Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

In Brief: On this site you will find pictures and information about some of the electronic, electrical and electrotechnical technology relics that the Frank Sharp Private museum has accumulated over the years .

Premise: There are lots of vintage electrical and electronic items that have not survived well or even completely disappeared and forgotten.

Or are not being collected nowadays in proportion to their significance or prevalence in their heyday, this is bad and the main part of the death land. The heavy, ugly sarcophagus; models with few endearing qualities, devices that have some over-riding disadvantage to ownership such as heavy weight,toxicity or inflated value when dismantled, tend to be under-represented by all but the most comprehensive collections and museums. They get relegated to the bottom of the wants list, derided as 'more trouble than they are worth', or just forgotten entirely. As a result, I started to notice gaps in the current representation of the history of electronic and electrical technology to the interested member of the public.


Following this idea around a bit, convinced me that a collection of the peculiar alone could not hope to survive on its own merits, but a museum that gave equal display space to the popular and the unpopular, would bring things to the attention of the average person that he has previously passed by or been shielded from. It's a matter of culture. From this, the Obsolete Technology Tellye Web Museum concept developed and all my other things too. It's an open platform for all electrical Electronic TV technology to have its few, but NOT last, moments of fame in a working, hand-on environment. We'll never own Colossus or Faraday's first transformer, but I can show things that you can't see at the Science Museum, and let you play with things that the Smithsonian can't allow people to touch, because my remit is different.

There was a society once that was the polar opposite of our disposable, junk society. A whole nation was built on the idea of placing quality before quantity in all things. The goal was not “more and newer,” but “better and higher" .This attitude was reflected not only in the manufacturing of material goods, but also in the realms of art and architecture, as well as in the social fabric of everyday life. The goal was for each new cohort of children to stand on a higher level than the preceding cohort: they were to be healthier, stronger, more intelligent, and more vibrant in every way.

The society that prioritized human, social and material quality is a Winner. Truly, it is the high point of all Western civilization. Consequently, its defeat meant the defeat of civilization itself.

Today, the West is headed for the abyss. For the ultimate fate of our disposable society is for that society itself to be disposed of. And this will happen sooner, rather than later.

OLD, but ORIGINAL, Well made, Funny, Not remotely controlled............. and not Made in CHINA.

How to use the site:

- If you landed here via any Search Engine, you will get what you searched for and you can search more using the search this blog feature provided by Google. You can visit more posts scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year,
or you can click on the main photo-page to start from the main page. Doing so it starts from the most recent post to the older post simple clicking on the Older Post button on the bottom of each page after reading , post after post.

You can even visit all posts, time to time, when reaching the bottom end of each page and click on the Older Post button.

- If you arrived here at the main page via bookmark you can visit all the site scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year pointing were you want , or more simple You can even visit all blog posts, from newer to older, clicking at the end of each bottom page on the Older Post button.
So you can see all the blog/site content surfing all pages in it.

- The search this blog feature provided by Google is a real search engine. If you're pointing particular things it will search IT for you; or you can place a brand name in the search query at your choice and visit all results page by page. It's useful since the content of the site is very large.

Note that if you don't find what you searched for, try it after a period of time; the site is a never ending job !

Every CRT Television saved let revive knowledge, thoughts, moments of the past life which will never return again.........

Many contemporary "televisions" (more correctly named as displays) would not have this level of staying power, many would ware out or require major services within just five years or less and of course, there is that perennial bug bear of planned obsolescence where components are deliberately designed to fail and, or manufactured with limited edition specificities..... and without considering........picture......sound........quality........

..............The bitterness of poor quality is remembered long after the sweetness of todays funny gadgets low price has faded from memory........ . . . . . .....
Don't forget the past, the end of the world is upon us! Pretty soon it will all turn to dust!

Have big FUN ! !
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©2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 Frank Sharp - You do not have permission to copy photos and words from this blog, and any content may be never used it for auctions or commercial purposes, however feel free to post anything you see here with a courtesy link back, btw a link to the original post here , is mandatory.
All sets and apparates appearing here are property of
Engineer Frank Sharp. NOTHING HERE IS FOR SALE !

Tuesday, February 1, 2011

GRUNDIG SUPER COLOR W6232 IT CHASSIS 29301-373.21 CRT TUBE TOSHIBA 560BYB22-TC01 (Blackstripe) VIEW.























CRT TUBE TOSHIBA 560BYB22-TC01 (Blackstripe) VIEW.


CRT TUBE TOSHIBA UNITIZED Electron gun

An electron gun comprising a plurality of focusing grids spatially arranged along the path of an electron beam generated from a cathode and each bored with at least one opening for allowing the passage of the electron beam, wherein at least one of said plural focusing grids is formed of at least one electrode set at a grounding potential or a lower potential than a focusing voltage and at least one more electrode whose potential is defined by an electrostatic capacity; and a high voltage is produced to provide an electron lens, though enabling the electron lens to improve its performance without being obstructed by requirements associated with the construction of a picture tube.

1. An electron gun comprising a plurality of focusing grids spatially arranged along the path of an electron beam generated from a cathode and each bored with at least one opening for allowing passage of the electron beam, wherein at least one of said plural focusing grids is formed between two other grids and includes a second electrode set at a grounding potential or a lower potential than a focusing voltage, and first and third electrodes arranged on opposite sides of said second electrode along the electron beam path and electrically connected with each other, the potentials of said first and third electrodes being defined by the potentials of said two other grids and the potential of said second electrode and by the capacitance between said first electrode and the adjacent other grid, the capacitance between said first electrode and said second electrode, the capacitance between said third electrode and the adjacent other grid and the capacitance between said third electrode and said second electrode. 2. The electron gun according to claim 1, wherein the second electrode is grounded through a variable capacitor.
Description:

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates to an electron gun for generating one or more electron beams and more particularly to an electron gun provided with means for effectively focusing the electron beams on a target.

With the ordinary color picture tube provided with a multi-beam electron gun designed to generate a plurality of electron beams, the respective electron beams pass through separate electron lenses to be focussed at a point on a target. The electron lens is generally formed of a static electric field to focus the electron beams at a single point. The static electric field is formed at right angles to an electron beam path, and is disposed between at least two electrodes each bored with an opening allowing the passage of an electron beam. The properties of the electron lens can generally be varied according to interelectrode voltage, the size of an opening bored in the electrodes and a distance therebetween.

The electron gun is generally regarded to have a more improved performance, according as the electron lens is more reduced in the degree of magnification and spherical aberration. To provide an electron gun of high quality, therefore, it is necessary to extend the focal length of the electron lens. The most effective process to attain this object is to vary interelectrode voltage. However, the level of the interelectrode voltage should generally be restricted to fall within such a range as prevents arcing from taking place at the base portion of a picture tube. Further, enlargement of an electrode opening to extend the focal length of the electron lens is subject to certain limitations, because the neck diameter of the picture tube is restricted by other electrical requirements. Moreover, extension of the interelectrode distance is not advisable since the properties of the electron lens are harmfully affected by a electric charge occurring in the neck portion of the picture tube and the generation of an unnecessary electric field in the electron gun. As mentioned above, the design of the electron lens is subject to limitations due to various physical requirements associated with the construction of a picture tube. These limitation are particularly rigid in the case of a color picture tube using a multi-beam electron gun.

The customary process of manufacturing an electron lens having a long focal length without being obstructed by the above-mentioned limitations is to combine properly interelectrode voltage and the kind of electrode. An electron gun constructed by the above-mentioned process has already beam set forth in the Japanese patent disclosures Nos. 76072/1976 and 77061/1976.

However, the disclosed processes have the drawbacks that the electron gun unavoidably has a complicated construction and extra voltage has to be applied to improve the formation of an electron lens, thus leading to economic disadvantage. For elevation of the performance of an electron lens, it is necessary to apply high voltage with respect to not only the electron guns used in the above-mentioned disclosed processes but also electron guns in general use. In such a case, a special device has to be provided to suppress arcing which might otherwise occur in the base portion of a picture tube in order to ensure its reliable operation, thus rendering the picture tube more expensive.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

It is accordingly the object of this invention to provide an electron gun admitting of the elevation of the performance of an electron lens without being obstructed by requirements associated with the construction of a picture tube.

According to this invention, there is provided an electron gun comprising a plurality of focusing grids spatially arranged along the path of an electron beam generated from a cathode and each bored with at least one opening for allowing the passage of the electron beam, wherein at least one of said plural focusing grids is formed of at least one electrode set at a grounding potential or a lower potential than the focusing voltage and at least one more electrode whose potential is defined by an electrostatic capacity.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING

FIG. 1A is a front view of an electron gun according to one embodiment of this invention;

FIG. 1B is a plan view of the electron gun of FIG. 1A;

FIG. 2 is a sectional view of the electron gun of FIG. 1A;

FIG. 3 shows an equivalent circuit of the electron gun of FIG. 2;

FIG. 4 is a sectional view of a modification of a fourth focusing grid used with the electron gun of FIG. 2;

FIG. 5 schematically illustrates a modification of the electron gun of FIG. 1; and

FIG. 6 is a sectional view of an electron gun according to another embodiment of this invention.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

For an electron gun embodying this invention, there is applied an entirely novel process never known to date which utilizes an electrostatic capacity of an electrode to apply voltage on said electrode. Therefore, an electron lens can be designed to act as a high voltage electrode, though actually a much lower voltage is externally applied.

