “Oracle—Broadcasting the Written Word,” Wireles Word, Jul. 1975.
Carne, E. Bryan, “The Wired Household,” IEEE Spectrum, Oct. 1979, p. 61-66.
McKenzie, G.A., “Oracle—An Information Broadcasting Service Using Data Transmission in the Vertical Interval ” Journal of the SMPTE, vol. 83, No. 1, Jan. 1974, pp. 6-10.
Edwardson, S.M., “Ceefax: A Proposed New Broadcasting Service,” Journal of the SMPTE, Jan. 1974, p. 14-19.
J. Chiddix, “Automated Videotape Delay of Satellite Transmissions,” Satellite Communications Magazine, May 1978 (reprint—2 pages).
J. Chiddix, “Tape Speed Errors in Line-Locked Videocassette Machines for CATV Applications,” TVC, Nov. 1977 (reprint—2 pages).
CRC Electronics, Inc. Product Description, “Model TD-100-Time Delay Videotape Controller,” 2 pages.
CRC Electronics, Inc., Net Price List—Mar. 1, 1980 (TD-100 Time Delay Videotape Controller), 1 page.
CRC Electronics, Inc. Product Description, “Model P-1000 Videocassette Programmer,” 4 pages.
CRC Electronics, Inc., Net Price List—Jul. 31, 1981 (P-1000 Video Machine Programmer), 1page.
Tunmann, E.O. et al. (Tele-Engineering Corp.), “Microprocessor for CATV Systems,” Cable 78— Technical Papers, National Cable Television Association 27th Annual Convention, New Orleans, LA, Apr. 30-May 3, 1978 (“Cable 78”), pp. 70-75.
Vega, Richard L. (Telecommunications Systems, Inc.), “From Satellite to Earth Station to Studio to S-T-L to MDS Transmitter to the Home; Pay Television Comes to Anchorage, Alaska,” Cable 78, pp. 76-80, 1978.
Wright, James B. et al. (Rockford Cablevision, Inc.), “The Rockford Two-Way Cable Project: Existing and Projected Technology,” Cable 78, pp. 20-28, 1978.
Fannetti, John D. et al. (City of Syracuse), “The Urban Market: Paving the Way for Two-Way Telecommunications,”Cable 78, pp. 29-33, 1978.
Schnee Rolf M. et al. (Heinrich-Hertz-Institut Berlin (West)), “Technical Aspects of Two-Way CATV Systems in Germany,” Cable 78, pp. 34-41, 1979.
Dickinson, Robert V.C. (E-Com Corporation), “A Versatile, Low Cost System for Implementing CATV Auxiliary Services,” Visions '79—Technical Papers, National Cable Television Association 28th Annual Convention, Las Vegas, NV, May 20-23, 1979, (“Vision '79”), pp. 65-72.
Evans, William E. et al. (Manitoba Telephone System), “An Intercity Coaxial Cable Electronic Highway,” Visions '79, pp. 73-79.
Schrock, Clifford B. (C.B. Schrock and Associates, Inc.), “Pay Per View, Security, and Energy Controls Via Cable: The Rippling River Project,” Visions '79, pp. 80-85.
Amell, Richard L. (Cox Cable Communications, Inc.), “Computer-Aided CATV System Design,” Visions '79, pp. 128-133.
Lopinto, John J. (Home Box Office), “Considerations for Implementing Teletext in the Cable System,” Visions of the 80's, pp. 45-48, 1980.
O'Brien, Jr., Thomas E. (General Instrument Corporation), “System Design Criteria of Addressable Terminals Optimized for the CATV Operator,” Visions of the 80's, pp. 89-91, 1980.
Ost, Clarence S. et al. (Electronic Mechanical Products Co.), “High-Security Cable Television Access System ” Visions of the 80's, pp. 92-94, 1980.
Bacon, John C. (Scientific-Atlanta, Inc.), “Is Scrambling the Only Way?,” Visions of the 80's, pp. 95-98, 1980.
Davis, Allen (Home Box Office), “Satellite Security,” Visions of the 80's, pp. 99-100, 1980.
Mannino, Joseph A. (Applied Date Research, Inc.), “Computer Applications in Cable Television,” Visions of the 80's, pp. 116-117, 1980.
Beck, Ann et al. (Manhattan Cable TV), “An Automated Programming Control System for Cable TV,” Visions of the 80's, pp. 122-127, 1980.
Schloss, Robert E. et al. (Omega Communications, Inc.), “Controlling Cable TV Head Ends and Generating Messages by Means of a Micro Computer, ” Visions of the 80's, pp. 136-138, 1980.
Eissler, Charles O. (Oak Communications, Inc.), “Addressable Control,” Cable: '81 The Future of Communications—Technical Papers, National Cable Television Association 30th Annual Convention, Los Angeles, CA, May 29-Jun. 1, 1981 (“Cable: '81”), pp. 29-33.
Schoeneberger, Carl F. (TOCOM, Inc.), “Addressable Terminal Control Using the Vertical Interval,” Cable: '81, pp. 34-40.
Stern, Joseph L. (Stem Telecommunications Corporation), “Addressable Taps,” Cable: '81, p. 41.
Brown, Larry C. (Pioneer Communications of America), “Addressable Control—A Big First Step Toward the Marriage of Computer, Cable, and Consumer,” Cable: '81, pp. 42-46.
Grabowski, Ralph E. (VISIONtec), “The Link Between the Computer and Television,” Cable: '81, pp. 99-100.
Ciciora, Ph.D., W.S. (Zenith Radio Corporation), “Virtext & Virdata: Adventures in Vertical Interval Signaling,” Cable: '81, pp. 101-104.
Gilbert, Bill et al. (TEXSCAN Corporation), “Automatic Status Monitoring for a CATV Plant,” Cable: '81, pp. 124-128.
Ciciora, Walter et al., “An Introduction to Teletext and Viewdata with Comments on Compatibility,” IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, vol. CE-25, No. 3, Jul. 1979 (“Consumer Electronics”), pp. 235-245.
Tanton, N. E. “UK Teletext— Evolution and Potential,” Consumer Electronics, pp. 246-250, 1979.
Bown, H.G. et al., “Telidon: A New Approach to Videotex System Design,” Consumer Electronics, pp. 256-268, 1979.
Chitnis, A..M. et al., “Videotex Services: Network and Terminal Alternatives ” Consumer Electronics, pp. 269-278, 1979.
Hedger, J. “Telesoftware: Home Computing Via Broadcast Teletext,” Consumer Electronics, pp. 279-287, 1979.
Crowther, G.O., “Teletext and Viewdata Systems and Their Possible Extension to Europe and USA,” Consumer Electronics, pp. 288-294, 1979.
Gross, William S., “Info-Text, Newspaper of the Future ” Consumer Electronics, pp. 295-297, 1979.
Robinson, Gary et al., “‘Touch-Tone’ Teletext—A Combined Teletext-Viewdata System,” Consumer Electronics, pp. 298-303, 1979.
O'Connor, Robert A., “Teletext Field Tests,” Consumer Electronics, pp. 304-310, 1979.
Blank, John, “System and Hardware Considerations of Home Terminals With Telephone Computer Access,” Comsumer Electronics, pp. 311-317, 1979.
Plummer, Robert P. et al., “4004 Futures for Teletext and Videotex in the U.S.,” Consumer Electronics, pp. 318-326, 1979.
Marti, B. et al., The Antiope Videotex System, Consumer Electronics, pp. 327-333, 1979.
Frandon, P. et al., “Antiope LSI,” Consumer Electronics, pp. 334-338, 1979.
Crowther, G.O., “Teletext and Viewdata Costs As Applied to the U.S. Market,” Consumer Electronics, pp. 339-344, 1979.
Mothersole, Peter L., “Teletext Signal Generation Equipment and system,” Consumer Electronics, pp. 345-352, 1979.
Harden, Brian, “Teletext/Viewdata LSI,” Consumer Electronics, pp. 353-358, 1979.
Swanson, E. et al., “An Integrated Serial to Parallel Converter for Teletext Application,” Consumer Electronics, pp. 359-361, 1979.
Neal, C. Bailey et al., “A Frequency-Domain Interpretation of Echoes and Their Effect on Teletext Data Reception,” Consumer Electronics, pp. 362-377, 1979.
Goyal, Shri K. et al., “Reception of Teletext Under Multipath Conditions,” Consumer Electronics, pp. 378-392, 1979.
