Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

In Brief: On this site you will find pictures and information about some of the electronic, electrical and electrotechnical Obsolete technology relics that the Frank Sharp Private museum has accumulated over the years .
Premise: There are lots of vintage electrical and electronic items that have not survived well or even completely disappeared and forgotten.

Or are not being collected nowadays in proportion to their significance or prevalence in their heyday, this is bad and the main part of the death land. The heavy, ugly sarcophagus; models with few endearing qualities, devices that have some over-riding disadvantage to ownership such as heavy weight,toxicity or inflated value when dismantled, tend to be under-represented by all but the most comprehensive collections and museums. They get relegated to the bottom of the wants list, derided as 'more trouble than they are worth', or just forgotten entirely. As a result, I started to notice gaps in the current representation of the history of electronic and electrical technology to the interested member of the public.

Following this idea around a bit, convinced me that a collection of the peculiar alone could not hope to survive on its own merits, but a museum that gave equal display space to the popular and the unpopular, would bring things to the attention of the average person that he has previously passed by or been shielded from. It's a matter of culture. From this, the Obsolete Technology Tellye Web Museum concept developed and all my other things too. It's an open platform for all electrical Electronic TV technology to have its few, but NOT last, moments of fame in a working, hand-on environment. We'll never own Colossus or Faraday's first transformer, but I can show things that you can't see at the Science Museum, and let you play with things that the Smithsonian can't allow people to touch, because my remit is different.

There was a society once that was the polar opposite of our disposable, junk society. A whole nation was built on the idea of placing quality before quantity in all things. The goal was not “more and newer,” but “better and higher" .This attitude was reflected not only in the manufacturing of material goods, but also in the realms of art and architecture, as well as in the social fabric of everyday life. The goal was for each new cohort of children to stand on a higher level than the preceding cohort: they were to be healthier, stronger, more intelligent, and more vibrant in every way.

The society that prioritized human, social and material quality is a Winner. Truly, it is the high point of all Western civilization. Consequently, its defeat meant the defeat of civilization itself.

Today, the West is headed for the abyss. For the ultimate fate of our disposable society is for that society itself to be disposed of. And this will happen sooner, rather than later.

OLD, but ORIGINAL, Well made, Funny, Not remotely controlled............. and not Made in CHINA.

How to use the site:
- If you landed here via any Search Engine, you will get what you searched for and you can search more using the search this blog feature provided by Google. You can visit more posts scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year,
or you can click on the main photo-page to start from the main page. Doing so it starts from the most recent post to the older post simple clicking on the Older Post button on the bottom of each page after reading , post after post.

You can even visit all posts, time to time, when reaching the bottom end of each page and click on the Older Post button.

- If you arrived here at the main page via bookmark you can visit all the site scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year pointing were you want , or more simple You can even visit all blog posts, from newer to older, clicking at the end of each bottom page on the Older Post button.
So you can see all the blog/site content surfing all pages in it.

- The search this blog feature provided by Google is a real search engine. If you're pointing particular things it will search IT for you; or you can place a brand name in the search query at your choice and visit all results page by page. It's useful since the content of the site is very large.

Note that if you don't find what you searched for, try it after a period of time; the site is a never ending job !

Every CRT Television saved let revive knowledge, thoughts, moments of the past life which will never return again.........

Many contemporary "televisions" (more correctly named as displays) would not have this level of staying power, many would ware out or require major services within just five years or less and of course, there is that perennial bug bear of planned obsolescence where components are deliberately designed to fail and, or manufactured with limited edition specificities..... and without considering........picture......sound........quality........
..............The bitterness of poor quality is remembered long after the sweetness of todays funny gadgets low price has faded from memory........ . . . . . .....
Don't forget the past, the end of the world is upon us! Pretty soon it will all turn to dust!

Have big FUN ! !
©2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 Frank Sharp - You do not have permission to copy photos and words from this blog, and any content may be never used it for auctions or commercial purposes, however feel free to post anything you see here with a courtesy link back, btw a link to the original post here , is mandatory.
All sets and apparates appearing here are property of Engineer Frank Sharp. NOTHING HERE IS FOR SALE !
All posts are presented here for informative, historical and educative purposes as applicable within Fair Use.

Wednesday, August 10, 2011


The SINUDYNE CHASSIS PROFESSIONAL 6700 is a digital chassis developed around the DIGIVISION ITT DIGIT2000 CHIPSET:

Main functional units are divided per functions:

- Video Processing VIDEO-6700 1.91 L72711000
- Audio Processing ACP-6700
- Control Unit 72711003 with CCU-SEI-14

The idea of digitization of TV functions is not new. The time some companies have started to work on it, silicon technology was not really adequate for the needed computing power so that the most effective solutions were full custom designs. This forced the block-oriented architecture where the digital functions introduced were the one to one replacement of an existing analog function. In Figure 2 there is a simplified representation of the general concept.

Fig.2: Block Diagram of first generation digital TV set
The natural separation of video and audio resulted in some incompatibilities and duplication of primary functions. The emitting principle is not changed, redundancy is a big handicap, for example the time a SECAM channel is running, the PAL functions are not in operation. New generations of digital TV systems should re-think the whole concept top down before VLSI system partitioning.
In today’s state-of-the-art solution one can recognize all the basic functions of the analog TV set with, however, a modularity in the concept, permitting additional features becomes possible, some special digital possibilities are exploited, e.g. storage and filtering techniques to improve signal reproduction (adaptive filtering, 100 Hz technology), to integrate special functions (picture-in-picture, zoom, still picture) or to receive digital broadcasting standards (MAC, NICAM). The Figure 3 shows the ITT Semiconductors solution which was the first on the market in 1983 !! !!

Fig.3: The DIGIT2000 TV receiver block diagram

Description:This invention relates generally to digital television receivers and, particularly, to digital television receivers arranged for economical interfacing with a plurality of auxiliary devices.

With the proliferation of low cost microprocessors and microprocessor controlled devices, television (TV) receivers are being designed to utilize digitized signals and controls. There are many advantages associated with digital TV receivers, including uniformity of product, precise control of signal parameters and operating conditions, elimination of mechanical switches and a potential for reliability that has been heretofore unknown. Digital television receivers include a high speed communication bus for interconnecting a central control unit microprocessor (CCU) with various TV function modules for processing a TV signal. These modules include a deflection processing unit (DPU), a video processing unit (VPU), an automatic phase control (APC), a video codec unit (VCU), an audio analog to digital converter (ADC) and an audio processing unit (APU). The CCU has associated with it a non-volatile memory, a hardware-generated clock signal source and a suitable interface circuit for enabling the CCU to control processing of the TV signal throughout the various TV function modules. The received TV signal is in analog form and suitable analog to digital (A/D) converters and digital to analog (D/A) converters are provided for converting the digital and analog signals for signal processing and for reconverting them after processing for driving a cathode ray tube (CRT) and suitable speakers. The CCU microprocessor is heavily burdened because of the high speed timing required to control the various TV function modules.
To further complicate matters, modern TV receivers are increasingly being used with auxiliary devices for other than simple processing of TV signals. For example, the video cassette recorder (VCR) has enabled so-called "time-shifting" of program material by recording TV signals for later, more convenient viewing. The VCR is also extensively used with prerecorded material and with programs produced by users having access to a video camera. Other auxiliary devices providing features such as "Space Phone" whereby the user is enabled to make and receive telephone calls through his TV receiver, are desirable options. Additionally, a source selector auxiliary device enables a host of different signal sources, such as cable, over-the-air antenna, video disk, video games, etc. to be connected for use with the signal processing circuitry of the TV. In addition, all of these many auxiliary devices are preferably controllable from a remote position. A great deal of flexibility is available since each of the above auxiliary devices includes a microprocessor for internally controlling functioning of the device.
In the digital TV system described, the CCU microprocessor and the microprocessors in the auxiliary devices may be conventionally arranged to communicate over the main communication bus. Such a system would entail a specialized microprocessor with a hardware-generated clock signal in each auxiliary device in order to communicate at the high speeds used on the main communication bus. A specialized microprocessor, that is, one that is hardware configured, is significantly more expensive than an off-the-shelf microprocessor. Also, the auxiliary devices may not be required, or even desired, by all users and their low volume production cost becomes very important. It would therefore be desirable to provide a digital TV in which such auxiliary devices utilized off-the-shelf microprocessors for their control.

SINUDYNE STUDIO 2568Q CHASSIS  PROFESSIONAL T6700   DIGITAL  PROCESSING  BOARD  VIDEO-6700  1.91 A digital TV system includes a CCU that is interconnected by a three-wire, high speed bus to a plurality of TV signal function modules for controlling operation thereof by means of a high speed hardware generated clock signal. A software generated clock signal in the CCU is supplied on a low speed two-wire auxiliary device bus which is connected to microprocessors in a plurality of auxiliary devices for performing functions ancillary to TV signal processing. The microprocessor in each auxiliary device is an off-the-shelf type that does not require any special hardware because the timing on the auxiliary device bus is sufficiently slow to enable software monitoring of the line and data transfer.
As mentioned, the three-wire IM bus 21 is a high speed bidirectional bus in which CCU 20 functions as the master and all of the interconnected TV signal processing function modules are slaves that communicate with the CCU in accordance with the protocol established for the system. CCU 20 is also indicated as including a software generated clock which supplies a two-wire auxiliary device bus 50. Two-wire bus 50 includes a clock lead 51 and a data lead 52 coupled to a plurality of auxiliary devices. A VCR 54, including an off-the-shelf microprocessor 55, is coupled to bus 50. A Source Selector 56, including an off-the-shelf microprocessor 57, is also coupled to bus 50. Source Selector 56 has access to four RF inputs, two baseband video and audio inputs and one separate baseband audio input. It will be appreciated that Source Selector 56 may have a greater or lesser number of signal sources to which it has access. Source Selector 56 outputs are coupled to VCR 54 and also to tuner 10 and supply, under control of CCU 20 and keyboard 44, the signal from the signal source selected by keyboard 44 or IR transmitter 46 for use with the digital TV. Auxiliary device bus 50 is also coupled to a Space Phone 58 which includes an off-the-shelf microprocessor 59 and a modem 60 that is connectable to a conventional telephone terminal.
Two-wire auxiliary device bus 50 is a relatively low speed bus and there is no need for separate hardware generated clock signals to be developed by the auxiliary device microprocessors. As mentioned above, this feature involves a significant savings in the cost and complexity of the auxiliary devices.
The protocol used on the two-wire auxiliary device bus consists of a 16 bit sequence, the first eight bits of which are used for bus address commands for the auxiliary devices. Each auxiliary device may respond to 16 addresses which allows the CCU to write into or read from various storage registers in the devices which are used for control or data storage. Thus, with this low cost system, as many as 16 auxiliary devices may be connected to the auxiliary device bus. The second eight bits of the 16 bit sequence contain data which is either transferred from the CCU to the auxiliary device addressed, or transferred from the auxiliary device to the CCU, based upon the bus address used. Thus, the various bus addresses to which a given auxiliary device will respond determine whether the auxiliary device will receive data from the CCU or send data to the CCU. The clock line timing, generated by software in CCU 20, is slow enough to permit software monitoring of the line and data reception by simple auxiliary device microprocessors that are not equipped with an external interrupt feature. The timing on the auxiliary device bus is made sufficiently fast to avoid too many instruction steps or the need for special registers in CCU 20. In the system described, data is clocked every 82.5 microseconds, thus permitting a 16 bit word to be clocked in 1.32 milliseconds. A pause of 277.5 microseconds between the first 8 bits and the second 8 bits permits the slave auxiliary device to process the bus address data contained in the first 8 bits. This timing fits into the 2 millisecond timing block structure used for the CCU in controlling the DIGIT 2000 digital TV. Two-2 millisecond timing blocks have been established in the CCU, which has a 20 millisecond timing loop divided into ten-2 millisecond timing blocks. Thus, two control words may be sent to an auxiliary device every 20 milliseconds, or a request by the CCU to receive data and the actual receipt of that data may take place in that time period.