There will now be described by reference to the accompanying drawing the cases where this invention is applied to a uni-potential type electron gun and a bi-potential type electron gun. Description is first given of the case where this invention is applied to the uni-potential type electron gun. FIGS. 1A, 1B and 2 are respectively a front view, plan view and sectional view of an in-line type electron gun used with a color picture tube. An electron gun 1 comprises a plurality of electrodes and glass supports thereof. The plural electrodes constitute these cathodes 2, 3, 4, first grid 5, second grid 6, third grid or first focusing grid 7, fourth grid or third focusing grid 8 and fifth grid or second focusing grid 9. These grids are fitted to the glass supports 10 in the order mentioned as counted from the cathode side. The cathodes 2, 3, 4, send forth electron beams along three paths lying on the same plane. The first grid 5 and second grid 6 are flat electrodes closely facing each other and are respectively bored with a group of three openings 11-12-13 and another group of three openings 14-15-16 which are aligned with the three electron beam paths. The third grid or first focusing grid 7 is positioned adjacent to the second grid 6. The grid 7 is formed of a pair of cups 20, 21 joined with each other on the peripheral edges of the openings thereof. The bottoms of said cups 20, 21 are respectively bored with a group of three openings 17-18-19 and another group of three openings 22, 23, 24 which are aligned with the three electron beam paths. The openings 17, 18, 19 of the first cup 20 have a larger diameter than the openings 14, 15, 16 of the second grid 6. The openings 22, 23, 24 of the second cup 21 have a larger diameter than the openings 17, 18, 19 of the first cup 20. The fourth grid or third focusing grid 8 is formed of at least three auxiliary electrodes 25, 26, 27. The first electrode 25 and third electrode 27 are respectively formed of a pair of cups joined with each other. Both electrodes 25, 27 are respectively bored with a group of three openings 28-29-30 and another group of three openings 33-34-35 which are aligned with the three electron beam paths. Said electrodes 25, 27 are electrically connected together to have the same potential, and spatially arranged along the electron beam paths. Provided between the electrodes 25, 27 is a plate-shaped second electrode 26, which is also bored with three openings aligned with the three electron beam paths. The fifth grid or second focusing grid 9 is cup-shaped, spaced from the fourth grid 8 substantially as much as a distance between the third grid 7 and fourth grid 8, and also bored with three openings 36, 37, 38. The central opening 37 is aligned with the axis 43 of the central opening of the first grid 5 to that of the fourth grid 8. But the other openings 36, 38 are respectively slightly displaced outward from the axes 44 of the side openings of the first grid 5 to that of the fourth grid 8. The displacement is intended to cause two electron beams other than the central one to be slightly deflected by an asymmetrical electric field in order to converge the three electron beams at a single point on a target. The fifth grid or second focusing grid 9 is fitted with a cylindrical shield cup 42 whose bottom is bored with three openings aligned with the three electron beam paths. A plurality of bulb spacers 45 made of a metal strip are mounted on the edge of the open side of the cylindrical shield cup 42.

The grids of the electron gun are spaced from each other as follows.

______________________________________
A distance between the third grid or first focusing grid 7 and the first electrode 25 of the fourth grid or about 1 mm third focusing grid 8 A distance between the third electrode 27 of the fourth grid or third focusing about 1 mm grid 8 and the fifth grid or second focusing grid 9 A distance between the second electrode 26 and the first electrode 25 of the about 0.6 mm fourth grid or third focusing grid 8 A distance between the second electrode 26 and the third electrode 27 of the about 0.6 mm fourth grid or third focusing grid 8
______________________________________

The third grid 7 and fifth grid 9 are electrically connected together to have the same potential. The second electrode 26 of the fourth grid 8 is electrically insulated from the first electrode 25 and third electrode 27 of said fourth grid 8, and is set at a grounding potential or externally applied with a prescribed value of voltage when the electron gun is put into operation. However, the first electrode 25 and third electrode 27 of said fourth grid 8 are not externally supplied with any voltage.

When an electron gun is built in a picture tube, the bulb spacers 45 are pressed against the inner wall of the picture tube, thereby electrically connecting the fifth grid 9 to the inner wall of the picture tube. During the operation of the electron gun, the third grid 7 and fifth grid 9 are applied with voltage of about 25 to 30 kv through the inner wall of the picture tube. The second electrode 26 of the fourth grid 8 is grounded through the base portion of the picture tube. At the time, the first electrode 25 and third electrode 27 of the fourth grid 8 are naturally applied with voltage of about 10 kv. The reason why this voltage is naturally generated in the first and third electrodes 25, 27 of the fourth grid 8 may be explained as follows by reference to the equivalent circuit of FIG. 3.

Two capacitors C 1 of FIG. 3 are respectively formed between the third grid 7 and the first electrode 25 of the fourth grid 8, and also between the third electrode 27 of the fourth grid 8 and fifth grid 9. Two other capacitors C 2 are produced between the first and second electrodes 25, 26 of the fourth grid 8, and also between the second and third electrodes 26, 27 of said fourth grid 8.

Referring to the equivalent circuit of FIG. 3, the two capacitors C 1 and the two other capacitors C 2 are respectively connected in series. The character M 1 denotes the third grid 7; the character M 2 the fifth grid 9; the charactor L 1 the first electrode 25; the character L 2 the third electrode 27; and the character N the second electrode 26. Where voltage of, for example, 25 kv is applied on the third grid 7 or M 1 and the fifth grid 9 or M 2 , and the second electrode 26 or N is set at a grounding potential, then voltage corresponding to the capacities of two capacitors C 1 , C 2 constituting one set is generated in the first electrode 25 or L 1 , and voltage corresponding to the capacities of two capacitors C 1 , C 2 constituting another set is generated in the third electrode 27 or L 2 . The capacities of the capacitors C 1 , C 2 are defined only by a distance between the respective electrodes constituting said capacitors, if the electrodes have substantially the same shape. Where, therefore, levels of voltage being applied on the first and third electrodes 25, 27 of the fourth grid 8 are selected in designing an electron gun, then a ratio which a distance between the electrodes constituting the capacitor C 1 bears to a distance between the electrodes constituting the capacitor C 2 is defined. Conversely speaking, where the ratio between said distances is chosen, then values of voltage applied on the first and third electrodes 25, 27 of the fourth grid 8 are determined. Values of the above-mentioned voltage and distance are practically decided as follows. An electron gun in which all the electrodes constituting the fourth grid 8 have the same potential represents the ordinary uni-potential type. Where this type of electron gun is designed by setting the focusing voltage (voltage impressed on the fourth grid 8) at 10 kv when voltage of 25 kv is applied on the third and fifth grids 7, 9, then it is advised to set a distance between the first and second electrodes 25, 26 of the fourth grid 8 and that between the second and third electrodes 26, 27 thereof and ground the second electrode 26. Assuming that a distance between the third grid 7 and first electrode 25, and a distance between the fifth grid 9 and third electrode 27, that is, distances between the electrodes respectively constituting the two capacitors C 1 are chosen to be 1 mm, then a distance between the first and second electrodes 25, 26 of the fourth grid 8 and a distance between the second and third electrodes 26, 27 thereof, that is, distances between the electrodes respectively constituting the two other capacitors C 2 are calculated to be 0.67 mm, as measured from the following equation: ##EQU1##

What should be taken into consideration in adopting the above-mentioned method of designing an electron gun, is to prevent the potential of the second electrode 26 of the fourth grid 8 from exerting a harmful effect on an electron lens. Namely, it is necessary, for example, to bore the second electrode 26 of the fourth grid 8 with three openings larger than those of the first and third electrode 25, 27 thereof and, where required, construct the fourth grid 8 as illustrated in FIG. 4, thereby preventing an electrostatic field created by the second electrode 26 from substantially exerting a harmful effect on the function of an electron gun particularly, an electron lens. The fourth grid of FIG. 4 is formed of a first electrode 47, second electrode 48 and third electrode 49. The peripheral edges of the three openings bored in the first electrode 47 and those of the third electrode 49 projects towrard the second electrode 48. If however, an electrostatic field generated in the neighborhood of the second electrode does not substantially exert any harmful effect on the function of an electron lens, then it is unnecessary to construct the fourth grid 8 as shown in FIG. 4. It is obviously possible positively to utilize an electrostatic field produced in the proximity of the second electrode 48. In such case, the interelectrode distance can not be determined by the previously described method.

Rigidly speaking, an electrostatic capacity is not defined solely by a distance between two mutually facing electrodes or other factors thereof, but is actually affected by the properties of other electrodes and earth capacity. Practically, therefore, a proper interelectrode distance has to be experimentally determined.