Prosser, Howard F., “Set Top Adapter Considerations for Teletext,” Consumer Electronics, pp. 393-399, 1979.
Suzuki, Tadahiko et al., Television Receiver Design Aspects for Employing Teletext LSI, Consumer Electronics, pp. 400-405, 1979.
Baer, Ralph H., “Tele-Briefs—A Novel User-Selectable Real Time News Headline Service for Cable TV,” Consumer Electronics, pp. 406-408, 1979.
Sherry, L.A., “Teletext Field Trials in the United Kingdom,” Consumer Electronics, pp. 409-423, 1979.
Clifford, Colin, “A Universal Controller for Text Display Systems,” Consumer Electronics, pp. 424-429, 1979.
Barlow, “The Design of an Automatic Machine Assignment System”, Journal of the SMPTE, Jul. 1975, vol. 84, p. 532-537.
Barlow, “The Automation of Large Program Routing Switchers”, SMPTE Journal, Jul. 1979, vol. 88, p. 493-497.
Barlow, “The Computer Control of Multiple-Bus Switchers”, SMPTE Journal, Sep. 1976, vol. 85, p. 720-723.
Barlow, “The Assurance of Reliability”, SMPTE Journal, Feb. 1976, vol. 85, p. 73-75.
Barlow, “Some Features of Computer-Controlled Television Station Switchers”, Journal of the SMPTE, Mar. 1972, vol. 81, p. 179-183.
Barlow et al., “A Universal Software for Automatic Switchers” SMPTE Journal, Oct. 1978, vol. 87, p. 682-683.
Butler, “PCM-Multiplexed Audio in a Large Audio Routing Switcher”, SMPTE Journal, Nov. 1976, vol. 85, p. 875-877.
Dickson et al., “An Automated Network Center”, Journal of the SMPTE, Jul. 1975, vol. 84, p. 529-532.
Edmondson et al., “NBC Switching Central”, SMPTE Journal, Oct. 1976, vol. 85, p. 795-805.
Flemming, “NBC Television Central—An Overview”, SMPTE Journal, Oct. 1976, vol. 85, p. 792-795.
Horowitz, “CBS” New-Technology Station, WBBM-T, SMPTE Journal, Mar. 1978, vol. 87, p. 141-146.
Krochmal et al., “Television Transmission Audio Facilities at NBC New York”, SMPTE Journal, Oct. 1976, vol. 85, p. 814-816.
Kubota et al., “The Videomelter”, SMPTE Journal, Nov. 1978, vol. 87, p. 753-754.
Mausler, “Video Transmission Video Facilities at NBC New York”, SMPTE Journal, Oct. 1976, vol. 85, p. 811-814.
Negri, “Hardware Interface Considerations for a Multi-Channel Television Automation System”, SMPTE Journal, Nov. 1976, vol. 85, p. 869-872.
Paganuzzi, “Communication in NBC Television Central”, SMPTE Journal, Nov. 1976, vol. 85, p. 866-869.
Roth et al., “Functional Capabilities of a Computer Control System for Television Switching”, SMPTE Journal, Oct. 1976, vol. 85, p. 806-811.
Rourke, “Television Studio Design—Signal Routing and Measurement”, SMPTE Journal, Sep. 1979, vol. 88, p. 607-609.
Yanney, Sixty-Device Remote-Control System for NBC's Television Central Project, SMPTE Journal, Nov. 1976, vol. 85, p. 873-877.
Young et al., “Developments in Computer-Controlled Television Switches”, Journal of the SMPTE, Aug. 1973, vol. 82, p. 658-661.
Young et al., “The Automation of Small Television Stations”, Journal of the SMPTE, Oct. 1971, vol. 80, p. 806-811.
Zborowski, “Automatic Transmission Systems for Television”, SMPTE Journal, Jun. 1978, vol. 87, p. 383-385.
“Landmark forms cable weather news network,” Editor & Publisher, (Aug. 8, 1981) p. 15.
“Broadcast Teletext Specification,” published jointly by British Broadcasting Corporartion, Independent Broadcasting Authority, British Radio Equipment Manufacturers' Association (Sep. 1976), pp. 1-24.
“Colormax Cable captioning—16,000,000 Subs NEED IT !,” Colormax Electronic Corp. (advertisement), 3 pages.
“7609 Sat-A-Dat Decoder/Controller,” Group W Satellite Communications (advertisement) 2 pages.
“Teletext Video Processor (SAA 5030),” Mullard (Dec. 1979), pp. 1-9.
“Video Text Decoder Systems (Signetics)”, Phillips IC Product Line Summary (May 1981), pp. 15-16.
“Teletext Acquisition and Control Circuit (SAA5040 Series),” Mullard (Jun. 1980), pp. 1-16.
“Asynchronous Data Transmission System Series 2100 VIDATA, ”Wagener Communications, Inc. (advertisement), 2 pages.
“Zenith Virtexttm . . . Vertical Interval Region Text and Graphics,” Zenith Radio Corporation (flyer), 7 pages.
Anon, “Television Network Automated by Microcomputer-Controlled Channels,” Computer Design, vol. 15, No. 11, (Nov. 1976), pp. 50, 59, 62, 66 and 70.
Kinik, et al., “A Network Control System for Television Distribution by Satellite,” Journal of the SMPTE, Feb. 1975, vo 84, No. 2, pp. 63-67.
Chiddix, “'Videocassette Banks Automate Delayed Satellite Programming,” Aug. 1978, TV Comunications, pp. 38-39.
Curnal, et al., “Automating Television Operating Centers,” Bell Laboratories Record, Mar. 1978, pp. 65-70.
Chorafas, “Interactive Videotex: The Domesticated Computer,” 1981, Petrocelli Books, New York.
Hinton, “Character rounding for the Wireless Word teletex decoder,” Wireless World, Nov. 1978, pp. 49-53, vol. 84 No. 1515, IPC Business Press, United Kingdom.
Kruger, “Speicherfernsehen, Das Digitale Kennungssystem ZPS,” Proceedings 9th International Congress Microelectronics, pp. 39-45.
“Fernsehempfang rund um die Uhr” Funk Technik, Mar. 1981, vol. 36.
Hanas et al.,“An Addressable Satellite Encryption System for Preventing Signal Piracy”, Nov. 1981, pp. 631-635.
National Cable Television Association Executive Seminar Series, Videotex Services, Oct. 1980, pp. 1-155.
Kokado et al.,“A Programmable TV Receiver”, Feb. 1976, pp. 69-82.
J. Hedger et al., “Telesoftware-Value Added Teletext”,Auqust 1980, pp. 555-567.
Marti , B., The Concept of a Universal “Teletext” Jun. 1979, pp. 1-11.
Article re: America's Talk-Back Television Experiment: Qube.
Article re: “Teletext-Applications in Electronic Publishing”.
Article re: A Description of the Broadcast Telidon System.
Article re: EPEOS—Automatic Program Recording System by G. Degoulet.
Article re: Teletext signals transmitted in Uk . . . .
Article re: New services offered by a packet data broadcasting system.
Article re: Philips TV set indicates station tunign and color settings on screen.
Vincent,A.et al., “Telidon Teletest System. Field Triasl” (Abstract).
Rzeszeewski, T.,“A New Telletex Channel”.
Numaguchi, Y. et al., “Compatibility and Transmision Characteristics of Digital Signals Inserted in the Field-Blanking Interval of the Television Signal” (Abstract).
Zimmerman, R. et al., Bildschirmtextesysteme (Abstract).
Pilz, F., “Digital Codierte Uebertragungen von Text and Graphik in den Vertikal-anstastintervallen des Fernsehsignas” (Abstract).
Pilz, F., “Uebertragung Insaitryliches Informationen, Insbesondere von Texten, In Ungenutryten Zeilen der Vertikal-Anstastlueke des Fernsehsignals” (Abstract).
Numaguchi, Y., Wie man Stillstehende Bilder Uebertraegt. Ueberlick Ueber Teletext-, Fernseheinzelbild-Und Faksimile-Uebertrragunsverfahren (Abstract).
Transcript, Videotex, Viewdata, and Teletext: Viewdata '801 Online Conference on Videotex, Viewdata and Teletext, London. Mar. 26k-28, 1980 (Abstract).
Graf, P.H., “Antiope-Uebertragung fuer Breitbandige Videotex-Verteildienste”, 1981.