Referring to the drawing, a digital TV includes a tuner 10 coupled to an IF/Detector 12 which has a pair of outputs 13 and 14 supplying video and audio signals, respectively. Control signals for tuner 10 are supplied through an interface circuit 16 from a CCU microprocessor 20 which functions as a single master control unit for the system. Microprocessor 20 is interconnected by means of a bidirectional three-wire IM (Intermetal) bus 21 to a DPU 22, a VPU 26, an APC 30, a TTX (teletext processor) 38, an APU 36, an ADC 32 and a non-volatile memory 24. A serial control line 29 interconnects a hardware generated clock 28, VPU 26 and VCU 34. VPU 26 and VCU 34 are also interconnected by a seven wire cable and TTX 38 is interconnected with a DRAM 42. DRAM 42 is a dynamic RAM in which TTX information is stored for display. VCU 34 is supplied with video signal and supplies a digitized 7 bit grey coded video signal to VPU 24 for processing and RGB color signals to a Video Drive 40 which, in turn, supplies a cathode ray tube (not shown). A keyboard 44 is coupled to CCU 20 and includes an IR detector that is responsive to coded IR signals supplied from an IR transmitter (IRX) 46. A resident microprocessor in keyboard 44 decodes the received IR signals and generated control commands and supplies appropriate outputs to CCU 20. The diagram, as described, is substantially identical to that for a "DIGIT" 2000 VLSI Digital TV System developed by ITT Intermetal and published in Edition 1984/85 Order No. 6250-11-2E

By its very nature, computer technology is digital, while consumer electronics are geared to the analog world. Starts have been made only recently to digitize TV and radio broadcasts at the transmitter end (in form of DAB, DSR, D2-MAC, NICAM etc). The most difficult technical tasks involved in the integration of different media are interface matching and data compression [5].
After this second step in the integration of multimedia signals, an attempt was made towards standardization, namely, the integration of 16 identical high speed processors with communication and programmability concepts comprised in the architecture !

Many solutions proposed today (for MPEG 1 mainly) are derived from microprocessor architectures or DSPs, but there is a gap between today’s circuits and the functions needed for a real fully HDTV system. The AT&T hybrid codec [29], for instance, introduces a new way to design multimedia chips by optimizing the cost of the equipment considering both processing and memory requirements.
The concept is to provide generic architectures that can be applied to a wide variety of systems taking into account that certain functions have to be optimized and that some other complex algorithms have to be ported to generic processors.
Basics of current video coding standards

Compression methods take advantage of both data redundancy and the non-linearity of human vision. They exploit correlation in space for still images and in both space and time for video signals. Compression in space is known as intra-frame compression, while compression in time is called inter-frame compression. Generally, methods that achieve high compression ratios (10:1 to 50:1 for still images and 50:1 to 200:1 for video) use data approximations which lead to a reconstructed image not identical to the original.
Methods that cause no loss of data do exist, but their compression ratios are lower (no better than 3:1). Such techniques are used only in sensitive applications such as medical imaging. For example, artifacts introduced by a lossy algorithm into a X-ray radiograph may cause an incorrect interpretation and alter the diagnosis of a medical condition. Conversely, for commercial, industrial and consumer applications, lossy algorithms are preferred because they save storage and communication bandwidth.
Lossy algorithms also generally exploit aspects of the human visual system. For instance, the eye is much more receptive to fine detail in the luminance (or brightness) signal than in the chrominance (or color) signals. Consequently, the luminance signal is usually sampled at a higher spatial resolution. Second, the encoded representation of the luminance signal is assigned more bits (a higher dynamic) than are the chrominance signals. The eye is less sensitive to energy with high spatial frequency than with low spatial frequency [7]. Indeed, if the images on a personal computer monitor were formed by an alternating spatial signal of black and white, the human viewer would see a uniform gray instead of the alternating checkerboard pattern. This deficiency is exploited by coding the high frequency coefficients with fewer bits and the low frequency coefficients with more bits.
All these techniques add up to powerful compression algorithms. In many subjective tests, reconstructed images that were encoded with a 20:1 compression ratio are hard to distinguish from the original. Video data, even after compression at ratios of 100:1, can be decompressed with close to analog videotape quality.
Lack of open standards could slow the growth of this technology and its applications. That is why several digital video standards have been proposed:
  • JPEG (Joint Photographic Expert Group) for still pictures coding
  • H.261 at p times 64 kbit/s was proposed by the CCITT (Consultative Committee on International Telephony and Telegraphy) for teleconferencing
  • MPEG-1 (Motion Picture Expert Group) up to 1,5 Mbit/s was proposed for full motion compression on digital storage media
  • MPEG-2 was proposed for digital TV compression, the bandwith depends on the chosen level and profile [33].
Another standard, the MPEG-4 for very low bit rate coding (4 kbit/s up to 64 kbit/s) is currently being debated.

Digitalization of the fundamental TV functions is of great interest since more than 30 years. Several million of TV sets have been produced containing digital systems. However, the real and full digital system is for the future. A lot of work is done in this field today, the considerations are more technical than economical which is a normal situation for an emerging technology. The success of this new multimedia technology will be given by the applications running with this techniques.
The needed technologies and methodologies were discussed to emphasize the main parameters influencing the design of VLSI chips for Digital TV Applications like parallelization, electrical constraints, power management, scalability and so on...............................

SINUDYNE STUDIO 2568Q CHASSIS  PROFESSIONAL T6700   DIGITAL  PROCESSING  BOARD  VIDEO-6700  1.91 Sound Processing Overview Description
The stereo pilot carrier is selectively decoupled from sound
channel TV ll and fed separately to Pin 8 for recognition of the
station operating mode.
The digitized output signals are then available as pulse-rate-
modulated signals PDM I and PDM ll at Pins 10 and 11. Digital
signal processing is then performed completely in APU 2470,
the audio processor IC 3201, to which of course all control
functions controlled via the IM Bus belong. At IC outputs 22 and
23, the processed signals are outputted as pulse-width-
modulated information, so that they can be reconverted into
their original analog form by simple integration (RC element).
The downstream lC’s TDA 2040 H (3401/3501) supply power
amplification for feed to the loudspeakers. A second pair of
analog outputs, Pins 19, 20 ofthe APU, followed by an
integrated amplifier stage, IC 3301 , TDA 2822 M, serves for
connection of earphones or a stereo system via cinch sockets.
This output is likewise controllable, and also suitable for the
listening to the alternative sound channel in dual-channel sound
mode. Pins 21 and 24 at ADC 2310 E are available for coupling
a second dual-channel analog sound source. The signals
concerned come from the SCART socket (PPT), and in sets with
picture-in-picture function are passed via the PIP decoder. In
the opposite direction, the ADC 2310 E supplies at Pins 22 and
23 analog output signals to the SCART socket, e.g. as required
for recording audio signals. All switch-over functions necessary
in this area are executed inside the IC and controlled via the IM
Bus. Detection of the station transmission mode (mono, stereo,
dual-sound) is performed in the lC’s in exactly the same way as
the corresponding switch-over to the operating mode being
transmitted. A muting stage in each of the two audio channels
(T 3401 and T 3501) provides an audio muting function by short-
circuiting the signal input Pin 1 at the power output stage lC’s.
This function can be controlled in two different ways:
1. Via ST 33 at the moment when the set is switched on, in
order to suppress the switch-on click.
2. From Pin 16 of ADC 2310 E, e.g. for noise suppression,
when no TV signal is being received.
ln the first case, the L signal, which is passed as a switch-on
signal from Pin 5 of the CCU via R 1505 to ST 33 of Stereo
Module B, and thus via R 3511 to the base of T 3510, will switch
the transistor to on-state and thus connect the muting line to
12 V. Since in this case the two switching transistors T 4301 and
T 3501 also become conducting, the signal inputs to the audio
output stages are then short-circuited. The second muting
branch from Pin 16 of ADC 2310 E is software-controlled, and
receives the switch-off information from the CCU via the IM

SINUDYNE STUDIO 2568Q CHASSIS  PROFESSIONAL T6700   DIGITAL  PROCESSING  BOARD  VIDEO-6700  1.91 Digital Signal Processing Overview / Description:

The entire video signal processing function for PAL and
SECAM, the videotext decoder and the deflection signal
generator, are located together on one board the BOARD VIDEO-6700 1.91

This contains the VCU 2133 as an analog-digital converter for
the video signals, the PVPU 2203 and SPU 2220 for PAL and
SECAM signal processing respectively, the DTI 2222 for
improved reproduction of colour transitions, the TPU 2732 with
page buffer IC 645 for videotext decoding, the deflection
processor DPU 2543 and clock pulse generator MCU 2600 for
generating the working clock pulse for all processors.

After conversion of the FBAS (composite colour) signal selected
into digital form (7-bit gray code), this is passed from output
Pins 2-8 ofthe VCU to SPU 2220, IC 630, to TPU 2732, IC 640
and to DPU 2540.
The further path of the video signal leads first to the SECAM
processor SPU 2220. Here the signal standard is identified and
appropriately switched. In the case of a PAL signal, the input
information is passed unaltered to the video output (Pins 14-20),
and thus on to the input of PVPU 2203, Pins 5-11.
For further processing of the PAL signal, it is first split inside the
IC into luminance and chroma components. The conditioned
luminance signal, extended by 1 bit, appears on the output side
at Pins 32-39, and passes from here to DTI 2222, Pins 6-13.
The chroma signal component is demodulated, decoded and
converted into the colour difference signals in PVPU 2203;
these signals are then also passed (in multiplex mode, together
with picture tube beam current measured data), via output Pins
27-30 to DTI 2222, Pins 17-20.
At this point, the SECAM chroma signal path from SPU 2220,
output Pins 23-26, rejoins the main path. If the input signal is
identified as a SECAM signal in the SPU, the SECAM decoder
is activated, and the decoded signal appears at the output in the
same form as with the PAL processor.
In this case, the luminance signal component is passed through
an integrated delay circuit of 3.7 us, in order to compensate for
the corresponding travel time in the SECAM colour decoder,
and is then fed on the same path as the PAL signal (Pins 14-20,
SPU 2220, PVPU 2203) to DTI 2222, Pins 6-13. All adjustment
functions required for the signals, such as contrast, brightness,
colour intensity, etc. are of course controlled inside the IC via
the IM Bus.
Integrated circuit DTI 2222 serves solely to improve
reproduction of colour transitions on the screen. Since (owing to
the smaller transmission bandwidth with chroma) the signal
leading edges are very flat compared with Y-signals, a clear
improvement in the quality of colour reproduction can be
achieved by electronically increasing the steepness of the
edges. Since the signal manipulation involved increases travel
times in the chroma channel, this must be compensated by a
corresponding delay in the luminance channel. This function is
contained in DTI 2222, so that there are no differences in travel
time at the outputs of this circuit (Pins 27-34 for Y and Pins 22-25 for chroma).