FIG. 5 schematically shows the arrangement of a modification of focusing means used with an electron gun embodying this invention. This focusing means is formed of a first focusing grid 52, second focusing grid 53 and third focusing grid 54. The first focusing grid 52 is bored with three openings aligned with three electron beam paths. The second focusing grid 53 is bored, like the first focusing grid 52, with three openings aligned with three electron beam paths, and further fitted with a shield cup 57. The third focusing grid 54 is formed of an inner annular auxiliary electrode 55 disposed substantially halfway between the first and second focusing grids 52, 53 along an electron beam path and an outer annular auxiliary electrode 56 positioned coaxially with the inner annular auxiliary electrode 55 spatially to surround it. The inner annular auxiliary electrode 55 is not externally impressed with voltage. The outer annular auxiliary electrode 56 is set at a grounding potential. With the focusing means of the above-mentioned construction, the potential of the inner annular auxiliary electrode 55 is substantially defined by an electrostatic capacity generated between the first and second focusing grids 52, 53 and an electrostatic capacity produced between the inner annular auxiliary electrode 55 and outer annular auxiliary electrode 56.

The foregoing description relates to the case where this invention was applied to a uni-potential type electron gun. There will now be described by reference to FIG. 6 the case where the invention is applied to a bi-potential type electron gun. The electron gun of FIG. 6 comprises a cathode 60, first grid 61, second grid 62, first focusing grid 63 and second focusing grid 64 which are arranged in the order mentioned as counted from the cathode side, and each bored with one opening aligned with a common electron beam path. The first focusing grid 63 is formed of at least three electrodes, namely, first electrode 65, second electrode 66 and third electrode 67. With a bi-potential type electron gun constructed as described above, the second focusing grid 64 is applied with the final electron beam-accelating voltage (for example, 25 kv) of a picture tube. The second grid 62 is generally applied with voltage of about 500 v. With the ordinary bi-potential type electron gun, the first focusing grid 63 is applied with voltage of 3 to 4 kv. With a bi-potential type electron gun embodying this invention, however, it is only necessary to impress low voltage of, for example, 500 v or grounding voltage on the second electrode 66 and connect together the first and third electrodes 65, 67 disposed on both sides of the second electrode 66 with the same potential. Namely, the first and third electrodes 65, 67 are not externally impressed with any voltage. The potential of the mutually connected first and third electrodes 65, 67 is defined by the potentials of the second focusing grid 64, second electrode 66 and second grid 62 and the capacitances C 1 , C 2 , C 3 , C 4 generated between the respective electrodes (FIG. 6). The interelectrode distance is determined by the similar method to the aforementioned embodiment. Since the capacitances C 1 to C 4 vary with the shape of the corresponding electrodes, it should be defined with said variation taken into account.

With the bi-potential type electron gun of FIG. 6 embodying this invention, a sort of uni-potential electrostatic lens is formed in the first focusing grid 63. Therefore, electron beams are subjected to a certain degree of focusing while passing through the openings of the first focusing grid 63, thereby improving the focusing property of the bi-potential type electron gun of FIG. 6 over that of a similar type of electron gun in which the above-mentioned uni-potential electrostatic lens is not produced. Unless required, it is obviously possible to change that portion of the first focusing grid 63 in which the above-mentioned uni-potential electrostatic lens is produced into such shape as prevents electron beams from being focusing.

As described above, this invention makes it possible to elevate electron lens-forming voltage whose level has hitherto been subject to certain limitations due to requirements associated with the construction of a picture tube, thereby improving the function of the electron lens.

Namely, with the electron gun of this invention, high electrode voltage is indeed applied to increase the performance of an electron lens. To this end, however, much lower voltage has only to be externally applied, thereby eliminating arcings at the base portion of a picture tube which have hitherto raised problems. Further advantages of the invention are that since an external power source need not generate high voltage, the arrangement of a picture tube circuit is simplified, decreasing the power consumption of said circuit; and since the base portion of the picture tube is not applied with high voltage, the picture tube can be operated more reliably, making it possible to design the base portion so as to ensure the reduction of cost. With the first embodiment of FIG. 2 relative to a uni-potential type electron gun, the second electrode 26 was set at a grounding potential. With the second embodiment of FIG. 6 relative to a bi-potential type electron gun, the second electrode 66 is impressed with low voltage of, for example, 500 v. With either type of electron gun, the second electrode may be set at a grounding potential or be impressed with low voltage. Where, as show in FIG. 6, the second electrode is set at a grounding potential, provision of a variable capacitor 68 between the second electrode 66 and the grounding electrode outside of the picture tube makes it possible to control focusing voltage, if necessary. Further, insertion of a high resister between the second electrode and grounding electrode, though not changing the focusing voltage, has the advantage that should a arcing take place in a picture tube, said high resistor acts as a damping resistor, minimising the generation of arc current and saving the cathode from damage and other difficulties.

The first embodiment relates to a uni-potential type electron gun provided with three in-line cathodes. The second embodiment relates to a bi-potential type electron gun comprising a single cathode. Obviously the type of electron gun and that of cathode can be freely combined. The point is that this invention is applicable to any type of electron gun, provided the focusing electrode or grid can be used as a capacitor type. With the foregoing embodiments, electrodes aligned with electron beam paths were utilized as the capacitor electrodes. However, application of this invention need not be limited to such type of electron gun. Namely, the electron gun of, for example, FIG. 2 may comprise a second cylindrical electrode which encloses a fourth grid and is bored with three openings aligned with three electron beam paths. In this case, an electron lens has its inner diameter reduced. Therefore, the electron lens should be constructed in consideration of the result of comparison between the effect of the voltage supplied thereto and the effect of the inner diameter thereof. Obviously, this invention is applicable to a tri-potential type electron gun.













Toshiba, "Blackstripe Vertical Stripe Screen Colour Picture Tube", 1973.

Claims:
I claim: 1. In a cathode ray tube including a faceplate and a shadow mask containing an array of vertically oriented slotted apertures for restricting electron beams directed therethrough to impinge upon and excite selected areas of phosphor material on said faceplate, a viewing screen comprising:

a horizontally repetitive pattern of sets of three vertically oriented stripes of phosphor material extending vertically across and coating the inside surface of said faceplate, each stripe within a set being of different phosphor material so as to emit a different color when excited by the corresponding one of the three electron beams passing through the associated aperture in said shadow mask, and

a layer of light absorbing material coating the inside surface of said faceplate and containing a vertical and horizontal array of vertically oriented slotted openings, said stripes and openings being juxtaposed so that said openings define viewable portions of said stripes, each viewable portion being totally surrounded with light absorbing material,

said openings and stripes being aligned with the apertures in said shadow mask so that a corresponding one of said three electron beams is allowed to impinge upon each viewable portion,

the vertical dimension of each opening being greater than the vertical dimension of that part of said viewable portion excited by the electron beam impinging thereupon, such that a positive vertical guardband is provided, and

the horizontal dimension of each opening being less than the horizontal dimension of the impinging electron beam, such that a negative horizontal guardband is provided.
2. In a cathode ray tube including a faceplate and a shadow mask containing an array of vertically oriented slotted apertures for restricting electron beams directed therethrough to impinge upon and excite selected areas of phosphor material on said faceplate, a viewing screen comprising:

a series of vertically oriented stripes of phosphor material extending across and coating the inside surface of said faceplate, the phosphor material of horizontally successive stripes differing in a repetitive pattern so as to emit different colors within each pattern when excited by electron beams, and

a layer of light absorbing material coating the inside surface of said faceplate in the form of a matrix comprising vertical stripes of material interposed between the phosphor stripes and horizontal spans of material crossing said phosphor stripes,

the vertical stripes and horizontal spans of light absorbing material defining the viewable portions of said phosphor stripes,

the vertical dimension of said horizontal spans being less than or equal to the vertical region of each phosphor stripe between vertically adjacent beam landings not excited by said electron beams, such that a zero to positive vertical guardband is provided for each viewable portion,

the horizontal dimension of the vertical stripes of light absorbing material being greater than the horizontal separation between horizontally adjacent phosphor stripes, such that a negative horizontal guardband is provided for each viewable portion.
3. In a cathode ray tube including a faceplace and a shadow mask containing an array of vertically oriented slotted apertures for restricting electron beams directed therethrough to land upon and excite selected areas of phosphor materials on said faceplate, a viewing screen comprising:

a layer of light absorbing material coating the inside surface of said faceplate and comprising a web containing an array of vertically oriented slotted openings therein, there being a unique set of three horizontally spaced openings for each aperture of said shadow mask aligned to receive the electron beams passing through said aperture, and

a layer of phosphor material coated on the inside surface of said faceplate within the boundaries of said openings, there being a different phosphor material for each of the openings of a set so as to emit a different color when excited by the electron beam impinging thereupon,

the height of said web between vertically adjacent sets of openings being less than or equal to the vertical distance between vertically adjacent beam landings to provide a zero to positive vertical guardband for each phosphor area,

the width of said web between horizontally adjacent openings being greater than the horizontal distance between horizontally adjacent beam landings to provide a negative horizontal guardband for each phosphor area.
Description:

This invention relates to cathode ray tube screens, and more particularly to black matrix screens for color television picture tubes employing slotted aperture masks and a process for fabricating such screens.