Poubread, J.J., “Cryptage' du Son Pour la Televiser A Peague” 1981 (Abstract).
Graf, P.H., “Das Videotex-System Antiope” 1980 (Abstract).
Vardo, J.C., “Les Emetteurs de Television et la Diffusion de Donnees” 1980 (Abstract).
Noirel, Y., “Constructin D'un Reseau de Diffusion de Donnees Par Paquets” 1979 (Abstract).
Vardo, J.C., “ Effet de Distorsions en Diffusion de Donnes. II. Resultats Theoriques” 1979 (Abstract).
Baerfuss, C., “Experiences de Diffusion de Donnees dans un Canal de Television” 1979 (Abstract).
Blineau, J., “Liasons Telex a Support Video Sur Des Circuits de Television Internationaux” 1979 (Abstract) .
Dublet, G., “Methodes Utilisees et Principaux Resultats Obtenus Lors D'Une Campagne de esure ‘Didon’ Dans la Refion Centre-est” 1978 (Abstract).
Guinet, Y., “Etude Comparative des Systems de Teletexte en Radio-Diffusion. Quelques Avantages de la Diffusion des Donnees Par Paques Applique an Teletexte” 1977 (Abstract).
Goff, R., “A Review of Teletext” 1978 (Abstract).
Haplinsky, C.H., “The D**(2)B A One Logical Wire Bus for Consumer Applications” 1981.
Cazals, A., “cts Techniques du Teletexte Diffuse” 1981 (Abstract).
Sechet, C. et al., “Epees et la Viideomessagerie” 1981 (Abstract).
Cayet, A. “La Peritelevison Face a Son Public” 1981 (Abstract).
“La Telematique au Service Des Entreprises et des Particliers: Les Reseaux—Les Produits Noveaux—Les Aplication” 1980 (Abstract).
Sechet, C., “Antiope Teletext Captioning” 1980.
Lambert, O. et al., “Antiope and D.R.C.S.” 1980.
Broggini, P., “Antiope: La Bonne Information Au Bon Moment” 1980 (Abstract).
Strauch, D., “(Texte Sur Ecran An Nivenn International. Viewdata 80. Premeire Confirence Mendiale Sur Viewdata, Video text at Teletext, a Londres)” 1980.
Strauch, D., (Las Media De Telecommunication Devant la Rapture. Les Nonvellas Methodes Presentees a L'Exposition International 1979 de Radio (Et Television)) 1979.
Eymery, G., “Le Teletexte Antiope System D'Information a La Demande” 1979-1980 (Abstract).
Brasq , R., “Micro 8 Bits Dans Linite Gestion da Terminal de Videotex Antiope”.
Hughes, JW,“Videotex and Teletext Systems” 1979.
Marti, B., “Terminolegie Des Services de Communication De Texte” 1979.(Abstract).
Schreber, H., “Antiope et Tietae, La Tele-Informatique Sur L'ecran De Votre Televiscur” 1978 (Abstract).
Kulpok, A., “Videotext, Teletext, Bilschimzeiting” 1979 (Abstract).
Cochard, J.P. et al., “Antiope Prototype da Teletexte De Demain” 1979 (Abstract).
Messerschmid, U., “Videotext: Ein Nueur Informations dienst in Fernschrund funk” 1978 (Abstract).
D'Argoevves, T. et al, “La Chaine Vieo: Magnetoscopes, Videodisqhes, Andiodisques” 1979 (Abstract).
Klingler, R., “Les Systemes de Teletexte Unidirectionals” 1978 (Abstract).
Guillermin, J., “Dix Annees D'Antomatisation Au Service De la Radiodiffusion” 1977 (Abstract).
Brusq, R., “Le Terminal de Teletexte Antiope” 1977 (Abstract).
Guinet, Y., “Les Systemes des Teletextes Antiope” 1977 (Abstract).
Schwartz, C. et al., “Specification Preliminarie du Systeme Teletexte Antope” 1977 (Abstract).
United States International Trade Commission notice of decision not to review Admin. law judges initial dismissal of complaint (case involves certain recombinantly Produced Human Growth Hormones).
U.S. I.T.C.'s order granting Complainants Motion to Desqualify the Law Firm of Finnegan, Henderson et al. (Case involves Certain Cardiac Pacemakers and Components therof).
Decision in Ford Motor Company v. Jerome H. Lemelson.
General Counsel's recommendation to U.S.I.T.C. to refuse a patent-based section 337 investigation based on a complaint filed not by the owner of the patents in issue, but by nonexclusive licensees.
Portion of ITC's Industry and Trade Summary serial publication.
ITC Admin. Judges Order #9: Initial Determination Terminating Investigation (Investigation #337-TA-373) .
“LSI Circuits for Teletext and Viewdata—The Lucy Generation” published by Mullard Limited, Mullard House (1981).
2 page article by Nicholas Negroponte in SID 80 Digest titled, “17.4/10:25 a.m.: Soft Fonts”, pp. 184-185.
IEEE Consumer Electronics Jul. 1979 issue from Spring Conference titled, “Consumer Text Display Systems”, pp. 235-429.
Videotext '81 published by Online Conferences Ltd., for the May 20-22, 1981 Confernece, pp. 1-470.
“Teletext and Viewdata Costs as Applied to the U.S. Market” Published by Mullard House (1979), pp. 1-8.
CCETT publication titled, “Didon Diffusion de donnees parpaquets”.
Dalton,C.J., “International Broadcasting Convention” (1968), Sponsors: E.E.A., I.E.E., I.E.E.E., I.E.R.E., etc.
Shorter, D.E.L., “The Distribution of Television Sound by Pulse-Code Modulation Signals Incorporated in the Video Waveform”.
Chorky, J.M., Shorter, D.E.L., “International Broadcasting Convention” (1970), pp. 166-169.
The Implementation of the Sound-in-Sync project for Eurovision (Feb. 1975), pp. 18-22.
Maegele, Manfred, “Digital Transmissions of Two Television Sound Channels in Horizontal Banking”, pp. 68-70.
Weston, J.D., “Digital TV Transmission for the European Communications Satellite” (1974), pp. 318-325.
Golding, L., “A 15 to 25 Mhz Digital Television System for Transmission of Commercial Color Television” (1967), pp. 1-26.
Huth, Gaylord K., Digital Television System Design Study: Final Report (Nov. 28, 1976), prepared for NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center.
Weston, J.D., “Transmission of Television by Pulse Code modulation”, Electrical Communication (1967), pp. 165-172.
Golding, L, “F1-Ditec-A-Digital Television Communications System for Satellite Links,” Telecommunications Numeriques Par Satellite.
Haberle, H. et al.,“Digital TV Transmission via Satellite”, Electrical Communications (1974).
Dirks, H. et al., TV-PCM6 Integrated Sound and Vision Transmission System, Electrical Communication (1977), pp. 61-67.
Talygin, N. V. et al., The “Orbita” Ground Station for Receiving Television Programs Relayed by Satellites, Elecktrovinz, pp. 3-5.
1973 NAB Convention Program, Mar. 25-28, 1973.
Portions of Electonic Engineer's Reference Book (1989)—Multichannel sound systems, Teletext transmission, cable television, ISDN applications, etc.
Yoshido, Junko, teletext back in focus: VBI service revived as alternative delivery system, Electronic Engineering Times (1994) (Abstract).
Blankenhorn, Dana, “ Int'l Teletext expands market (International Teletext Communication Inc.),” NewsBytes (1993) (Abstract).
Collin, Simon, PC Text II (Hardware Review (Shortlist), PC User (1990).
Alfonzetti, Salvatore, “Interworking between teletext and OSI systems,” Computer Communications (1989).
Gabriel, Michael R., Videotex and teletex: Waiting for the 21st century?, Education Technology (1988).
Voorman, J.O. et al., A one-chip Automatic Equalizer for Echo Reduction in Teletext , IIEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, pp. 512-529.
National Online Meeting: Proceedings—1982 sponsored by: Online Review, pp. 547-551.
MacKenzie, G.A., A Model for the UK Teletext Level 2 Specification (Ref: GTV2 242 Annex 6″ based on the ISO Layer model.
Chambers, J.P., A Domestic Television Program Delivery Services, British Broadcasting Corporation, pp. 1-5.
McKenzie, G.A., UK Teletext—The Engineering Choices, Independent Broadcasting Authority, pp. 1-8.