VCU 2133 A (ITT VCU2133 A) (Video Codec Decodec Unit)
DPU 2543 (ITT DPU2543) (Digital Deflection Processor Unit)
PVPU 2203 (ITT PVPU2203) (PAL and Video Processor Unit)
DTI 2222 (ITT DTI2222) (Digital Transient Improvement [Chroma])
TPU 2732 (ITT TPU2732) (Teletext Processor Unit)
MCU 2600 (ITT MCU2600) (Main Clock Unit)

VCU 2133 Video Codec UNIT

High-speed coder/decoder IC for analog-to-digital and di-
gital-to-analog conversion of the video signal in digital TV
receivers based on the DIGIT 2000 concept. The VCU 2133
is a VLSI circuit in Cl technology, housed in a 40-pin Dil
plastic package. One single silicon chip combines the fol-
lowing functions and circuit details (Fig. 1):
- two input video amplifiers
- one A/D converter for the composite video signal
- the noise inverter
- one D/A converter for the luminance signal
- two D/A converters for the color difference signals
- one RGB matrix for converting the color difference sig-
nals and the luminance signal into RGB signals
- three RGB output amplifiers
- programmable auxiliary circuits for blanking, brightness
adjustment and picture tube alignment
- additional clamped RGB inputs for text and other analog
RGB signals
- programmable beam current limiting
1. Functional Description
The VCU 2133 Video Codec is intended for converting the
analog composite video signal from the video demodulator
into a digital signal. The latter is further processed digitally
in the VPU 2203 Video Processor and in the DPU 2553 De-
flection Processor. After processing in the VPU 2203 (color
demodulation, PAL compensation, etc.), the VPU‘s digital
output signals (luminance and color difference) are recon-
verted into analog signals in the VCU 2133. From these an-
alog signals are derived the RGB signals by means of the
RGB matrix, and, after amplification in the integrated RGB
amplifiers, the RGB signals drive the RGB output amplifiers
of the color T\/ set.
For TV receivers using the NTSC standard the VPU 2203
may be replaced by the CVPU 2233 Comb Filter Video Pro-
cessor which is pin-compatible with the VPU 2203, but of-
fers better video performance. In the case of SECAM, the
SPU 2220 SECAM Chroma Processor must be connected
in parallel to the VPU 2203 for chroma processing, while
the luma processing remains inthe VPU 2203.
In a more sophisticated CTV receiver according to the Dl-
GIT 2000 concept, after
the VPU Video Processor may be
placed the DTI 2223 Digital Transient Improvement Proces-
sor which serves for sharpening color transients on the
screen. The output signals of the DTI are fed to the VCU’s
luma and chroma inputs. To achieve the desired transient
improvement, the R-Y and B-Y D/A converters of the VCU
must be stopped for a certain time which is done by the
hold pulse supplied by the DTI and fed to the Reset pin 23
of the VCU. The pulse detector following this pin seperates
the (capacitively-coupled) hold pulse from the reset signal.
In addition, the VCU 2133 carries out the functions:
- brightness adjustment
- automatic CRT spot-cutoff control (black level)
- white balance control and beam current limiting
Further, the VCU 2133 offers direct inputs for text or other
analog RGB signals including adjustment of brightness and
contrast for these signals.
The RGB matrix and RGB amplifier circuits integrated in
the VCU 2133 are analog. The CRT spot-cutoff control is
carried out via the RGB amplifiers’ bias, and the white bal-
ance control is accomplished by varying the gain of these
amplifiers. The VCU 2133 is clocked by a 17.7 or 14.3 MHz
clock signal supplied by the MCU 2632 Clock Generator IC.
1.1. The A/D Converter with Input Amplifiers and Bit
The video signal is input to the VCU 2133 via pins 35 and 37
which are intended for normal TV video signal (pin 35) and
for VCR or SCART video signal (pin 37) respectively. The
video amplifier whose action is required, is activated by the
CCU 2030, CCU 2050 or CCU 2070 via the IM bus by soft-
ware. The amplification of both video amplifiers is doubled
during the undelayed horizontal blanking pulse (at pin 36)
in order to obtain a higher digital resolution of the color
synchronization signal (burst). At D 2-MAC reception, the
doubled gain is switched off by means of bit p = 1 (Fig. 8).
The A/D converter is of the flash type, a circuit of 2" com-
parators connected in parallel. This means that the number
of comparators must be doubled if one additional bit is
needed. Thus it is important to have as few bits as possi-
ble. For a slowly varying video signal, 8 bits are required.

order to achieve an 8-bit picture resolution using a 7-bit
converter, a trick is used: during every other line the refer-
ence voltage of the A/D converter is changed by an
amount corresponding to one half of the least significant
bit. ln this procedure, a grey value located between two 7-
bit steps is converted to the next lower value during one
line and to the next higher value during the next line. The
two grey values on the screen are averaged by the viewer’s
eye, thus producing the impression of grey values with
8-bit resolution. Synchronously to the changing reference
voltage of the A/D converter, to the output signal of the Y
D/A converter is added a half-bit step every second line.
The bit enlargement just described must be switched off in
the case of using the D2-MAC standard (q = 1 and r = 1
in Fig. 8). ln the case of using the comb filter CVPU instead
of the VPU, the half-bit adding in the Y D/A converter must
be switched off (r = 1 in Fig. 8).
The A/D converter’s sampling frequency is 17.7 MHZ for
PAL and 14.3 MHz for NTSC, the clock being supplied by
the MCU 2632 Clock Generator IC which is common to all
circuits for the digital T\/ system. The converter’s resolu-
tion is 1/2 LSB of 8 bits. Its output signal is Gray-coded to
eliminate spikes and glitches resulting from different com-
parator speeds or from the coder itself. The output is fed to
the VPU 2203 and to the DPU 2553 in parallel form.
1.2. The Noise Inverter
The digitized composite video signal passes the noise in-
verter circuit before it is put out to the VPU 2203 and to the
DPU 2553. The noise inverter serves for suppressing bright
spots on the screen which can be generated by noise
VCU 2133
pulses, p. ex. produced by ignition sparks of cars etc. The
function of the noise inverter can be seen in Fig. 2. The
maximum white level corresponds with step 126 of the A/D
converter’s output signal (that means a voltage of 7 V at
pin 35). lf, due to an unwanted pulse on the composite
video signal, the voltage reaches 7.5 V (what means step
127 in digital) or more, the signal level is reduced by such
an amount, that a medium grey is obtained on the screen
(about 40 lFiE). The noise inverter circuit can be switched
off by software (address 16 in the VPU 2203, see there).
1.3. The Luminance D/A Converter (Y)
After having been processed in the VPU 2203 (color de-
modulation, PAL compensation, etc.), the different parts of
the digitized video signal are fed back to the VCU 2133 for
further processing to drive the RGB output amplifiers. The
luminance signal (Y) is routed from the VPU’s contrast mul-
tiplier to the Y D/A converter in the VCU 2133 in the form of
a parallel 8-bit signal with a resolution of 1/2 LSB of 9

This bit range provides a sufficient signal range for contrast
as well as positive and negative overshoot caused by the
peaking filter (see Fig. 3 and Data Sheet VPU 2203).

The luminance D/A converter is designed as an R-2R lad-
der network. lt is clocked with the 17.7 or the 14.3 MHz
clock signal applied to pin 22. The cutoff frequency of the
luminance signal is determined by the clock frequency.
1.4. The D/A Converters for the Color Difference Signals
R-Y and B-Y
ln order to save output pins at the VPU 2203 and input pins
at the VCU 2133 as well as connection lines, the two digital
color difference signals R-Y and B-Y are transferred in time
multiplex operation. This is possible because these signals’
bandwidth is only 1 MHZ and the clock is a 17.7 or 14.3
MHz signal.
The two 8-bit D/A converters R-Y and B-Y are also built as
R-2R ladder networks. They are clocked with ‘A clock fre-
quency, but the clock for the multiplex data transfer is 17.7
or 14.3 MHz. Four times 4 bits are transferred sequentially,
giving a total of 16 bits. A sync signal coordinates the

plex operations in both the VCU 2133 and the VPU 2203.
Thus, only four lines are needed for 16 bits. Fig. 4 shows
the timing diagram of the data transfer described.
ln a CTV receiver with digital transient improvement (DTI
2223), the R-Y and B-Y D/A converters are stopped by the
hold pulse supplied by the DTI, and their output signal is
kept constant for the duration of the hold pulse. Thereafter,
the output signal jumps to the new value, as described in
the DTl’s data sheet.
Fig. 4:
Timing diagram of the multiplex data tra
nsfer of the chroma
channel between VPU 2203, VCU 2133 and SPU 2220
a) main clock signal QSM
b) valid data out of the VCU 2133’s video A/D converter.
AIAD is the delay time of this converter, about 40 ns.
c) valid data out of the VPU 2203.
d) MUX data transfer of the chroma signals from VPU 2203
to VCU 2133, upper line: sync pulse from pin 27 VPU to
pin 21 VCU during sync time in vertical blanking time,
see Fig. 8; lower line: valid data from pins 27 to 30
(VPU) to pins 18 to 21 (VCU)
1.5. The RGB Matrix and the RGB Output Amplifiers
ln the RGB matrix, the signals Y, R-Y and B-Y are dema-
trixed, the reduction coefficients of 0.88 and 0.49 being tak-
en into account. In addition, the matrix is supplied with a
signal produced by an 8-bit D/A converter for setting the
brightness of the picture. The brightness adjustment range
corresponds to 1/2 of the luminance signal range (see Fig.
3). It can be covered in 255 steps. The brightness is set by
commands fed from the CCU 2030, CCU 2050 or CCU 2070
Central Control Unit to the VPU 2203 via the IM bus.
There are available four different matrices: standard PAL,
matrix 2, 3 and 4, the latter for foreign markets. 'The re-
quired matrix must be mask-programmed during produc-
tion. The matrices are shown in Table 1, based on the for-
R = r1~(R-Y)+ l'2~(B-Y) +Y
G = Q1-(Ft-Y)+ Q2 - (B-Y) +Y
B = b1-(Ft-Y)+ bg - (B-Y) +Y
The three RGB output amplifiers are impedance converters
having a low output impedance, an output voltage swing of
6 V (p-p), thereof 3 V for the video part and 3 V for bright-
ness and dark signal. The output current is 4 mA. Fig. 5
shows the recommended video output stage configuration.