Manufacturers of cathode ray tubes of the color television picture tube type have recently begun employing aperture masks having slotted apertures instead of the more conventional circular apertures in order to achieve greater electron beam transmission through the mask, since an array of slots in an aperture mask allows the mask geometrically to be fabricated with more total open area than the same size mask containing round or circular apertures. The slotted apertures are typically arranged in vertical columns on the mask, each column being comprised of a plurality of slotted apertures. Since more electrons can impinge on the phosphor regions of the screen in a tube of this type than of the circular aperture, mask type, a brighter picture results. Unlike the circularly-configured phosphor regions on the screen of a tube employing an aperture mask having circular apertures, however, the phosphor regions on the screen of a tube employing an aperture mask having slotted apertures are formed in a pattern of adjacent vertical stripes, typically with each stripe running continuously from the top of the screen to the bottom.

Black matrix tubes have also become widely popular as of late, both in circular aperture mask tubes and slotted aperture mask tubes. As seen from the viewing side of the screen of circular aperture mask tubes, the black matrix material completely surrounds each circular phosphor dot, serving to improve image contrast by absorbing ambient light that might otherwise be reflected by the screen. Also as seen from the viewing side of the screen of slotted aperture mask tubes, each vertical phosphor stripe is separated from the adjacent vertical phosphor stripe by a stripe of black matrix material running from the bottom to the top of the screen.

In fabricating screens for conventional slotted aperture mask tubes of the black matrix type, a photoresist material coated over the inside surface of a tube faceplate is exposed in a so-called lighthouse to actinic radiation in a pattern corresponding to the pattern of matrix openings ultimately to be formed on the screen. This radiation is transmitted through the slotted apertures in the mask before impinging on the photoresist material. The actinic light source used in this fabrication process is linearly-elongated in a direction parallel to the columns of slots in the aperture mask in order to permit the black matrix material to be formed with a pattern of vertically and horizontally-aligned, vertically-oriented slots extending between the top and bottom of the screen. The phosphor stripes are thereafter deposited so that phosphor of a predetermined color emission characteristic, respectively, is deposited on the faceplate through a predetermined slot, respectively. Three different phosphor materials are conventionally deposited in a horizontally-repetitive pattern.

When a screen formed in the aforementioned manner is operated in a color television picture tube, parts of each of the phosphor stripes are not excited by the electron beams, since electrons are blocked by the webs of the mask between vertically-adjacent slots. These parts of the stripes, therefore, are essentially useless in producing images, since they provide no illumination on the face of the tube as a result of direct bombardment by primary electrons. Moreover, the phosphor material in these regions adds to overall reflectivity of the screen and hence has a deleterious effect on image contrast. To overcome this problem, the present invention contemplates substituting black matrix material to be seen from the viewing side of the screen to avoid reflection from the parts of the phosphor stripes not excited by the electron beams. This may be accomplished by using a source of actinic radiation for producing slotted openings in the black matrix material that is of shorter length than the linear source of actinic radiation for producing the phosphor stripes. The resulting increase in area of black matrix material serves to reduce screen reflectivity and enhance contrast of the displayed images. Moreover, by controlling vertical size of the mask webs between vertically-adjacent openings in the black matrix material, either a positive guardband or negative guardband mode of operation in the vertical direction may be achieved.

Accordingly, one object of the invention is to provide a new and improved color television picture tube of the black matrix type exhibiting reduced screen reflectivity and enhanced image contrast.

Another object is to provide a color television picture tube of the slotted aperture mask type having a screen, as seen from the viewing side, formed of a plurality of vertically-oriented linear phosphor regions completely surrounded by black matrix material.

Another object is to provide a black matrix color television picture tube of the slotted aperture mask type capable of operating in a positive or negative guardband mode of operation in the vertical direction.

A further object is to provide a black matrix color television picture tube wherein the vertical guardband of the matrix is controlled to enhance image contrast without reducing image brightness.

Another object is to provide a method of fabricating a color television picture tube of the black matrix type wherein exposures to different levels of actinic radiation are employed sequentially in forming the picture tube screen.

Briefly, in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the invention, a viewing screen is provided for a cathode ray tube. The tube includes a faceplate and employs a shadow mask containing an array of vertically-oriented slotted apertures for restricting electron beams directed therethrough to impinge on, and excite, selected areas of phosphor material on the faceplate. The viewing screen comprises a layer of light-absorbing material coated over the inside surface of the faceplate, with the layer including a pattern of vertically-elongated openings therein, and a plurality of vertically-oriented stripes of phosphor material arranged such that horizontally successive stripes are comprised of different phosphor materials according to a repeating pattern. Each of the stripes, respectively, is coated over substantially the entire area of all the elongated openings situated essentially in separate vertical alignment, respectively.

In accordance with another preferred embodiment of the invention, a method of forming on the faceplate of a cathode ray tube a viewing screen for a high contrast color television picture tube of the slotted aperture mask, black matrix type is described. The method comprises forming a first layer of photosensitive material on the inside surface of the faceplate and exposing the photosensitive material to actinic radiation through slotted apertures in the mask from a first linear radiation source of predetermined dimension along its longitudinal axis. The longitudinal axis of the first source is maintained substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the slotted apertures. The unexposed regions of the first layer of photosensitive material are then removed, and a layer of black matrix material is formed atop the first layer of photosensitive material and the inside surface of the faceplate. The exposed regions of the first layer of photosensitive material and the black matrix material coated thereon are next removed, leaving openings in the black matrix material. A second layer of photosensitive material is formed atop the black matrix material coated on the inside surface of the faceplate and atop the exposed portions of the inside surface of the faceplate. The second layer of photosensitive material carries a phosphor material either coated thereon or mixed therein, emitting a characteristic color of light when excited by electrons. This is followed by exposing the second layer of photosensitive material to actinic radiation through the slotted apertures from a second linear radiation source of dimension along its longitudinal axis exceeding the predetermined dimension, the longitudinal axis of the second source also being substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the slotted apertures. The unexposed regions of the second layer of photosensitive material are then removed. In this fashion, phosphor material is applied over the inside surface of the faceplate in registry with the openings in the black matrix layer. If desired, the phosphor material may be applied in the form of vertical stripes extending between the top and bottom of the screen by increasing the length of the second radiation source, increasing the duration of exposure therefrom, or a combination of both.

Deflection device for use in color television receiver:
Self convergent deflection system in color CRT TUBE TOSHIBA.

A deflection device for use in a color television receiver comprises a deflection yoke fitted to a neck portion of the color television receiver having three horizontally arranged electron guns so designed as to emit three electron beams, for deflecting horizontally and vertically said three electron beams emitted onto a fluorescent screen from the electron guns of the color television receiver, and soft magnetic material pieces fitted to an end portion of the deflection yoke nearer to the screen, for locally varying the distribution of a deflection field generated by the yoke so as to correct mis-convergence of said three electron beams occurring at the peripheral portion of the screen.



1. In a deflection device for use in a color television receiver, which is fitted to a neck portion of a color picture tube having electron guns emitting three electron beams, said electron guns being arranged in a horizontal plane and which comprises a deflection yoke for horizontally and vertically deflecting said three electron beams on a screen and at least a soft magnetic material piece fitted on said deflection yoke, the improvement which comprises a deflection yoke which is so designed as to eliminate mis-convergences MC1, MC2, MC3, MC4 and MC7, in the mis-convergence MC1 the three electron beams being horizontally displaced from each other at both the upper and lower end portions of the vertical or Y axis, in the mis-convergence MC2, the three electron beams being vertically displaced from each other at both the upper and lower end portions of the Y axis, in the mis-convergence MC3, the three electron beams being horizontally displaced from each other at both the right and left end portions of the horizontal or X axis, in the mis-convergence MC4 three electron beams being vertically displaced from each other at both the right and left end portions of the X axis, and in the mis-convergence MC7 scanning lines of the three electron beams being vertically displaced at intermediate portions between the Y axis and each of said right and left ends of the screen; and at least a soft magnetic material piece fitted to an end portion of said deflection yoke nearer to the screen of the color picture tube so as only to eliminate a mis-convergence MC5 wherein the three electron beams are horizontally displaced from each other at the diagonal end portions of the screen and a mis-convergence MC6 wherein the three electron beams are vertically displaced from each other at the diagonal end portions of the screen.

2. A deflection device according to claim 1, wherein said soft magnetic piece defines an angle θ of 45° to 70° with a vertical line of the color picture tube.

3. A deflection device according to claim 1 wherein said soft magnetic material pieces are fitted at positions symmetrical with respect to each of two planes including therein the axial center of said deflection yoke and being in parallel with the horizontal and vertical deflecting directions, respectively.

4. A deflection device according to claim 1 wherein said soft magnetic material pieces have a configurational anisotropy.

5. A deflection device according to claim 1 wherein said soft magnetic material pieces are constructed so that at least either one of their configurational anisotropy and attachment position can be varied.