Adding a new dimension to British television, Electronic Engineering (1974).
Jones, Keith, The Development of Teletext, pp. 1-6.
Marti, B. et al., Discrete, service de television cryptee, Revue de radiodiffusion—television (1975), pp. 24-30.
Ando, Heiichero et al., Still-Picture Broadcasting—A new Informational and Instructional Broadcasting System, IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting (1973), pp. 68-76.
Sauter, Dietrich, “Intelligente Komponenten Fur Das Afra-Bus-Fernsteuersystem”, Rundfunk technischen Mittelungen, pp. 54-57.
Hogel, T. et al., “Afra-Bus-ein digitales Fersteuersysten fur Fernsehstudion Komplexe”, Fernseh-Und Kino-Technik (1974), pp. 13-14.
Hogel, G., “Das Afra-Bus System: 2. Technische Struktur des AFRA-Bus-Systems”, Fernseh-Und Kino-Technik (1975), pp. 395-400.
Krauss, G., “Das Afra-Bus-System: 4. Wirtschaftlich Keits-betrachtungen und Rationalisierung seifekte beim Einsatz des AFRA-Bus-Systems”, Fernseh-Und Kino-Technik (1976), pp. 40-49.
Wellhausen, H. “Das AFRA-Bus-System: 1. Grundsatzliche-Betrachtungen und Rationlisierung und Automatisierun in den Fernschbetreben”, Fernseh-Und Kino-Technik (1975), pp. 353-356.
Sauter, D., “Das AFRA-Bus-System: 3. Einsatz-moglich Keiten des Afra-Bus Systems in Fernsehbetrieben”, Fernseh-Und Kino-Technik (1976), pp. 9-13.
B.B.C.I.B.A., Specification of Standards for information transmission by digitally coded signals in the field—blanking interval of 625-line systems (1974), pp. 5-40.
Centre Commun Des De Television et Telecommunications, Specification du Systeme Di Teletext, Antiope.
Heller, Arthur, VPS—Ein Neues System Zuragsgesteurten Programmanfzeichnung, Rundfunk technisde Mitteilungen, pp. 162-169.
Institut fur Rundfunktechnik, ARD/SDF/ZXEI—Richlinie “Video Programm-System”, pp. 1-30.
Buro der Technischen Kommission, “Niederschrift uber die Besprechung zwischen Rundfunkanstalten (Techik, Sendeleiter) und ZVEI zur Einfuhrung des Video-Programm-Systems”, pp. 1-4.
Buro der Technischen Kommission, Ergebnisse und Festlegungen anda “Blich einer Besprechung zwishen Rundfunanstalten..”, pp. 1-4.
Koch, H. et al., “Bericht der ad hoc—Arbeitsgruppe ‘Videotext programmiert Videorecorder’ der TEKO”, pp. 1-40.
European Broadcasting Union, “Specification of the Domestic Video Programme Delivery Control System”, pp. 1-72.
ARD/ZDF/ZVEI-Richtlinie “Video Programme System”.
Reports on Developments in USA, Teletext, EIA Meeting.
Videotex '81: A Special Report.
Tarrant, D.R., “Teletext for the World”.
Clifford, Colin et al., “Microprocessor Based, Software Defined Television Controller”, IEEE Transaction on Consumer Electronics (1978), pp. 436-441.
Hughes, William L. et al., “Some Design Considerations for Home Interactive Terminals”, IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting (1971).
Mothersdale, Peter L. , “Teletext and viewdata: new information systems using the domestic television receiver”, Electronics Record (1979), pp. 1349-1354.
Betts, W.R., “Viewdata: the evolution of home and business terminals”, PROC.IEE (1979), pp. 1362-1366.
Hutt, P.R., “Thical and practical ruggedness of UK teletext transmission”, PROC.IEE (1979), pp. 1397-1403.
Rogers, B.J., “Methods of measurement on teletext receivers and decoders”, PROC.IEE (1979), pp. 1404-1407 .
Green, N., “Subtitling using teletext service—technical and editorial aspects”, PROC.IEE (1979), pp. 1408-1416.
Chambers, M.A., “Teletext—enhancing the basic system”, PROC.IEE (1979), pp. 1425-1428.
Crowther, G.O., “Adaptation of Uk Teletex System for 525/60 Operation”, IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics (1980), pp. 587-596.
Marti, B. et al., Discrete, service de television cryptee , Revue de radiodiffusion—television (1975), pp. 24-30.
Lopinto, John, “The Application of DRCS within the North American Broad cast Teletext Specification”, IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics (1982), pp. 612-617.
BBC, BBC Microcomputer: BBC Microcomputer with Added Processor and Teletex Adaptor (Manual).
Green, N.W., “Picture Oracle,” on Independent Television Companies Association Limited Letterhead.
National Captioning Institute, Comments on the Matter of Amendment of Part 73, Subpart E. of the Federal Communications Rules Government Television Stations to Authorize Teletext (before F.C.C.).
Balchin, C., “Videotext and the U.S.A.”, I.C. Product Marketing Memo.
Koteen and Burt, “British Teletext/Videotex”.
EIA Teletext SubCommittee Meetings, Report on USA Visit.
Brighton's Experience with Software for Broadcast (Draft).
The institution of Electronic and Radio Engineers, Conference on Electronic Delivery of Data and Software.
AT&T, “Videotex Standard Presentation Level Protocol”.
Various Commissioner statements on Authorization of Teletext Transmissions by TV Stations.
Report and Order of FCC on the Matter of Amendment of Parts 2,73, and 76 of the Commission's Rules to Authorize the Transmission of Teletext by TV Stations, pp. 1-37.
IBA Technical Review of Digital Television, pp. 1-64.
National Cable Television Association report, “Videotex Services” given at Executive Seminar.
Lexis Research results for Patent No. 4,145,717.
Web page—Company Overview of Norepack Corporation.
Coversheet titled, “Zing”.
Lemelson v. Apple Computer, Inc. patent case in the Bureau of National Affairs, 1996.
A computer printout from Library Search.
Electronic Industries Association—Teletext Subcommittee Rask Group A—Systems Minutes of Meeting Mar. 30, 1981 at Zenith plus attachments.
Electronic Industries Association—Teletext Subcommittee Task Group A Systems Interim Report, Mar. 30, 1981 by Stuart Lipoff, Arthur D. Little Inc.
Minutes of Eletronic Industries Association Teletext Subcommittee Task Force B —Laboratory & Field Tests Mar. 30, 1981.
National Captioning Institute Report, “The 1980 Closed-Captioned Television Audience”.
Electronic Industries Assoc.—Teletext Subcommittee— Steering Committee Minutes of Meeting on Mar. 31, 1981.
Aug. 6, 1990 letter from Herb Zucker to Walter Ciciora with attachment.
Articles, information sheets under cover sheet “QVP—Pay Per View” Nov. 29, 1982.
National Cable Television Association report, “Videotex Services”.
Scala Info Channel Advertisement, “The Art of Conveying A Message”.
Zenith Corporation's Z-Tac Systems information includes Z-tac specifications, access list, etc.
Report by Cablesystems Engineering Ltd. on, “Zenith Addressable System and Operating Procedures” and Advertising documents.
Memo from W. Thomas to G. Kelly on Jan. 21, 1982 Re: Modified ZTAC/Multi Channel.
Notations by Walt Ciciora dated Aug. 19, 1981 referring to Virtext figures.
Stamped Zenith Confidential, “Preliminay Specification for Basic Text”.
Report titled “The Necams Business Plan,” dated Mar. 18, 1994.
The Personalized Mass Media Corp. reported titled, “Portfolio of Programming Examples” by Harvey, Keil, & Parker 1991.
Petition to FCC dated Mar. 26, 1981 titled, “Petition for Rulemaking of Unighted Kingdom Teletext Industry Goup,” also 1 page of handwritten notes from Walter Ciciora.
“Enhanced Computer Controlled Teletext for 525 Line Systems (Usecct) SAA 5245 User Manual” report by J.R. Kinghorn.
“Questions and Answers about Pay TV” by Ira Kamen.
Oak Industries 1981 Annual Report.
Article, “50 Different Uses for At Home 2-Way Cable TV Systems” by Morton Dubin.
Derwent Info Ltd. search. Integrated broadcasting & Computer Processing system. Inventor J. Harvey/J. Cuddihy.