For the purpose of white-balance control, the amplification
factor of each output amplifier can be varied stepwise in
127 steps (7 bits) by a factor of 1 to 2. Further, the CRT
spot-cutoff control is accomplished via these amplifiers’ bi-
as by adding the output signal of an 8-bit D/A converter to
the intelligence signal. The amplitude of the output signal
corresponds to one half of the luminance range. The eight
bits make it possible to adjust the dark voltage in 0.5 %
steps. By means of this circuit, the factory-set values for
the dark currents can be maintained and aging of the pic-
ture tube compensated.
1.6. The Beam Current and Peak Beam Current Limiter
The principle of this circuitry may be explained by means of
Fig. 6. Both facilities are carried out via pin 34 of the VCU
2133. For beam current limiting and peak beam current li-
miting, contrast and brightness are reduced by reducing
the reference voltages for the D/A converters Y, Ft-Y and
B-Y. At a voltage of more than +4 V at pin 34, contrast and
brightness are not affected. In the range of +4 V to +3 V,
the contrast is continuously reduced. At +3 V, the original
contrast is reduced to a programmable level, which is set
by the bits of address 16 of the VPU as shown in Table 2. A
further decrease of the voltage merely reduces brightness,
the contrast remains unchanged. At 2 V, the brightness is
reduced to zero. At voltages lower than 2 V, the output
goes to ultra black. This is provided for security purposes.
The beam current limiting is sensed at the ground end of
the EHT circuit, where the average value of the beam cur-
rent produces a certain voltage drop across a resistor in-
serted between EHT circuit and ground. The peak beam
current limiting can be provided additionally to avoid
“blooming” of white spots or letters on the screen. For
this, a fast peak current limitation is needed which is
sensed by three sensing transistors inserted between the
RGB amplifiers
and the cathodes of the picture tube. One
of these three transistors is shown in Fig. 6. The sum of the
picture tube’s three cathode currents produces a voltage
drop across resistor R1. If this voltage exceeds that gen-
erated by the divider R2, B3 plus the base emitter voltage
of T2, this transistor will be turned on and the voltage at

34 of the VCU 2133 sharply reduced. Time constants for
both beam current limiting and peak beam current limiting
can be set by the capacitors C1 and C2.
1.7. The Blanking Circuit
The blanking circuit coordinates blanking during vertical
and horizontal flyback. During the latter, the VCU 2133's
output amplifiers are switched to “ultra black”. Such
switching is different during vertical flyback, however, be-
cause at this time the measurements for picture tube align-
ment are Carried out. During vertical flyback, only the ca-
thode to be measured is switched to “black” during mea-
suring time, the other two are at ultra black so that only the
dark current of one cathode is measured at the same time.
For measuring the leakage current, all three cathodes are
switched to ultra black.
The sequence described is controlled by three code bits
contained in a train of 72 bits which is transferred from the
VPU 2203 to the VCU 2133 during each vertical blanking in-
terval. This transfer starts with the vertical blanking pulse.
During the transfer all three cathodes of the picture tube
are biased to ultra black. In the same manner, the white-
balance control is done.
The blanking circuit is controlled by two pulse combina-
tions supplied by the DPU 2553 Deflection Processor
(“sandcastle pulses"). Pin 39 of the VCU 2133 receives the
combined vertical blanking and delayed horizontal blanking

pulse from pin 22 of the DPU (Fig. 7 b), and pin 36 of the
VCU gets the combined undelayed horizontal blanking and
color key pulse from pin 19 of the DPU (Fig. 7 a). The two
outputs of the DPU are tristate-controlled, supplying the
output levels max. 0.4 V (low), min. 4.0 V (high), or high-im-
pedance, whereby the signal level in the high-impedance
mode is determined by the VCU’s input configuration, a
voltage divider of 3.6 KS! and 5 KQ between the +5 V sup-
ply and ground, to 2_8 V. The VCU’s input amplifier has two
thresholds of 2.0 V and 3.4 V for detecting the three levels
of the combined pulses. ln this way, two times two pulses
are transferred via only two lines.
1.8. The Circuitry for Picture Tube Alignment
During vertical flyback, a number of measurements are tak-
en and data is exchanged between the VCU 2133, the VPU
2203 and the CCU 2030 or CCU 2050. These measure-
ments deal with picture tube alignment, as white level and
dark current adjustment, and with the photo current sup-
plied by a photo resistor (Fig. 5) which serves for adapting
Fig. 8:
Data sequence during the transfer of test results from the
VPU 2203 to the VCU 2133. Nine Bytes are transferred, in
each case the LSB first. These 9 Bytes, 8 bits each, coin-
cide with the 72 pulses of 4.4 MHz that are transferred dur-
ing vertical flyback from pin 27 of the VPU 2203 to pin 21 of
the VCU 2133 (see Fig. 9).
l and mi beam current limiter range
l<: noise inverter on/off
n: video input switching bit
S: SECAM chroma sync bit; S = 1 means that the chroma
demultiplexer is synchronized every line. The switch-over
time from C0 to demux counter begins with the end of the
undelayed horizontal blanking pulse and remains valid for a
time of 12 Q M clock periods.
the contrast of the picture to the light in the room where
the TV set is operated. The circuitry for transferring the

ture tube alignment data, the sensed beam currents and
the photo current is clocked in compliance with the VPU
2203 by the vertical blanking pulse and the color key pulse.
To carry out the measurements, a quadruple cyc
le is pro-
vided (see Table 3). The timing of the data transfer during
the vertical flyback is shown in Fig. 9, and Fig. 8 shows the
data sequence during that data transfer.
Ft, G, B: code bits
p=1; no doubled gain in the input amplifier during horizon-
tal blanking (see section 1.1.)
q=1: no changing of the A/D converter’s reference vol-
tage during every other line (see section 1.1.)
r=1: when operating with the DMA D2-MAC decoder or
the CVPU comb filter video processor, the adding of
a step of ‘/2 LSB to the output signal of the Y D/A
converter is switched off (see section 1.1.).
s=1; the blankirig pulse in the analog video output signal
at pins 26 to 28 is switched off, as is required in
stand-alone applications.

1.9. The Additional RGB Inputs
The three additional analog RGB inputs are provided for
inputting text or other analog RGB signals. They are con-
nected to fast voltage-to-current converters whose output
current can be altered in 64 steps (6 bits) for contrast set-
ting between 100 % and 30 %. The three inputs are
clamped to a DC black level which corresponds to the level
of 31 steps in the luminance channel, by means of the color
key pulse. So, the same brightness level is achieved for
normal and for external RGB signals. The output currents
ofthe converters are then fed to the three RGB output am-
plifiers. Switchover to the external video signal is also

1.10. The Reset Circuit and Pulse Detector
The reset pulse produced by the external reset RC network
in common for the whole DIGIT 2000 system, switches the
RGB outputs to ultra black during the power-on routine of
the TV set. At other times, high level must be applied to the
reset input pin 23.
There is an additional facility with pin 23 which is used only
in conjunction with the DTl 2223 Digital Transient Improve-
ment Processor. The hold pulse produced by the latter
which serves for stopping the R-Y and B-Y D/A converters,
is also fed to pin 23, capacitively-coupled. The pulse detec-
tor responds on positive pulses which exceed the 5 V sup-
ply by about 1 V. The two DACs are stopped as long as the
hold pulse lasts, and supply a constant output signal of the
amplitude at the begin of the hold pulse.

5. Description of the Connections and the Signals
Pins 1, 9, and 25 - Supply Voltage, +5 V
The supply voltage is +5 V. Pins 1 and 25 supply the ana-
log part and must be filtered separately.
Pins 2 to 8 - Outputs V0 to V6
Via these pins the VCU 2133 supplies the digitized video
signal in a parallel 7-bit Gray code to the VPU 2203 and the
DPU 2553. The output configuration is shown in Fig. 16.
Pins 10 to 17 - Inputs L7 to L0
Fig. 17 shows these inputs’ configuration. Via these pins,
the VCU 2133 receives the digital luminance signal from the
VPU 2203 in a paraliel 8-bit code.
Pins 18 to 21 - Inputs C0 to C3
Via these inputs, whose circuitry and data correspond to
those of pins 10 to 17, the VCU 2133 is fed with the digi-
tized color difference signals R-Y and B-Y and with the
control and alignment signals described in section 1.8., in
multiplex operation. Pin 21 is additionally used for the

plex sync signal.
Pin 22 - QSM Main Clock Input
Via this pin, whose circuitry is shown in Fig. 18, the VCU
2133 is supplied with the clock signal QS
M produced by the
MCU 2600 or MCU 2632 Clock Generator IC. The clock fre-
quency is 17.7 MHz for PAL and SECAM and 14.3 MHz for
NTSC. The clock signal must be DC-coupled.
Pin 23 - Reset and Hold Pulse Input (Fig. 19)
Via this pin, the VCU 2133 is supplied with the reset and
hold signals which are supplied by pin 21 of the DTI 2223
Digital Transient Improvement Processor for stopping the
R-Y and B-Y D/A converters, and for Reset.
Pins 24 and 29 - Analog Ground, 0
These pins serve as ground connections for the supply and
for the analog signals (GND pin 24 for RGB).
Pins 26 to 28 - RGB Outputs
These three analog outputs deliver an analog signal suit-
able for driving the RGB output transistors. Their diagram
is shown in Fig. 20. The output voltage swing is 6 V total,
3 V for the black-to-white signal and 3 V for adjusting
the brightness and the black level.
Pins 30 to 32 - Additional Analog Inputs R, G and B
Fig. 21 shows the configuration of these inputs. They serve
to feed analog RGB signals, for example for Teletext or si-
milar applications, and they are clamped during the color
key pulse. At a 1 V input, full brightness is reached. The
bandwidth extends from 0 to 8 MHz.
Pin 33 - Fast Switching Input
This input is connected as shown in Fig. 22. It ser\/es for
fast switchover of the video channel between an internally-
produced video signal and an externally-applied video sig-
nal via pins 30 to 32. With 0 V at pin 33, the RGB outputs
will supply the internal video signal, and at a 1 V input

the RGB outputs are switched to the external video signal.
Bandwidth is 0 to 4 MHz, and input impedance 1 KQ mini-
Pin 34 - Beam Current Limiter Input
The diagram of pin 34 is shown in Fig. 25. The input voltage
may be between +5 V and 0 V. The input impedance is 100
kQ. The function of pin 34 is described in section 1.6.
Pin 35 - Composite Video Signal Input 1
To fully drive the video A/D converter the following ampli-
tudes are required at pin 35: +5 V = sync pulse top level,
all bits low; +7 V = peak white, all bits high. Fig. 24 shows
the configuration of pin 35.
Pin 36 - Undelayed Horizontal Blanking and Color Key
Pulse Input
The circuitry of this pin is shown in Fig. 23. Pin 36 receives
the combined undelayed horizontal blanking and color key
pulse which are “sandcastled” and are sup
plied by pin 19
of the DPU 2553 Deflection Processor. During the undelay-
ed horizontal blanking pulse, the input amplifiers’ gain is
doubled, and the bit enlargement circuit is also switched
by this pulse, and the counter for the data transmission
gap started. The color key pulse is used for clamping the
RGB inputs pins 30 to 32.
Pin 37 - Composite Video Signal Input 2
This pin has the same function and properties as pin 35,
except the gain of the input amplifier which is twice the
gain as that of the amplifier at pin 35. This means an input
voltage range of +5 V to +6 V.
Pin 38 - Supply Voltage, +12 V »
The 12 V supply is needed for certain circuit parts to obtain
the required input or output voltage range, as the video in-
put and the RGB outputs (see Figs. 20 and 24).
Pin 39 - Vertical Blanking and Delayed Horizontal Blanking
This pin receives the combined vertical blanking and delay-
ed horizontal blanking. pulse from pin 22 of the DPU 2553
Deflection Processor. Both pulses are “sandcastled” so
that only one connection is needed for the transfer of two
pulses. These two pulses are separated in the input circui-
try of the VCU 2133, and are used for blanking the picture
during vertical and horizontal flyback. Fig. 23 shows the cir-
cuitry of pin 39.
Pin 40 - Digital Ground, O
This pin is used as GND connection in conjunction with the
pins 2 to 8 and 10 to 21 which carry digital signals.
DPU 2553, DPU 2554 Deflection Processors UNIT
Note: lf not otherwise designated, the pin numbers
mentioned refer to the 40-pin Dil package.