Description:

This invention relates to a deflection device for use in a color television receiver, used in a three-electron beam type color picture tube wherein reproduction of a picture image is effected by causing three electron beams corresponding to three primary colors of red, green and blue to scan a fluorescent screen in both horizontal and vertical directions while said three electron beams being allowed to impinge upon said screen.

The three-electron beam type color picture tube should be so constructed that when the three electron beams corresponding to red, green and blue scan the fluorescent screen of the color picture tube, the rasters of the three primary colors are overlapped by permitting the three electron beams to be converged, for the purpose of preventing the occurrence of color displacement due to mis-convergence of said three electron beams. To this end, in a color picture tube of a so-called in-line arranged beam system wherein three electron beams are emitted in a state wherein they are arranged in a horizontal plane, electron guns 1, 3 at both opposite sides of a central electron gun 2 shown in FIG. 1 are usually disposed respectively horizontally inclined at prescribed angles to the central electron gun. In an actually manufactured color picture tube unit, however, three electron beams ER, EG and EB are not always converged at one point due to a low accuracy with which the electron guns are arranged, the effect of an external magnetic field, etc. To solve this problem, a static convergence yoke 5 is usually fitted to a neck portion 4 of the color picture tube and a so-called static convergence is effected by this yoke 5 so as to permit the three-electron beams to be completely converged at least at the screen center.

Even in a color picture tube so constructed that the three electron beams ER, EB and EG are converged at the screen center by effecting the static convergence as above mentioned, in cases where the three electron beams are deflected by a deflection yoke 6 up to the peripheral portion of the screen, they fail to be converged at one point, that is, a mis-convergence occurs. The reason is that the three electron guns 1, 2 and 3 are disposed spatially separately from each other. In order to zero this mis-convergence, a dynamic convergence is generally carried out. For the purpose of effecting the dynamic convergence, as shown in, for example, FIG. 2, a pair of cores 7a, 7b are disposed, respectively, at both opposite sides of a neck portion 6 of the color picture tube and dynamic convergence windings 8a, 9a, 10a and 8b, 9b, 10b are wound, respectively, about said pair of cores, and a dynamic correcting current is supplied from a dynamic convergence control circuit 11 to said windings 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b, 10a and 10b. Note that in FIG. 2 reference numerals 12, 13 and 14, 15 denote permanent magnets for effecting a static convergence. The above-mentioned dynamic correcting current is made to have a suitable waveform so as to correct in accordance with the line scanning rate, field scanning rate, etc. the paths of the side beams ER and EB of the three electron beams (ER, EG, EB of FIG. 1) emitted from the electron guns 1, 2 and 3, in order to attain a sufficient convergence at all points of the screen. Accordingly, a circuit for supplying said correcting current, i.e., said dynamic convergence control circuit 11 generally becomes extremely complicated in construction and simultaneously the power consumption in this circuit 11 becomes large. In cases where, in a shadow mask type color receiving tube as presently widely used, a dynamic convergence is carried out, the incident angle of the three electron beams incident into the shadow mask is also varied as this dynamic convergence is effected. Accordingly, when it is desired to obtain a desired color purity, a correcting device used for light exposure in forming a fluorescent screen also becomes complicated.

The above-mentioned problems encountered where the dynamic convergence is carried out are becoming more and more remarkable with the widening of a deflection angle for the electron beams of the color picture tube (at present, there is a tendency that a wide-angled Braun tube of 110° or more is favourably used), or with application of higher anode voltage. In the case of, for example, a color picture tube 20 inch in screen size and 110° in electron beam-deflecting angle, the dynamic convergence control circuit 11 has 10 or more portions to be readjusted. In such a case, the manufacturer needs a long time to perform the convergence-correcting operation, which results in a costly color picture tube. Further, there is an inconvenience that difficulties are encountered in performing quickly and properly the above-mentioned readjustment upon a domestic replacement of the color picture tube.

The color picture tube of in-line arranged beam system is somewhat simplified in respect of the construction of its circuit device for effecting the above-mentioned dynamic convergence as compared with the conventionally widely used color picture tube of Δ-arranged beam system but if possible, it is strongly desired for the color picture tube to require no dynamic convergence-operation at all.

There have in recent years been contemplated various color picture tubes which eliminate the necessity of performing the dynamic convergence, for example, through making the magnetic field distribution of the deflection device appropriate and yet reducing the manufacturing errors. For example, U.S. Pat. No. 2,764,628 describes in its specification that three horizontally arranged electron beams are allowed to scan directly the fluorescent screen without being converged, and three primary color signals for modulating the three electron beams are delayed by a length of time corresponding to the interval between the three parallel emitted electron beams, thereby to prevent the color pictures from being subjected to color displacement. This system will indeed well serve the purpose if the deflection field is not distorted at all by the deflection yoke, but in the case of an actual deflection yoke it is impossible to zero the distortion of the deflection field. The color picture tube of this system, therefore, has no realizability.

Under these circumstances, the present inventors have contemplated a color picture tube which does not have the above-mentioned drawbacks. As shown in FIG. 3, in this color picture tube, the direction and position in which the three electron guns 1, 2 and 3 are disposed are so determined that electron beams ER, EG and EB emitted from the three electron guns 1, 2 and 3 are converged at a point outside of a fluorescent screen F. A deflection yoke 6 for deflecting the three electron beams ER, EG and EB is so designed as to generate a deflection field whose distribution has an appropriate distortion. Three primary color signals for modulating the three electron beams ER, EG and EB are respectively delayed by a length of time corresponding respectively to the intervals D between those points of the fluorescent screen F upon which the three electron beams ER, EG and EB impinge at a point of time. Accordingly, the three electron beams ER, EG and EB scan the fluorescent screen under the requirements that they impinge upon a given region of the fluorescent screen F substantially at prescribed intervals, to permit each of phosphor dots provided on the fluorescent screen to emit a necessary amount of fluorescent light. On the other hand, the three primary color signals for modulating the three electron beams ER, EG and EB are respectively given a prescribed length of delay time in corresponding relationship to a length of time corresponding to the above-mentioned intervals D. Thus, this color picture tube exhibits the same function as that in the case where the three electron beams ER, EG and EB scan the fluorescent screen while being kept converged at one point of the fluorescent screen. The color picture tube having the foregoing construction, however, still remains to have the following problems.

Usually, where, in the color picture tube of in-line arranged beam system, the three electron beams as emitted are deflected by the deflection yoke, they are mis-converged as shown in FIG. 4. That is to say, when it is assumed that a horizontal one of two axes passing through a screen center and intersecting at right angles to each other is represented by X and a vertical one of said two axes by Y. Then, the following mis-convergences occur. That is, a mis-convergence MC 1 wherein the three electron beams are horizontally displaced from each other at both the upper and lower end portions of the Y axis and a mis-convergence MC 2 wherein the three electron beams are vertically displaced from each other at both the upper and lower end portions of the Y axis, a mis-convergence MC 3 wherein the three electron beams are horizontally displaced from each other at both the right and left end portions of the X axis and a mis-convergence MC 4 wherein the three electron beams are vertically displaced from each other at both the right and left end portions of the X axis, a mis-convergence MC 5 wherein the three electron beams are horizontally displaced from each other at the diagonal end portions of the screen and a mis-convergence MC 6 wherein the three electron beams are vertically displaced from each other at the diagonal end portions of the screen, and a mis-convergence MC 7 wherein scanning lines at the proximities of both the upper and lower ends of the screen coincide with each other at the respective proximities of the Y axis and the right and left ends of the screen and are vertically displaced at intermediate portions between the Y axis and each of said right and left ends of the screen.

The MC 2 and MC 4 of the above-mentioned mis-convergence occur due to errors in arranging the electron guns, errors in attaching the deflection yokes, or unsymmetry of the deflection yokes, but can be adjusted by constructing an attaching mechanism for electron guns and an attaching mechanism for attaching deflection yokes to a color picture tube so that each of these mechanisms may have a correcting function. That is to say, said MC 2 and MC 4 can readily be corrected by simple adjusting mechanisms mounted on a conventional picture tube and deflection yoke.

The MC 1 can be removed by distorting into an appropriate barrel-configuration the distribution of a magnetic field produced by vertical deflection coils. The MC 3 can be removed by distorting into an appropriate pincushion-configuration the distribution of a magnetic field produced by horizontal deflection coils. Further, the MC 5 can be substantially zeroed by removing said MC 1 and MC 3 .

Where attempts are made to remove the MC 1 and MC 3 by varying the winding distribution of each deflection coil, either one of the MC 6 and MC 7 necessarily occurs, that is to say, it is impossible to remove both of them at the same time the MC 6 and MC 7 run counter to each other, that is, are related to each other in such a manner that if either one of them becomes small, the other becomes large. In the prior art, no attempt was made to completely remove any one of the MC 6 and MC 7 . That is, in the prior art, at ten or more portions of the color picture tube adjustment was so made as to permit the MC 6 and MC 7 to be equalized in degree with each other thereby to prevent occurrence of an extremely large mis-convergence, or alternatively arrangement was so made as to permit mis-convergences to occur at the peripheral portion of the screen where mis-convergences are relatively not outstanding. Accordingly, in the case of time indication or score display of baseball, a viewer has heretofore viewed a deteriorated picture image.