Telefax from Arjen Hooiveld to Jones, Day, Reavis & Pogue Re: European Patent Appl. No. 88908836.5 and abstract plus related correspondence and Derwent search.
Advertisement in royal TV Society Journal (1972) for PYE TVT.
Letter to Dean Russell listing “reference papers”, pp. 1-4.
Letter from George McKenzie to Dean Russell Re: PMM Corp., v. TWC Inc.
Reisebericht (German memo).
Blanpunk (German memo).
“Relevant papers for Weather Channel V PMMC”.
Letter to Peter Hatt Re: BVT: Advisory UK Industry Contact Group.
Incomplete report on Antiope.
Memo FCC: Next Moves.
Memo—Re: British Teletext—ABC.
Memo with FCC Report and Order Authorizing Teletext Transmission.
Manual.
Notes to Section 22.4: Simple Block Encipherment Algorithm.
Memos on Zenith and Teletext.
Memo to Bernie Kotten about National Cable TV Association meeting and efforst to encourage Sony to integrate teletext chip sets into its TV.
Memo's from Koteen & Naftalin.
Description of patents from Official Gazette.
Explanation of Collateral Estoppel.
DNA's Intellectual Property Library on CD's summary of Jamesbury Corporation v. United States.
BBA's Intellectual Property printouts of Lemelson v. Apple Computer, Inc.
ITC Judge Order denying Motion for Summary Judgment in the Matter of Certain Memory Devices with Increased Capacitance and Products Containing Same, Investigation #337-TA-371.
Decision in court case Corbett v. Chisolm and Schrenk invovling patent #3,557,265.
Matthew Beaden Printouts regarding interference practice and the Board Interference.
BNA's Intellectual Property Library on CD printouts about Corbett v. Chisolm.
Numerous Group W business cards including James Cuddihy.
The Broadcast Teloetext Specification, published by the BBC, The IBA and the British Radio Equipment Manufacturers' Association (1976).
Kahn, et al., “Advances in Packet Radio Technology,” . . . Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 66, No. 11, Nov. (1978) pp. 1468-1495.
Clifford, C., “A Universal Controller for Text Display Systems,” IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, (1979) pp. 424-429.
Harden, B., “Teletext/Viewdata LSI,” IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, (1979), pp. 353-358.
Bown, H. et al., “Comparative Terminal Realizatins with Alpha-Geometric Coding,” IEEE Transaction on Consumer Electronics, (1980), pp. 605-614.
Crowther, “Dynamically Redefinable Character Sets—D.R.C.S.,” IEEE Transaction on Consumer Electronics, (1980), pp. 707-716.
Chambers, John et al., “The Development of a Coding Hierarchy for Enhanced UK Teletext,” IEEE Transaction on Consumer Electronics, (1981), pp. 536-540.
Reexamination of U.S. Patent No. 4,706,121.
U.S. Patent Application by T. Diepholz (Serial No. 266900).
List of relevant or searched patents.
88908836.5 and Amendments to John C. Harvey,. European Patent Office.
88908836.5 International Application to John C. Harvey.
Kruger, H.E., “Memory Television, the ZPS Digital Identification System,” pp. 1-9.
Gaines, B.R. and Sams, J., “Minicomputers in Security Dealing,” Computer, Sep. 1976, pp. 6-15.
Kazama et al., “Automatic storage and retreival of video taped programs”, Apr. 1979.
Transcript of Viewdata '80, first world conference on viewdata, videotex, and teletext, Mar. 26-28, 1980, London.
Benson, K. B. et al., “CBS New York Video Tape Facilities”.
Brown et al., Project Score, pp. 624-630, 1960.
Burkhardt et al., “Digitial Television Transmisson With 34 Mbit/s”.
Byloff, “Automatic Control of Video Tape Equipment at NBC, Burbank,” by the National Broadcasting Company, Inc. In 1959.
Charles Gerrish, “QUBE”—Interactive Video on the Move.
Crowther, et al. G.O., “Teletext Receiver LSI Data Acquisition and Control,” Jan. 13, 1976, pp. 911-915.
Davidoff, Frank, “The All-Digital Television Studio,” SMPTE Journal, vol. 89, No. 6.
Diederich, Werner DT, “Electronic Image and Tone Return Equipment With Switching System and Remote Control Receiver for Television Decoder”.
Gaucher, “Automatic Program Recording System”.
M.W.S.. Barlow, “Automatic Switching in the CBC—An Update”.
Marsden, “Master Control Techniques,” v 9 of the “Journal of the Television Society,” 1959.
McArthur, David, “The television as a receive only terminal”.
Millar et al., “Transmission of Alphanumeric Data by Television”.
Schober, “The WETA Teletext Filed Trial: Some Technical Concerns . . . ”.
Skilton, The Digitrol 2—Automatic VTR Programme Control.
Stern, “An Auotmated Programming Control Sysem for Cable TV”.
Yamane et al., “System and apparatus for automatic Monitoring control of Broadcast Circuits”.
Zettl, “Television Production Handbook”, second edition.
Schiller et al., “CATV Program Origination and Production”.
Hughes et al., Some Design Considerations for Home Interactive Terminals, IEEE Transaction on Broadcasting, vol. BC-17, No. 2, Jun. 1971.
Kaneko et al., “Digital Transmission of Broadcast Television with Reduced Bit Rate.”
Gautier, C., “Automatic Program Recording Systems”.
Kahn et al. “Advances in Packet Radio Technology,” Proceedings of IEEE, vol. 6.6, No. 11, Nov. 1975.
Marti, B., “The Concept of Universal Teletext,” CCETTt, Rennes 11th International Television Symposium Paper, V11 A-3A, pp. 1-11, May 27, 1979.
“Videotex Services,” National Cable Television Association Executive Seminar Series, NCTA Washington, Oct. 1980, pp. III-VII, 1-3, 23-27, Oct. 1980.
“Specification du service de classe A, TeleDiffusion de France,” Antiope, Feb. 1985.
Gautier, J.P. “Language Telediffuse de Messagerie du Projet Ecrans Hybrides,” Antiope/Didon system, Jun. 1981.
Auer, R., “Die Warteschlange Uberlistet,” Funkschau, pp. 53-56, Jun. 1985.
Grethlein, M., “Videotext und Bildschirmtext,” Funkschau, Heft 5, 1981, pp. 69-73, May 1981.
Heider, et al., “Videotext und Bildschirmtext,” Grundig Technische Informationen, Heft 4/5, 1980, pp. 171-195, Apr. 1980.
Kombinierer fur Videotextsignal, “Runfunktechnische Mitteilungen,” Jahrgang 28, (1984), Heft 6, pp. 273-289, Jun. 1984.
Art Kleiman, “Heathkit GR-2001—Programmable Color TV,” Radio Electronics, May 1977.
Gecsei, Jan. The Architecture of Videotex Systems (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1983 pp. 174-177, 233-238.
Sigel, Efrem et al. The Future of Videotext: Worldwide Prospects for Home/Office Electronic Information Services (White Plains, N.Y.: Knowledge Industry Publications, Inc., 1983), pp. 28, 119-126.
Raggett, Michael. “Broadcast Telesoftware,” Computer Graphics World, vol. 6, No. 9, Sep. 1983, table of contents, pp. 49, 50, 52 and letters.
Tydeman, John et al. Teletex and Videotex in the United States: Market Potential Technology, Public Policy Issues, Institute for the Future (New York: McGraw-Hill Publications, 1982), pp. 4, 89-99, 122-169.
“Telesoftware and Education Project: Summary of Report,” A Joint BBC/ITV & Brighton Research Project, Summer 1982, 111 p. and appendix.
Damouny, N. G. “Teletext Decoders—Keeping Up with the Latest Technology Advances,” Consumer Electronicsvol. CE-30, No. 3, Aug. 1984, pp. 429-436.
Nishimoto, Naomichi et al. “VHS VCR with Index and Address Search Systems,” Consumer Electronics, vol. CE-33, No. 3 Aug. 1987, pp. 220-225.
Weissman, Steven B. “Teletext in transactional videotex,” Electronic Publishing Review, vol. 2, No. 4, 1982, pp. 301-304.
Crowther, G.O. “Teletext Enhancements—Levels 1, 2 and 3,” IBA Technical Review, May 1983, pp. 11-16.