1. Introduction
These programmable VLSI circuits in n-channel mOS
technology carry out the deflection functions in digital
colorTV receivers based onthe DiGiT 2000 system and
are also suitable for text and D2~mAC application. The
three types are basically identical, but are modified ac-
cording to the intended application:

DPU 2553
normal-scan horizontal deflection, standard CTV re-
ceivers, also equipped with Teletext and D2-mAC fa-
DPU 2554
double-scan horizontal deflection, for CTV receivers
equipped with double-frequency horizontal deflection
and double-~frequency vertical deflection for improved
picture quality. At power-up, this version starts with
double horizontal frequency.

1.1. General Description
The DPU 2553/54 Deflection Processors contain the fol-
lowing circuit functions on one single silicon chip:
- video clamping
- horizontal and vertical sync separation
~ horizontal synchronization
- normal horizontal deflection
-east-west correction, also for flat-screen picture
- vertical synchronization
- normal vertical deflection
~ sawtooth generation
-text display mode with increased deflection frequen-
cies (18.7 kHz horizontal and 60 Hz vertical)
- D2-mAC operation mode

and for DPU 2554 only:
- double-scan horizontal deflection
- normal and double-scan vertical deflection
ln this data sheet, all information given for double~scan
mode is available with the DPU 2554 only. Type DPU
2553 starts the horizontal deflection with 15.5 kHz ac-
cording to the normal TV standard, whereas type DPU
2554 starts with 31 kHz according to the double-scan
The following characteristics are programmable:
~ selection ofthe TV standard (PAL, D2-mAC or NTSC)
- selection ofthe deflection standard (Teletext, horizon-
tal and vertical double-scan, and normal scan)
- filter time»constant for horizontal synchronization
- vertical amplitude, S correction, and vertical position
for in-line, flat-screen and Trinitron picture tubes
- east-west parabola, horizontal width, and trapezoidal
correction for in-line, flat-screen and Trinitron picture
- switchover characteristics between the different syn-
chronization modes
~characteristic of the synchronism detector for PLL
switching and muting

1.2. Environment
Fig. 1-1 showsthe simplified block diagram ofthe video
and deflection section of a digital TV receiver based on
the DIGIT 2000 system. The analog video signal derived
from the video detector is digitized in the VCU 2133,
VCU 2134 or VCU 2136 Video Codec and supplied in a
parallel 7 bit Gray code. This digital video signal is fed to
the video section (PVPU, CVPU, SPU and DmA) and to
the DPU 2553/54 Deflection Processorwhich carries out
all functions required in conjunction with deflection, from
sync separation to the control of the deflection power
stages, as described in this data sheet.

3. Functional Description
3.1. Block Diagram
The DPU 2553 and DPU 2554 Deflection Processors
perform all tasks associated with deflection in TV sets;
- sync separation
- generation and synchronization of the horizontal and
the vertical deflection frequencies
-the various eastevvest corrections
- vertical savvtooth generation including S correction
as described hereafter. The DPU communicates, viathe
bidirectional serial lm bus, with the CCU 2050 or CCU
2070 Central Control Unit and, via this bus, is supplied
with the picture-correction alignment information stored
in the mDA 2062 EEPROM during set production, vvhen
the set is turned on. The DPU is normally clocked with
a trapezoidal 17.734 mHz (PAL or SECAm), or 14.3 mhz
(NTSC) or 20.25 mHz (D2-mAC) clock signal supplied
by the mCU 2600 or mCU 2632 Clock Generator IC.

The functional diagram of the DPU is shovvn in Fig. 3-1.
3.2. The Video Clamping Circuit and the Sync Pulse
Separation Circuit

The digitized composite video signal delivered as a 7»bit
parallel signal by the VCU 2133, VCU 2134 or VCU 2136
Video Codec is first noise-filtered by a 1 mHz digital lovv-
pass filter and, to improve the noise immunity ofthe
clamping circuit, is additionally filtered by a 0.2 mHz low-
pass filter before being routed to the minimum and back
porch level detectors (Fig. 3-3).
The DPU has tvvo different clamping outputs, no. 1 and
No. 2, one of vvhich supplies the required clamping
pulses to the video input of the VCU as shovvn in Fig.
3-1. The following values forthe clamping circuit apply
for Video Amp.
l. since the gain of Video Amp. ll istwice
th at of Video Amp l, all clamping and signal levels of Vid-
eo Amp ll are halt those of Video Amp l referred to +5 V.
Afterthe TV set is switched on,thevideo clamping circuit
first of all ensures by means of horizontal-frequency
current pulses from the clamping output of the DPU to
the coupling capacitor of the analog composite video
signal, that the video signal atthe VCU’s input is optimal-
ly biased for the operation range of the A/D converter of
5 to 7 V. For this, the sync top level is digitally measured
and set to a constant level of 5.125 V by these current
pulses. The horizontal and vertical sync pulses are novv
separated by a fixed separation level of 5.250 V so that
the horizontal synchronization can lock to the correct
phase (see section 3.3. and Figs. 3-2 and 3-3).
vvith the color key pulse which is now present in syn-
chronism with the composite video signal, the video
clamping circuit measures the DC voltage level of the
porch and by means of the pulses from pin 21 (or pin4),
sets the DC level ofthe porch at a constant 5.5 V (5.25 V
for Video Amp ll). This level is also the reference black
to Video Processorffeletext Processor, D2-MAC Processor tc.

level for the PVPU 2204 or CvPU 2270 Video Proces-
When horizontal synchronization is achieved, the slice
level for the sync pulses is set to 50 % of the sync pulse
amplitude by averaging sync top and black level. This
ensures optimum pulse separation, even with small
sync pulse amplitudes (see application notes, section

3.3. Horizontal Synchronization
Two operating modes are provided for in horizontal syn-
chronization. The choice of mode depends on whether
or not the Tv station is transmitting a standard PAL or
NTSC signal, in which there is a fixed ratio between color
subcarrier frequency and horizontal frequency. ln the
first case we speak of “color-locked” operation and in
the second case of “non-color-locked” operation (e.g.
black-and-white programs). Switching between thetwo
modes is performed automatically by the standard sig-
nal detector.
3.3.1. Non-Color-Locked Operation
ln the non»locked mode,which is needed in the situation
where there is no standard fixed ratio between the color
subcarrier frequency and the horizontal frequency ofthe
transmitter, the horizontal frequency is produced by subdemding the clock frequency (1 7.7 mHz for PAL and SECAM, 14.3
mHz for NTSC) in the programmable fre-
quency dmder (Fig. 3-4) until the correct horizontal
frequency is obtained. The correct adjustment of fre-
quency and phase is ensured by phase comparator l.
This determines the frequency and phase deviation by
means of a digital phase comparison between the sepa-
rated horizontal sync pulses and the output signal of the
programmable dmder and corrects the dmder accordingly. For
optimum adjustment of phase iitter, capture
behavior and transient response of the horizontal PLL
circuit, the measured phase deviation is filtered in a digi-
lowpass filter (PLL phase filter). ln the case of non-
OZMH synchronized horizontal PLL, this filter is set to
wideband PLL response with a pull-in range of 1800 Hz. if the
- sync sync PLL circuit is locked, the PLL filter is
automatically switched to narrow-band response by an internal
synchronism detector in order to limit the phase jitter to a
minimum, even in the case of weak and noisy signals.

A calculator circuit in phase comparator , which analyzes the
edges of the horizontal sync pulses, increases
the resolution of the phase measurement from 56 ns at
Fig. 3-3: Principle ofvideo clamping and pulse separa- 17.7

mHz clock frequency to approx. 6 ns, or from 70 ns
NON at 14.3 MHz clock frequency to approx. 2.2 ns.

The various key and gating pulses such as the color key
pulse (tKe(,), the normal-scan (1 H) and double-scan
(2H) horizontal blanking pulse (tAZ(/) and the 1 H hori-
zontal undelayed gating pulse (t/(Z) are derived from the
output signals ofthe programmable dmder and an addi-
tional counter forthe2H signals and the 1 H and 2H skew
data output. These pulses retain a fixed phase position
with respect to the 1 H inputvideo signal andthe double-
scan output video signal from the CvPU 2270 Video Pro-
Forthe purpose of equalizing phase changes in the hori-
zontal output stage due to switching response toler-
ances or video influence, a second phase control loop
is used which generates the horizontal output pulse at
pin 31 to drivethe horizontal output stage. ln phase com-
parator li (Fig. 3~4), the phase difference between the
output signal of the programmable dmder and the lead-
ing edge (or the center) of the horizontal flyback pulse
(pin 23) is measured by means of a balanced gate delay
line. The deviation from the desired phase difference is
used as an input to an adder. ln this, the information on
the horizontal frequency derived from phase com-
parator l is added to the phase deviation originating form
phase comparator ll. The result of this addition controls
a digital on-chip sinewave generator (about 1 mHz)
which acts as a phase shifter
with a phase resolution of
1/128 of one main clock period m_
By means of control loop ll the horizontal output pulse
(pin 31) is shifted such that the horizontal flyback pulse
(pin 23) acquiresthe desired phase position with respect
to the output signal of the programmable dmder which,
in turn, due to phase comparator l, retains a fixed phase
position with respect to the video signal. The horizontal
output pulse itself is generated by dmding the frequency
ofthe 1 mHz sinewave oscillator by a fixed ratio of 64 in
the case of norm al scan and of 32 in the case of double-
scan operation.

3.3.2. Color-Locked Operation
When in the color~locked operating mode, after the
phase position has been set in the non-color-locked
mode, the programmable dmder is set to the standard
dmsion ratio (1135:1 for PAL, 91O:1 for NTSC) and
phase comparator is disconnected so that interfering
pulses and noise cannot influence the horizontal deflec-
tion. Because phase comparator ll is still connected,
phase errors ofthe horizontal output stage are also cor-
rected in the color»locKed operating mode. The stan-
dard signal detector is so designed that it only switches
to color-locked operation when the ratio between color
subcarrier frequency and horizontal frequency deviates
no more than 1O'7 from the standard dmsion ratio. To
ascertain this requires about 8 s (NTSC). Switching off
color-locked operation takes place automatically, in the
_ case of a change of program for example, within approx-
imately 67 ms (e.g. two NTSC fields, 60 Hz).