The above-mentioned reciprocal relationship between the MC 6 and MC 7 is established also in the case of the above-mentioned color picture tube of FIG. 3.

The object of the invention is to provide a deflection device for use in a color television receiver wherein soft magnetic material pieces having a configurational anisotropy, for example, rectangular soft iron pieces are fitted to the front end portion of a deflection yoke mounted on an in-line arranged three-electron beam type color picture tube, that is, to an end portion of the deflection yoke on the screenside, whereby the distribution of a deflection field produced by the deflection yoke is locally varied so as to correct the mis-convergence of in-line arranged three-electron beams occurring at four corners of the screen thus to achieve a good convergence over a substantially entire region of the screen.

According to the present invention there can be obtained a deflection device which comprises a deflection yoke fitted to a neck portion of a color picture tube provided with three electron guns emitting three electron beams in a state arranged in a horizontal plane, said deflection yoke being horizontally and vertically, and soft magnetic material pieces fitted to an end portion of the deflection yoke nearer to the screen, whereby the distribution of deflection field from the deflection yoke is varied by the soft magnetic material pieces to correct mis-convergences.

The present inventors have found that the above-mentioned mis-convergences MC 6 and MC 7 can be both removed at the same time if the following measures are taken. A first measures is to prepare vertical and horizontal deflection coils so designed that they can remove the MC 1 and MC 3 , respectively, and also remove the above MC 7 . With respect to the MC 6 occurring at corners of the screen as shown in FIG. 5, a magnetic material piece free from permanent magnetization, for example, a soft magnetic material piece 23 is fitted to the front end portion of a deflection yoke 21, that is, to a yoke holder 22 as shown in FIGS. 6A, 6B and 7, thereby to locally vary the distribution of deflection field, thus to remove the MC 6 utilizing the relative movement of the three electron beams made in accordance with the variation of the deflection field distribution. If arrangement is made as such, a dynamic convergence becomes unnecessary. Therefore, a great advantage results. Note here that what is important is that unless a material free from permanent magnetization is used as said magnetic material piece, the effect of the invention can not be obtained. This material should be magnetically soft, namely, is a soft magnetic material. Have it in mind that it is important to locally vary the distribution of magnetic field produced by the deflection yoke 21 so as to remove the MC 6 of FIG. 5 without affecting the convergence at the remaining region of the screen, through adjusting the size (width a, length b and thickness c), the attachment position (an angle θ defined by the piece 23 with a vertical line Y in the case where the piece 23 is fitted to the picture tube), or the attachment angle (an inclined angle Ψ defined by the longitudinal axis of the piece 23 with said vertical line Y) of the magnetic material piece 23.

This invention can be more fully understood from the following detailed description when taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which:

FIGS. 1 to 4 are intended to explain the object of the present invention,

FIG. 1 being a sectional view schematically showing a prior art color picture tube,

FIG. 2 showing a dynamic convergence means fitted to the prior art color picture tube,

FIG. 3 schematically showing a color picture tube wherein color displacement is corrected by giving a prescribed length of delay time to each of modulation signals of three electron beams without causing said three electron beams to be converged on a fluorescent screen of the color picture tube,

FIG. 4 being intended to explain mis-convergences in a color picture tube of in-line arranged beam system;

FIGS. 5 to 7 are intended to explain the fundamental principle of the present invention,

FIG. 5 showing the condition wherein mis-convergences occur only at four corners of the screen,

FIGS. 6A and 6B being respectively side and rear views showing the condition wherein a soft magnetic material piece is fitted to a deflection yoke,

FIG. 7 being a perspective view of the soft magnetic material piece; and

FIGS. 8 to 22 show an embodiment of the present invention,

FIG. 8 showing respective details of a shadow mask type color picture tube and a three-primary color signal supply section,

FIG. 9 showing the relations between inclined angles of electron beams and various values associated with said inclined angles,

FIGS. 10A and 10B being curve diagrams showing the distribution of deflection field from a horizontal deflection coil,

FIGS. 11A and 11B being curve diagrams showing the distribution of deflection field from a vertical deflection coil,

FIGS. 12 and 13 showing respectively the variations in intensity of magnetic fields produced from the horizontal and vertical deflection coils, as viewed on the Z axes thereof,

FIG. 14 being intended to explain the positional displacement of three electron beams on the fluorescent screen,

FIGS. 15A and 15B being respectively side and rear views showing the condition wherein soft magnetic material pieces are fitted to a deflection yoke,

FIG. 16 being a perspective view of the soft magnetic material piece,

FIGS. 17A and 17B showing vertical and horizontal movements of the three electron beams relative to the variation of the attachment position of the soft magnetic material piece,

FIGS. 18A and 18B showing vertical and horizontal movements of the three electron beams relative to the variation of the attachment angle of the soft magnetic material piece,

FIGS. 19A, 19B, 19C, 19D, 19E, 19F, 20A, 20B, 20C, 20D, 20E and 20F showing individually vertical and horizontal movements of the three electron beams relative to the variation in width, length and thickness of a rectangular magnetic material piece,

FIG. 21 showing a detailed arrangement of a delay circuit,

FIG. 22 being intended to explain the operation of this embodiment.

FIG. 8 shows the detail of a shadow mask type color picture tube constituting the main part of a color television receiver to which the present invention is applied and the detail of a three-primary color signal supply section for supplying three primary color signals to said color picture tube. In FIG. 8, a glass bulb 31 is a vacuum envelope having at its front portion a face plate 31a constituting a screen of the color television receiver and at its rear portion a neck portion 31b whose diameter is made small. In the inner surface of the face plate 31a of the glass bulb 31 is formed a fluorescent screen 32 on which are arranged in a regular order phosphor dots which, when three electron beams have impinged thereupon, emit three color television primary colors of red (R), green (G) and blue (B). At a position a little shifted from the surface of the fluorescent screen 32 toward the incident side of the electron beams is disposed a shadow mask 33 having a large number of small holes (not shown) corresponding to the phosphor dots of the fluorescent screen 32. Within the neck portion 31b of the glass bulb 31 are arranged three electron guns 34R, 34G and 34B, which are in-line arranged horizontally to the screen. These electron guns 34R, 34G and 34B are so constructed as to emit toward the fluorescent screen 32 three electron beams ER, EG and EB modulated by three primary color signals SR, SG and SB as later described, respectively. Further, these three electron guns 34R, 34G and 34B are arranged such that both side-electron guns 34R and 34B are inclined in the same horizontal plane at a prescribed angle α to the center electron gun 34G so as to permit the three electron beams ER, EG and EB to be converged at one point in a region outside of the fluorescent screen 32, that is, outside of the face plate 31a. Since, as above described, a converged point of the three electron beams ER, EG and EB is situated outside of the fluorescent screen 32, these three electron beams impinge, at intervals D, upon the surface of the fluorescent screen 32.

Further in detail, when α represents the inclined angle of the electron guns 34R, 34G and 34B, d represents the intervals between the three electron beams at the electron beam-emitting ends of the electron guns (in other words, the mutual intervals between the center positions of those ends of the electron guns from which to emit the electron beams ER, EG and EB), and L represents the distance between the forward, or electron beam-emitting end of the electron guns and the fluorescent screen 32, the mutual relation between said α, d and L is so determined as to satisfy the following inequality. d/6< d- Lα

That is to say, the difference between the interval d (mm) between the forward ends of the electron guns, and a product Lα obtained by multiplying the angle α (rad.) defined by both side-electron beams ER, EB with the center electron beam EG by the distance L between the forward end of the electron guns and the fluorescent film 32, namely, d-Lα, is so determined that it is greater than d/6 and smaller than d/2.

The d- Lα of the above inequality (1) is substantially equal to said interval D between the electron beam spots on the fluorescent screen 32. That is, since, as apparent from FIG. 9, tan α = (d- D)/L, D÷ d- Lα. In order to obtain a high resolution, it is preferred that 6.5 mm< d and that, in the case where the fluorescent screen size ranges from 14 inch-tube to 25 inch-tube, 1 mm< D< 5 mm.

For reference, a color picture tube manufactured for experimental use is of the following dimensions.

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Fluorescent Screen Size 20 inch-tube Electron Beam-Deflecting Angle 110° Outer Diameter of the Neck Portion 36.5 φ Inclined Angle α of Electron Beam 1.06° Distance Between the Forward End of the Electron Gun and the 280 mm Fluorescent Screen Interval Between the Forward Ends 8.2 mm of the Electron Guns Interval Between the Electron Beam Spots on the Fluorescent 2.5 mm Screen Distance Between the Converged Point of the Electron Beams and 160 mm the Fluorescent Screen
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A deflection yoke 35 is fitted to the outer periphery of the neck portion 31b of the glass bulb 31. This deflection yoke 35 has horizontal and vertical deflection coils producing magnetic fields for horizontally and vertically deflecting said three electron beams ER, EG and EB. Said horizontal deflection coil is so formed that a magnetic field distribution formed by this horizontal deflection coil may assume a so-called pincushion shape wherein the magnetic field intensity becomes gradually high as the measuring position horizontally goes away from the axial center of the deflection yoke 35. Said vertical deflection coil is so formed that a magnetic field distribution formed by this vertical deflection coil may assume a so-called barrel shape wherein the magnetic field intensity becomes gradually low as the measuring position vertically goes away from the axial center of the deflection yoke 35.