McIntyre, Colin, “Broadcast teletext—who says it isn't interactive?” pp. 1-12 in: Anon. Videotex -key to the information revolution (Online Publications Ltd., 1982).
Veith, Richard H., “Television's Teletext,” Elsevier Science Publishing, Inc., New York, 1983, pp. 9, 12, 17, 19, 32, 46-47, 136-137, 139.
Alber, Antone F., “Videotex/Teletext, Principles and Practices,” McGraw-Hill Book Company, pp. 37, 138-139, 142-147, 188-191.
Russell, R.T. “Teletext remote control,” part 1, Wireless World, Apr. 1979, 4 pages.
Russell, R.T. “Teletext remote control”, part 2, Wireless World, May 1979, pp. 83-86.
Pandey, K. “Second generation teletext and viewdata decoders,” Proceedings IEE, vol. 126, Dec. 1979, pp. 1367-1373.
Hedger, J. et al. “Telesoftware: adding intelligence to teletext,” Proceedings IEE, vol. 126, Dec. 1979, pp. 1412-1416.
Sigel, Efrem et al. Videotext: The Coming Revolution in Home/Office Information Retrieval, (White Plains, NY: Knowledge Industry Publications, Inc., 1980), pp. 6, 7, 13, 28, 33, 34, 36, 37.
Roizen, Joseph, “Teletext in the USA,” SMPTE Journal, vol. 90, Jul. 1981, pp. 602-610.
Money, Steve A. Teletext and Viewdata (London: Butterworth & Co., Ltd., 1981), preface, pp. 1-145, glossary and index.
Risher, Carol A. “Electronic Media and the Publishers, Part 1: Teletext,” Videodisc Videotex, vol. 1, No. 3, Summer 1981, pp. 162-167.
Chew, J.R. “CEEFAX: evolution and potential,” BBC Reseach Department Report No. BBC RD 1977/26, Aug. 1977, table of contents, pp. 1-14 and appendix.
Hedger, John. “Telesoftware: Home computing via teletext,” Wireless World, Nov. 1978, pp. 61-64.
Anon, Videotex '81, International Conference & Exhibition, May 20-22, 1981 Toronto, Canada (Northwood Hills, UK: Online Conference, Ltd; 1981), pp. 78-84.
Winsbury, Rex, ed. Viewdata in Action: A Comparative Study of Prestel (London: McGraw-Hill, Ltd., 1981), pp. 10-12, 31, 35, 36, 57-61, 102, 103, 109, 202-204, 211-219.
“Colloquium on Broadcast and Wired Teletext Systems—Ceefax, Oracle, Viewdata,” Tuesday, Jan. 13, 1976, IEE Electronics Division, Professional Groupm E14 (Television and Sound), Digest No. 1976/3.
Anon. “Updating databases by off-peak TV,” New Scientist, Oct. 21, 1976, p. 162.
Martin, Bernard. “New Ancillary Services Using a Televison Channel,” SMPTE Journal, vol. 86, Nov. 1977, pp. 815, 817, 818.
Biggs, A.J. et al., “Broadcast data in television,”GEC Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 41, No. 4, 1974, pp. 117-124.
Heuer, D.A. “A Microprocessor Controlled Memory Tuning System,” Consumer Electronics, vol. CE-25, No. 4, Aug. 1979, pp. 677-683.
Marti, Bernard et al. “Antiope, service de télétexte,” journal unk., pp. 17-22.
Lipoff, Stuart J. “Mass Market Potential for Home Terminals,” Consumer Electronics, vol. unk., pp. 169-184.
Crowther, G.O., “Adaptation of U.K. Teletext System for 525/60 Operations,” IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, vol. CE-26, Aug. 1980, pp. 587-599.
Gosch, John, “Code accompanying TV program turns on video cassette recorder in proposed scheme,” Electronics, Feb. 10, 1981, pp. 80-82.
Somers, Eric, “Appropriate Technology for Text Broadcasting,” Viewdata and Videotext 1980-81: A Worldwide Report, Transcript of viewdata '80, first word conference on viewdata and Videotext, and teletext, Knowledge Industry Publications, Inc., White Plains, New York, Copyright 1980 by Online Conference, Ltd., pp. 499-514.
Dages, Charles L., “Playcable: A Technological Alternative for Information Services,” IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, vol. CE-26, Aug. 1980, pp. 482-486.
Norris, Bryan L. et al., “Teletext Data Decoding,” IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, Aug. 1976, pp. 248-253.
Kokado, N. et al., “A Programmable TV Receiver,” IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, vol. 22, No. 1, Feb. 1976, pp. 69-83.
“Advanced Minicomputer-based Systems for Banking and Financial Institutions,” Money Management Systems, Incorporated, brochure, 1980, 9 pages.
“Advanced Transmission Techniques,” SMPTE Journal, Report on the 121st Technical Conference, Jan. 1980, vol. 89, pp. 31-32.
“American National Standard” “dimensions of video, audio and tracking control records on 2-in video magnetic tape quadruplex recorded at 15 and 7.5 in/s,” SMPTE Journal, Oct. 1981, pp. 988-989.
“American National Standard” “time and control code for video and audio tape for 525-line/60-field television systems,” SMPTE Journal, Aug. 1981, pp. 716-717.
“Anderson: Progress Committee Report for 1979—Television,” SMPTE Journal, May 1980, vol. 89, pp. 324-328.
“Application of Direct Broadcast Satellite Corporation for a Direct Broadcast Satellite System,” Before the Federal Communications Commission, Washington, D.C., Gen. Docket No. 80-603, Jul. 16, 1981.
“Cable TV Advertising,” Paul Kogan Associates, Inc., No. 22, Feb. 18, 1981, 6 pages.
“CAMP,” Arbitron Cable, The Arbitron Company, product brochure, May 1980, 8 pages.
“Contraband code,” Closed Circuit, Broadcasting, Sep. 28, 1970, 1 page.
“Did the ad run?”, Media Decisions, Jul. 1969, pp. 44 et seq.
“Digisonics pushes its coding method,” Broadcasting, Dec. 7, 1970, p. 37.
“Digisonics TV Monitor System Finds Defenders,” Advertising Age, Dec. 8, 1969, 1 page.
“Digisonics violated standards, says BAR,” Broadcasting, Oct. 5, 1970, pp. 21-23.
“Digisonics' Aim Is Info Bank, Not Just Proof of Performance,” Advertising Age, Nov. 9, 1970, 4 pages.
“Digisonics' dilemma,” Media Decisions, Jun. 1971, 6 pages.
“Everything you've always wanted to know about TV Ratings,” A.C. Nielsen Company, brochure, 1978.
“How to increase training productivity through Videodisc and Microcomputer systems,” seminar brochure, 1981.
“IDC begins monitoring,” At Deadline, Broadcasting, Sep. 14, 1970, p. 9.
“IDC encoding system still alive at FCC,” Broadcasting, Sep. 27, 1971, p. 31.
“In this corner, Digisonics!”, Media Decisions, Jun. 1968, 5 pages.
“Index to SMPTE-Sponsored American National Standards, Society Recommended Practices, and Engineering Committee Recommendations,” 1980 Index to SMPTE Journal, SMPTE Journal, pp. 1-15 to 1-20.
I“Index to Subjects—Jan.-Dec. 1976 • vol. 85,” 1976 Index to SMPTE Journal, SMPTE Journal, vol. 85, pp. I-5 to I-13, I-15.
“Index to Subjects—Jan.-Dec. 1977 • vol. 86,” 1977 Index to SMPTE Journal, SMPTE Journal, vol. 86, pp. I-5 to I-14.
“Index to Subjects—Jan.-Dec. 1979 • vol. 88,” 1979 Index to SMPTE Journal, SMPTE Journal, vol. 88, pp. I-4 to I-10.
“Index to Subjects—Jan.-Dec. 1980 • vol. 89,” 1980 Index to SMPTE Journal, SMPTE Journal, pp. I-5 to I-11.
“Index to vol. 87 Jan.-Dec. 1978,” SMPTE Journal, Part II to Jan. 1979 SMPTE Journal, pp. I-1, I-4 to I-14.
“Listeners,” Closed Circuit, Broadcasting, 1 page.
“Management With The Nielsen Retail Index System,” A.C. Nielsen Company, 1980.
“Measuring The Cable Audience,” Ogilvy & Mather, Advertising, 1980, pp. H1-H8.