3.3.3. Skew Data Output and Field Number Informa-
with non-standard input signals, the TPU 2735 or TPU
2740 Teletext Processor produce a phase error vvith re-
spect to the deflection phase.
The DPU generates a digital data stream (skevv d
pin 7 ofthe DPU), which informs the PSP and TPU on
the amount of phase delay (given in 2.2 ns increments)
used in the DPU for the 1H and 2h output pulse com-
pared With the Fm main clock signal of 17.7 mHz (PAL
or SECAm) or 14.3 mhz (NTSC), see also Figs. 3-6 to
3-8. The skew data is used by the PSP and by the TPU
to adjust the double-scan video signal to the 1 H and 2H
phase of the horizontal deflection to correct these phase
For the vmC processor the skew data contains three additional

bits for information about frame number, 1 V
sync and 2 V sync start.

3.3.4. Synchronism Detector for PLL and Muting
To evaluate locking ofthe horizontal PLL and condition
of the signal, the DPU’s HSP high-speed processor
(Fig. 3~1) receives two items of information from the hor-
izontal PLL circuit (see Fig. 3-11).
a) the overall pulsevvidth of the separated sync pulses
during a 6.7 us phase window centered to the horizontal
sync pulse (value A in Fig. 3-11).
b) the overall pulsevvidth of the separated sync pulse
during one horizontal line but outside the phase window
(value B in Fig. 3-11).
Based on a) and b) and using the selectable coefficients
KS1 and KS2 and a digital lovi/pass filter, the HSP pro-
cessor evaluates an 8-bit item of information “SD” (see
Fig. 3-12). By means of a comparator and a selectable
level SLP, the switching threshold for the PLL signal
“UN” is generated. UN indicates Whether the PLL is in
the synchronous or in the asynchronous state.
To produce a muting signal in the CCU, the data SD can
be read by the CCU. The range ot SD extends from O
(asynchronous) to +127 (synchronous). Typical values
torthe comparator levels and their hysteresis B1 = 30/20
and for muting 40/30 (see also HSP Bam address Table

DPU 2553, DPU 2554

3.4. Start Oscillator and Protection Circuit
To protect the horizontal output stage of the TV set dur-
ing changing the standard and for using the DPU as a
low power start oscillator, an additional oscillator is pro-
vided on-chip (Fig. 3-4), with the output connected to
pin 31. This oscillator is controlled by a 4 mHz signalin-
dependent trom the Fm main clock produced by the
MCU 2600 or mCU 2632 Clock Generator IC and is pow-
ered by a separate supply connected to pin 35. Thefunc-
tion ofthis circuitry depends on the external standard se-
lection input pin 33 and on the start oscillator select input
pin 36, as described in Table 3-3. Using the protection
circuit as a start oscillator, the following operation modes
are available (see Table 3-3).
With pin 33 open-circuit, pin 36 at high potential (con-
nected to pin 35) and a 4 mHz clock applied to pin 34,
the protection circuit acts as a start oscillator. This pro-
duces a constant-frequency horizontal output pulse of
15.5 kHz in the case of DPU 2553, and of 31 khz in the
case of DPU 2554 while the Beset input pin 5 is at low
potential. The pulsewidth is 30 us with DPU 2553, and
16 us with DPU 2554. main clock at pin 2 or main power
supplies at pins 8, 32 and 40 are not required for this start
oscillator After the main power supply is stabilized and
the main clock generator has started, the reset input pin
5 must be switched to the high state. As long as the start
values from the CCU are invalid, the start oscillator will
continuously supply the output pulses of constant fre-
quency to pin 31 _ By means of the start values given by
the CCU via the lm bus, the register FL must be set to
zero to enable the stan oscillator to be triggered by the
horizontal PLL circuit. After that, the output frequency
and phase are controlled by the horizontal PLL only.
It the external standard selection input pin 33 is con-
nected to ground or to +5 V, t
he start oscillator is
switched off as soon as it ls in phase with PLL circuit. Pin
33to ground selects PAL or SECAm standard (17.7 mHz
main clock), and pin 33 to +5 V selects NTSC standard
(14.3 MHz main clock). After the main power supplies to
pins 8, 32 and 40 are stabilized, the start oscillator can
be used as a separate horizontal oscillator with a con-
stant frequency of 15.525 khz. For this option, pin 33
must be unconnected. By means ofthe lm bus register
SC the start oscillator can be switched on (SC = 0) or oft
(SC = 1). Setting SC =1 is recommended.
By means of pin 29 (horizontal output polarity selectin-
put and start oscillator pulsewidth select input), the out-
put pulsewidth and polarity ofthe start oscillator and pro-
tection circuit can be hardware-selected. Pin 29 at low
potential gives 30 us for DPU 2553 and 16 us for DPU
2554,with positive output pulses. Pin 29 at high potential
gives 36 us for DPU 2553 and 18 its for DPU 2554, with
negative output pulses. Both apply forthetime period in
which no start values are valid from the CCU. If pin 29
is intended to be in the high state, it must be connected
to pin 35 (standby power). Pin 29 must be connected to
ground or to +5 V in both cases.
Table 3-3: Operation modes ofthe start oscillator and
protection circuit

Operation Mode Pins
33 34 35 36
Horizontal output stage protected not connected 4 mHz Clock at

+5 V at ground
during main clock frequency changing
(for PAL and NTSC)
Horizontal output stage protected not connected 4 MHz Clock +5

V with connected to
and start oscillator function start oscilla- pin 35
(for PAL and NTSC) tor supply
Only start oscillator function with at +5 V 4 mHz Clock +5 V

with connected to
NTSC standard after Beset start oscilla- pin 35
tor supply
Only start oscillator function with at ground 4 mHz Clock +5 V

with connected to
PAL or SECAM standard after Beset start oscilla~ pin 35
5 tor supply
_ with 17.7 mHz clock at ground at ground at +5 V at ground
without protection.
3.5. Blanking and Color Key Pulses

Pin 19 supplies a combination ofthe color key pulse and
the undelayed horizontal blanking pulse in the form of a
three-level pulse as shown in Fig. 3-13. The high level
(4 V min.) and the low level (0.4 V max.) are controlled
by the DPU. During the low time of the undelayed hori-
zontal blanking pulse, pin 19 of the DPU i sin the high--
impedance mode and the output level at pin 19 is set to
2.8 V by the VCU.
At pin 22, the delayed horizontal blanking pulse in com-
bination with the vertical blanking pulse is available as
athree-level pulse as shown in Fig. 3-13. Output pin 22
is in high-impedance mode during the delayed horizon-
tal blanking pulse.
ln double-scan operation mode (DPU 2554), pin 22 sup-
plies the double-scan (2H) horizontal blanking pulse in-
stead ofthe 1H blanking pulse (DPU 2553). ln text dis-
play mode with increased deflection frequencies (see
section 1.), pin 22 ofthe respective DPU (DPU 2553, as
defined by register ZN) delivers the horizontal blanking
pulse with 18.7 kHz and the vertical blanking pulse with
60 Hz according to the display. At pin 24 the undelayed
horizontal blanking pulse is output.
normally,pin3suppliesthe samevertical blanking pulse
as pin 22. However, with“DVS” = 1, pin 3 will be in the
single-scan mode also with double-scan operation of
the system. The pulsewidth of the single-scan vertical
blanking pulse at pin 3 will be the same as.that of the
double-scan vertical blanking pulse at pin 22. The out-
put pulse of pin 3 is only valid if the COU register “VBE”
is set to 1 . The default value is set to 0 (high-impedance
state of pin 3).

Fig. 3-13: Shape of the output pulses at pins 19 and 22
*) The output level is externally defined
3.6. Output for Switching the Horizontal Power
Stage Between 15.6 kHz (PAL/NTSC) and 18 kHz
(Text Display)
This output (pin 37) is designed as a tristate output. High
levels (4 V mln.) and low levels (0.4 V max.) are con-
trolled bythe DPU. During high-impedance state an ex-
ternal resistor network defines the output level,
For changing the horizontal frequency from 15 kHz to
18 kHz, the following sequence of output levels is
derived at pin 37 (see Fig. 3-14).
After register ZN is set from ZN = 2 (15 kHz) to ZN = 0
(18 kHz) by the CCU, pin 37 is switched from High level
to high-impedance state synchronously with the fre-
quency change at pin 31. Following a delay of 20ms, pin
37 is set to Low level and remains in this state forthetime
the horizontal frequency remains 18 kHz (with ZN == 0).
This 20 ms delay is required for switching-over the hori-
zontal power stage.
To change the horizontal frequency in the opposite di-
rection, from 18 kHz to 15.6 kHz, the sequence de-
scribed is reversed.

3.7. Text Display Mode with Increased Deflection
As already mentioned, the DPU 2553 provides the fea-
ture of increased deflection frequencies for text display
for improved picture quality in this mode of operation. To
achieve this, the processor acting as deflection proces-
sor has its register Zn set to 0. The horizontal output fre-
quency at pin 31 is then switched to a frequency of
18746.802 Hz which is generated by dmding the Fm
main clock frequency by 946 i 46. The horizontal PLL is
then able to synchronize to an external composite sync
signal offH = 18.746 kHzi 46. The horizontal PLL isthen
able to synchronizeto an external composite sync signal
of fH = 18.746 kHzi 5 % and f\, = 60 Hz i 10 % and can
be set to an independent horizontal and vertical sync
generator by setting register VE = 1 and register VB = 0.
That means a constant dmder of 946 for horizontal fre-
quency and constant 312 lines per frame.

The DPU working in this mode supplies the TPU 2740
Teletext Processor or the respective Viewdata Proces-
sor with the 18.7 kHz horizontal blanking pulses form pin
24 and the 60 Hz vertical blanking pulses form pin 22
(see Fig. 3-8).
To be able to receive and store data from an IF video sig-
nal at the same time, the Teletext or Viewdata Processor
requires horizontal and vertical sync pulses from this IF
signal. Therefore, the second DPU provides video
clamping and sync separation forthe external signal and
supplies the horizontal sync pulses (pin 24) and the ver-
tical sync pulses (pin 22) to the Teletext or viewdata Pro-
cessor. For this, the second DPU is set to the PAL stan-
dard by register ZN = 2, and the clamping pulses of the
other DPU are disabled by CLD = 1.
To change the output frequency ofthe DPU acting as de-
flection processor from 18.7 kHz to 15.6 kHz, the control
switch output pin 37 prepares the horizontal output
stage for 15.6 khz operation (pin 37 is in the high-impe-
dance state) beforethe DPU changesthe horizontal out-
put frequencyto 15.6 kHz, after a minimum delay of one
vertical period. Switching the horizontal deflection fre-
quency from 15.6 kHzto 18.7 kHz is done in the reverse
sequence. Firstly, the horizontaloutput frequency of pin
31 is switched to 1 8.7 khz, and after a delay of one verti-
cal period, pin 37 is set low.
3.8. D2-MAC Operation Mode
When receiving Tv signals having the D2-mAC stan-
dard (direct satellite reception), register ZN is set to 3.
The programmable dmder is set to a dmsion ratio of
1296 i48 to generate a horizontal frequency of 15.625
khz with the clock rate of 20.25 mHz used in the
D2-mAC standard. ln this operation mode, pin 6 acts as
input forthe composite sync signal supplied by the DmA
2271 D2-mAC Decoder. The DPU is synchronized to
this sync signal, and after locking-in (status register
UN = 0), the CCU switches the DPU to a clock-locked
mode between clock signal and horizontal frequency
(fm main
clock by 1024, during the vertical sync signal separated
from the received video signal. To use an 8-bit register,
the result of the count is dmded by 2 and given to the
DPU status register. ln the CCU, the vertical frequency
can be evaluated using the following equation:

fv I __lL1’_l\
1024- vP- 2
fm), = 17.734475 mHz with PAL and SECAm
fq,M =14.31818 mHz with NTSC
rw = 2o_25 MHZ with D2-mAc
VP = status value, read from DPU.