FIGS. 10A and 10B are curve diagrams showing the magnetic field distribution of a horizontal deflection coil 35H with a radially (horizontally) shifted position from the axial center of the deflection yoke 35 plotted on the abscissa and the magnetic field intensity (relative value) plotted on the ordinate and a position on the Z axis of the deflection yoke 35 taken as a parameter. In FIGS. 10A and 10B, however, numerical values indicating the positions on the Z axis are defined as follows. That is to say, Z = 0 (mm) is defined to indicate the position of the forward end (the screen side) of the horizontal deflection coil, and positive values (Z > 0) are defined to indicate positions shifted forwardly of this position, that is, positions shifted toward the screen while negative values (Z< 0) are defined to indicate positions shifted rearwardly of that position, that is, positions going away from the screen. At this time, the position of the rear end of the horizontal deflection coil is represented by Z = -80 mm. Similarly, FIGS. 11A and 11B are curve diagrams showing the magnetic field distribution of a vertical deflection coil 35V with a radially (vertically) shifted position from the axial center of the deflection yoke 35 plotted on the abscissa and the magnetic field intensity (relative value) plotted on the ordinate and a position on the Z axis of the deflection yoke 35 taken as a parameter. Numerical values indicating the positions on the Z axis are defined in the same manner as in FIGS. 10A and 10B.

As apparent from FIGS. 10A and 10B, in the region where the deflecting magnetic field on the axial center (Z axis) of the deflection yoke 35 has an intensity of 1/2 the maximum value, the magnetic field distribution of the horizontal deflection coil 35H assumes a pincushion shape wherein the magnetic field intensity becomes gradually high as the measuring position radially (horizontally) goes away from the Z axis. As apparent from FIGS. 11A and 11B, the magnetic field distribution of the vertical deflection coil 35V assumes a barrel shape wherein the magnetic field intensity becomes gradually low as the measuring position radially (vertically) goes away from the Z axis of the deflection yoke 35.

FIG. 12 shows for reference the variation of a horizontally deflecting magnetic field intensity BH on the axial center (Z axis) of the deflection yoke 35, and FIG. 13 similarly shows for reference the variation of a vertically deflecting magnetic field intensity BV. The BH curve of FIG. 12 corresponds to the magnetic field distribution curve of FIGS. 10A and 10B while the BV curve of FIG. 13 corresponds to the magnetic field distribution curve of FIGS. 11A and 11B.







The main reason of using the deflection yoke 35 having the above-mentioned magnetic field distribution is to make zero any of both the difference YH- XH (this difference corresponds to said MC 1 ) where YH represents the interval between the electron beam spots at both the upper and lower ends of the screen and XH the interval between the electron beam spots at the center of the screen and the difference XH- XH' (this difference corresponds to said MC 3 ) where XH' represents the horizontal interval between the electron beam spots at both the right and left ends of the screen. Note that in FIG. 14 DV represents the vertical interval between the electron beam spots at both the right and left ends of the screen.

By the use of the deflection yoke 35 having the above-mentioned construction all the mis-convergences shown in FIG. 4 can be substantially removed except for said MC 6 , but through a complete removal of the MC 7 the MC 6 is relatively allowed to occur to an extent of about 1 mm. Hereinafter, how to zero this MC 6 is described.

As shown in FIG. 15A, to the front end portion of the deflection yoke 35, that is to say, to an end portion of the deflection yoke 35 on the side of the screen are fitted four soft rectangular magnetic material pieces 41, 42, 43 and 44 in order to correct mis-convergences of the three electron beams occurring at the peripheral portion of the screen. That is to say, these soft magnetic material pieces 41 to 44 are fitted to one side face of a yoke holder 45 for the deflection yoke 35, at a position inclined, as shown in FIG. 15B, at an angle θ to a vertical line Y in the case where the deflection yoke 35 is mounted on the color picture tube. Accordingly, said four soft magnetic material pieces 41 to 44 are disposed substantially axis-symmetrical about said vertical line Y and a horizontal line X intersecting said vertical line Y at right angles thereto (these vertical and horizontal lines Y and X are hereinafter referred to as Y axis and X axis, respectively). The soft magnetic material pieces 41 to 44 have a configurational anisotropy through forming a magnetic material such as permalloy into a thin, rectangular sheet-like configuration as shown in FIG. 16, and so act as to locally vary the magnetic field distribution formed by the deflection yoke 35. The movements on the fluorescent screen, of the three electron beams ER, EG and EB due to the local variation of this magnetic field distribution are made different because of the difference between the respective effects of said local variation upon said three electron beams. In addition, the greatness and direction of the movements of the three electron beams ER, EG and EB are made different depending upon the configuration, size, attachment position θ, or attachment angle Ψ of the soft magnetic material pieces 41 to 44. Accordingly, if such dimensions are appropriately determined, it will be possible to correct the mis-convergence MC 6 occurring at four corners of the screen.

It will hereinafter be explained taking examples how the relative movements of the three electron beams ER, EG and EB are varied in accordance with the size of the soft magnetic material pieces 41 to 44, the condition wherein they are fitted to the deflection yoke 35, etc.

At the front end portion of the deflection yoke 35 mounted on a color picture tube having in-line arranged electron guns whose screen size is 20 inch and whose electron beam deflecting angle is 110°, rectangular magnetic material pieces 41 to 44 (whose magnetic permeability μ = 3500) each having a width a of 60 mm, a length b of 40 mm and a thickness c of 0.25 mm are fitted to one side face of the yoke holder 45 in a manner inclined at an angle Ψ of 30° to the Y axis. When, in this arrangement, the attachment position θ is varied, the relative movements at the right upper corner of the screen between the center beam EG and each of the side beams ER, EB are made as shown in FIGS. 17A and 17B. That is to say, FIG. 17A shows the vertical movement Δy and FIG. 17B the horizontal movement Δx of the electron beams. Note that positive and negative numerical values of each of the Δy and Δx represent the direction in which the electron beams go away from the horizontal and vertical center axes passing through the center of the screen and the direction in which the electron beams come near to said horizontal and vertical center axes, respectively. As apparent from FIGS. 17A and 17B, with respect to the vertical movement, the movement of one side beam EB in a direction in which it goes away from the horizontal center axis of the screen relatively to the center beam EG becomes great as the θ increases, whereas the movement of the other side beam ER in a direction in which it comes near to the horizontal center axis of the screen relatively to the center beam EG becomes great as the θ increases. With respect to the horizontal movement, the side beams ER and EB move in a direction in which both of them are aligned with the center beam EG, but this horizontal movement Δx is extremely small as compared with the vertical movement Δy. For this reason, if the θ is adjusted within the range of 45° to 70°, a vertical mis-convergence will be able to be corrected practically.

FIGS. 18A and 18B show the movements of the side beams ER, EB relative to the center beam EG in the case where the attachment angle Ψ of the same magnetic material pieces 41 to 44 as those in FIGS. 17A and 17B is varied with the θ set at 60°. With respect to the vertical movement Δy of the electron beams, the side beam ER has a tendency to slightly approach the center beam EG, whereas the side beam EB is little moved relatively. With respect to the horizontal movement Δx, the three electron beams are aligned with each other in the proximity of Ψ = 35° and, with this point as a boundary, one side beam EB tends to move toward the vertical axis of the screen relative to the center beam EG as the Ψ increases, whereas the other side beam ER tends to retreat from the vertical axis of the screen relatively to the center beam EG as the Ψ increases.



FIGS. 19A, 19B, 19C, 19D, 19E and 19F show the movements at the right upper corner of the screen, of both side beams ER, EB relative to the center beam EG in the case where the width a, length b and thickness c of the magnetic material pieces 41 to 44 are varied. As apparent from FIGS. 19A, 19B, 19C, 19D, 19E and 19F, with respect to the vertical movement, when the width a of the magnetic material pieces 41 to 44 is increased, the side beam EB is greatly moved toward the horizontal center axis of the screen relative to the center beam EG, whereas when the thickness C of the magnetic material pieces 41 to 44 is increased, the side beam EB is greatly moved in a direction in which it goes away from the horizontal center axis of the screen relative to the center beam EG. In the case of the width a and the thickness c being varied, the horizontal movement of the electron beams is little varied. In the case of the length b being varied, the horizontal movement of the electron beams has a tendency to become great as the length b is increased, though the vertical movement of the electron beams is little varied.






FIGS. 20A, 20B, 20C, 20D, 20E and 20F show the similar movements of both side beams ER, EB relative to the center beam EG in the case where θ=55° and Ψ = 0°. As seen, the vertical and horizontal movements of the electron beams have a tendency similar to that shown in FIGS. 19A, 19B, 19C, 19D, 19E and 19F.