“No Digisonics friends show in comments,” Broadcasting, May 24, 1971, p. 62.
“Preliminary List of Papers,” SMPTE Journal, Sep. 1980, vol. 89, p. 677.
“Proposed SMPTE Recommended Practice” “Vertical Interval Time and Control Code for Video Tape for 525-Line/60-Field Television Systems,” SMPTE Journal, Sep. 1981, pp. 800-801.
“SMPTE Journal Five-Year Index 1971-1975,” SMPTE Journal.
“SMPTE Journal Five-Year Index 1976-1980,” SMPTE Journal.
“Talent pay code put off,” At Deadline, Broadcasting, Nov. 9, 1970, p. 9.
“Television,” SMPTE Journal, May 1981, pp. 375-379.
“The TCR-119 Reader,” Gray Engineering Laboratories, SMPTE Journal, May 1980, vol. 89, p. 438, (advertisement ).
“Vidbits,” Advertising Age, Sep. 21, 1981, p. 70.
“Video Tape Recording Glossary,” SMPTE Journal, Oct. 1980, vol. 89, p. 733.
“Window on the World” “The Home Information Revolution,” Business Week, Jun. 29, 1981, pp. 74-83.
9 Digital Television Developments, Independent Broadcasting Authority (Iba) Technical Review, pp. 19-31.
A System of Data Transmission in the Field Blanking Period of the Television Signal, Iba Technical Review, Digital Television, pp. 37-44.
Adams, D.M., “The Place of Viewdata in Relation to Other Communications Techniques in the Travel Industry : A Personal View,” Viewdata & Videotext, 1980-81: A Worldwide Report, 1980, pp. 379-397.
Addressable Cable Television Control System with Vertical Interval Data Transmission, Campbell et al. abandoned app. No. 348,937, pp. 1-28, abstract, claims 1-42, Fig. 1-13 (Mar. 1980).
Addressable control—A big first step toward the marriage of computer, cable, & consumer, Larry C. Brown, (Pioneer Communications of America), Cable.
Ancillary Signals for Television, U.S. Dept. Of Commerce, Sep. 1975.
Anderson, The Vertical Interval: A General-Purpose Transmission Path, Sep. 1, 1971.
Appx. B of Petition to FCC, p. 72, filed Jul. 29, 1980.
Automated Videotape Delay of Satellite Transmission, Chiddix, “Satellite Communicatins Magazine”, 2 Pages.
Barlow, Automatic Switching in the CBC—A Update, Sep. 1, 1976.
Beakhurst, D.J., et al., “Teletext and Viewdata—A Comprehensive Component Solution,” Illustrations, Proceedings, IEE, vol. 126, Dec. 1979, pp. 1382-1385.
BS-14, Broadcast Specification, Television Broadcast Videotext, Telecommunication Regulatory Service, Jun. 19, 1981.
DeGoulet, et al., “Automatic Program Recording System” Radio diff. Et TV 11/75.
Diederich, Electronic Image and Tone Return Equipment With Switching System and Remote Control Receiver for Television Decoder, May 22, 1975.
Enhanced graphics for Teletext, R.H. Vivian, Aug. 1981, IEEE pp. 541-550.
Etkin, Vertical Interval Signal Applications, Broadcast Engineering, pp. 30-35, Apr. 1970.
Federal Register/vol. 64, No. 146/Friday, Jul. 30, 1999.
Ferre, “Goodbye, TV Snow”, Electronic Servicing, May 1977, pp. 14-22.
From Satellite to Earth Station to Studio to S-T-L to MDS Transmitter to Home; Pay Television Comes to Anchorage Alaska, Verga, “Telecommunications Systems, Inc.”, Baltimore, Md. pp. 76-80.
Gaucher, et al., Automatic Program Recording System, Nov. 1, 1975.
Howell, “A Primer on Digital Television” Journal of the SMPTE, Jul. 1975, 538-541.
Hutt, “A System of Data Transmission in the Field Blanking Period of the Television Signal”, SLICE pp. 37-44, Jun. 1973.
John Hedger, Oracle ( (TCA), U.K. 1980).
Kamishima, et al., A Monitor Device of a Switcher System, May 8, 1981.
Money, “CEEFAX/ORACLE: reception techniques (part 1)” Television, Jul. 1975, vol. 25, No. 9, pp. 398-398.
O'Donnell, John et al., “Videodisc Program Production Manual,” Sony, 1981.
O'Connor, Ad Hoc Committee on Television Broadcast Ancillary Signals, Journal of the SMPTE, vol. 82, Dec. 1973.
Petition for Rulemaking filed with the FCC by CB Inc. on Jul. 29, 1980, p. 72 of Appendix B.
Present Status of Still. Picture Television, Research & Development, Nhk.
Schubin, The First Nationwide Live Stereo Simulcast Network, SMPTE Journal, vol. 86, Jan. 1977.
SMPTE Journal, May 1980, vol. 89, p. 391, no. title.
Stagg, “An integrated Teletext and Viewdata Receiver” The SERT Journal vol. 11, Oct. 1977, pp. 210-213.
Stern, et al., An Automated Programming Control System for Cable TV.
Systems of VSA-Videographic (KCO26867).
Taylor, John P., “Comsat bid to FCC for DBS authorization: Is direct broadcasting the wave of the future?”, Television/Radio Age, Mar. 23, 1981, pp. A-22-24 and A-26 and A-28-31.
Taylor, John P., “Comsat bid to FCC for DBS authorization: Questions of finances, ‘localism,’ monopoly,” Television/Radio Age, May 4, 1981, pp. 42-44 and 80-81.
Taylor, John P., “Fourteen DBS authorization applications to FCC differ greatly in both structure and operations,” Television/Radio Age, Oct. 5, 1981, pp. 40-42 and 116-119.
Teletext Receiver LSI Data Acquisition and Copntrol, G.O. Growther, et al., Jan. 1976 pp. 9/1-9/5.
Television Network Automated by Mini Computer-Controlled Channels, “Computer Design”, vol. 15, No. 11, pp. 58,59,62,66,70.
The Specification of the Parent Application of Campbell et al., filed Mar. 1980 (WO 81/02961 PCT).
Viewdata, First World Conference on Viewdata, Videotext and Teletext, Mar. 26, 1980, pp. 431-445.
VSA's Teletext Products, Videographic Systems of America.
Zettl, Television Production Handbook, Jan. 1, 1969.
Powell, C., “Prestel: The Opportunity For Advertising,” Viewdata & Videotext, 1980-81 A Worldwide Report/Transcript of Viewdata '80 First World Conference On Viewdata, Videotex, and Teletext, Mar. 26-28, 1980, pp. 233-246.
Reuters, “Transmission Protocol for Reuters News-View,” Aug. 1978, 2 pages.
Bright, R., “The Telematique Programme in France,” Viewdata & Videotext, 1980-81 A Worldwide Report/Transcript of Viewdata '80 First World Conference On Viewdata, Videotex, and Teletext, Mar. 26-28, 1980, pp. 19-24.
Barlund, O., et al., “TELSET, the Finnish Viewdata System,” Viewdata & Videotext, 1980-81 A Wolrdwide Report/Transcript of Viewdata '80 First World Conference On Viewdata, Videotex, and Teletext, Mar. 26-28, 1980, pp. 139-148.
Hutt, P., “Oracle—A Fourth Dimension in Broadcasting,” IBM Technical Review, Sep. 1976/9 Digital Television Developments, pp. 3-9.
Hutt, P., “A System of Data Transmission in the Field Blanking Period of the Television Signal,” IBA Technical Review, Jun. 1973, Digital Television, pp. 37-44.
Allora-Abbondi, G., “Transmission System Evaluation for Two-Way Cable,” IEEE Transactions on Cable Television, vol. CATV-4, No. 3, Jul. 1979, pp. 111-118.
Chorafas, D., “Interactive Videotex—The Domesticated Computer,” 1981, pp. 171-183 & preface.
Baer, R., “Innovative Add-On TV Products,” IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, vol. CE-25, Nov. 1979, pp. 765-771.
Henderson, Jr., D., et al., “Issue in Message Technology,” Proceedings, Fifth Data Communications Symposium, Sep. 27-29, 1977, pp. 6-1-6-9.
Schmodel, S., “TV Systems Enabling Viewers to Call Up Printed Data Catch Eye of Media Firms,” newspaper article The Wall Street Journal, Tuesday, Jul. 24, 1979, p. 46.