The interlace control output pin 39 supplies a 25 Hz (for
PAL and SECAm) or 80 Hz (for NTSC) signal for control-
ling an external interlace-off switch, which is required
with A.C.-coupled vertical output stages, becausethese
are not able to handle the internal interlace-off proce-
dure using register “ZS”.
For operation with the vmC Processor the DPU 2554
hasthree interlace control modes in double vertical scan
mode (DVS = 1). These options can be selected with the
register “IOP” and can be used together with the control
output pin 39 only. This output has to be connected to the
vertical output stage, so that the vertical phase can be
shifted by 16 us (or 32 us with DPU 2553).


SINUDYNE STUDIO 2568Q CHASSIS  PROFESSIONAL T6700   DIGITAL  PROCESSING  BOARD  VIDEO-6700  1.91 ITT DIGIT2000 CATHODE RAY TUBE (Kinescope) driver with kinescope current sensing circuit:
A television receiver includes a kinescope and a current sensing transistor for conveying amplified video signals to the kinescope, and for providing at a sensing output terminal an output signal related to the magnitude of kinescope current conducted during given sensing intervals. A clamping circuit clamps the sensing output terminal during normal image intervals, and unclamps the sensing output terminal during the sensing intervals. The clamping circuit facilitates interfacing the sensing transistor with utilization circuits which process the sensed output signal, and assists to maintain a proper operating condition for the sensing transistor.