Hereinafter, explanation is made, in accordance with the results of actual measurements, of the circumstances of the correction of the mis-convergences in the case where magnetic material pieces each of the dimensions a = 60 mm, b = 40 mm and c = 0.25 mm and of the magnetic permeability μ= 3500 are fitted to the front end portion of the deflection yoke 35 under the condition wherein θ = 65° and Ψ= 0°. When measurement was made of the vertical movements of the three electron beams at a corner position of the screen shifted 135 mm from the screen center in the Y axial direction and shifted 180 mm from the screen center in the X axial direction, one side beam, center beam and the other side beam were moved 1.8 mm, 1.3 mm and 0.9 mm in the vertical deflecting direction, respectively. Accordingly, the interval between both side beams is reduced by the extent of 0.9 mm. At this time, each of said three electron beams was moved 1.5 mm toward the Y axis i.e., in the horizontal direction. In contrast, at a position shifted 85 mm in the Y axial direction and spaced 100 mm in the X axial direction, the vertical and horizontal movements of each of the three electron beams were in the range of 0.2 mm or less. That is, it has been proved that the effect upon the screen center portion, of the fitting of the magnetic material pieces to the front end portion of the deflection yoke is practically negligibly small. Where, in this manner, the magnetic material pieces are fitted to the front end portion of the deflection yoke 35, mis-convergences occurring at the peripheral portion of the screen of the color picture tube can be corrected with no practical effect upon the convergences at the remaining portion of the screen.

Primary color signals SR, SG and SB corresponding to the three primary colors of red, green and blue are supplied from a color television receiver body (not shown) to the three electron guns 34R, 34G and 34B of FIG. 8 so as to permit the electron beams ER, EG and EB to be independently modulated. In FIG. 8, a reference numeral 36 denotes a primary color signal demodulation circuit, and the red-primary color signal SR of the three primary color signals SR, SG and SB demodulated by this modulation circuit 36 is directly amplified by a video amplifier 38R to a prescribed amplitude and is thereafter supplied to the electron gun 34R so as to modulate the electron beam ER. The green-primary color signal SG is supplied to a delay circuit 37G and subject there to a time delay of tG, and after amplified by a video amplifier 38G to a prescribed amplitude, is supplied to the electron gun 34G so as to modulate the electron beam EG. The blue-primary color signal SB is supplied to a delay circuit 37B and subject there to a time delay of tB and then is amplified by a video amplifier 38 to a prescribed amplitude and then is supplied to the electron gun 34B so as to modulate the electron beam EB.

The length of time tG by which the primary color signal SG is delayed by the delay circuit 37G and the length of time tB by which the primary color signal SB is delayed by the delay circuit 37B are given for the purpose of spatially correcting the picture image displacement due to the interval D between the electron beam spots on the fluorescent screen 32. Accordingly, when the lateral width of the fluorescent screen 32 is represented by W H (mm) and the horizontal scanning frequency by f H (Hz), said lengths of times tG and tB are so determined as to satisfy the following inequalities. 0.8/W H .f H < tG< 0.65d/W H.f H (2) 1.6/w h .f H < tB< 1.3d/W H .f H (3)

note that it is desirable that where the picture quality, discriminating limit, manufacturing cost, etc. are taken into consideration, said delay times be set at about 0.15 microseconds.

An example of a delay circuit giving the above-mentioned delay times is shown in FIG. 21. This example is a delay circuit constructed using an LC type delay line having intermediate taps. In FIG. 21, a reference numeral 51 denotes a delay line, 52 at-the-input-end matching impedance element, 53 an output terminating impedance element, 54a to 54d a plurality of intermediate taps equidistantly provided sequentially from the output end-side of the delay line 51, 55 an intermediate tap changer, and 56 a buffer. These intermediate taps 54a to 54d are provided, considering that a small deviation occurs in a prescribed length of delay time due to a minute deviation in the arranging accuracy of the electron guns 34R, 34G and 34B or a minute deviation in the distribution of magnetic field produced by the deflection yoke 35, for the purpose of adjusting said small deviation. Accordingly, where this deviation is extremely small to have no substantial effect upon the prescribed length of delay time, said intermediate taps 54a to 54d do not have to be necessarily provided. A length of delay time tT between said intermediate taps is determined from the limit within which color displacement on the fluorescent screen 32 is permissible. That is to say, the tT should be so determined as to meet the following inequality. tT< 1/W H .f H

in the case of using the above-constructed delay circuit in place of the delay circuits 37G and 37B of FIG. 8, the delay time of the delay line 51, that is, the length of time required for a signal applied to an input terminal 51 IN of the delay line 51 to reach an output terminal 51 OUT of the delay line 51 has only to be so set as to satisfy the requirements of said unequalities (2) and (3).

Hereinafter, the operation of the embodiment of the invention having the foregoing construction is explained. For convenience of explanation, description is made on the temporary assumption that the delay circuits 37G and 37B are not provided. The primary color signals SR, SG and SB demodulated by the demodulation circuit 36 are amplified by the video amplifiers 38R, 38G and 38B, respectively, and then are supplied to the electron guns 34R, 34G and 34B, respectively, at the same time. For this reason, the three electron beams ER, EG and EB emitted from the electron guns 34R, 34G and 34B, respectively, are respectively modulated by the primary color signals and then are allowed to impinge upon the fluorescent screen 32.

Since a converged point of the three electron beams ER, EG and EB is situated outside of the fluorescent screen 32, the respective impingement positions of the three electron beams are arranged such that each of the side beams ER, EB is spaced by the distance of D from the center beam EG. These three electron beams ER, EG and EB are horizontally and vertically deflected by the deflection yoke 35 and scan the fluorescent screen 32. Even if, at this time, the three electron beams ER, EG and EB are horizontally deflected thus to scan the peripheral portion of the screen, the beam-to-beam's interval D will be subject to little variation since, as above described, a converged point of the three electron beams is situated outside of the screen 32. In addition, the magnetic field for horizontal deflection assumes a pincushion-like configuration and the magnetic field for vertical deflection assumes a barrel-like configuration and yet the magnetic material pieces 41 to 44 are axis-symmetrically fitted to the front end portion of the deflection yoke 35. For this reason, as shown in FIG. 22, the mis-convergences at the central part of the screen are corrected and simultaneously the mis-convergence MC 6 at the peripheral portion, particularly four corners of the screen is completely corrected or removed. However, if any further step is taken, color displacement will occur in the color picture image since the mutual interval between the center beam EG and each of the side beams ER, EB is kept at D.

Suppose now that the length of delay time tG corresponding to the interval D between the electron beams ER and EG is given to the primary color signal by the delay circuit 37G and that the length of delay time corresponding to the interval 2D between the electron beams ER and EB is given to the primary color signal SB by the delay circuit 37B. Then, picture images formed by the respective electron beams ER, EG and EB are allowed to spatially coincide with each other and therefore any color displacement does not take place.

Note here that what is important is that the lengths of delay times allotted to the delay circuits 37G and 37B are respectively fixed at all times and are not varied depending upon the scanning region.

This invention is not limited to the foregoing embodiment but can be practised in various modifications. That is to say, the magnetic material piece is not limited to a rectangular configuration but may be formed into an elliptical configuration, a semicircular configuration, or a bent plate-like configuration such as an L shape or U shape. Further, with respect to the magnetic material piece, the one whose configuration and size are predetermined may be fixedly fitted to the deflection yoke, or may be fitted to the deflection yoke with some tolerance left for adjustment so that the attachment position of the magnetic material piece can be varied after it has been fitted. Further, various kinds of magnetic material pieces of different configurations and sizes are prepared in advance and a suitable kind of magnetic material piece selected from these pieces may be fitted. Further, the preceding embodiment referred to the case where the magnetic material pieces of the same configuration and size were fitted, under the same condition, at four positions axis-symmetrical with respect to the Y and X axes of the deflection yoke, but the magnetic material pieces of different configurations and sizes may be fitted at said positions so as to absorb errors in manufacturing the color picture tube and deflection yoke and unsymmetrical mis-convergences produced in combining both. Further, it is not necessary that one magnetic material piece is fitted at each of said four positions. The point is that the magnetic material pieces have only to be fitted at positions symmetrical with respect to each of two planes including therein the axial center of the deflection yoke and being in parallel with the horizontal and vertical deflecting directions, respectively.

The preceding embodiment referred to the case where, on the premise that the dynamic convergence means are not used at all, this invention was applied to the color picture tube of in-line arranged beam system, but this invention may be used as a supplementary means for dynamic convergence and in this sense can be widely applied to the color picture tube of in-line arranged beam system and of Δ-arranged beam system. Further, the preceding embodiment referred to the case where this invention was applied to the color picture tube of the system wherein a converged point of the three electron beams is situated outside of the fluorescent screen, but can of course be applied also to the color picture tube of the system wherein the three electron beams are converged at one point of the fluorescent screen.

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