Braden, R., “A Server Host System on the Arpanet,” Proceedings, Fifth Data Communications Symposium, Sep. 27-29, 1977, p. 4-1-4-9.
Proceedings, Fifth Data Communications Symposium, Sep. 27-29, 1977, Table of Contents.
Greenberg, B., et al., “VIMACS—A Vertical Interval Machine Control System,” pp. 146-152.
Dynamic Technology Limited, Vimacs, Machine Control and Data Transmission Systems, product description, 6 pages.
Online Conference on Videotex, Viewdata, and Teletext, Conference Transcription, Table of Contents, 1980.
Viewdata 81, the second World Conference on viewdata, videotex and teletext, Table of Contents for written papers presented at the Conference, Oct. 1981.
Anderson, T., “The Vertical Interval: A General-Purpose Transmission Path,” IEEE Transactions On Broadcasting, vol. BC-17, No. 3, Sep. 1971, pp. 77-82.
“LSI circuits for teletext and viewdata, The Lucy Generation,” Mullard, Technical Publication M81-0001, Jun. 1981.
Hedger, J., et al., “Telesoftware—Value Added Teletext,” IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, vol. CE-26, Aug. 1980, pp. 555-566.
Hedger, J., “Telesoftware: Using Teletext to Support a Home Computer,” Sep. 1978, pp. 273-276.
Zenith, “Virtext System, VI.6, Hardware and Software Reference Manual,” Zenith Radio Corporation, Apr. 1981.
Hedger, J., “Broadcast Telesoftware: Experience with Oracle,” 1980, pp. 413-429.
Aston, M.H., “Viewdata-Implications for Education,” 1980, pp. 467-476.
de Weger, M., “Virdata Decoder V-2,” circuit diagram, Jul. 1, 1981, 1 page.
“Virtext,” circuit diagram, 1980, 1 page.
“UK Teletext and Videotex—The world's first established electronic information services available to the public,” ORACLE—Ceefax, 12 pages.
Lucas, K., “The Numerical Basis for ORACLE Transmission,” IBA Technical Review, vol. 9, Sep. 1976, Digital Television Developments, pp. 10-16.
Green, N., et al, “ORACLE on Independent Television,” IBA Technical Review, vol. 9, Sep. 1976, Digital Television Developments, pp. 18-31.
Green, N. W., “Computer Aided Programme Presentation,” IBA Technical Review, vol. 1, Sep. 1972, pp. 55-64.
Chambers, J. P., “Enhanced UK Teletext Moves Towards Still Pictures,” IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, vol. CE-26, Aug. 1980, pp. 527-554.
Crowther, G.O., “Dynamically Redefinable Character Sets—D.R.C.S.,” IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, vol. CE-26, Nov. 1980, pp. 707-716.
Kaplinsky, C. H., “The D2B a One Logical Wire Bus for Consumer Applications,” IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, vol. CE-27, Feb. 1981, pp. 102-109.
Vivian, R. H., et al., “Telesoftware Makes Broadcast Teletext Interactive,” pp. 277-280.
Numaguchi, Y., et al., “Experimental Studies of Transmission Bit-Rate for Teletext Signal in the 525-Lane Television System,” IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting, vol. BC-25, Dec. 1979, pp. 137-142.
Arnold, W. F., “Britons Mull ‘Magazine’ Via TV,” Electronics, Feb. 5, 1976, pp. 68-69.
“Telesoftware,” Systems International, Jun. 1980, p. 43.
Baldwin, J. L. E., et al., “A Standards Converter Using Digital Techniques,” IBA Technical Review, vol. 3, Jun. 1973, Digital Television, pp. 15-35.
Hawker, P., “An Introduction to Integrated Circuits and Digital Electronics,” IBA Technial Review, vol. 3, Jun. 1973, Digital Television, pp. 5-13.
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Notes and references:

Kruger, L. G. (2001). Digital Television: An Overview. Hauppauge, New York: Nova Publishers.
"HDTV Set Top Boxes and Digital TV Broadcast Information". Retrieved 28 June 2014. - dead link
Ong, C. Y., Song, J., Pan, C., & Li, Y.(2010, May). Technology and Standards of Digital Television Terrestrial Multimedia Broadcasting [Topics in Wireless Communications], Communications Magazine, IEEE , 48(5),119-127
"Korea's Terrestrial DMB: Germany to begin broadcast this May". ZDNet Korea. Retrieved 2010-06-17.
"picturephoning.com: DMB". Textually.org. Archived from the original on 2010-08-09. Retrieved 2010-06-17.
"South Korea : Social Media 답변 내용 : 악어새 - 리포트월드". Reportworld.co.kr. Archived from the original on 2009-08-17. Retrieved 2010-06-17.
"The Origins and Future Prospects of Digital Television". Benton Foundation.
"History of U.S. Satellite Broadcasting Company, Inc. – FundingUniverse". www.fundinguniverse.com. Retrieved 9 August 2018.
"Business Insider: Digital satellite TV has Indy roots". Retrieved 9 August 2018.
"NextLevel signs cable deal - Dec. 17, 1997". money.cnn.com. Retrieved 9 August 2018.
"TCI faces big challenges - Aug. 15, 1996". money.cnn.com. Retrieved 9 August 2018.
"CANAL+ TECHNOLOGIES and the world's first digital terrestrial television service in the United Kingdom". Retrieved 9 August 2018.
Latest snapshots - Freeview/DTT bitrates (Mendip transmitter, UK)
ISDB-T (6 MHz, 64QAM, R=2/3), Analog TV (M/NTSC).
The Canadian parameter, C/(N+I) of noise plus co-channel DTV interface should be 16.5 dB.
Depending on analog TV systems used.
"Digital TV: A Cringley Crash Course — Digital Vs. Analog". Pbs.org. Retrieved 2014-01-13.
Le Dinh, Phuc-Tue; Patry, Jacques (February 24, 2006). "Video compression artifacts and MPEG noise reduction". Video Imaging DesignLine. Retrieved April 30, 2010.
"How Television went Digital in The Netherlands" (PDF). Open Society Foundations September 2011. Retrieved 2013-02-04.
"The Digital TV Transition: Will You Be Affected?". FCC. Retrieved 2009-11-02.
"New DTV Hard Date: July 24, 2011?". B&C. Retrieved 2009-11-02.
"DTV Post-Transition Allotment Plan" (PDF). Spectrum Management and Telecommunications. Retrieved 2009-11-02.
"End of analogue TV era as switchover completes in the UK" (PDF). Digital UK. Retrieved 2012-12-21.
"Analogue switch off has finally happened". SAORVIEW. Retrieved 2012-12-21.
"Find out when digital switch over is coming to you". Government of India Ministry of Information & Broadcasting. Retrieved 2012-12-21.
"Australia's ready for digital TV". Digital Ready AU. Retrieved 2013-12-25.
North Tonawanda: council discusses future TV disposal, Neale Gulley, Tonawanda News, January 27, 2009
Old Toxic TVs Cause Problems, USA TODAY, January 27, 2009
Unloading that old TV not quite so simple, Lee Bergquist, Milwaukee Journal-Sentinel, January 23, 2009
Campaigners highlight 'toxic TVs', Maggie Shiels, BBC News, 9 January 2009
"Lead in Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) Information Sheet**" (PDF). Electronic Industries Alliance. 2001-11-30. p. 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-05-20. Retrieved 2009-09-29.
Poon, C.S. (2008). "Management of CRT glass from discarded computer monitors and TV sets". Waste Management. 28 (9): 1499–1499. doi:10.1016/j.wasman.2008.06.001. PMID 18571917. Retrieved 2009-09-29. number of studies have demonstrated that the neck and funnel glasses of CRT are hazardous wastes, while the panel glass exhibits little toxicity.
What To Do With Your Old TV's, Mike Webster, WCSH-TV, January 28, 2009 - dead link
Many people throwing out perfectly good TVs over digital confusion, Daniel Vasquez, Sun-Sentinel, Florida, January 19, 2009

Trashing the tube: Digital conversion may spark glut of toxic waste, Jennifer Chambers, Detroit News, January 23, 2009

Further reading

Hart, Jeffrey A., Television, technology, and competition : HDTV and digital TV in the United States, Western Europe, and Japan, New York : Cambridge University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-521-82624-1

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