1. In a video signal processing system including an image reproducing device for displaying video information in response to a video signal applied thereto, apparatus comprising:
a video output driver stage with a video signal input and a video signal output for providing an amplified video signal;
means for conveying said amplified video signal to said image reproducing display device, said conveying means having a sensing output for providing thereat a sensed signal representative of the current conducted by said image reproducing display device;
utilization means responsive to said sensed signal; and
clamping means for selectively clamping said sensing output during normal image intervals, and for unclamping said sensing output during intervals when said sensed signal representative of current conducted by said image reproducing display device is subject to processing by said utilization means; wherein
said clamping means comprises clamping transistor means with an output first electrode coupled to said sensing output, a second electrode coupled to an operating potential, and an input third electrode coupled to said sensing output, the conduction of said clamping transistor means being controlled in accordance with the magnitude of said sensed signal as received by said third electrode; and
said clamping transistor means is self-keyed to exhibit clamping and non-clamping states in response to said sensed representative signal.
2. Apparatus according to claim 1, wherein:
said video output stage comprises a video amplifier with a video signal input and a video signal output for providing said amplified video signal; and
said conveying means comprises an active current conducting device with an input first terminal for receiving said amplified video signal, an output second terminal for conveying said amplified video signal to said image reproducing display device, and a third terminal for providing said sensed signal.
3. Apparatus according to claim 2, wherein
said active current conducting device is a transistor with a base input for receiving said amplified video signal, an emitter output for providing said amplified video signal to said image reproducing display device, and a collector output for providing said sensed signal.
4. Apparatus according to claim 1, wherein
said first and second electrodes define a main current conduction path of said clamping transistor means.
5. Apparatus according to claim 4, wherein
said clamping means includes resistive means coupled to said sensing output for providing a voltage in accordance with the magnitude of said sensed signal; and
said third electrode of said clamping transistor means is coupled to said resistive means.
6. Apparatus according to claim 1, and further comprising
filter means for bypassing high frequency signal components at said sensing output.
7. In a video signal processing system including an image reproducing device for displaying video information in response to a video signal applied thereto, apparatus comprising:
a video output driver stage coupled to said image reproducing display device for providing an amplified video signal thereto, and having a sensing output for providing thereat a sensed signal representative of the current conducted by said image reproducing display device;
control means responsive to said sensed signal for developing a control signal;
means for coupling said control signal to said image reproducing display device to maintain a desired conduction characteristic of said image reproducing display device; and
clamping means for selectively clamping said sensing output during normal image intervals, and for unclamping said sensing output during intervals when said control means operates to monitor said sensed signal; wherein
said clamping means comprises clamping transistor means with an output first electrode coupled to said sensing output, a second electrode coupled to an operating potential, and an input third electrode coupled to said sensing output, the conduction of said clamping transistor means being controlled in accordance with the magnitude of said sensed signal as received by said third electrode; and
said clamping transistor means is self-keyed to exhibit clamping and non-clamping states in response to said sensed signal.
8. Apparatus according to claim 7, wherein
said control means includes digital signal processing circuits; and
said control means includes an input analog-to-digital signal converter network.
9. In a video signal processing system including an image reproducing device for displaying video information in response to a video signal applied thereto, apparatus comprising:
a video amplifier with a video signal input for receiving video signals, and a video signal output for providing an amplified video signal;
a signal coupling transistor with an input first electrode for receiving said amplified video signal from said video amplifier, an output second electrode for providing a further amplified video signal to said image reproducing display device, and a third electrode for providing a sensed signal representative of the magnitude of the current conducted by said image reproducing display device;
utilization means responsive to said sensed signal; and
clamping means for selectively clamping said third electrode of said coupling transistor during normal image intervals, and for unclamping said third electrode during interval when said sensed representative signal is subject to processing by said utilization means, said clamping means comprising clamping transistor means with an output first electrode coupled to said third electrode of said signal coupling transistor, a second electrode coupled to an operating potential, and an input third electrode coupled to said third electrode of said signal coupling transistor, the conduction of said clamping transistor means being controlled in accordance with the magnitude of said sensed signal as received by said input third electrode of said clamping transistor means.
10. Apparatus according to claim 9, wherein
said coupling transistor is an emitter follower transistor with a base input electrode, an emitter output electrode, and a collector output electrode corresponding to said third electrode.
This invention concerns a video output display driver amplifier for supplying high level video output signals to an image display device such as a kinescope in a television receiver. In particular, this invention concerns a display driver stage associated with a sensing circuit for providing a signal representative of the magnitude of current conducted by the kinescope during prescribed intervals.
Video signal processing and display systems such as television receivers commonly include a video output display driver stage for supplying a high level video signal to an intensity control electrode, e.g., a cathode electrode, of an image display device such as a kinescope. Television receivers sometimes employ an automatic black current (bias) control system or an automatic white current (drive) control system for maintaining desired kinescope operating current levels. Such control systems typically operate during image blanking intervals, at which time the kinescope is caused to conduct a black image or a white image representative current. Such current is sensed by the control system, which generates a correction signal representing the difference between the magnitude of the sensed representative current and a desired current level. The correction signal is applied to video signal processing circuits for reducing the difference.
Various techniques are known for sensing the magnitude of the black or white kinescope current. One often used approach employs a PNP emitter follower current sensing transistor connected to the kinescope cathode signal coupling path. Such sensing transistor couples video signals to the kinescope via its base-to-emitter junction, and provides at a collector electrode a sensed current representative of the magnitude of the kinescope cathode current. The representative current from the collector electrode of the sensing transistor is conveyed to the control system and processed to develop a suitable correction signal.
In accordance with the principles of the present invention, there is disclosed a kinescope current sensing arrangement wherein a current sensing device is coupled to a kinescope for providing at an output terminal a signal representative of the magnitude of the kinescope current. A clamping circuit clamps the output terminal to a given voltage during normal image trace intervals. During prescribed kinescope current sensing intervals, however, the clamping circuit is inoperative and the sensed signal representative of the kinescope current is developed at the output terminal. The clamping circuit advantageously facilitates interfacing the current sensing device with control circuits for processing the sensed signal, and assists to maintain a proper operating condition for the current sensing device which, in a disclosed embodiment, also conveys video signals to the display device. In accordance with a feature of the invention, the clamping circuit is self-keyed between clamping and non-clamping states in response to the representative signal at the output terminal.
In the drawing:
FIG. 1 shows a circuit diagram of a kinescope driver stage with associated kinescope current sensing and clamping apparatus in accordance with the present invention; and
FIG. 2 depicts, in block diagram form, a portion of a color television receiver incorporating the current sensing and clamping apparatus of FIG. 1.
In FIG. 1, low level color image representative video signals r, g, b are provided by a source 10. The r, g and b color signals are coupled to similar kinescope driver stages. Only the red (r) color signal video driver stage is shown in schematic circuit diagram form.
Red kinescope driver stage 15 comprises a driver amplifier including an input common emitter amplifier transistor 20 arranged in a cascode amplifier configuration with a common base amplifier transistor 21. Red color signal r is coupled to the base input of transistor 20 via a current determining resistor 22. Base bias for transistor 20 is provided by a resistor 24 in association with a source of negative DC voltage (-V). Base bias for transistor 21 is provided from a source of positive DC voltage (+V) through a resistor 25. Resistor 25 in the base circuit of transistor 21 assists to stabilize transistor 21 against oscillation.
The output circuit of driver stage 15 includes a load resistor 27 in the collector output circuit of transistor 21 and across which a high level amplified video signal is developed, and opposite conductivity type emitter follower transistors 30 and 31 with base inputs coupled to the collector of transistor 21. A high level amplified video signal R is developed at the emitter output of follower transistor 30 and is coupled to a cathode electrode of an image reproducing kinescope via a kinescope arc current limiting resistor 33. A resistor 34 in the collector circuit of transistor 31 also serves as a kinescope arc current limiting resistor. Degenerative feedback for driver stage 15 is provided by series resistors 36 and 38, coupled from the emitter of transistor 31 to the base of transistor 20.
A diode 39 connected between the emitters of transistors 30 and 31 as shown is normally reverse biased and therefore nonconductive by the voltage difference across it equalling the sum of the two base-emitter voltage drops of transistors 30 and 31, but is forward biased and therefore rendered conductive under certain conditions in response to positive-going transients at the emitter of transistor 30, corresponding to the output terminal of driver stage 15. The arrangement of transistor 31 prevents the amplifier feedback loop including transistors 20, 21 and 31 and resistors 36 and 38 from being disrupted, thereby preventing feedback transients and signal ringing from occurring. Additional details of the arrangement including transistors 30 and 31 and diode 39 are found in my copending U.S. patent application Ser. No. 758,954 titled "FEEDBACK DISPLAY DRIVER STAGE".
The emitter voltage of transistor 30 follows the voltage developed across load resistor 27, and transistor 30 conducts the kinescope cathode current. Substantially all of the kinescope cathode current flows as collector current of transistor 30, through a kinescope arc current limiting protection resistor 37a, to a clamping network 40. Transistor 30 acts as a current sensing device in conjunction with network 40 as will be explained. Clamping network 40 in this example is self-keyed to exhibit clamping and non-clamping states in response to the magnitude of the current conducted by transistor 30.
Clamping network 40 is common to all three driver stages of the receiver, as will be seen subsequently in connection with FIG. 2, and is coupled to the green and blue signal driver stages via protection resistors 37b and 37c. Network 40 includes clamping transistors 41 and 42 arranged in a Darlington configuration, and series voltage divider resistors 43 and 44 which bias clamp transistors 41 and 42. A high frequency bypass capacitor 46 filters signals in the collector circuit of transistor 30 in a manner to be described below. The series combination of a mode control switch 49 and a scaling resistor 48 is coupled across resistors 43 and 44. A voltage related to the magnitude of kinescope current is developed at a terminal A and, as will be explained with reference to FIG. 2, the voltage at terminal A can be used in conjunction with a feedback control loop to maintain a desired kinescope operating current condition which is otherwise subject to deterioration due to kinescope aging and temperature effects, for example.
Assuming switch 49, the function of which will be explained below, is open, the kinescope cathode current flowing in the collector of transistor 30 is conducted to ground via resistors 43 and 44. When this current causes a voltage drop across resistor 44 to sufficiently forward bias the base-emitter junctions of transistors 41 and 42, transistor 42 will conduct in a linear region, and will clamp terminal A to a voltage VA according to the following expression, where V BE41 and V BE42 are the base-emitter junction voltage drops of transistors 41 and 42: VA=(V BE41 +V BE42 ) (R43+R44)/R44
During normal image intervals typically there are greater than approximately 25 microamperes of current conducted by transistor 30, which is sufficient to render transistors 41 and 42 conductive for developing clamping voltage VA at terminal A. At other times, as will be discussed, transistors 41 and 42 are rendered nonconductive whereby clamping action is inhibited and a (variable) voltage is developed at node A as a function of the magnitude of the kinescope cathode current, for processing by succeeding control circuits.
Illustratively, the arrangement of FIG. 1 can be used in connection with digital signal processing and control circuits in a color television receiver employing digital signal processing techniques, as will be seen in FIG. 2. Such control circuits include an input analog-to-digital converter (ADC) for converting analog voltages developed at terminal A to digital form for processing.
When the control circuits are to operate in an automatic kinescope black current (bias) control mode, wherein during image blanking intervals the kinescope conducts very small cathode currents on the order of a few microamperes, approximating a kinescope black image condition, clamp transistors 41 and 42 are rendered nonconductive because such small currents flowing through resistors 43 and 44 from the collector of transistor 30 are unable to produce a large enough voltage drop across resistor 44 to forward bias transistors 41 and 42. Consequently terminal A exhibits voltage variations, as developed across resistors 43 and 44, related to the magnitude of kinescope black current. The voltage variations are processed by the control circuits coupled to terminal A to develop a correction signal, if necessary, to maintain a desired level of kinescope black current conduction by feedback action. In this operating mode switch 49, e.g., a controlled electronic switch, is maintained in an open position as shown in response to a timing signal VT developed by the control circuits.
When the control circuits are to operate in an automatic kinescope white current (drive) control mode wherein during image blanking intervals the kinescope conducts much larger currents representing a white image condition, switch 49 closes in response to timing signal VT, thereby shunting resistor 48 across resistors 43 and 44. The value of resistor 48 is chosen relative to the combined values of resistors 43 and 44 so that the larger current conducted via the collector of transistor 30 divides between series resistors 43, 44 and resistor 48 such that the magnitude of current conducted by resistors 43 and 44 is insufficient to produce a large enough voltage drop across resistor 44 to render clamping transistors 43 and 44 conductive. Unclamped terminal A therefore exhibits voltage variations related to the magnitude of kinescope white current, which voltage variations are processed by the control circuits to develop a correction signal as required. As used herein, the expression "white current" refers to a high level of individual red, green or blue color image current, or to combined high level red, green and blue currents associated with a white image.
With the illustrated configuration of transistors 41 and 42 clamping voltage VA is relatively low, approximately +2.0 volts. The clamping voltage could be provided by a Zener diode rather than the disclosed arrangement of Darlington-connected transistors 41 and 42, but the disclosed clamping arrangement is preferred because Zener diodes with a voltage rating less than about 4 volts usually do not exhibit a predictable Zener threshold voltage characteristic, i.e., the "knee" transition region of the Zener voltage-vs-current characteristic is usually not very well defined. In addition, the disclosed transistor clamp operates with better linearity than a Zener diode clamp and radiates less radio frequency interference (RFI).
The relatively low clamping voltage is compatible with the analog input voltage requirements of the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) at the input of the control circuits which receive the sensed voltage at terminal A as will be explained in greater detail with respect to FIG. 2. In this example the ADC is intended to process analog voltages of from 0 volts to approximately +2.5 volts, and the clamping voltage assures that excessively high analog voltages are not presented to the ADC during normal video signal intervals.
The relatively low clamping voltage also assists to prevent transistor 30 from saturating, which is necessary since transistor 30 is intended to operate in a linear region. To achieve this result and to maximize the cathode current conduction capability of transistor 30, the clamping voltage should be as low as possible to maintain a suitably low bias voltage at the collector of transistor 30. On the other hand, the value of arc current limiting resistor 37a should be large enough to provide adequate arc protection without compromising the objective of maintaining the collector bias voltage of transistor 30 as low as possible. Operation of transistor 30 in a saturated state renders transistor 30 ineffective for its intended purpose of properly conveying video drive signals to the kinescope cathode, and for conveying accurate representations of cathode current to clamping network 40 particularly in the white current control mode when relatively high cathode current levels are sensed. In addition, undesirable radio frequency interference (RFI) can be generated by transistor 30 switching into and out of saturation. Also, when saturation occurs transistor base storage effects can result in video image streaking due to the time required for a transistor to come out of a saturated state.
Thus clamping network 40 advantageously limits the voltage at terminal A to a level tolerable by the analog-to-digital converter at the input of the control circuits coupled to terminal A, and protects the analog-to-digital converter input from damage due to signal overdrive. Network 40 also provides a collector reference bias for transistor 30 to prevent transistor 30 from saturating on large negative-going signal amplitude transitions at its emitter electrode. The clamping voltage level is readily adjusted simply by tailoring the values of resistors 43 and 44.
Capacitor 46 bypasses high frequency video signals to ground to prevent transistor 30 from saturating in response to such signals. Capacitor 46 also serves to smooth out undesirable high frequency variations at terminal A to prevent potentially troublesome signal components such as noise from interfering with the signal processing function of the input analog-to-digital converter of the control circuits, e.g., by smoothing the current sensed during the settling time of the analog-to-digital converter.
The latter noise reducing effect is particularly desirable, for example, when the input ADC of the control circuits coupled to terminal A is of the relatively inexpensive and uncomplicated "iterative approximation" type ADC, compared to a "flash" type ADC. The operation of an iterative ADC, wherein successive approximations are made from the most significant bit to the least significant bit, requires a relatively constant or slowly varying analog signal to be sampled during sampling intervals, uncontaminated by noise and similar effects.
The value of capacitor 46 should not be excessively large because a certain rate of current variation should be permitted at terminal A with respect to kinescope cathode currents being sensed. If the value of capacitor 46 is too small, excessive voltage variations, particularly high frequency video signal variations, will appear at terminal A, increasing the likelihood of transistor 30 saturating. The speed of operation of the clamp circuit itself is restricted by an RC low pass filter effect produced by the base capacitance of transistor 41 and the equivalent resistance of resistors 43 and 44.
FIG. 2 shows a portion of a color television receiver system employing digital video signal processing techniques. The FIG. 2 system utilizes kinescope driver amplifiers and a clamping network as disclosed in FIG. 1, wherein similar elements are identified by the same reference number. By way of example, the system of FIG. 2 includes a MAA 2100 VCU (Video Codec Unit) corresponding to video signal source 10 of FIG. 1, a MAA 2200 VPU (Video Processor Unit) 50, and a MAAA 2000 CCU (Central Control Unit) 60. The latter three units are associated with a digital television signal processing system offered by ITT Corporation as described in a technical bulletin titled "DIGIT 2000 VLSI DIGITAL TV SYSTEM" published by the Intermetall Semiconductors subsidiary of ITT Corporation.
In unit 10, a luminance signal and color difference signals in digital form are respectively converted to analog form by means of digital-to-analog converters (DACs) 70 and 71. The analog luminance signal (Y) and analog color difference signals r-y and b-y are combined in a matrix amplifier 73 to produce r, g and b color image representative signals which are processed by preamplifiers 75, 76 and 77, respectively, before being coupled to kinescope driver stages 15, 16 and 17 of the type shown in FIG. 1. A network 78 in unit 10 includes circuits associated with the automatic white current and black current control functions.
The high level R, G and B color signals from driver stages 15, 16 and 17 are coupled via respective current limiting resistors (i.e., resistor 33) to cathode intensity control electrodes of a color kinescope 80. Currents conducted by the red, green and blue kinescope cathodes are conveyed to network 40 via resistors 37a-37c, for producing at terminal A a voltage representative of kinescope cathode current conducted during measuring intervals, as discussed previously.
VPU unit 50 includes input terminals 15 and 16 coupled to terminal A. Through terminal 15 the VPU receives the analog signal from terminal A and, via an internal multiplex switching network 51, the analog signal is supplied to an analog-to-digital-converter (ADC) 52. Terminal 16 is connected to an internal switching device (corresponding to switch 49 in FIG. 1) which, in conjunction with scaling resistor 48, controls the impedance and therefore the sensitivity at input terminal 15. High sensitivity for black current measurement is obtained with resistor 48 ungrounded by internal switch 49, and low sensitivity for white current measurement is obtained with resistor 48 grounded by internal switch 49.
The digital signal from ADC 52 is coupled to an IM BUS INTERFACE unit 53 which coacts with CCU unit 60 and provides signals to an output data multiplex (MPX) unit 55. Multiplexed output signal data from unit 55 is conveyed to VCU unit 10, and particularly to control network 78. Control network 78 provides output signals for controlling the signal gain of preamplifiers 75, 76 and 77 to achieve a correct white current condition, and also provides output signals for controlling the DC bias of the preamplifiers to achieve a correct black current condition.
More specifically, during vertical image blanking intervals the three (red, green, blue) kinescope black currents subject to measurement and the three white currents subject to measurement are developed sequentially, sensed, and coupled to VPU 50 via terminal 15. The sensed values are sequenced, digitized and coupled to IM Bus Interface 53 which organizes the data communication with CCU 60. After being processed by CCU 60, control signals are routed back to interface 53 and from there to data multiplexer 55 which forwards the control signals to VCU 10.

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